Many of the colonists, however, were not Ionians, but refugees from other parts of Greece, between Euboea and Argolis (Hdt.
These colonists hoisted the British flag on Peel Island (Chichijima), and settled there.
The open resistance by the colonists (October 1768) was a carefully planned revolt.
180), whence it was conveyed by colonists to Cyrene and thence to Libya, where there was a river Triton.
In a century's experience of the Selkirk colonists there have been four " floods."
But the government of Bombay had hurried on a rupture with the Mahratta confederacy at a time when France was on the point of declaring war against England, and when the mother-country found herself unable to subdue her rebellious colonists in America.
Atmospheres will form, then plants will be seeded, and then the colonists will arrive.
It was founded (perhaps on the site of an early Sicanian settlement) by colonists from Gela about 582 B.C., and, though the lastest city of importance founded by the Greeks in Sicily, soon acquired a position second to that of Syracuse alone, owing to its favourable situation for trade with Carthage and to the fertility of its territory.
There are also several Albanian settlements in European Turkey and Asia Minor, some founded by military colonists who received grants of land from successive sultans, others owing their origin to enforced migrations after insurrections in Albania.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
(4) The Meshcheryaks, a tribe of Finnish origin who formerly inhabited the basin of the Oka, and, driven thence during the 15th century by the Russian colonists, immigrated into Ufa and Perm, where they now live among the Baskhirs, having adopted their religion and customs. (5) The Teptyars, also of Finnish origin, settled among the Tatars and Bashkirs in Samara and Vyatka.
In 27 B.C. Augustus planted new colonists there, and divided the city into seven vici after the model of Rome, from which the names of the vici were borrowed.
A few colonists sent out by the Susque hanna Company settled at Mill Creek near the present site of 1 In place of De Forest Richards, deceased.
The Indian name of the place was Patuxet, but the colonists called it New Plymouth, because they had sailed from Plymouth, England, and possibly because they were aware that the name of Plymouth had been given to the place six years before by Captain John Smith.
But somewhat later they have probably met with the Eskimo farther north on the west coast in the neighbourhood of Disco Bay, where the Norsemen went to catch seals, walrus, &c. The Norse colonists penetrated on these fishing expeditions at least to 73° N., where a small runic stone from the 14th century has been found.
Nevertheless, the Roman functionaries, the army and the colonists from Italy soon brought the Latin element into Africa, where it flourished with such vigour that, in the 3rd century, Carthage became the centre of a Romano-African civilization of extraordinary literary brilliancy, which numbered among its leaders such men as Apuleius, Tertullian, Arnobius, Cyprian, Augustine and many others.
Of those peculiar to Australian waters may be mentioned the arripis, represented by what is called among the colonists a salmon trout.
The colonists were also angered by the attempt to 1 Between 1735 and 1746 the southern boundary was first definitely established by a joint commission of North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia.
The first emperor planned to establish there a German colony, but the plan was not realized until 1845, when about 2700 colonists from Germany were located there.
It is the headquarters of the Uganda railway, of the military forces in the protectorate, and of the Colonists' Association.
The former enterprise was soon abandoned, and the colonists of the latter were massacred by the Spaniards.
In 1847 the American colonists declared their country to be an independent republic, and its status in this capacity was recognized in1848-1849by most of the great powers with the exception of the United States.
The earliest inhabitants of Lauenburg were a Slav tribe, the Polabes, who were gradually replaced by colonists from Saxony.
The habitat of the Nysaeana, and the identity of certain tribes of Kafiristan with the descendants of these pre-Alexandrian colonists from the west, are also well established.
In 1818 he joined the Rev. John Campbell in his second journey to South Africa to inspect the stations of the London Missionary Society, and reported that the conduct of the Cape Colonists towards the natives was deserving of strong reprobation.
Carthage regained its rank of capital of Africa under Augustus, when thousands of Roman colonists flocked to the town.
Only a few days after their departure Sir Richard Grenville arrived with supplies and more colonists, fifteen of whom remained when he sailed away.
But these constitutions, several times revised, actually served only as a theoretical standard for the proprietors and were abrogated altogether in 1693, and the colonists were governed by instructions which granted them much greater privileges.
The conversion of Basuto A land into a crown colony contributed alike to the Y pros perityof the Basuto,the security of the property of neighbouring colonists and a peaceful condition among the natives of South Africa generally.
At this time the pine-apple was introduced as an article of cultivation at Eleuthera; and a few years subsequently, during the American war of independence, colonists arri.ved in great.
Another place which proved attractive to colonists of that race was the curious narrow strip of ground, called the Thracian Chersonese, that intervened between the Hellespont and the Bay of Melas, which penetrates far into the land on its northern side.
Here some local divinity, a daughter of Poseidon, connected with the water and also of a warlike character, was identified by the colonists with their own Athena.
In December 1774, as a militia captain he assisted in the capture of Fort William and Mary at New Castle, New Hampshire, one of the first overt acts of the American colonists against the property of the crown.
Trautenau was founded by German colonists invited to settle there by King Otto Kar II.
Daru, in his history of Venice, mentions fourteen between the years 1207 and 1365, the most important being that of 1361-1364, - a revolt not of the natives against the rule of their Venetian masters, but of the Venetian colonists against the republic. But with all its defects their administration did much to promote the material prosperity of the country, and to encourage commerce and industry; and it is probable that the island was more prosperous than at any subsequent time.
The three cities founded by these settlers - Lindus, Ialysus and Camirusbelonged to the "League of Six Cities," by which the Dorian colonists in Asia Minor sought to protect themselves against the barbarians of the neighbouring mainland.
His indignation was aroused by the barbarities inflicted upon the Hottentots and Kaffirs (by a minority of the colonists), and he set himself to remedy their grievances; but his zeal was greater than his knowledge.
He misjudged the character both of the colonists and of the natives, his cardinal mistake being in regarding the African as little removed from the European in intellect and capacity.
It was the period of the agitation for the abolition of slavery in England, where Philip's charges against the colonists and the colonial government found powerful support.
It is believed to occupy the site of the ancient Aetna, a settlement founded by the colonists whom Hiero I.
In Josephus and the New Testament the name Peraea or ripav Tou 'Iopbavou is most frequently used; and the country is sometimes spoken of by Josephus as divided into small provinces called after the capitals in which Greek colonists had established themselves during the reign of the Seleucidae.
Osawatomie was settled about 1854 by colonists sent by the Emigrant Aid Company, and was platted in 1855 its name was coined from parts of the words "Osage" and "Pottawatomie."
27 9) that the inhabitants of Colchis whom, like Herodotus (ii., 104) he looks upon as the descendants of Egyptian colonists, preserved, as heirlooms, certain graven tablets (Kbp(€ls) on which land and sea, roads and towns were accurately indicated.
19), which assimilated the position of those so liberated to that of the Latin colonists, under the name of Latini juniores, the person remained in the eye of the law a slave till his death and could not dispose of his peculium.
He provided a steady revenue by the levying of a tax of 10% on the annual net produce of the gold mines, and devoted special attention to the repatriation of the Boers, land settlement by British colonists, education, justice, the constabulary, and the development of railways.
The census of Western Australia included only those aborigines in the employment of the colonists; and as a large part of this, the greatest of the Australian states, is as yet unexplored, it may be presumed that the aborigines enumerated were very far short of the whole number of persons of that race in the state.
These latter, like the colonists in the American Far West, had to be constantly on the alert against the attacks of their troublesome neighbours, and they accordingly organized themselves in semi-military fashion.
2 Sargon had removed Babylonians into the land of Hatti (Syria and Palestine), and in 715 B.C. among the colonists were tribes apparently of desert origin (Tamud, Hayapa, &c.); other settlements are ascribed to Esar-haddon and perhaps Assur-bani-pal (Ezra iv.
When the colonists found protests at Paris unavailing, they turned to the idea of independence, but sought in vain the armed support of the British at Pensacola.
On the other hand the severe measures taken by the government prevented the growth of anything like legalized slavery on Siberian soil; but the people, ruined as they were both by the intrusion of agricultural colonists and by the exactions of government officials, fell into what was practically a kind of slavery to the merchants.
The bishop of London was treated as the diocesan bishop of the colonists in North America; and in order to provide for testamentary and matrimonial jurisdiction it was usual in the letters patent appointing the governor of a colony to name him ordinary.
An occasional Argentine steamer visits these ports in the interests of colonists.
These new colonists became the permanent inhabitants of this district, and in spite of the hostility of the Avars on the east founded the kingdom of Great Moravia, which was considerably more extensive than the province now bearing the name.
dynasty, and introduced into Egypt by Nubian colonists, perhaps soldiers or enslaved prisoners, who preserved also their own native (and really old Egyptian) burial customs, interring their dead in " pan " graves much resembling those of the primitive Egyptians of two and three thousand years before.
The one species, from Western Australia, is the largest member of the family, being about the size of a rabbit, to which it bears sufficient superficial resemblance to have acquired the name of "native rabbit" from the colonists.
deep, which baffled every effort to reach the interior until in 1813, when a summer of severe drought had made it of vital importance to find new pastures, three of the colonists, Messrs Blaxland, Lawson and Wentworth, more fortunate than their predecessors in exploration, after crossing the Nepean river at Emu Plains and ascending the Dividing Range, were able to reach a position enabling them to obtain a view of the grassy valley of the Fish river, which lies on the farther side of the Dividing Range.
When by the aid of man they surmount these, they often dominate with unexpected vigour the native vegetation amongst which they are colonists.
Though feeding largely on worms and insects they ravage gardens and fields, on which account they are detested by the colonists.
The rebellion of the colonies was making rapid progress, and Howe was known to be in sympathy with the colonists.
The news of the cession of the colony to Spain roused strong discontent among the colonists.
But in 416 B.C. the Athenians, having attacked the island and compelled the Melians to surrender, slew all the men capable of bearing arms, made slaves of the women and children, and introduced 500 Athenian colonists.
The bulk of the population of Roman Africa was invariably composed of three chief elements: the indigenous Berber tribes, the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the Roman colonists.
Segesvar was founded by Saxon colonists at the end of the r 2th century; its Latin name was Castrum Sex.
Down to the beginning of the 19th century the white colonists were almost exclusively Portuguese.
The total number of colonists and immigrants entering Brazil between 1804 and 1902, inclusive, according to official returns, was 2,208,353.
The Protestant contingent consists of a number of small congregations scattered throughout the country, a few Portuguese Protestants from the Azores, a part of the German colonists settled in the central and southern states, and a large percentage of the North Europeans and Americans temporarily resident in Brazil.
Finding the spot chosen for the new town inconvenient, the colonists removed to the adjoining island of Sao Vicente, from which the captaincy derived its name.
In pursuance of his commission he arrived at Bahia in April 1549, with a fleet of six vessels, on board of which were three hundred and twenty persons in the king's pay, four hundred convicts and about three hundred free colonists.
Meanwhile the Jesuits undertook the moral and religious culture of the natives, and of the scarcely less savage colonists.
Under the patronage of that admiral, he arrived at Rio de Janeiro in 1558 with a train of numerous and respectable colonists.
But the Brazilian colonists, now that the mother country had thrown off the Spanish yoke, determined even without assist ance from the homeland to rise in revolt against foreign Revolt g g against domination.
In 1649 a rival company was started in Portugal known as the Brazil Company, which sent out a fleet to help the colonists in Pernambuco.
The establishment of the Jesuit college had attracted settlers to its neighbourhood, and frequent marriages had taken place between the Indians of the district and the colonists.
The northern provinces had fallen into the power of Holland; the southern, peopled in a great measure by the hardy descendants of the successive colonists who had issued on all sides from the central establishment of Sao Paulo, had learned from their habits of unaided and successful enterprise to court independence.
The Jesuits from the first moment of their landing in Brazil had constituted themselves the protectors of the natives, and though strenuously opposed by the colonists and ordinary clergy, had gathered the Indians together in many aldeas, over which officials of their order exercised spiritual and temporal authority.
The colonists, if mistaken in their general policy of leaving the natives in a condition of mitigated barbarism, had behaved towards them with uniform kindness and justice.
The Transvaal Republic was established, but the prediction of the colonists, ignored at the time, was afterwards fulfilled to the letter.
In justice, however, to the colonists of Natal it must be recorded that, finding their protest with regard to the Transvaal settlement useless, they made up their minds to shape their policy in conformity with that settlement.
In 1884 the discovery of gold in De Kaap Valley, and on Mr Moodie's farm in the Transvaal, caused a considerable rush of colonists from Natal to that country.
Railways were still far from the Transvaal border, and Natal not only sent her own colonists to the new fields, but also offered the nearest route for prospectors from Cape Colony or from Europe.
Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban.
The demand which the growing trade made upon the one port of Natal, Durban, encouraged the colonists to redouble their efforts to improve their harbour.
For many years there had been an agitation among the colonists for self-government.
During the Boer invasion the government and the loyal colonists, constituting the great majority of the inhabitants of the colony, rendered the Imperial forces every assistance.
A comparatively small number of the Dutch colonists joined the enemy, but there was no general rebellion among them.
Refugee and Uitlander committees were formed both at Durban and Maritzburg, and, in conjunction with the colonists, they did all in their power to assist in recruiting irregular corps, and also in furnishing relief to the sick and needy.
Mr Chamberlain on his visit to South Africa came first to Natal, where he landed in the last days of 1902, and conferred with the leading colonists.
Towards those Dutch colonists who had joined the enemy during the war leniency was shown, all rebels being pardoned.
Those Africans whose " nationalism " was greatest looked to Dinizulu as their leader, and he was accused by many colonists of having incited the rebellion.
In Natal, especially among the older colonists, who feared that in a united South Africa Natal interests would be overborne, the proposals for union were met with suspicion and opposition, and the Natal ministry felt bound to submit the question to the people.
After long struggles the city fell into the hands of the Lucanians (who nevertheless did not expel the Greek colonists) and in 273 B.C. it became a Latin colony under the Roman rule, the name being changed to the Latin form Paestum.
The monks cleared the forests, cultivated the recovered land, and built villages for the colonists who flocked to them, teaching the people western methods of agriculture and western arts and handicrafts.
Thus the Kumanian colonists, mostly pagans, whom he settled in vast numbers on the waste lands, threatened to overwhelm the Christian population; while the numerous strongholds, which he encouraged his nobles to build as a protection against future Tatar invasions, subsequently became so many centres of disloyalty.
The base of the very mixed and evershifting population in these parts were the Vlachs (Rumanians), perhaps the descendants of Trajan's colonists, who, under their voivode, Bazarad, led King Charles into an ambuscade from which he barely escaped with his life (Nov.
The border counties, now formed into a military zone, were planted exclusively with Croatian colonists as being more trustworthy defenders of the Hungarian frontier than the Hungarians themselves.
The new settlement was crushed by Crotona, but the Athenians lent aid to the fugitives and in 443 Pericles sent out to Thurii a mixed body of colonists from various parts of Greece, among whom were Herodotus and the orator Lysias.
The pretensions of the Sybarite colonists led to dissensions and ultimately to their expulsion; peace was made with Crotona, and also, after a period of war, with Tarentum, and Thurii rose rapidly in power and drew settlers from all parts of Greece, especially from Peloponnesus, so that the tie to Athens was not always acknowledged.
From this region started an important trade route eastward by the Thyssagetae among the southern Urals, the Iyrcae on the Tobol and Irtysh to the Kirgiz steppe, where dwelt other Scyths, regarded as colonists of those in Europe: then by the Argippaei in the Altai and the Issedones in the Tarym basin, to the one-eyed Arimaspi on the borders of China, who stole their gold from the watchful griffins, and who marched with goat-footed men and Hyperboreans reaching to the sea.
If the Scyths came out of upper Asia, the Scythian colonists beyond the Iyrcae might be a division which had remained nearer the homeland, but in dealing with nomads we can suppose such a return as that of the Calmucks (Kalmuks) in the 18th century.
Since the first advent of white colonists many springs and pans and small streams have dried up, this desiccation being attributed, not so much to decreased rainfall, as to the burning off of the grass every winter, so that the water, instead of soaking in, runs off the hard, baked'ground into the larger rivers.
4, p. 269) Chersicrates and Archias of Corinth, both Heraclidae, left their native city together with a band of colonists, the former stopping with half the force at Corcyra, where he expelled the Liburnians and occupied the island, while Archias proceeded to Syracuse.'
Syracuse rose again out of her desolation - grass, it is said, grew in her streets - and, with an influx of a multitude of new colonists from Greece and from towns of Sicily and Italy, once more became a prosperous city.
The colonists whom he settled upon his grant (1630) were industrious, and "Beverwyck" became increasingly prosperous.
During the 18th century there was a great influx of English colonists, and in 1714 the first English church was erected.
Constant intercourse was kept up between Babylonia and the west, Babylonian officials and troops passing to Syria and Canaan, while " Amorite " colonists were established in Babylonia for the purposes of trade.
Campaign after campaign was carried on against the Hittites and the wild tribes of the north-west, and Assyrian colonists were settled in Cappadocia.
At the census of 1901 the population of New Caledonia numbered 51,415, consisting of 12,25 3 free Europeans (colonists, soldiers, officials), 2 9, 106 natives, io,056 convicts.
The presence of the Romans, and the constant introduction of the Italians, first as slaves, and quite recently as colonists, has also added an Italian element to the north Tunisian population.
There was a decline in mining enterprise after the revolt of the colonists against Spanish rule, owing to the unsettled state of the country, and this decline continued in some measure to the end of the century.
It no doubt owed its subsequent development to the destruction of Samaria and the rise in the district surrounding of the Samaritan nation founded on the colonists settled by Sargon and Assurbani-pal.
By the colonists it is called "water-mole," but its affinities with the true moles are of the slightest and most superficial description.
Colonists were sent out by the Ohio Company from New England, and Marietta, the first permanent settlement in the present state of Ohio, was founded in April 1788.
The most plausible hypothesis is that men of this type are descendants of Korean colonists who, in prehistoric times, settled in the province of Izumo, on the west coast of Japan, having made their way thither from the Korean peninsula by the island of Oki, being carried by the cold current which flows along the eastern coast of Korea.
Carried northward by the warm current known as the Kuro Shiwo, the Malays seem to have landed in KiUshithe most southeFly of the main Japanese islandswhence they ultimately pushed northward and conquered their Manchu-Korean predecessors, the Izumo colonists.
proceeded to plant with English and Scottish colonists the vast tracts escheated to the crown in Ulster, the whole of the arable and pasture land in Armagh, estimated at 77,800 acres, was to have been allotted in sixty-one portions.
Nineteen of these, comprising 22,180 acres, were to have been allotted to the church, and forty-two, amounting to 55,620 acres, to English and Scottish colonists, servitors, native Irish and four corporate towns - the swordsmen to be dispersed throughout Connaught and Munster.
In opposing the attempt to coerce the American colonists, and in assailing the waste and corruption of Lord North's administration, as well as the undue influence of the crown, he was at one with the Rockingham Whigs.
Shortly of ter this 3000 colonists seem to have been sent there; 5000 were certainly sent by Caesar in 59 B.C., and the place received the name Novum Comum.
He fell fighting on the side of a band of Rhodian colonists against some later immigrants from Pallene in Achaea.
Sulla appears to have increased the number of colonists, and a statue was certainly erected in his honour here.
In the 16th century a new influx of colonists, the Tatars, occupied Chersonesus and founded a settlement named Akhtyar.
Hence the association of Christmas with "Santa Claus," an American corruption of the Dutch form "San Nicolaas," the custom being brought to America by the early Dutch colonists.
In 1654 Printz's successor, Johan Claudius Rising, who had arrived from Sweden with a large number of colonists, expelled the Dutch from Fort Casimir.
It is believed that the vine was introduced into this region by colonists from Italy and Morea in 1241.
Early in 1764 Lord Grenville had informed the London agents of the American colonies that he proposed to lay a portion of the burden left by the war with France upon the shoulders of the colonists by means of a stamp duty, unless some other tax equally productive and less inconvenient were proposed.
To prevent the introduction of the Stamp Act, which he characterized as " the mother of mischief," Franklin used every effort, but the bill was easily passed, and it was thought that the colonists would soon be reconciled to it.
For Franklin this was a great triumph, and the news of it filled the colonists with delight and restored him to their confidence and affection.
Another bill (the Declaratory Act), however, was almost immediately passed by the king's party, asserting absolute supremacy of parliament over the colonies, and in the succeeding parliament, by the Townshend Acts of 1767, duties were imposed on paper, paints and glass imported by the colonists; a tax was imposed on tea also.
In spite of the opposition in the colonies to the Declaratory Act, the Townshend Acts and the tea tax, Franklin continued to assure the British ministry and the British public of the loyalty of the colonists.
For eight years Espartero distinguished himself in the struggle against the colonists.
However, about thirty-five new colonists arrived in 1622 and ninety-six more in 1623.
When it had become known that the colony was within the territory of the New England Council, John Pierce, in 1621, procured from that body a grant which made the colonists its tenants.
Exceptionally honourable to the early colonists was their devotion to education (see Harvard University and Boston).
The colonists had been for many years almost independent; they made their own laws, the Crown appointed natives as officials, and the colonial interpretation of the old charter had in general been allowed to stand.
The revocation of the charter aroused the strongest fears of the colonists Andros speedily met determined opposition by measures undertaken relative to taxation and land titles, by efforts to secure a church for Episcopal service, and an attempt to curb the town meetings.
Throughout the Hannibalic wars it remained faithful to Rome, and had a further contingent of colonists sent in zoo B.C. to replace its losses in war.
These ventures were ruined partly by the hostility of the Spaniards and Portuguese, partly by the dissensions of the colonists.
It was a marked characteristic of the English colonists, and a strong element in their prosperity, that they were hospitable in welcoming men of other races, - Germans from the Palatinate, and French Huguenots driven out by persecution who brought with them some capital, more intelligence and an enduring hatred of Roman Catholic France.
Their colonists were not farmers but trappers, woodrangers, coureurs du bois, who married Indian women, and formed a mixed race known as the bois brutes.
When the intervention of Napoleon in Spain plunged the mother country into anarchy, the colonists began to act for themselves.
Strictly, the settlers (cleruchs) were not colonists, inasmuch as they retained their status as citizens of Athens (e.g.
Relics of this, and perhaps of other Irish religious settlements, were found by the permanent Scandinavian colonists of Iceland in the 9th century.
Accordingly, in the spring of the following year he sailed from Athens with the colonists who went out to found the colony of Thurii (see Pericles), and became a citizen of the new town.
Vespasian, as a reward for its having taken his part, gave the town part of the territory of Capua, and installed more colonists there - whence it took the title Colonia Flavia, which it retained till the end of the empire.
In June 1623, however, New Netherland was formally erected into a province and the management of its affairs assigned to the Chamber of Amsterdam, which in March 1624 despatched the " New Netherland," with the first permanent colonists (thirty families mostly Walloon), under Cornelis Jacobsen Mey, the first governor or director of the colony.
Peter Minuit, the first director-general, arrived with more colonists in May 1626, and soon afterwards Manhattan Island was bought from the Indians, Fort Amsterdam was erected at its lower end, and the settlement here was made the seat of government.
The founder of a colony was styled a patroon, and, although the colonists were bound to him only by a voluntary contract for specified terms, the relations between them and the patroon during the continuance of the contract were in several important respects similar to those under the feudal system between the lord of a manor and his serfs.
The patroon was the legal heir of all his colonists who died intestate.
He had civil and criminal jurisdiction within the boundaries of his estate; he could create offices, found cities, and appoint officers and magistrates, and, although the charter permitted an appeal from his court to the directorgeneral and council in any case in which the amount in dispute exceeded fifty guilders ($20), some of the patroons exacted from their colonists a promise not to avail themselves of the privilege.
The colonists of the patroons were exempted from all taxes for a period of ten years, but were forbidden to manufacture any cloth whatever.
The charter did not give the encouragement to agriculture that was expected of it because the status created for colonists of a patroon was no attraction to a successful farmer in the Netherlands.
The revised charter also provided that any one who brought over five colonists and established them in a new settlement should receive 200 acres, and if such a settlement grew to be a town or village it should receive a grant of municipal government.
Out of this warfare arose an organized movement for a government in which the colonists should have a voice.
All these are grassy and the Chathams are inhabited by sheep-farming colonists.
Nineteen-twentieths of the colonists, however, live east of the dividing range, for to that side settlement was attracted by the open, grassy character of the country.
The early colonists found quite half the surface of the archipelago covered with dense, evergreen forest, a luxuriant growth of pines and beeches, tangled and intertwined with palms, ferns of all sizes, wild vines and other parasites, and a rank, bushy, mossed undergrowth.
Compelled by the windy climate the colonists are doing something to repair these ravages by planting European, Californian and Australian sheltertrees; but it is only in the naturally open and grassy regions of the east and south-east that settlement as yet improves the landscape.
There, before the colonists came, wide sweeps of dull green bracken or wiry yellow-green tussocks seemed bleak and monotonous enough.
Coming to a country without useful animals, cereals, rich grasses or fruit trees, the colonists had to bring all these necessaries with them.
During the next twenty years the gold discoveries, the public works expenditure, and the development of agriculture; multiplied the number of colonists five times to 498,000 in April 1881.
In the South Island nine-tenths of the colonists live within 40 m.
- The increase of wealth went on after 1879 in spite of dull times, and was only checked by the especially severe financial depression of 1893 and 1894, caused by low prices and the Australian bank panic. The estimated private wealth of colonists fell from £236 per head in 1890 to £219 in 1895.
Meanwhile, a week after Hobson's arrival, Wakefield's colonists had sailed into Port Nicholson, and proposed to take possession of immense tracts which the New Zealand Company claimed to have bought from the natives, and for which colonists had in good faith paid the company.
The colonists too, taught by the sickening delay and the ruinous cost of the war to revert to conciliatory methods, had by this time granted the natives special representation in parliament.
In 1870 peace had not yet been quite won; industry was depressed; and the scattered and scanty colonists already owed seven millions sterling.
When the prologue to Job speaks of plundering Sabaeans (and Chaldaeans) on the northern skirts of Arabia, these may be either colonists or caravans, which, like the old Phoenician and Greek traders, combined on occasion robbery with trade.
It was believed to be of English origin, and the long tenure of Gascony and Guienne by the English certainly provided abundant opportunity for the introduction of English colonists.
The influences of civilization and the settlement of Frankish colonists in various parts of Saxony facilitated its incorporation with the Carolingian empire, with which its history is for some time identified.
In 1674 he became, by the appointment of the duke of York (later James II.), governor of New York and the Jerseys, though his jurisdiction over the Jerseys was disputed, and until his recall in 1681 to meet an unfounded charge of dishonesty and favouritism in the collection of the revenues, he proved himself to be a capable administrator, whose imperious disposition, however, rendered him somewhat unpopular among the colonists.
But his vexatious interference with colonial rights and customs aroused the keenest resentment, and on the 18th of April 1689, soon after news of the arrival of William, prince of Orange, in England reached Boston, the colonists deposed and arrested him.
Only by way of the Hudson and Mohawk valleys, and round about the southern termination of the system were there easy routes to the interior of the country, and these were long closed by hostile aborigines and jealous French or Spanish colonists.
By 1755 the obstacle to westward expansion had been thus reduced by half; outposts of the English colonists had penetrated the Allegheny and Cumberland plateaus, threatening French monopoly in the transmontane region, and a conflict became inevitable.
Making common cause against the French to determine the control of the Ohio valley, the unsuspected strength of the colonists was revealed,' and the successful ending of the French and Indian War extended England's territory to the Mississippi.
Rebellions in Java (1629) and the Moluccas (1650) were suppressed with great severity, but in 1662 the company suffered a heavy reverse in Formosa, all its colonists being expelled from the island.
To say nothing of the labours of the Cistercians as colonists, pioneers and churchbuilders, or of the missions of the Dominicans and Franciscans (the former of whom were introduced into Poland by Ivo, bishop of Cracow,' the personal friend of Dominic), the Church was the one stable and unifying element in an age of centrifugal particularism.
In a war which the Parian colonists waged with the Saians, a Thracian tribe, the poet Archilochus threw away his shield.
Meanwhile the Basques and Bretons, asserting that they were being ruined by de Monts' privileges, got his patent revoked, and Champlain returned with the discouraged colonists to Europe.
He insisted on the use of the prayer-book among the English soldiers in the service of Holland, and forced strict conformity on the church of the merchant adventurers at Delft, endeavouring even to reach the colonists in New England.
Caecilius Metellus, who soon reduced them to obedience, settled amongst them 3000 Roman and Spanish colonists, founded the cities of Palma and Pollentia (Pollensa), and introduced the cultivation of the olive.
According to tradition, reinforced by the similarity of names, it was founded by colonists from the Thessalian tribe of the Magnetes, with whom were associated, according to Strabo, some Cretan settlers (Magnesia retained a connexion with Crete, as inscriptions found there attest).
The lake was also known in classical times as lacus Amyclanus, from the town of Amyclae or Amunclae, which was founded, according to legend, by Spartan colonists, and probably destroyed by' the Oscans in the 5th century B.C.
In November 1633 two vessels, the " Ark " and the " Dove," carrying at least two hundred colonists under Leonard Calvert (c. 1582-1647), a brother of the proprietor, as governor, sailed from Gravesend and arrived in Maryland late in March of the following year.
The proprietor was a Roman Catholic and probably it was his intention that Maryland should be an asylum for persecuted Roman Catholics, but it is even more clear that he was desirous of having Protestant colonists also.
The culture of the vine was early undertaken by the colonists, but it was not until vineyards in France were attacked by phylloxera that the export of wine from Algeria became considerable.
The delegations consist of representatives of (a) " colonists," i.e.
the rural community; (b) taxpayers, being citizens other than " colonists," i.e.
The purpose of this excellent law, which would have laid firmly the basis for gradual change, was defeated by the impatience of the French colonists.
Important efforts were made to attract French colonists to the country, the colonization of Algeria appearing as a means towards the extinction of pauperism in the mother-country.
This point of view suggested numerous projects, as chimerical as they were generous; two millions sterling (50 million francs) were expended with a view to installing Parisian unemployed workmen as colonists, but this attempt failed miserably.
An effort was made to attract French colonists to Algeria by gratuitous concessions of land.
At the bidding of El Haddad the whole of Kabylia rose, and numbers of French colonists were massacred; the columns of Colonel Cerez and General F.
Subsequently the native population of the Algerine Tell remained quiet, the massacre of the colonists at Margueritte many years later being a local and isolated movement.
It is not to be supposed that there were no orderly colonists, but that the natives suffered much at the hands of Europeans and Americans is only too clear.
Palma probably owes, if not its existence, at least its name (symbolized on the Roman coins by a palm branch), to Metellus Balearicus, who in 123 B.C. settled three thousand Roman and Spanish colonists on the island.
Spanish, with various modifications of dialect, and the introduction of many Indian words, is the principal language; and the majority of the inhabitants claim descent from the Spanish colonists - chiefly Galicians - who came hither during the 16th and subsequent centuries.
During the War of Independence the colonists were almost entirely neglected by Virginia and were compelled to defend themselves against the Indians who were often under British leadership. Boonesborough was attacked in April and in July 1777 and in August 1778.
The colonists were in many cases veterans who had served under Caesar, in others members of the city proletariat.
Of the two latter titles, the first is derived from the name of Venus Genetrix, the ancestress of the Julian house, the second indicates that the colonists were drawn from the plebs Urbana.
The overthrow of Spanish rule in Mexico was the beginning of a new period, and efforts were made to introduce educational reforms, but the colonists and ecclesiastics were still governed by their fears and prejudices, and little was accomplished.
At least there was a settlement here which was assessed in 1628, and it may not have been :completely abandoned when colonists sent over by the Laconia Company arrived in 1630.
Although Lake Champlain could not be reached by;boat up the Piscataqua, and although the enterprise was ulti mately a failure, the company sent over colonists who occupied the house left standing by Thomson, and, not far away, built " Mason Hall " or the " Great House " in what is now Portsmouth, a name (for the entire settlement) that replaced " Strawberry Banke " in 1653.
As much more than one-half of the population and resources of the colonists lay north of Chesapeake Bay - New England alone having an estimated population of over 700,000 persons - it was only a question as to what point in this area should be made the future base of operations.
The reasons of Great Britain's misfortunes and failure may be summarized as follows: - Misconception by the home government of the temper and reserve strength of her colonists, a population mainly of good English blood and instincts; disbelief at the outset in the probability of a protracted struggle covering the immense territory in America; consequent failure to despatch sufficient forces to the field; the safe and Fabian generalship of Washington; and finally, the French alliance and European combinations by which at the close of the conflict England was without a friend or ally on the continent.
South of the city are Rathmines, a populous suburb, near which, at the "Bloody Fields," English colonists were murdered by the natives in 1209; and Donnybrook, celebrated for its former fair.
There are important German agricultural settlements, and many colonists from north Italy who are locally called Tiroleses, and despised by the Indians for their.
The city was practically ruined during the first Tatar invasion in 1241, but the introduction of German colonists restored its prosperity, and in 1257 it received "Magdeburg rights," i.e.
Gallipolis was settled in 1790 by colonists from France, who had received worthless deeds to lands in Ohio from the Scioto Land Company, founded by Col.
In return the company was to take to New France 300 colonists a year; only French Catholics might go; and for each settlement the company was to provide three priests.
This meant that the American type of colonial life would be reproduced in Canada; but it meant also bitter hostility on the part of these colonists to the United States, which refused in any way to compensate the loyalists for their confiscated property.
The next largest plain was that of Histiaea, and at the present day this and the neighbourhood of the Budorus (Ahmet-Aga) are the two best cultivated parts of Euboea, owing to the exertions of foreign colonists.
The Carolina colonists had a trading post in its vicinity before the settlement by Oglethorpe.
By some authorities Ainu colonists are supposed to have been the first settlers, and to have arrived there via Yezo; by others, the earliest corners are believed to have been a hyperborean tribe travelling southwards by way of Kamchatka.
The early colonists were German Lutherans (Salzburgers), Piedmontese, Scottish Highlanders, Swiss, Portuguese Jews and Englishmen; but the main tide of immigration, from Virginia and the Carolinas, did not set in until 1752.
m., had a population of nearly ioo,000, including a large number of prosperous colonists.
Africa had passed to Rome, and Cyrenaica itself, bequeathed by Apion, the last Ptolemaic sovereign, was become (in combination with Crete) a Roman province (after 96 B.C.), this competition told more severely than ever, and the Greek colonists, grown weaker, found themselves less able to hold their own against the Libyan population.
Under Queen Boadicea the natives burned the town and massacred the colonists; but Camalodunum soon rose to fresh prosperity and flourished throughout the Roman period.
It thus becomes an easy prey to the marauding creatures - cats, rats and so forth - which European colonists have, by accident or design, let loose in New Zealand.
With these three main races have crossed traders and colonists, Macassars, Buginese, Javanese and Europeans.
To get a better share in the European trade at the mouth of the river a body of colonists migrated further down and built ObutÃ¶ng or Old Town, and shortly afterwards a rival colony established itself at Aqua Akpa or Duke Town, which thus formed the nucleus of the existing town.
The independent dynasty which was then established was drawn under the influence of the German king, Frederick Barbarossa, and two princes who in 1163 divided the sovereignty among themselves as dukes of Upper and Lower Silesia inaugurated the policy of inviting German colonists to their vacant domains.
In the pre-revolutionary controversies he identified himself with the American Whigs; in 1773 he prepared for Salem a paper entitled State of the Rights of the Colonists; in 1 775 he drafted a memorial protesting against the Boston Port Bill; and in 1776 he was a representative from Salem in the general court of Massachusetts.
By his associates Endecott was entrusted with the responsibility of leading the first colonists to the region, and with some sixty persons proceeded to Naumkeag (later Salem) where Roger Conant, a seceder from the colony at Plymouth, had begun a settlement two years earlier.
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel came in 1819, mainly for colonists, the Church Missionary Society in 1837.
They also enabled the Roman Church to keep its hold on the French colonists of Quebec and Montreal, and were pioneers in California.
Norwich was settled in 1659 by colonists from Saybrook under the leadership of Captain John Mason (1600-1672), who had crushed the power of the Pequot Indians in Connecticut in 1637, and the Rev. James Fitch (1622-1702), who became a missionary to the Mohegans."
Arretium took the part of Marius against Sulla, and the latter settled some of his veterans there as colonists.
Its resistance was punished by the destruction of its walls and the banishment of its town councillors to Etruria, while their lands were handed over to Roman colonists.
1682), was sent over as governor in 1665, but was temporarily deposed in 1672 by the discontented colonists, who chose James Carteret (perhaps a natural son of Sir George) as "president."
In accordance with this decision, Biarni Heriulf son's adventure should be eliminated, the priority of discovery given to Leif Ericsson, and the honour of being the first European colonists on the American continent awarded to Thorfinn Karlsefni and his followers.
Among these people the fibre has always been an article of considerable importance, yielding cloaks, mats, cordage, fishing-lines, &c., its valuable properties having attracted the attention of traders even before colonists settled in the islands.
But up till 1860 it was only native-prepared phormium that was known in the market, and it was on the material so carefully, but wastefully, selected that the reputation of the fibre was built up. The troubles with the Maoris at that period led the colonists to engage in the industry, and the sudden demand for all available fibres caused soon afterwards by the Civil War in America greatly stimulated their endeavours.
Buffon and his successors saw that the Tinamous, though passing among the European colonists of South America as "Partridges," could not be associated with those birds, and Latham's step, above mentioned, was generally approved.
Near the present site in 1643 colonists from Sweden built Fort Elfsborg; but the Swedish settlers in 1655 submitted to the Dutch at New Amsterdam, and the latter in turn surrendered to the English in 1664.
From the first arrangements were made for bringing colonists in from the more congested parts of India.
He built towns and encouraged those which already existed; he founded and restored bishoprics in his new territories; and between the Elbe and the Oder he planted bodies of industrious colonists.
A further law authorized the Prussian government to spend 5,000,000 in purchasing estates from Polish families and settling German colonists on the land.
He pointed out that though the commission had acquired 815,000 acres of land and settled upon it some 100,000 German colonists, nearly 250,000
But before 1550 the drain of military expeditions to the continent, the quarrels of civil, military and ecclesiastical powers, and of citizens, and the emigration of colonists to the Main (not in small part due to the abolition of the encomiendas of the Indians), produced a fatal decadence.
1624), a merchant of York, England, who seems to have been in London in1621-1622as financial agent for the Plymouth colonists.
He did something to improve the condition of the duchies by restoring order, introducing German colonists into the eastern districts, and seeking to benefit the inhabitants of the towns.
For new colonists of this kind the established communities of all races were making way.
420, 431, 449), as it has been since brought back by the Albanian colonists.
By 1685 a number of colonists had settled at this point, which became known as "The Falls" on account of the rapids in the Delaware here.
The Phoenician colonists in Sardinia purchased or imitated the work of Greek artists (Furtwangler, Antike Gemmen, iii.
The citizen body had been increased some generations before by colonists from Magnesia-onMeander sent at the invitation of Antiochus I.
These draining ditches all have their issue in a main drainage canal, along which the transport of the peat and peatlitter takes place and the houses of the colonists are built.
The German name is usually derived from the seven principal fortified towns or burgs," founded by the German colonists, though some authorities prefer to connect it with the Cibin Mountains on the south frontier.
As mentioned above, King Geza introduced German colonists, who founded Nagy-Szeben (Hermannstadt), and in 1211 King Andreas II.
These German colonists were granted special privileges, and founded many of the Transylvanian towns.
It is said to have been founded before the Christian era (perhaps about 340 B.C.) by colonists from Marseilles, and is mentioned by Strabo.
The Turkish population, descended in part from the Ottoman invaders of the 14th and 15th centuries, in part from colonists introduced at various epochs from Asia by the Turkish government, declined considerably during the 19th century, especially in the countries withdrawn from the sultan's authority.
This was followed by archaic Greek remains of the early colonists, Asiatic and Protocorinthian pottery, and some carved ivories.
The " plantation " of Ulster by Scottish colonists was begun and flourished.
The Scots invested very largely, for them, but their expeditions were ill-found and worse managed; the Spaniards seized one of their vessels with its crew; the colonists deserted the colony; a fresh expedition was expelled by Spain, and William refused to take up the Scottish quarrel (1695-1700).
The immense importance of Sinope in early times is abundantly attested, and we need not doubt that very intimate relations existed at this port between the Ionic colonists and the natives.
In 1241 Pest was destroyed by the Tatars, after whose departure in 1244 it was created a royal free city by Bela IV., and repeopled with colonists of various nationalities.
His aspiration that colonists and Americans should be attracted to Oxford has been realized by Mr Rhodes's will.
The history of the name "Ionian" in this connexion is obscure, but it is probably due to ancient settlements of Ionian colonists on the coasts and islands.
In 1 4 05 Bethencourt visited Normandy, and returned with fresh colonists who conquered Hierro.
This arrangement did not work satisfactorily and called forth frequent petitions and protests from the colonists.
The ancient Catina was founded in 729 B.C. by colonists from Naxos, perhaps on the site of an earlier Sicel settlement - the name is entirely un-Greek, and may be derived from KaTlvov, which in the Sicel language, as catinum in Latin, meant a basin, and would thus be descriptive of the situation of the town.
Save in the beginnings of western frontier trade, and in a great mass of litigation left to the courts of later years by the curious and uncertain methods of land delimitation that prevailed among the French and Spanish colonists, the pre-American period of occupation has slight connexions with the later period, and scant historical importance.
From this fire, as the representative of the life of the city, intending colonists took the fire which was to be kindled on the hearth of the new colony.
He continued steadfastly to oppose the taxation of the American colonists, and signed, in 1778, the protest of the Lords in favour of an address to the king on the subject of the manifesto of the American commissioners.
This arrangement held good until 1905, when, in answer to the frequently and strongly expressed desire of the colonists, Labuan was removed from the jurisdiction of the company and attached to the colony of the Straits Settlements.
Its nomenclature, like that of many lesser streams in the plateau region, is somewhat confusing; for while the Spanish colonists were settling beside its headwaters the mid-stream was hardly known except to the native Indians, and the lower reaches were frequented by buccaneers, often of British or Dutch origin.
Pure-blooded Indians are not numerous, as whole districts were depopulated and whole tribes exterminated by the Spanish colonists and the buccaneers.
Besides the Italic alphabets already mentioned, which are all derived from the alphabet of the Chalcidian Greek colonists in Italy, there were at least four other alphabets in use in different parts of Italy: (i) the Messapian of the south-east part of the peninsula, in which the inscriptions of the Illyrian dialect in use there were written, an alphabet which, according to Pauli (Alt-italische Forschungen, iii.
The Greeks are in places the descendants of colonists from Greece, many of whom, e.g.
and western Asia Minor they are the descendants of colonists from Persia and Armenia (see Armenia).
The Moorish city was destroyed by Alphonso; it was first reoccupied by Spanish colonists from Gibraltar in 1704; and the modern town was erected in 1760 by King Charles III.
The purpose of the company was to build up a profitable commercial and agricultural community; but the hostility of the natives, unfavourable climatic conditions and the character of the colonists delayed the growth of the new community.
John Smith became the head of the government in September 1608, compelled the colonists to submit to law and order, built a church and prepared for more extensive agricultural and fishing operations.
In 1609 the London Company was reorganized, other colonists were sent out and the boundaries of the new country were fixed, according to which Virginia was to extend from a point 200 m.
At the mouth of the river they met Lord Delaware, however, who brought other colonists and plentiful supplies; and they returned, set up a trading post at what is now Hampton and undertook to bring the hostile natives to subjection.
In 1611, 650 additional colonists landed, the James and Appomattox rivers were explored and "plantations" were established at Henrico and New Bermuda.
The colonists were compelled on pain of death to accept the doctrine of the trinity, respect the authority of the Bible and attend church.
Twelve hundred new colonists arrived in 1619.
At the beginning Virginia colonists had held their land and improvements in common.
As member of parliament for Tregony in 1 7681 774 and for Minehead in 1774-1780, he at first sided with the Whigs in opposing all plans to tax the American colonists, but he supported North's administration after the outbreak of the War of Independence.
The epithet Aeolian implies high antiquity, inasmuch as according to Herodotus Smyrna became Ionian about 688 B.C. Naturally the Ionians had their own version of the story - a version which made Homer come out with the first Athenian colonists.
Or it may be that the Artacia of the Odyssey suggested the name to the colonists of Cyzicus, whence it was adopted into the later versions of the Argonautic story.
In the spring of 1598 Don Juan de Onate entered New Mexico with about 400 colonists, and choosing the pueblo of San Juan (30 m.
In the second stage, implements of true bronze (9 to io% tin) become common; painted pottery of buff clay with dull black geometrical patterns appears alongside the red-ware; and foreign imports occur, such as Egyptian blue-glazed beads (XIIth-XIIIth Dynasty, 2500-2000 B.C.),1 and cylindrical Asiatic seals (one of Sargon I., 2000 B.C.).2 In the third stage, Aegean colonists introduced the Mycenaean (late Minoan) culture and industries; with new types of weapons, wheel-made pottery, and a naturalistic art which rapidly becomes conventional; gold and ivory are abundant, and glass and enamels are known.
The Greek colonists traced their descent, at Curium, from Argos; at Lapathus, from Laconia; at Paphos, from Arcadia; at Salamis, from the Attic island of that name; and at Soli, also from Attica.
To make up for the ravages caused by the recent wars colonists were imported to cultivate the land and work the mines, and the old inhabitants gradually returned.
Aurelian (270-275) withdrew the troops altogether and settled the Roman colonists on the south of the Danube, in Moesia, where he created the province Dacia Aureliani.
All the high posts and offices were filled by men sent from Spain, with the result that bitter jealousy reigned between them and the nativeborn colonists (criollos).
The revolt of England's North American colonies, and the events of the French Revolution naturally suggested the idea of a struggle for independence to the Spanish colonists, and the deposition of Ferdinand VII.
The year closed with a frontier incident between Chile and Argentina in the disputed territory of Ultima Esperanza, where some Argentine colonists were ejected by Chilean police; but both governments signed protocols agreeing not to take aggressive action in consequence.
These colonists formed the nucleus of the provincial military levy, and were a tower of strength to the Persian dominion.
Most of these new cities were based on older settlements; but the essential point is, that they were peopled by Greek and Macedonian colonists, and enjoyed civic independence with laws, officials, councils and assemblies of their own, in other words, an autonomous communal constitution, under the suzerainty of the empire.
In the evening of the 18th of April 1775 a British force of about Boo men under Lieut.-Colonel Francis Smith and Major John Pitcairn was sent by General Thomas Gage from Boston to destroy military stores collected by the colonists at Concord, and to seize John Hancock and Samuel Adams, then at Parson Clarke's house (now known as the Hancock-Clarke House) in Lexington.
In the 11th century B.C., according to tradition (the date is probably too early), Androclus, son of the Athenian king Codrus, landed on the spot with his Ionians and a mixed body of colonists; and from his conquest dates the history of the Greek Ephesus.
Soon after his death the city fell into the hands of Lysimachus, who introduced fresh Greek colonists from Lebedus and Colophon and, it is said, by means of an artificial inundation compelled those who still dwelt in the plain by the temple to migrate to the city on the hills, which he surrounded by a solid wall.
It was founded in the 4th century by Genoese colonists, who employed large numbers of workmen (Calfats) in repairing ships - which industry gave its name to the place.
Here, as elsewhere along the coast, the Portuguese had "factories"; and though none existed when the British took possession, some of the natives called themselves Portuguese and claimed descent from colonists of that nation.
Many colonists took to trade, and notwithstanding numerous collisions with neighbouring tribes the settlement attained a measure of prosperity.
Most of those of Dutch descent are members of the Dutch Reformed Church (Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk), the state church of the early Cape colonists, or of churches formed by dissentient members of the original church such as the Gereformeerde Kerk (the " Dopper " Church), a branch (introduced in 1858) of the Separatist Reformed Church of Holland.
A Moravian mission to the Hottentots was begun in 1737, continued to 1744 and was re-established - against the wishes of the colonists - in 1792.
At this time the white colonists numbered eight to ten thousand.
All through the latter half of the 17th and the whole of the 18th century troubles arose from time to time between the colonists and the government.
" The people," he says, " who came here with Riebeek himself were not colonists intending permanently to settle at the Cape..
The internal government of the colonists for the entire duration of the East India Company's rule was always tyrannical, often oppressive in the extreme.
They at that time occupied the Cape peninsula and sur- the Native rounding country, and in the early days of the settlement caused the colonists a considerable amount of trouble.
An extract from the diary of van Riebeek in 1659 will best illustrate the nature of the relations existing between colonists and natives at that time:, 3rd June.
When first known to the early colonists they were inveterate stock thieves, and were treated as wild animals, to be shot whenever an opportunity occurred.'
They were driven back and the country up to the Keiskama River annexed to the colony; but the disaster which nearly overwhelmed the eastern province convinced Lord Charles Somerset, then governor of the colony, of the necessity for a line of frontier forts and a more numerous settlement of Settlers colonists.
The vast spaces of the veld, the silence of the solitudes, the marvellous, varied and abundant animal life, the savage, half-weird character of the natives and the wild adventure of the early colonists have been caught with a true spirit of genius.
The equality of all free Hottentots and other free persons of colour with the white colonists was decreed in that year (1820).
The championship of the natives by the missionaries led to attacks, in part justified, upon the policy of the missions not only by the Dutch, but by the British colonists.
Sir Benjamin's policy - which had the cordial approval both of the Dutch and the British colonists - was one of close settlement by whites in certain districts and military control of the Kaffirs in other regions, and it would have done much to ensure peace.
The colonists had lost their slaves, the eastern frontier was in a state of insecurity, native interests appeared to be preferred to those of the whites.
The British immigrants of 1820 were still struggling against heavy odds; the Dutch colonists were in a state of great indignation.
Enough has already been said as to the relations between the missionaries, the Boer farmers and the Hottentots; this grievance, however, " proved quite secondary to the intensity of feeling with which the colonists saw the steps taken by the government to deprive them of that labour (slave labour) over which they claimed an unquestionable right of property."
The underlying fact which made the trek possible is that the Dutchdescended colonists in the eastern and north-eastern parts of the colony were not cultivators of the soil, but of purely pastoral and nomad habits, ever ready to seek new pastures for their flocks and herds, and possessing no special affection for any particular locality.
As has been demonstrated the action taken was one of vacillation between these two courses, and was complicated by a native policy which, though well intentioned and intelligible, needlessly irritated the white colonists (British and Dutch) and did not prevent bloodshed.
By this time the colonists of British descent predominated in the eastern provinces - a circumstance which had important bearings on the future of the colony.
It was further thought that the occupation by Great Britain of the country beyond the Orange River had been a bubble and a farce, in which the Cape colonists were all interested; for that it was to them a great gaming table and out of the reach of the police....
Living in Cape Town and at the head of the government, Rhodes used every effort to demonstrate to the Cape' Colonists that the work he was doing in the north must eventually be to the advantage of Cape Colonists and their descendants.
burdens increased they began to agitate for reforms. In 1892 (the year in which the railway from Cape Town reached the Rand), the National Union was founded at Johannesburg by ex-Cape Colonists of the Imperial progressive party.
Rhodes had intended to withdraw from Cape politics and devote his energies for a time entirely to Rhodesia, but the pressure put upon him by a section of the British colonists was so strong that he determined to throw in his lot with them.
In 1585 or 1586, potato tubers were brought from what is now North Carolina to Ireland on the return of the colonists sent out by Sir Walter Raleigh, and were first cultivated on Sir Walter's estate near Cork.
They were important sources of food-supply to the natives, and are hunted by the colonists, both for sport and on account of the damage they do in consuming grass required for cattle and sheep. A few species are found in New Guinea, and the adjacent islands, which belong, in the zoological sense, to the Australian province, beyond the bounds of which none occurs.
Under his rule the experiment was fairly successful, but the married colonists afterwards became a privileged caste, subsisting upon the labour of their slaves, and often disloyal to their rulers.
After the threat of a Quo Warranto writ in 1683 for the surrender of the Massachusetts charter, Mather used all his tremendous influence to persuade the colonists not to give up the charter; and the Boston freemen unanimously voted against submission.
According to the belief of its inhabitants, the town was founded by Arcadian colonists, led by Telephus, son of Heracles.
- Actium belonged originally to the Corinthian colonists of Anactorium, who probably founded the worship of Apollo Actius and the Actia games; in the 3rd century it fell to the Acarnanians, who subsequently held their synods there.
He thus endorsed the contention of the colonists on the ground of principle, while the majority of those who acted with him contented themselves with resisting the disastrous taxation scheme on the ground of expediency.
His language in approval of the resistance of the colonists was unusually bold, and perhaps no one but himself could have employed it with impunity at a time when the freedom of debate was only imperfectly conceded.
Those who are able to read the history in the light of what occurred later may perhaps be convinced that no policy whatever initiated after 1766 could have prevented or even materially delayed the declaration of American independence; but to the politicians of that time the coming event had not yet cast so dark a shadow before as to paralyse all action, and if any man could have allayed the growing discontent of the colonists and prevented the ultimate dismemberment of the empire, it would have been Lord Chatham.
After a time, however, the colonists, attributing the shortage of slaves and the consequent diminution in their profits to the Jesuits, began actively to oppose Vieira, and they were joined by members of the secular clergy and the other Orders who were jealous of the monopoly enjoyed by the Company in the government of the Indians.
In 1405 he visited Normandy, and returned with fresh colonists who occupied Hierro.
of Syracuse, founded in 728 B.C. by Megarean colonists, who had previously settled successively at Trotilon, Leontini and Thapsus.
In the meantime colonists of another nationality had set foot on the shores of the lower Delaware.
In 1638 fifty colonists landed on the western bank of the Delaware and built Fort Christina on the site of the modern Wilmington.
In 1641 English colonists from New Haven migrated southward and planted a settlement on the eastern bank of the Delaware river, declaring it to be a part of the New Haven jurisdiction.
These founded a settlement, which became the modern Burlington, and in the next few months several hundred more colonists arrived.
But the new system was to apply only to those who, in return for the greater privileges which it was alleged to ensure, would agree to a resurvey of their lands, arrange to pay quit-rents and provide for the permanent support of the government, and as Governor Lawrie found the colonists generally unwilling to make the exchange on the proposed terms, he discreetly refrained from any attempt to put the Fundamental Constitutions in operation and thereby avoided the confusion which must have resulted from two sets of laws.
The policy of granting land without payment, originally in force in New South Wales, had been abandoned in favour of sales of the public lands by auction at the upset price of twenty shillings per acre; and the system of squatting licences, under which colonists were allowed to occupy the waste lands on payment of a small annual licence, had been conceded.
In 1835 a township was laid out and the colonists gave it the name of D'Urban, in honour of Sir Benjamin D'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony.
a triple line of defences of later date (possibly added by the Roman colonists), inasmuch as both the city wall proper and the double wall thrown out in front of it are partly constructed of concrete, and faced with finer polygonal masonry (in which horizontal joints seem to be purposely avoided).
1626), acting under the instructions of the English at Jamestown, Virginia, some of these colonists returned later.
The worship of Aphrodite at an early date was introduced into Cyprus, Cythera and Crete by Phoenician colonists, whence it spread over the whole of Greece, and as far west as Italy and Sicily.
To the colonists of Parthenope there came afterwards a considerable addition from Athens and Chalcis, and they built themselves a town which they called Neapolis, or the " new city," in contradistinction to the old settlement, which in consequence was styled Palaeopolis or the " old city."
They offered a vigorous resistance to the first Spanish colonists coming from Chile.
It stands on the site of the ancient Panticapaeum, and, like most towns built by the ancient Greek colonists in this part of the world, occupies a beautiful situation, clustering round the foot and climbing up the sides of the hill (called after Mithradates) on which stood the ancient citadel or acropolis.
The white contingent in the population of Colombia is chiefly composed of the descendants of the Spanish colonists who settled there during the three centuries following its discovery and conquest.
The isolation of these distant inland settlements has served to preserve the language, manners and physical characteristics of these early colonists with less variation than in any other Spanish-American state.
Among trees introduced by the Dutch or British colonists the oak, poplar, various pines, the Australian blue-gum (eucalyptus) and wattle flourish.
The term " Africander " is sometimes applied to all white residents in Cape Colony and throughout British South Africa, but is often restricted to the Dutch-speaking colonists.
The first newspaper of the colony, written in Dutch and English, was published in 1824, and its appearance marked an era not only in the literary but in the political history of the colony, since it drew to a crisis the disputes which had arisen between the colonists and the governor, Lord Charles Somerset, who had issued a decree prohibiting all persons from convening or attending public meetings.
Its criticisms on public affairs soon led to its suppression by the governor, and a memorial from the colonists to the king petitioning for a free press was the result.
The earliest colonists were for the most part people of low station or indifferent character, but as the result of the investigations of a commissioner sent out in 1685 a better class of immigrants was introduced.
Advancing north and east from their base at Cape Town the colonists gradually acquired - partly by so-called contracts, partly by force - all the land of the Hottentots, large numbers of whom they slew.
Straggling remnants still maintained their independence, but the mass of the Hottentots took service with the colonists as herdsmen, while others became hangers-on about the company's posts and grazing-farms or roamed about the country.
The colonists also, pressing forward to those territories, came in contact with these Ishmaelites - the farmers' cattle and sheep, guarded only by a Hottentot herdsman, offering the strongest temptation to the Bushman.
It was not to the hostility of the natives, nor to the hard struggle with nature necessary to make agriculture profitable on Karroo or veld, that the slow progress made by the colonists was due, so much as to the narrow and tyrannical policy adopted by the East India Company, which closed the colony against free immigration, kept the whole of the trade in its own hands, combined the administrative, legislative and judicial powers in one body, prescribed to the farmers the nature of the crops they were to grow, demanded from them a large part of their produce, and harassed them with other exactions tending to discourage industry and enterprise.
(The numerous minor conflicts which since 1789 had taken place between the colonists and the Kaffirs - the latter sometimes aided by Hottentot allies - are not reckoned in the usual enumeration of the Kaffir wars.) The Kaffirs, who had crossed the colonial frontier, had been expelled from the district between the Sunday and Great Fish rivers known as the Zuurveld, which became a sort of neutral ground.
For some time previous to 1811 the Kaffirs, however, had taken possession of the neutral ground and committed depredations on the colonists.
The then governor, Lord Charles Somerset, whose treaty arrangements with the Kaffir chiefs had proved unfortunate, desired to erect a barrier against the Kaffirs by settling white colonists in the border district.
In course cf time they formed a valuable counterpoise to the Dutch colonists, and they now constitute the most progressive element in the colony.
The championship of Hottentot grievances by the missionaries caused much dissatisfaction among the majority of the colonists, whose views, it may be noted, temporarily prevailed, for in 1812 an ordinance was issued which empowered magistrates to bind Hottentot children as apprentices under conditions differing little from that of slavery.
Meantime, however, the movement for the abolition of slavery was gaining strength in England, and the missionaries at length appealed from the colonists to the mother country.
The creation, in 1835, of a legislative council, on which unofficial members had seats, was the first step in giving the colonists a share in the government.
In 1848 a circular was sent by the 3rd Earl Grey, then colonial secretary, to the governor of the Cape (and to other colonial governors), asking him to ascertain the feelings of the colonists regarding the reception of a certain class of convicts, the intention being to send to South Africa Irish peasants who had been driven into crime by the famine of 1845.
Owing to some misunderstanding, a vessel, the " Neptune, " was despatched to the Cape before the opinion of the colonists had been received, having on board 289 convicts, among whom were John Mitchell, the Irish rebel, and his colleagues.
The colonists did what they could to save life, but thousands perished miserably.
Even the British colonists at that time were far from rich.
The diamond industry therefore offered considerable attractions, especially to colonists of British origin.
As a diplomatist and a representative of the British government, the general opinion in South Africa was that Froude was not a success, and he entirely failed to induce the colonists to adopt Lord Carnarvon's views.
In 1880, Sir Bartle Frere, who by his energetic and statesmanlike attitude on the relations with the native states, as well as on all other questions, had won the esteem and regard of loyal South African colonists, was recalled by the 1st earl of Kimberley, the liberal secretary of state for the colonies, and was succeeded by Sir Hercules Robinson.
England never can, never will, give up this colony, and we colonists will never give up England..
This action was denounced by many British colonists, who were sufficiently loyal, not only to Great Britain, but also to that constitution which had been conferred by Great Britain upon Cape Colony, to desire to see the man who really wielded political power also acting as the responsible head of the party.
Open and responsible exercise of a power conferred under the constitution of the country, Englishmen and English colonists would have accepted and even welcomed.
But that subterranean method of Dutch policy which found its strongest expression in Pretoria, and which operated from Pretoria to Cape Town, could not but be resented by loyal colonists.
The views and attitude of Mr Hofmeyr between 1881 and 1884 - when even loyal British colonists, looking to the events which followed Majuba, had almost come to believe that Great Britain had little desire to maintain her supremacy - can scarcely be wondered at.
At the same time, as prime minister of a British colony, it was strongly felt by loyal colonists that he should at least have refrained from openly interfering between the Transvaal and the imperial government during the course of most difficult negotiations.
His conduct in both instances was perhaps technically correct, but it was much resented by loyal colonists.
Meanwhile the loyal Cape colonists were chafing at the tardy manner in which they were enrolled by the imperial authorities.
So strongly did Lord Roberts feel on the subject, that he at once made Colonel Brabant, a well-known and respected colonial veteran and member of the House of Assembly, a brigadier-general, and started recruiting loyal colonists in earnest.
The division of the colonists into those who favoured the Boer states and those firmly attached to the British connexion was reflected, to the detriment of the public weal, in the parties in the Cape parliament.
Each nation contributed a band of colonists, who selected the island of St Kitts or St Christopher, in the West Indies, where the settlers of both nations were simultaneously planted.
The English andFrench were, however, not very friendly; and in 1629, after the retirement of several of the former to an adjoining island, the remaining colonists were surprised and partly dispersed by the arrival of a Spanish fleet of thirty-nine sail.
In April 1888 the Prussian parliament passed a law establishing a commission for the purpose of buying the land of the Poles in Posen and West Prussia, and letting it out to German colonists.
Fresh legislation was passed in May, devoting another 250,000,000 marks (£12,500,000) to the policy of German colonization, and forbidding the German colonists to sell their land to Poles.'
Amblyomma hebraeum, the bont or variegated tick of the Cape Colonists, infects sheep with the 9porozoon causing "heart-water" sickness, and in Europe sheep are inoculated with the same disease by another tick, Rhipicephalus bursa.
Aslong as he lived England was the centre of a great Northern empire, for Canute reconquered Norway, which had lapsed into independence after his fathers death, and extended his power into the Baltic. Moreover, all the so-called Scandinavian colonists in the Northern Isles and Ireland owned him as overlord.
But the colonists rallied, and cut to pieces a great Irish army at Athenry (1316), while in the next year Roger Mortimer, a hard-handed baron of the Welsh march, crossed with reinforcements and drove back Edward Bruce into the north.
Ireland, too, had been thoroughly overpowered at the end of Elizabeths~ reign, and the flight of the earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnel in 5607 had been, followed by the settlement of English and Scottish colonists in Ulster, a measure which, in the way in which it was undertaken, sowed the seeds of future evils, but undoubtedly conduced to increase the immediate strength of the English government in Ireland.
Obnoxious as this measure was in America, the colonists had acknowledged the principle on which it was founded too long to make it easy to resist it.
For the present the contention of the American colonists and of the defenders of Wilkes at home was confined within the compass of the law.
The arrogant spirit of Englishmen made them comtemptuous towards the colonists, and the desire to thrust taxation upon others than themselves made the new colonial legislation popular.
The discovery of gold at Johannesburg and elsewhere in 1885-1886 had led to a large immigration of British and other colonists.
Wellington was founded in 1840, being the first settlement of New Zealand colonists, and the seat of government was transferred here from Auckland in 1865.
They proceeded to tax the American colonists, to interpose vexatiously against their trade, to threaten the liberty of the subject at home by general warrants, and to stifle the liberty of public discussion by prosecutions of the press.
He went further than they did, in holding, like Lord Camden, the doctrine that taxation went with representation, and that therefore parliament had no right to tax the unrepresented colonists.
The ministry asserted, what no competent jurist would now think of denying, that parliament is sovereign; but they went heartily with Pitt in pronouncing the exercise of the right of taxation in the case of the American colonists to be thoroughly impolitic and inexpedient.
pleas for the colonists with that on which they erected their ow theoretic declaration of independence.
There is no difference in social spirit and doctrine between his protests against the maxims of the English common people as to the colonists, and his protests against the maxims of the French common people as to the court and the nobles; and it is impossible to find a single principle either asserted or implied in the speeches on the American revolution which was afterwards repudiated in the writings on the revolution in France.
Founded by Saxon colonists in 1245, Locse had by the early part of the 16th century attained a position of great relative importance.
His first term as governor, during which he seems to have been extremely popular with the majority of the colonists, was notable principally for his Berkeley religious intolerance and his expulson of the Puritans, who were in a great minority.
In 1773 he again returned to South Carolina, and in the controversies between the colonists and the home government became a leader of the Whigs.
Singularly enough, the Babylonian colonists in the cities of Samaria are said to have made idols, not of Marduk, but of a deity called Succoth-benoth 2 (2 Kings xvii.
The towns of Lagos and Badagry were both founded by Benin colonists.
The population, however, has undergone a great change, independently of the large admixture of Slavonic blood that has affected the Greeks of the mainland generally, by the immigration of Albanian colonists, who now occupy a great part of the country.
It was among the Scandinavian colonists of the British coasts that in the first generations after the colonization of Iceland therefrom a magnificent school of poetry arose, to which we owe works that for power and beauty can be paralleled in no Teutonic language till centuries after their date.
The characteristics of this Western school are no doubt the result of the contact of Scandinavian colonists of the Viking-tide, living lives of the wildest adventure, with an imaginative and civilized race, that exercised upon them a very strong and lasting influence (the effects of which were also felt in Iceland, but in a different way).
America), are the Floamannasaga (985-990), a good story of the adventures of Thorgils and of the - struggles of shipwrecked colonists in Greenland, graphic and terrible picture; and Eirikssaga rauc'5a North (990-1000), two versions, one northern (Flatey-book), America.
were to be sent against the rebellious colonists in the West.
In 1780 he was sent, with the rank of lieutenant-general, in command of 6000 French troops to help the American colonists under Washington against the English.
Of the many speeches perhaps the most striking was that of Senator Henry C. Lodge, who, curiously enough in the circumstances, prefaced his eloquent appreciation of the services rendered to the American cause by France by a brilliant sketch of the way in which the French had been driven out of North America by England and her colonists combined.
The settlement of .European land claims, and the measures taken for the protection of native institutions, caused lively dissatisfaction among the colonists, who laid the blame of the commercial depression at the door of the government; but with returning prosperity this feeling began to disappear.
Here he reformed the system of colonial defence, refusing to keep troops in the colonies during time of peace unless their expense was defrayed by the colonists; he also laid the foundation of federation in Canada and, rightly or wrongly, censured Sir George Grey's conduct in New Zealand.
Returned colonists from south Wales, traders and the raids of the Irish in Britain with the consequent influx of British captives sold into slavery must have introduced the knowledge of Christianity into the island considerably before A.D.
In 503 a body of colonists under Fergus, son of Erc, moved from Dalriada to Argyll and effected settlements there.
The colonists were victorious, but their organization was undermined, and the authority of the crown, which had never been able to keep the peace, grew rapidly weaker.
The colonists were strong enough to send large forces to the king in his Scottish wars, but as there was no corresponding immigration this really weakened the English, whose best hopes lay in agriculture and the arts of peace, while the Celtic race waxed proportionally numerous.
The plan of settling Leix and Offaly by dividing the country between colonists and natives holding by English tenure failed, owing to the unconquerable love of the people for their own customs. But resistance gradually grew fainter, and we hear little of the O'Connors after this.
Tyrone, Donegal, Armagh, Cavan, Fermanagh and Derry were parcelled out among English and Scottish colonists, portions being reserved to the natives.
The site of Derry was granted to the citizens of London, who fortified and armed it, and Londonderry became the chief bulwark of the colonists in two great wars.
In 1642 a Scottish army under General Robert Monro landed in Ulster, and formed a rallying point for the colonists.
The English of the Pale were forced into rebellion, but could never get on with the native Irish, who hated them only less than the new colonists.
The Roman Catholic Celts aided by France were entirely beaten, the Protestant colonists aided by England were entirely victorious at the battle of the Boyne, on the 1st of July 1690; ill and at the battle of Aughrim on the 12th of July 1691.
From the first the victorious colonists determined to make another 1641 impossible, and the English government failed to moderate their severity.
Concessions or immigration circulars were issued in 1663 and 1665 offering most liberal terms to prospective colonists.
As stated in the French senate (February 1909), everything is taxed in the island; and no sooner has any enterprise become fairly successful than it is so heavily taxed as to be no longer worth carrying on, and certain crops have therefore been destroyed by the colonists who had planted them.
The removal of prominent inhabitants, by Assyria and later by Babylonia, the introduction of colonists from distant lands, and the movements of restless tribes around Palestine were more fatal to the continuity of trustworthy tradition than to the persistence of popular thought.
The barbarians gradually became part of the Roman population; they permeated the army, until after Theodosius they recruited it exclusively; they permeated civilian society as colonists and agriculturists, till the command of the army and of important public duties was given over to a Stiicho or a Crocus.
In 1778 he joined France in supporting the insurgent English colonists in America.
The House of Deputies, composed of 456 members, was elected by the limited franchise system in Spain and by an even more restricted franchise in the colonies, five-sixths of the colonists being deprived of representation.
Marshal Campos, on returning from Cuba in 1879, bad advocated some concessions to satisfy the legitimate aspirations of the majority of the colonists.
Reckless as was the course adopted, it was in touch with the feelings of the majority of a nation which had been to the very end deceived by the government and by the press not only in regard to its own resources, but also in regard to those of the United States and of the colonists in arms in Cuba and in the Philippine Islands.
Even Murcia was peopled by Catalans in 1266, but this province really is part of the Castilian conquest, and accordingly the Castilian element took the upper hand and absorbed the dialect of the earlier colonists.