Colonial sentence example
The colonial representatives enjoy equal rights with those elected for constituencies in France.
The colonial army corps, headquarters at Paris, has three divisions, at Paris, Toulon and Brest.
The colonial history of the building stands well preserved beside the modern changes.
In 1776, when he was leading the resistance to Lord North's colonial policy, he "neither abandoned gaming nor his rakish life.
Neither the British government nor the growing party in the colonies which was clamouring for colonial rights received the plan with favour - the former holding that it gave the colonies too much independence, and the latter that it gave them too little.Advertisement
Within the township are several noteworthy examples of colonial architecture.
In the city are a public library, the Beverly hospital, the New England industrial school for deaf mutes (organized, 1876; incorporated, 1879), and the Beverly historical society (1891), which owns a large colonial house, in which there is a valuable historical collection.
Since far back in the colonial era, no minister, preacher, or priest The General Assembly regularly elected the governor during the period 1776-1838.
In the colonial era Maryland had an interesting list of governmental subdivisions - the manor, the hundred, the parish, the county, and the city - but the two last are about all that remain and even these are in considerable measure subject to the special local acts of the General Assembly.
Clausel, who returned with the same colonial ambitions as in 1830, resolved to conquer the interior of the country.Advertisement
The great power exercised by the Roman Catholic church during the colonial period enabled it not only to mould the spiritual belief of the whole people, but also to control their education, tax their industries, and shape the political policies governing their daily life.
At the beginning of the 19th century the colonial government undertook a comprehensive exploration of the best known groups of ruins and three expeditions were made in1805-1808under the direction of Captain Guillaume Dupaix, accompanied by Luciano Castaneda as artist.
The conquest of Mexico by the Spanish forces under Hernando Cortes (q.v.) in 1520, and the death of the last Aztec emperor, Guatemozin, introduced what is known as the colonial period of Mexican history, which lasted down to the enforced resignation of the last viceroy, O'Donoju, in 1821.
Although not much enforced, this, with some slight changes, continued to be the school law until the close of the colonial era.
Upon the failure of this attempt, a temporary nominal union with Massachusetts was formed, but in 1692 Samuel Allen, the assign of Mason, caused a royal government to be established with his son-in-law, John Usher, as lieutenant-governor, and during the remainder of the colonial era New Hampshire was separate from Massachusetts except that from 1699 to 1741 the two had the same governor.Advertisement
British prestige after the disastrous Boer War of 1881 was at a very low ebb, and he realized that he could not count on any a ctive help from the imperial or colonial authorities.
Protectorate, issued by the Colonial Office, London.
He dedicated to his former chief a book (Jules Ferry, 1903), which is a valuable testimony to the efforts made by France to organize public education and found a colonial empire; but this fidelity also won him some enemies, who succeeded for some time in preventing him from becoming a member of the Institute.
From a military standpoint as well as politically it was a conspicuous and instructive conflict, - conspicuous, or even unique, as being the most famous struggle in history where colonial dependencies defeated their powerful parent state, and instructive as presenting exceptional conditions and consequent errors in the attempt to break down the revolt.
This encounter roused the New England colonies, and in a few days some 16,000 of their townsmen marched in small bands upon Boston to protest against and resist further similar incursions; and in this irregular body we have the nucleus of the colonial forces which carried the war through.Advertisement
Freedom is offered to students who wish to be transferred from Oxford, Cambridge, or certain colonial universities to Trinity College, by the recognition of terms kept in the former institutions as part of the necessary course at Trinity College.
By his sermons and his writings he exerted a great influence in colonial Massachusetts, and according to Mather was "a most incomparable scholar."
At the instance of the lieutenant-governor he went to England in 1824, to discuss various colonial questions with the earl of Bathurst, then colonial secretary.
The storm of protest of the other religious denominations caused the colonial office to undertake an investigation of the whole question, the result of which was presented in the report of 1828.
Adverse criticism and a suggestion from the colonial office that he should cease from active participation in political affairs led to his resignation from the executive council, but he declined to give up his seat in the legislative council.Advertisement
During the colonial period, the cocoa of western Guatemala and Soconusco was reserved on account of its fine flavour for the Spanish court.
The colonial period was marked by the destruction of the ancient Indian civilization, the extermination of many entire tribes, and the enslavement of the survivors, who were exploited to the utmost for the benefit of Spanish officials and adventurers.
The three leading colonial cities, Philadelphia, w York and Boston, grew six-fold in the I 8th century, and fiftyfo in the next.
On the other hand, elaborate colonial censuses for New York in 1703 and 1812 show Whites under 16 Years per boo Sections of the of Total Population.
In the colonial period there were beginnings in some lines of manufacturing, but the policy of the British government was generally hostile and the increase was insignificant.
Commerce, Foreign and Domestic.The English colonies that became the United States carried on during the colonial period a commerce with the mother country, and also, both so far as the legislative trammels of the British colonial system permitted it and illicitly, a fairly active commerce with the West Indies.
This latter became of increasing moment in the successive periods of European colonial wars of the 18th century.
The whaling and cod and mackerel fisheries were of earlier colonial origin.
In each there was a governor, with minor executive officers, a legislature, and a judiciary; and although the Crown retained the power of altering the charter, and the British parliament could (in strict legal view) legislate over the head of the colonial legislature so as to abrogate statutes passed by the latter, still in practice each colony was allowed to manage its own affairs and to enact the laws it desired.
In two colonies, Rhode Island and Connecticut, the colonial charter was substantially maintained as the constitution of the state for many years, in the former case till 1842, in the latter till 1818.
In colonial days the superior judges were appointed by the governors, except in Rhode Island and Connecticut, where the legislatures elected them.
The historical origin of American municipal government is to be found in certain boroughs which had been chartered in the colonial period, after the fashion of English boroughs.
On March I 1921 the administration of Aden was transferred from the India Office to the Colonial Office, which also exercises political influence, in varying degrees, over the confederations of tribes inhabiting the interior as far as the Yemen frontier and over certain tribes of the Hadhramaut.
The town dates from colonial times, and has always been considered a place of military importance because of its nearness to the Uruguay frontier, only 25 m.
In 1886 he became first lord of the admiralty in the third Gladstone ministry; and on the return of the Liberals to power in 1892 he was appointed colonial secretary, which post he continued to hold until the resignation of the government in 1895.
This meant that the American type of colonial life would be reproduced in Canada; but it meant also bitter hostility on the part of these colonists to the United States, which refused in any way to compensate the loyalists for their confiscated property.
The French were suspicious of the Union, aimed avowedly at checking their influence, and the complete self-government for which the " Reformers " in English-speaking Canada had clamoured was not yet conceded by the colonial office.
Howe enlisted the support of John Bright and other members of parliament, but the imperial government was firm, and the duke of Buckingham, as colonial secretary, soon informed the governor-general in a despatch that consent could not be given for the withdrawal of Nova Scotia from the Dominion.
South Australia, as colonial members of the judicial committee still further established the position of that body as the final court of appeal for the British people.
English Canadian Literature Is Marked By The Weaknesses As Well As The Merits Of Colonial Life.
His jealousy for the political autonomy of Canada was noticeable in his attitude at the Colonial conference held at the time of King Edward's coronation, and marked all his diplomatic dealings with the mother country.
He was the leader of the free traders, and after 1878 refused to follow Bismarck in his new policy of protection, state socialism and colonial development; in a celebrated speech he declared that the day on which it was introduced was a dies nefastus for Germany.
He was educated at Cheltenham, and in 1892 entered the Colonial Office.
The fort, built in 1736, was first named Fort Augusta, and in 1780, at the time of the British occupation, was enlarged and renamed Fort Cornwallis; its site is now marked by a Memorial Cross, erected by the Colonial Dames of Georgia in the churchyard of St Paul's.
During the colonial period several treaties with Indians were made at Augusta; by the most important, that of 1763, the Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees and Catawbas agreed (in a meeting with the governors of North and South Carolina, Virginia and Georgia) to the terms of the treaty of Paris.
The great development of its herring fishery in the latter part of the 18th century gave a new impulse to the city's trade, which was kept up by the influence of the "Continental System," under which Gothenburg became a depot for the colonial merchandise of England.
There remain many public edifices and dwellings of the colonial period, severely plain in appearance, with heavy stone walls and tile roofs.
The Senate occupies a plain unattractive building on the west side of the Praga da Republica, and the Chamber of Deputies an ugly colonial building in Rua da Misericordia, originally used as a city hall and jail.
The history of its settlement and colonial development will be found in Robert Southey, History of Brazil (3 vols., London, 1810-19).
After the grant of self-government to the Transvaal in 1907, General Botha was called upon by Lord Selborne to form a government, and in the spring of the same year he took part in the conference of colonial premiers held in London.
Ceara was subsequently detached, but the "state" of Maranhao remained independent until 1774, when it again became subject to the colonial administration of Brazil.
In 1825 a public company was formed and incorporated under the name of the British, Irish and Colonial Silk Company, with a capital of 1,000,000, principally with the view of introducing sericulture into Ireland, but it was a complete failure, and the rearing of the silkworm cannot be said ever to have become a branch of British industry.
While putting an end to the injustice of exclusion, it would obviously reduce the danger of nations seeking colonial aggrandizement with a view to imposing exclusion, and thus one of the chief temptations to colonial adventure would be eliminated.
The secretary of state for the colonies is the official medium of communication with colonial governments; he has certain administrative duties respecting crown colonies, and has a right of advising the veto of an act of a colonial legislature - this veto, however, is never exercised in the case of purely local statutes.
In the various colonial Methodist unions the Bible Christians have contributed a total of 159 ministers, 14,925 members and 660 chapels.
He had already taken orders, and in 1835 began his eighteen years' tenure of the vicarage of Wymeswold in Leicestershire, from which seclusion the twicerepeated offer of a colonial bishopric failed to draw him.
Apart from his sophistical defence of Spanish colonial policy, Acosta deserves high praise as an acute and diligent observer whose numerous new and valuable data are set forth in a vivid style.
Chamberlain remained colonial secretary, his son Austen being postmaster-general with a seat in the cabinet.
Mr Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Mr Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform and colonial preference, and as the session proceeded the rift grew in the Unionist ranks.
In 1882 he was elected to parliament and proved an active worker on committees, speaking frequently and well on foreign and colonial affairs, railway, agricultural, social and fiscal problems. In 1891, as member of the committee of inquiry on Eritrea, he opposed the African policy of both the Crispi and the Rudini Cabinets.
Medium is a plain calico, grey or bleached, of medium weight, used principally in the home and colonial trade.
The manufacture of iron was established on a commercial basis in 1716-1718, when a furnace was built on Manatawney Creek above Pottstown, and before the close of the colonial era Pennsylvania had risen to first rank among the iron-producing colonies, a position which it has always held among the states of the Union.
During the colonial period and the early years of statehood the legislature was composed of one house, but the bicameral system was adopted in the constitution of 1790.
In the colonial period all judges were appointed by the governor during good behaviour.
During the colonial period there were many sectarian and neighbourhood subscription schools in which the poor could receive a free education, but public schools in the modern American sense were unknown.
The chief features of Pennsylvania history in colonial days were the predominance of Quaker influence, the heterogeneous character of the population, liberality in matters, of religion, and the fact that it was the largest and the most 7successful of proprietary provinces.
The Colonial Museum and World's Colonial School are established here, and Tervueren is connected with Brussels by a fine broad avenue, traversed by an electric tramway as well as by carriage and other roads, and between 6 and 7 m.
Among his publications, besides Letters and Times of the Tylers, are Parties and Patronage in the United States (1890); Cradle of the Republic (1900); England in America (1906) in the "American Nation" series, and Williamsburg, the Old Colonial Capital (1908).
In 14 B.C. Augustus rebuilt Berytus as a Roman colony and stationed two legions there; later on Ptolemais, Tyre and Sidon received colonial status.
Then at the beginning of the 8th century B.C. the colonial power of Tyre began to decline; on the mainland and in Cyprus the Assyrians gained the Upper hand; in the Greek islands the Phoenicians had already been displaced to a great extent by the advancing tide of Dorian colonization.
For effective control over a colonial empire Carthage had the advantage of situation over far-away Tyre; the traditional bonds grew lax and the ancient dues ceased to be paid, though as late as the middle of the 6th century Carthage rendered tithes to the Tyrian Melqarth.
After the repudiation of the British protectorate of the Ionian Islands, the order was placed on a new basis, and by letters patent of 1868 and 1877 it was extended and provided for such of " the natural born subjects of the Crown of the United Kingdom as may have held or shall hold high and confidential offices within her majesty's colonial possessions, and in reward for services rendered to the crown in relation to the foreign affairs of the Empire."
The needs of the colonial church soon excited the attention of others.
On the Continent the Basel Mission (1815) grew out of a society founded in 1780 to discuss the general condition of Christianity; " Father " Janicke, a Bohemian preacher in Berlin, founded a training school which supplied many men to the Church Missionary Society and the London Missionary Society; and Van der Kemp, who pioneered the London Missionary Society work in South Africa, organized in 1797 the Netherland Missionary Society, which turned its attention chiefly to Dutch Colonial possessions.
By " colonial " is meant, not missions to the British colonial population, but missions from the colonial population to the heathen.
Its chief mission has been in Basutoland, since extended to the Zambesi; but it has also followed French colonial extension, establishing missions in Senegambia, the French Congo, Madagascar and Tahiti.
This important congregation has been described as corresponding pretty much in the Catholic Church to the colonial office in the British empire, and its head, the " Prefect of Propaganda," to the secretary of state for the colonies.
The Maoris of New Zealand first came under Christian influence through the efforts of Samuel Marsden, a colonial chaplain in New South Wales about 1808.
In the Archipelago most of the work has naturally been in the hands of the Netherlands Missionary Society (1812) and other Dutch agencies, who at first were not encouraged by the colonial government, but have since done well, especially in the Minahassa district of Celebes (r50,000 members) and among the Bataks of Sumatra (Rhenish Mission).
In Celebes and the Moluccas the work is now under the Colonial State Church.
Elected to the Municipal Council of Paris in 1879, he declared in favour of communal autonomy and joined with Henri Rochefort in demanding the erection of a monument to the Communards; but after his election to the Chamber of Deputies for the 5th arrondissement of Paris in 1881 he gradually veered from the extreme Radical party to the Republican Union, and identified himself with the cause of colonial expansion.
It was founded in 1754, and its colonial history shows considerable prosperity, its population at that time numbering 9000 to io,000.
An examination of its lists of exports and imports will show that Holland receives from its colonies its spiceries, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cinnamon; from England and Belgium its manufactured goods and coals; petroleum, raw cotton and cereals from the United States; grain from the Baltic provinces, Archangel, and the ports of the Black Sea; timber from Norway and the basin of the Rhine, yarn from England, wine from France, hops from Bavaria and Alsace; ironore from Spain; while in its turn it sends its colonial wares to Germany, its agricultural produce to the London market, its fish to Belgium and Germany, and its cheese to France, Belgium and Hamburg, as well as England.
The organization of agricultural education under the state is very complete, and includes a state professor of agriculture for every province (as well as professors of horticulture in several cases), " winter schools " of agriculture and horticulture, and a state agricultural college at Wageningen (1876) with courses in home and colonial agriculture.
The foreign affairs of the republic were throughout these years ably conducted by de Witt, and the position of Dutch colonial expansion in the Eastern seas made secure and firm.
The Dutch were chiefly a commercial and seafaring people, with interests in distant lands and colonial possessions; the Belgians were agriculturists, except where their abundance of minerals made them manufacturers.
The sultan of Achin opposed by force of arms the efforts of the Dutch to make their occupation effective, and has succeeded in maintaining a vigorous resistance, the Dutch colonial troops suffering severely from the effects of the insalubrious climate.
Until 1871 the surplus derived from the colonial budget had been turned into a deficit, and the necessity of imposing fresh taxes to meet the war expenses has led to the downfall both of individual ministries and of cabinets.
This was refused, and the A British inaction of the colonial office contributed to the reconsolidation of the Ashanti power.
Gouldsbury on a mission to Eastern Akim, Juabin and Kumasi, to repair the effects of the previous inaction of the colonial government, but without success.
During the colonial period Fairfield was a place of considerable importance, but subsequently it was greatly outstripped by Bridgeport, to which, in 1870, a portion of it was annexed.
The " Senate House " - now the property of the state, with a colonial museum - was erected about 1676; it was the meeting place of the first State Senate in 1777, and was burned (except the walls) in October of that year.
The extensive colonial and foreign trade of the Dutch furnished them with markets, while the opening of the navigation of the Scheldt raised Antwerp once more to a place of high commercial importance.
A colonial law, also submitted to the chambers, secured for Belgium in case of annexation complete parliamentary control over the Congo state, and the bill for annexation was finally passed in September 1908.
In 1852, after making some technical studies in London and working at the Borough Road and the Home and Colonial schools, she opened another small school of her own at Ambleside in Westmorland.
The chief exports are grain and other agricultural produce, live stock, spirits, wood and wool; the chief imports are colonial produce, iron, coal, salt, wine, beer and tobacco.
The governor is assisted by a council of four members and a colonial council of eight members nominated by the crown.
The conflicting rights of Rumford and Bow gave rise to one of the most celebrated of colonial land cases, and although the New Hampshire authorities enforced their claims of jurisdiction, the privy council in 1755 confirmed the Rumford settlers in their possession.
Wesel carries on a considerable trade in grain, timber, colonial goods, tobacco, &c., facilitated by new harbour accommodation and wharves at the mouth of the Lippe.
The United States of America and the great colonial dependencies follow generally the English way of using the beverage.
The colonial office (under the direction of a secretary of state) is divided into (i.) a civil department; (ii.) a military department; (iii.) a disciplinary court.
Except Kiao-chow, which is controlled by the admiralty, the dependencies of the empire are under the direction of the colonial office.
This office, created in 1907, replaced the colonial department of the foreign office which previously had had charge of colonial affairs.
Colonial Troops.In 1906 these, irrespective of the brigade of occupation then maintained in north China and of special reinforcements sent to SW.
In these circumstances it was decided to introduce a system of comparative free trade; raw materials were admitted free; a uniform import of 10% was levied on manufactured goods, and 20% on colonial wares, the tax being determined not by the estimated value, but by the weight of the articles.
It was not confined to any one departmeiit of life, but included Protection as against Free Trade, State Socialism as against individualism, the defence of religion as against a separation of Church and State, increased stress laid on the monarchical character of the state, continued increase of the army, and colonial expansion.
During the first years of the empire Bismarck had occasionally been asked to interest himself in colonial enterprise.
Bismarck therefore no longer feared, as he formerly had, to encounter the difficulties with Great Britain which would be the natural result of a policy of colonial expansion.
His conversion to the views of the colonial party was gradual, as was seen in his attitude to the proposed acquisition of German Afrk stations in South-West Africa.
They were at first placed under the direction of a special department of the Foreign Office, and in 1890 a council of experts on colonial matters was instituted, while in 1907 a separate office for colonial affairs was created.
In 1887 the two chief societies for supporting the colonial movement joined under the name of the Deutsche Kolonialgesellschaft.
This society takes a great part in forming public opinion on colonial matters.
Bismarck, by summoning a conference to Berlin (1884-1885) to discuss African questions, secured for Germany a European recognition which was very grateful to the colonial parties; and in 1888, by lending his support to the antislavery movement of Cardinal Lavigerie, he won the support of the Centre, who had hitherto opposed the colonial policy.
It was made after Bismarck had retired from office, and he, as did the colonial party, severely criticized the details; for the surrender of Zanzibar and Witu cut short the hopes which had been formed of building up a great German empire controlling the whole of East Africa.
Many of the colonial party went further, and criticized not only the details, but the principle.
It was easy for the Opposition to criticize the colonial policy.
They could poiht out that, with the exception of parts of SouthWest Africa, no territory had been acquired in which of German any large number of German emigrants could live colonial and rear families.
Yet at the close of the first twenty-five years existence of the colonial empire it might be said that the initial difficulties had been overcome, and sufficient knowledge gained to ensure Germany a return fairly commensurate with the efforts she had put forth.
After the Arab opposition had been crushed on the east coast of Africa, Colonial there still remained the native states to be dealt with, wars.
It was, however, in South-West Africa that the Germans had their chief and most bitter experience in colonial warfare.
As it progressed the Germans adopted many of the methods employed by the British in their colonial wars, and they learned to appreciate more accurately the immensity of the task which Lord Kitchener accomplished in overcoming the guerrilla warfare in the Boer republics.
In 1884 there was a meeting of the three emperors, and at the same time Bismarck came to a close understanding with France on colonial questions.
The Military Bill had offended the prejudices of conservative military critics; the British treaty had alienated the colonial party; the commercial treaties had only been carried by the help of Poles, Radicals and Socialists; but it was just these parties who were the most easily oflended by the general tendencies of the internal legislation, as shown in.
During the first five years of the reign four line-of-battle ships were added and several armoured cruisers for the defence of commerce and colonial interests.
Scarcely had the bill been carried when a series of events took place which still more fully turned public attention to colonial affairs, and seemed to justify the action of the governHostility ment.
This feeling was deliberately fostered by publicists and historians, and was intensified by commercial rivalry, since in the struggle for colonial expansion and trade Germans naturally came to look on Great Britain, who held the field, as their rival.
Great improvements have been made in the city since the end of colonial rule, especially as regards the streets, the water-supply and other public works, and sanitation.
Other interesting landmarks are "Woodland" (formerly called "Bloomsbury Court"), built early in the 18th century by William Trent, and said to have sheltered, at various times, Washington, Lafayette and Rochambeau; the "Hermitage," erected some time before the War of Independence; and "Bow Hill," in the suburbs of the city, a quaint old colonial mansion which for some time before 1822 was a home of Joseph Bonaparte.
Bahia was founded in 1549 by Thome de Souza, the first Portuguese governor-general of Brazil, and was the seat of colonial administration down to 1763.
The chief imports are coal from Great Britain, herrings from Sweden, petroleum from America, timber, wine and colonial goods.
To this edition Peuchet added two supplementary volumes on colonial development from 1785 to 1824.
Thus down to 1840 there were but ten colonial bishops; and of these several were so hampered by civil regulations that they were little more than government chaplains in episcopal orders.
The plan was taken up with enthusiasm, and on Whitsun Tuesday of 1841 the bishops of the United Kingdom met and issued a declaration which inaugurated the Colonial Bishoprics Council.
The diocese of New Zealand was founded in 1841, being endowed by the Church Missionary Society through the council, and George Augustus Selwyn was chosen as the first bishop. Since then the increase has gone on, as the result both of home effort and of the action of the colonial churches.
Thus, instead of the ten colonial jurisdictions of 1841, there are now about a hundred foreign and colonial jurisdictions, in addition to those of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States.
Similar action was taken in 1858, when Bishop Selwyn became metropolitan of New Zealand; and again in 1860, when, on the petition of the Canadian bishops to the crown and the colonial legislature for permission to elect a metropolitan, letters patent were issued appointing Bishop Fulford of Montreal to that office.
And at the present day the colonial churches are entirely free in this matter.
Until 1855 no colonial bishop was consecrated outside the British Isles, the first instance being Dr MacDougall of Labuan, con- autoitual g g ?
This necessity was removed by the Colonial Clergy Act of 1874, which permits the archbishop at his discretion to dispense with the oath.
Charles Pinckney, the father, was long prominent in colonial affairs; he was attorney-general of the province in 1733, speaker of the assembly in 1736-1738 and in 1740, chief justice of the province in 1752-1753, and agent for South Carolina in England in 1 7531758.
Among colonial Desmidiaceae, the break-up of the filament is a preliminary to this conjugation; otherwise the process is the same.
Such colonial forms as Hydrurus and Phaeocystis are supposed, however, to indicate a stage in the passage to the multicellular condition.
It is, on the other hand, a danger in the opposite sense to conclude that all Chantransia species are stages in the life-cycle of other plants, and, similarly, that all irregular colonial forms, like Palmella, represent phases in the life of other Green Algae.
The discontented condition of Upper Canada drew him into politics., and on the 18th of May 1824 he published at Queenston the first number of the Colonial Advocate, in which the ruling oligarchy was attacked with great asperity.
In an action against the chief rioters he was awarded £6 25 and costs, was thus enabled to set up a much larger and more efficient plant, and the Colonial Advocate ran till the 4th of November 1834.
In May 1832 he visited England, where he was well received by the colonial office.
Largely as the result of his representations, many important reforms were ordered by Lord Goderich, afterwards earl of Ripon, the colonial secretary.
When Mr Chamberlain started his new fiscal programme, combining Tariff Reform with Colonial Preference, Lord Rosebery at first seemed inclined to treat it as non-political, and on the 19th of May 1903 he declared in an address to the Burnley Chamber of Commerce that he was not one of those who regarded Free Trade as part of the Sermon on the Mount.
Foreign and colonial merchandise transhipped was valued at £989,289 in 1889 and at £746,246 in 1903.
This, in accordance with the wider view of the effect of naturalization in the United Kingdom, may mean that naturalization in pursuance of a colonial law confers the full character of a British subject, only without removing disabilities, such as that to hold land, under which the naturalized person may have lain as an alien in any other British possession.
On that footing the foreign office grants passports to the holders of colonial certificates of naturalization, and protects them in all foreign countries but that of their origin; and the Merchant Shipping Act 1894, sec. 1, allows persons naturalized in British possessions to be owners of British ships.
On the other hand, those who maintain the narrower view of the effect of naturalization in the United Kingdom naturally hold that colonial naturalization has no effect at all outside the British possession in which it is granted.
Jules Ferry's colonial policy and of the Opportunist party, and in 1885 it was his use of the Tongking disaster which principally determined the fall of the Ferry cabinet.
During the liberal regime of 1820-1823 Clemencin took office as colonial minister, was exiled till 1827, and in 1833 published the first volume of his edition (1833-1839) of Don Quixote.
They are subjected to incredible abuses under Spanish colonial rule, their numbers being reduced to a fraction of the former population, and even yet they are subjected to a kind of debt-bondage which is slavery in all but the name.
These facts explain the considerable sympathy in Illinois for the colonial cause in the War of Independence.
He returned to office in April 1885 as foreign minister in the Brisson cabinet, and retained that post when, in January 1886, he succeeded to the premiership. He came into power with an ambitious programme of internal reform; but except that he settled the question of the exiled pretenders, his successes were won chiefly in the sphere of colonial extension.
His father, Peter Jefferson (1707-1757), of early Virginian yeoman stock, was a civil engineer and a man of remarkable energy, who became a justice of the peace, a county surveyor and a burgess, served the Crown in,' inter-colonial boundary surveys, and married into one of the most prominent colonial families, the Randolphs.
He seems to have lacked interest in litigiousness, which was extraordinarily developed in colonial Virginia; and he saw and wished to reform the law's abuses.
In short, Hamilton took from recent years the lesson of the evils of lax government; whereas Jefferson clung to the other lesson, which crumbling colonial governments had illustrated, that governments derived their strength (and the Declaration had proclaimed that they derived their just rights) from the will of the governed.
He built with surety on the colonial past, and had a better reasoned view of the actual future than had any of his contemporaries.
But on the other hand the adjacent island of Ceylon has been administratively severed and placed under the Colonial Office.
The rapid and signal downfall of the Dutch colonial empire is to be explained by its short-sighted commercial policy.
Although Spain had joined France in the war against Great Britain, she feared to imperil her own colonial interests by directly encouraging and aiding the former British colonies in their revolt against their mother country, and she had refused to recognize the United States as an independent power.
The island has largely retained the old French laws, the codes civil, de procedure, du commerce, and d'instruction criminelle being still in force, except so far as altered by colonial ordinances.
Soc. (1895); the Annual Reports on Mauritius issued by the Colonial Office, London; The Mauritius Almanack published yearly at Port Louis.
The colonial government refused to recognize the grant on different grounds, the chief of them being that the concession conferred no legal rights before the annexation and therefore could confer none afterwards, a sufficiently good ground in itself.
Directly across the plaza is the old Cabildo, a plain, heavy-looking two-storeyed edifice of the colonial period, the seat of municipal administration during Spanish rule, but now occupied by the two chambers of the Uruguayan Congress and by the higher police authorities of the city.
Civil justice for natives is administered, in the first instance, by the headmen of villages, provinces, tribes, or by councils of notables (Shumagalle); in appeal, by the residents and regional tribunals, and, in the last instance, by the colonial court of appeal.
An administrative tribunal settles, without appeal, questions of tribute, disputes concerning family, village or tribal landmarks, as well as suits involving the colonial government.
Defence is entrusted to a corps of colonial troops, partly Italian and partly native; to a militia (milizia mobile) formed by natives who have already served in the colonial corps; and to the chitet or general levy which, in time of war, places all male able-bodied inhabitants under arms. The regional commissioners and political residents have at their disposal some hundreds of irregular paid soldiers under native chiefs.
In war time these irregulars form part of the colonial corps, but in time of peace serve as frontier police.
The militia consists of 3500 men of all arms, and is intended in time of war to reinforce the various divisions of the colonial corps.
The purchase of Assab and the neighbouring region for L1880, from the sultan Berehan of Raheita for use as a coaling station by the Italian Rubattino Steamship Company, in March 1870, formed the nucleus of Italy's colonial possessions.
Starting on the 2nd of November 1564, from Navidad, with four ships built and equipped on the spot, Legaspi began an enterprise which entitles him to a place among the greatest of colonial pioneers.
The colonial government was patterned on that of Spanish America.
Spain's colonial policy was not based on an exaltation of the commercial ideal.
Compared with the results of English or Dutch colonization the conversion and civilization of the Filipinos is a most remarkable achievement s Notwithstanding the undeniable vices, follies and absurd illiberalities of the Spanish colonial regime, the Philippines were the only group in the East Indies that improved in civilization in the three centuries following their discovery.
With every change of ministry in Madrid came a new lot of hungry politicians anxious to fill even the more humble colonial offices.
Facing the South Common were the homes of Rev. Nathaniel Ward (1578-1652), principal author of the Massachusetts "Body of Liberties" (1641); the first code of laws in New England, and author of The Simple Cobler of Aggawam in America, Willing to help mend his Native Country, lamentably tattered, both in the upper-Leather and the Sole (1647), published under the pseudonym, "Theodore de la Guard," one of the most curious and interesting books of the colonial period; of Richard Saltonstall (1610-1694), who wrote against the life tenure of magistrates, and although himself an Assistant espoused the more liberal principles of the Deputies; and of Ezekiel Cheever (1614-1708), a famous schoolmaster, who had charge of the grammar school in 1650-1660.
In wealth and influence during the early colonial period it was little inferior to Boston, whose policies it not infrequently opposed.
It was largely owing to his efforts that the French colonial office was made a separate department with a minister at its head, and to this office he was appointed in the second Dupuy cabinet (May 1894 to January 1895).
He gave a great impetus to French colonial enterprise, especially in West Africa, where he organized the newly acquired colony of Dahomey, and despatched the Liotard mission to the Upper Ubangi.
While in opposition he devoted special attention to naval affairs, and in speeches that attracted much notice declared that the function of the French navy was to secure and develop colonial enterprise, deprecated all attempts to rival the British fleet, and advocated the construction of commerce destroyers as France's best reply to England.
In 1898 he had to deal with the delicate situation caused by Captain Marchand's occupation of Fashoda, for which, as he admitted in a speech in the chamber on the 23rd of January 1899, he accepted full responsibility, since it arose directly out of the Liotard expedition, which he had himself organized while minister for the colonies; and in March 1899 he concluded an agreement with Great Britain by which the difficulty was finally adjusted, and France consolidated her vast colonial empire in North-West Africa.
Finally he concluded with England the important Agreements of 1904 covering colonial and other questions which had long been a matter of dispute, especially concerning Egypt, Newfoundland and Morocco.
Although Earl Grey addressed a circular letter t3 all colonial governments offering them the questionable boon c c transportation, only one, the comparatively new colony of Western Australia, accepted.
In 1775 he became chairman of the committee of public safety for Orange county, and wrote its response to Patrick Henry's call for the arming of a colonial militia, and in the spring of 1776 he was chosen a delegate to the new Virginia convention, where he was on the committee which drafted the constitution for the state, and proposed an amendment (not adopted) which declared that "all men are equally entitled to the full and free exercise" of religion, and was more radical than the similar one offered by George Mason.
In 1683 the present county of Kings was organized by the first colonial legislature.
He was kept many months waiting trial, there being considerable friction between the colonial government and the British government over the incident.
In 1894 he presided over the colonial conference held in Ottawa, and in 1895 was created K.C.M.G.
This system was chiefly developed in the colonial east, where most towns were affiliated directly or indirectly either to Lubeck or to Magdeburg; but it was by no means unknown in the home country.
The government is vested primarily in the court of directors appointed under the company's charter, which may be compared to the colonial office in its relation to a British colony, though the court of directors interests itself far more closely than does the colonial department in the smaller details of local administration.
The remarkable federation of the Dominion of Canada which was thus originated presented the unique feature of a federal union of provinces practically exercising sovereign rights in relation to all local self-government, and sustaining a constitutional autonomy, while cherishing the colonial relationship to Great Britain.
A nearer parallel to Greek colonization may be found in Iceland, whither the adherents of the old Norse polity fled from the usurpation of Harold Haarfager; and the early history of the English pale in Ireland shows, though not in orderliness and prosperity, several points of resemblance to the Roman colonial system.
Of the French it is admitted that in their colonial possessions they displayed an unusual faculty for conciliating the prejudices of native races, and even for assimilating themselves to the latter.
During the War of Independence, from December 1776 to April 1 777, and from September 1777 to April 1778, the old Colonial Hall in this seminary (built 1748) was used as a general hospital of the continental army.
It was made the capital of the viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, and soon became one of the centres of Spanish colonial power and civilization on the South American continent.
In colonial times the Atlantic right-whale was killed in some numbers off the coast.
To meet these defects it is found that numerous species encourage or demand the companionship of various zoophytes, simple or colonial.
His extraordinary escape in Braddock's defeat had led a colonial preacher to declare in a sermon his belief that the young man had been preserved to be "the saviour of his country"; but if there was any such impression it soon died away, and Washington gave his associates no reason to consider him a man of uncommon endowments.
Like others of the dominant planter class in Virginia, he was repeatedly elected to the House of Burgesses, but the business which came before the colonial assembly was for some years of only local importance, and he is not known to have made any set speeches in the House, or to have said anything beyond a statement of his opinion and the reasons for it.
Until the following March, Washington's work was to bring about some semblance of military organization and discipline, to collect ammunition and military stores, to correspond with Congress and the colonial authorities, to guide military operations in widely separate parts of the country, to create a military system for a people entirely unaccustomed to such a thing and impatient and suspicious under it, and to bend the course of events steadily towards driving the British out of Boston.
It is not easy to see how Washington survived the year 1775; the colonial poverty, the exasperating annoyances, the outspoken criticism of those who demanded active operations, the personal and party dissensions in Congress, the selfishness or stupidity which cropped out again and again among some of the most patriotic of his coadjutors were enough to have broken down most men.
Patrick Calhoun attained some prominence in the colony, serving in the colonial legislature, and afterwards in the state legislature, and taking part in the War of Independence.
To meet these needs they organized, under Articles of Confederation signed in 1643, the first form of colonial union in America; they called it The United Colonies of New England, but it is more commonly known as the New England Confederacy.
New England is prominent in American colonial history as the "Land of the Puritans" and the home of the corporate colony.
The colonial scheme was inaugurated in 1836 and the Jewish mission in 1838, Robert Murray M`Cheyne (1813-1843) and Andrew Alexander Bonar (1810-1892) setting out in the following year as a deputation to inquire into the condition of the Jews in Palestine and Turkey and on the continent of Europe.
Jewish missions are kept up at five stations in the East, and the colonial committee supplies ordinances to emigrants from Scotland in many of the dependencies of the empire.
The administration was placed in the hands of a high commissioner with the usual powers of a colonial governor.
Africa is assisted by the Baptist South African Missionary and Colonial Aid Society, having its seat in London.
The Virginia colonial government, in earlier days cruelly intolerant, gave a limited toleration to Baptists of this type; but the "Separate" Baptists were too enthusiastic and too much alive to the evils of state control in religious matters to be willing to take out licences for their meetings, and soon came into sharp conflict with the authorities.
In the colonial establishment the principal commands are the Mediterranean (including Egypt) and the South African.
Forces of the Dominions and Colonies.-Lord Kitchener and Sir John French in1909-1910paid visits of inspection to Australia and Canada in connexion with the reorganization by the local governments of their military forces, and a beginning was made of a common organization of the forces of the empire in the colonial military conference of 1909.
The object to be attained as laid down was twofold; (a) complete organization of the territorial forces of each dominion or colony; (b) evolution of contingents of colonial general-service troops with which the dominion governments might assist the army of Great Britain in wars outside the immediate borders of each dominion.
At present its chief interest is in lumber, but in colonial days it was a settlement of aristocratic rice planters.
The coal imported (which forms over 90% of the whole consumed) comes mainly from Great Britain; while most of the colonial produce, such as coffee and tobacco, comes through Germany.
The olive was introduced from Spain in colonial times and is widely distributed through the north central provinces, but its economic importance is not great.
By the Spanish colonial system the development of manufactures was prohibited and the trade of the colony was limited not only to Spain but to the one port of Cadiz.
The Bourbon kings of Spain were more liberal in their colonial policy.
At the same time the monks and Jesuits did useful work in teaching industrial and agricultural arts, and in giving the people a certain degree of education; but the influence of the Church was used to bolster up the traditional narrow colonial system, and the constant quarrels between the clergy and the secular powers often threw the country into confusion.
Amunatequi, Descubri miento y conquista de Chile (Santiago, 1885), a valuable detailed account of the Spanish conquest; by same author, Los Precursores de la independencia de Chile (Santiago, 1870), a clear useful description of the evils of the Spanish colonial system; Horacio Lara, Cronica de la Araucania (Santiago, 1889), a history of the Araucanian Indians right up to recent dates; Abbe Eyzaguirre, Histoire du Chili (Lille, 1855), mainly dealing with the position of the Church during the colonial period.
Nominally the sultan is still ruler, but virtually his powers were greatly curtailed by his conventions with the Dutch-Indian government, under which he surrendered, with the concurrence of his grandees, many of his former rights to the Dutch resident, who became the de facto governor of the easternmost colonial possessions of Holland, especially since the transfer of Dutch New Guinea in 1901.
The colony itself provides a battalion of the West African Frontier Force, a body responsible to the Colonial Office.
A Blue Book on the affairs of the colony is published yearly at Freetown and an Annual Report by the Colonial Office in London.
The colonial legislatures were abolished, provincial councils, with strictly subordinate and delegated powers, were set up, and provincial administrators (local men) replaced the various governors.
The control and administration of native affairs (which before the Union was, except at the Cape, largely in the hands of the colonial governors personally) is vested exclusively in the governor in council and to the same authority is entrusted all matters specially or differentially affecting Asiatics throughout the Union.
The presence of both nominated and elected members in the Senate is a novel provision in the constitution of the upper chambers of British colonial legislatures.
A mockery of popular institutions, under the name of a burgher council, indeed existed; but this was a mere delusion, and must not be confounded with the system of local government by means of district burgher councils which that most able man, Commissioner de Mist, sought to establish during the brief government of the Batavian Republic from 1803 to 1806, when the Dutch nation, convinced and ashamed of the false policy by which they had permitted a mere money-making association to disgrace the Batavian name, and to entail degradation on what might have been a free and prosperous colony, sought to redeem their error by making this country a national colonial possession, instead of a slavish property, to be neglected, oppressed or ruined, as the caprice or avarice of its merchant owners might dictate.
At first the Cape government endeavoured to come to an amicable arrangement with the new power threatening its eastern border, and in 1780 it was agreed that the Great Fish River should be the permanent boundary between the colonial and Bantu territories.
The peace was broken in 1789 by an invasion of the colonial territory by the Kaffirs, and this conflict proved to be but the first of a series of Kaffir wars which lasted for a century.
Others remained within Cape Colony, while several were stationed among the Kaffirs along the colonial border.
They not only endeavoured to protect and guide the natives beyond the colonial border, but among the Hottentots within the colony they instilled notions of antipathy to the white farmers, and withdrew large numbers of them from agricultural pursuits.
Material for forming a judgment will be found chiefly in the correspondence of Sir Benjamin D'Urban with the Colonial Office, in the statements made by the voortrekkers, and in a series of lectures delivered in Pietermaritzburg in1852-1855by the Hon.
An act passed in 1836 (the Cape of Good Hope Punishment Act) empowered the colonial courts to deal with offences committed by British subjects in any part of South Africa up to the 25th degree of south latitude.
Land left derelict was occupied by colonial farmers, and over 2000 German immigrants were introduced by Sir George and settled along the frontier (1858-1859).
The new colonial secretary, the duke of Newcastle, reinstated him, but with instructions not again to raise the federation issue.
He now returned to the Colonial Office filled with the idea of doing for South Africa what had been done in British North America.'
In August 1876 the colonial secretary assembled a conference on South African affairs in London, nominating Froude as representative of Griqualand West.
There had been a change of ministry in Great Britain and Joseph Chamberlain had become colonial secretary.
A suspicion that the Colonial Office in London was cognizant of Rhodes's plans further excited Dutch national feeling, and the Bond once more became actively anti-British.
General Botha became premier, with Mr Smuts as colonial secretary.
Prominent among these men was Mr Lionel Curtis, at that time (1906) assistant colonial secretary.
No appeal was made to the electorate, but the colonial parliaments rightly interpreted public opinion in endorsing the recommendations of the conference.
Lists of the British Parliamentary papers concerning South Africa will be found in the Colonial Office List (yearly).
In Australasia and Canada and in most if not all the British possessions whose law is based on the common law, the power to issue and enforce the writ is possessed and is freely exercised by colonial courts, under the charters or statutes creating and regulating the courts.
All members might, in connexion with their official duties, travel free on railways and ships owned by the state; but since 1892 none had received any salary except the colonial members, who were paid loo milreis (£22) per month during the session, and So milreis (III) per month during the remainder of the year.
At the beginning of the 19th century Portugal possessed a larger colonial empire than any European power except Great Britain and Spain.
But from these obscure beginnings Portugal rose in four centuries to be the greatest maritime, commercial and colonial power in Europe.
He had laid the foundation of its navy and had strengthened, if he did not inaugurate, that system of co-operation between the Crown and the military orders which afterwards proved of incalculable service in the maritime and colonial development of the nation.
Richelieu and the states-general of the Netherlands despatched fleets to the Tagus; but commercial rivalry in Brazil and the East led soon afterwards to a colonial war with the Dutch, and Portugal was left without any ally except France.
Colonial development was fostered, and the commercial dependence of Portugal upon induced the king to marry Maria Sophia de Neuberg, Great Britain was reduced, by the formation of chartered companies, the first of which (1753) was given control of the Algarve sardine and tunny fisheries.
Colonial affairs had for some time received close attention.
Spinning and weaving are carried on among the people as a household occupation, and fabrics are made of an exceptionally substantial character.It is not uncommon to see the natives busily twirling their rude spindles as they follow their troops of pack animals over rough mountain roads, and the yarn produced is woven into cloth in their own houses on rough Spanish looms of colonial patterns.
The university at Sucre, which dates from colonial times, and that at La Paz, are the only ones on the list sufficiently well equipped to merit the title.
There is a multiplication of taxes in trade which recalls the old colonial alcabala tax, and it serves to restrict commerce and augment the cost of goods in much the same way, if not to the same degree.
The heavy losses sustained by the Indians during that outbreak, and their dislike and distrust of the colonial Spaniard, account for the comparative indifference with which they viewed the rise and progress of the 1814 colonial revolt against Spain, which gave the South American states their independence.
Starting from Path, he penetrated to the banks of the Tocantins, making numerous converts to Christianity and civilization among the most savage tribes; but after two years of unceasing labour, during which every difficulty was placed in his way by the colonial authorities, he saw that the Indians must be withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the governors, to prevent their exploitation, and placed under the control of the members of a single religious society.
Bishops are addressed as "Right Reverend" and have legally the style of "Lord," which, as in the case of Roman Catholic bishops in England, is extended to all, whether suffragans or holders of colonial bishoprics, by courtesy.
During his long term of office he abolished the grist tax, extended the suffrage, completed the railway system, aided Mancini in forming the Triple Alliance, and initiated colonial policy by the occupation of Massawa; but, at the same time, he vastly increased indirect taxation, corrupted and destroyed the fibre of parliamentary parties, and, by extravagance in public works, impaired the stability of Italian finance.
The old Salisbury mansion, dating back to Colonial days, stands in this square.
From the more complex colonial Protozoa the Coelentera are readily separated by their possession of two distinct sets of cells, with diverse functions, arranged in two definite layers, - a condition found in no Protozoan.
The town and harbour were strongly fortified in colonial times, but the port defences were greatly damaged in 1902 in a bombardment by some German vessels of the allied blockading fleet.
The residences are of the Spanish colonial type, with heavy walls and large rooms to insure coolness during the heat of the day.
The chief public buildings are the two Dutch Reformed churches, the old church being a good specimen of colonial Dutch architecture, with gables, curves and thatched roof.
The main exports are grain, cattle, horses, fish and oysters, in return for which come timber, coal, salt, wine and colonial produce.
The scyphistoma of Nausithoe forms a branching network which grows in the sponge Esperella and forms the colonial polypoid organism named by Schulze Spongicola fistularis, by Allman Stephanoscyphus mirabilis.
In 1752 the present name was adopted and the town was established by act of the colonial legislature.
The copper deposits of the state were worked to a small extent in colonial days.
During the colonial period there were schools maintained by churches, a few town schools of the New England type, and, in the latter part of the era, a number of private schools.
But the schools of colonial New Jersey, especially the private schools, were usually taught by incompetent masters, and many children were permitted to grow up without any schooling whatever.
With the exception of laying an import duty no legislative effort was made - nor is it likely that any would have been allowed by the crown - to restrict the importation of slaves during the colonial period.
In 1774 occurred the " Greenwich Tea Party."' The last colonial assembly of New Jersey met in November 1775.
The state's own constitution, which had been adopted in 1776 and amended in 1777, retained, like other state constitutions framed during the War of Independence, many features of colonial government ill-adapted to a state increasingly democratic. The basis of representation, each county electing three members to the assembly and one member to the legislative council, soon became antiquated.
The governor is the official medium of communication between the colonial government and the secretary for the colonies, but at the same time the colony maintains its own agent-general in London, who not only sees to all its commercial business but communicates with the colonial office.
In 1914 he became Minister of Justice and Attorney-General, from 1914 to 1917 was a member of the Legislative Council, and from 1917 to 1918 Colonial Secretary.
In theory, also, state lands in the British colonies are supposed to be vested in the crown, and they are called crown lands; actually, however, the various colonial legislatures have full control over them and power of disposal.
It suffered repeatedly in the course of the colonial Indian wars.
The chief weaknesses in the colonial administration of the territory, particularly prior to 1900 - but only to a slightly less extent since - have been decentralization and a lax civil service.
Jurisdiction over these protectorates is, generally speaking, exercised under orders in council made under the Protec- Foreign Jurisdiction Act 1890 (Burge's Colonial and Foreign, Law, 2nd ed., p. 320).
The second class of protectorates consists of those exercised by one civilized state over an uncivilized people, sometimes called a " Colonial Protectorate " or " pseudo-protectorate," and usually the preparatory step to annexation.
On the union of East and West Jersey in 1702, it became one of the two seats of government of the new royal province, the meetings of the legislature generally alternating between Burlington and Perth Amboy, under both the colonial and the state government, until 1790.
Moreover, in anticipation of the time when the Congo State would become a Belgian colony, there was issued under date of 7th of August 1901 the terms of a proposed loi organique, regulating the government of any colonial possessions which Belgium might acquire.
In this resolution the chamber took note of" the replies of the government, according to which the declarations contained in the letter of the 3rd of June do not constitute conditions but ` solemn recommendations,' while ` the convention of cession will have no other object than to effect the transference and define the measures for its accomplishment, and the Belgian legislature will regulate the regime of its colonial possessions in unrestricted liberty.'
The draft bill of 1901 had left the autocratic power of the sovereign unchanged; the colonial bill as passed by the commission completely reversed the situation, replacing the absolutism of the king by thorough parliamentary control.
In the resolution which was adopted on the 2nd of March the chamber," imbued with the ideas which presided over the foundation of the Congo State and inspired the Act of Berlin,"expressed its confidence in the proposals which the commission of reforms was elaborating, and decided" to proceed without delay to the examination of the projected law of the 7th of August 1901, on the government of Belgium's colonial possessions."The report of the reforms commission was not made public, but as the fruit of its deliberations King Leopold signed on the 3rd of June 1906 a number of decrees embodying various While the commission was sitting, further evidence was forthcoming that the system complained of on the Congo remained unaltered, and that the" reforms "of June 1906 were illusory.
Its report on the treaty and the proposed colonial law were presented to the chamber on the 3rd of April.
Neither the treaty, the additional act, nor the colonial law expressly modified the land, commercial and concessionary regime established in the Congo, but article II.
The debate made it clear that while the Belgian people did not desire colonial possessions, annexation was the only means of escape from a situation the country found intolerable.
The debate closed on the 10th of August, when the treaty of annexation, the additional act and the colonial law were all voted by substantial majorities.
Amendments had been made in the colonial law giving parliament fuller control over Congo affairs and securing greater independence for the judicature.
Under Belgian rule a colonial minister replaced the former secretary of state.
The minister has the advice of a colonial council, while the power of legislating for the colony is vested in parliament.
The principal imports are timber, coal, grain, ore, petroleum and colonial produce.
The money market is the headquarters of companies formed to promote the cultivation of colonial produce.
He took a great interest in colonial missions, especially among the American Indians, and it is to his exertions that the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel owes its existence.
He pursued an energetic commercial and colonial policy (see Corinth), and thus laid the foundations of Corinthian prosperity.
Longfellow's genius, in its choice of subjects, always oscillated between America and Europe, between the colonial period of American history and the Middle and Romantic Ages of European feeling.
See also the annual reports on the Seychelles issued by the Colonial Office; those from 1901 onward contain valuable botanical reports.
Bogota was reputed to be a centre of learning in colonial times, but there was no great breadth and depth to it, and it produced nothing of real value.
Some good work has been done in ethnography and archaeology by some writers of the colonial period, and by Ezequiel Uricoechea and Ernesto Restrepo.
Tobacco was cultivated in New Granada and Venezuela in colonial times, when its sale was a royal monopoly and its cultivation was restricted to specified localities.
The pastoral industry dates from colonial times and engages the services of a considerable number of people, but its comparative importance is not great.
The estimate aggregate for three and a half centuries is certainly large, but the exact amount will probably never be known, because the returns in colonial times were as defective as those of disorderly independence have been.
Rum and sugar are products of a crude manufacturing industry dating from colonial times.
Although Bogota was reputed to be an educational centre in colonial times, so slight an influence did this exert upon the country that Colombia ended the 19th century with no effective public school system, very few schools and colleges, and fully 90% of illiteracy in her population.
The " provinces " referred to are the colonial divisions existing before the passing of the South Africa Act 1909, except in the sections Constitution and Government and Law and Justice, where the changes made by the establishment of the Union are set forth.
The colonial output increased from 23,000 tons in 1891 to 188,000 tons in 1904.
The tonnage of ships entered and cleared at colonial ports rose from 10,175,903 in 1895 to 22,518,286 in 1905.
The British mails are carried under contract with the colonial government by packets of the Union-Castle Steamship Co., which leave Southampton every Saturday and Cape Town every Wednesday.
For purposes of local defence a force named the Frontier Armed and Mounted Police was organized in 1853, and a permanent colonial force has been maintained since that date.
The effect of this law was to place the Hottentots in more immediate dependence upon the farmers, or to compel them to migrate northward beyond the colonial border.
In 1817 further trouble arose with the Kaffirs, the immediate cause of quarrel being an attempt by the colonial authorities to enforce the restitution of some stolen cattle.
Emigration beyond the colonial border had in fact been continuous for 1 so years, but it now took on larger proportions.
The action of Sir Benjamin D'Urban was not approved by the home government, and on the instruction of Lord Glenelg, secretary for the colonies, who declared that " the great evil of the Cape Colony consists in its magnitude," the colonial boundary was moved back to the Great Fish river, and eventually (in 1837) Sir Benjamin was dismissed from office.
In 1848 a circular was sent by the 3rd Earl Grey, then colonial secretary, to the governor of the Cape (and to other colonial governors), asking him to ascertain the feelings of the colonists regarding the reception of a certain class of convicts, the intention being to send to South Africa Irish peasants who had been driven into crime by the famine of 1845.
A considerable force of imperial and colonial troops was employed to put down this rising, and the war was subsequently known as the Ninth Kaffir war.
A wave of feeling spread amongst the different Kaffir tribes on the colonial frontier, and after the Gaika-Galeka War there followed in 1879 a rising in Basutoland under Moirosi, whose cattle-raiding had for some time!past caused considerable trouble.
His stronghold was taken after very severe fighting by a colonial force, but, their defeat notwithstanding, the Basutos remained in a restless and aggressive condition for several years.
In 1880 the colonial authorities endeavoured to extend to Basutoland the Peace Preservation Act of 1878, under which a general disarmament of the Basutos was attempted.
Further fighting followed on this proclamation, which was by no means successful, and although peace was declared in the country in December 1882, the colonial authorities were very glad in 1884 to be relieved of the administration of a country which had already cost them L 3, 000,000.
Nevertheless the continuance of this traffic on colonial farms, as well as to some extent in the native territories and reserves, is a black spot in the annals of the Cape Colony.
It is quite evident from the action which President Kruger subsequently took in the matter that this charge was put on with his approval, and with the object of compelling traffic to be brought to the Transvaal by the Delagoa route, instead of as heretofore by the colonial railway.
It was probably forgotten at the time (though Lord Kimberley afterwards publicly stated it) that one of the chief reasons why the Gladstone government had granted the retrocession of the Transvaal after Majuba, was the fear that the Cape Colonial Dutch would join their kinsmen if the war continued.
The effect of these engagements at the very outset of the war, occurring as they did within Cape Colony, was to offer every inducement to a number of the frontier colonial Boers to join their kinsmen of the republics.