The Colonial Period.
The colonial representatives enjoy equal rights with those elected for constituencies in France.
The colonial army corps, headquarters at Paris, has three divisions, at Paris, Toulon and Brest.
in place of a council general, there is a colonial council which fulfils the functions of a council general.
The foundation of cleruchies was an admirable device, which in many ways anticipated the colonial system of the Romans.
New colonial forms have been developed during the partition of Africa amongst European powers, the sphere of influence being especially worthy of notice.
Gold is found chiefly in placers, and in colonial times the output was large, but the deposits were long ago exhausted and the industry is now comparatively unimportant.
THEOPHILUS EATON (c. 1590-1658), English colonial governor in America, was born at Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, about 1590.
The colonial minister is assisted by a number of organizations of which the most important is the superior council of the colonies (created by decree in 1883), an advisory body which inclUdes the senators and deputies elected by the colonies, and delegates elected by the universal suffrage of all citizens in the colonies and protectorates which do not return members to parliament.
Deducting vacancies, sick and absent, the effective strength of the active army in 1906 was 540,563; of the gendarmerie and Garde Rpublicaine 24,512; of colonial troops in the colonies 58,568.
The legislative powers of the parliament have a wide range, many matters being transferred to it from the colonial parliaments.
In the extent and importance of her colonial dominion France is second only to Great Britain.
~Colonial Finance.The cost of the extra-European possessions, other than Algeria and Tunisia, to the state is shown in the expenses of the colonial ministry.
The colonial budgets totalled in 1907 some 16,760,000, being divisible into six categories: Algeria 4,120,000; Tunisia 3,640,000; Indo-China3 about 5,000,ooo; West Africa 1,600,000; Madagascar 960,000; all other colonies combined 1,440,000.
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.
Its constitution has spread to Holland, Scotland (Ireland, England), and to the great American (and Colonial) churches.
The colonial history of the building stands well preserved beside the modern changes.
A typical Siphonophore is a stock or cormus consisting of a number of appendages placed in organic connexion with one another by means of a coenosarc. The coenosarc does not differ in structure from that already described in colonial Hydrozoa.
The authorized colonial loans, omitting Algeria and Tunisia, during the period 1884f 904 amounted to 19,200,000, the sums paid for interest and sinking funds on loans varying from 600,000 to 800,000 a year.
Little, however, has been done to utilize the deposits, the demands of the colonial markets being extremely limited.
The old (1678) and new (1873) episcopal palaces, the hospital, the university and the barracks (formerly a Franciscan monastery) are noteworthy examples of Spanish colonial architecture.
The French colonial (formerly marine) infantry, recruited by voluntary enlistment, comprises 18 regiments and 5 independent battalions (of which 12 regiments are at home), 74 batteries of field, fortress and mountain artillery (of which 32 are at home), with a few cavalry and engineers, &c., and other services in proportion.
Clifford, Further India (1904); Journal of the Malay Archipelago, Logan (Singapore); Journal of the Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (Singapore); Weld, Maxwell, Swettenham and Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Colonial Institute (London); Clifford in the Journal of the Royal Geographical Society (London).
The conseil colonial, besides its advisory functions, discusses and votes the budget, determines the nature of the taxes, has supreme control over the tariffs, and extensive powers in the administration of colonial domains.
In the last-named year the commerce of Algeria amounted to 24,506,020 and that of Tunisia to 5,969,248, making a grand total for French colonial trade in 1905 of 65,432,746 The figures were made up as follows:
EDWARD GIBBON WAKEFIELD (1796-1862), British colonial statesman, was born in London on the 10th of March 1796, of an originally Quaker family.
Contemporaneously with the vicissitudes of home and foreign policy under the Left there grew up in Italy a marked tendency towards colonial enterprise.
In accordance with this general verdict of all the states, the colonial draft bill was submitted to the imperial government for legislation as an imperial act; and six delegates were sent to England to explain the measure and to pilot it through the cabinet and parliament.
Meditating, it is probable, emigration upon his release, he turned his attention while in prison to colonial subjects, and acutely detected the main causes of the slow progress of the Australian colonies in the enormous size of the landed estates, the reckless manner in which land was given away, the absence of all systematic effort at colonization, and the consequent discouragement of immigration and dearth of labour.
He took part in the revolution of 1868, wrote the "Manifesto of Cadiz," took office as colonial minister, favoured the candidature of the duc de Montpensier, resigned in 1871, returned to his early Conservative principles, and was a member of Alfonso XII.'s first cabinet.
But he did not fulfil the expectations which had been formed on the strength`' of his colonial reputation; he took no very prominent part in debate, and gave little evidence of his undoubted oratorical gifts.
The Straits Settlements - Singapore, Malacca and Penang - were ruled from India until 1867, when they were erected into a crown colony under the charge of the Colonial Office.
His previous university reputation and connexions, combined with his colonial experience, stood him in good stead.
The period between May 1881 and July 1887 occupied, in the region of foreign affairs, by the negotiation, conclusion and renewal of the triple alliance, by the Bulgarian crisis and by the dawn of an Italian colonial policy, was marked at home by urgent political and economic problems, and by the parliamentary phenomena known as trasformismo.
Colonel Arimondi, commander of the colonial forces in the absence of the military governor, General Baratieri, attacked and routed a dervish force 10,000 strong on the 21st of December.
The idea of these meetings was first suggested in a letter to the archbishop of Canterbury by Bishop Hopkins of Vermont in 1851, but the immediate impulse came from the colonial Church in Canada.
Cromwell's colonial policy aimed definitely at the recognition and extension of the British empire.
Colonial Troops.These form an expeditionary army corps in France to which are attached the actual corps of occupation to the various colonies, part white, part natives.
From 1787 onwards, colonial bishops and metropolitans were appointed by letters patent which purported to give them jurisdiction for disciplinary purposes.
The colonial dining rooms provide guests a glimpse of history as they enjoy breakfast.
From 1885-1886 onwards, outlay on public works, military and colonial expenditure, and especially the commercial and financial crises, contributed to produce annual deficits; but owing to drastic reforms introduced in 1894-1895 and to careful management the year 1898-1899 marked a return of surpluses (nearly 1,306,400).
He is assisted by the conseil colonial numbering sixteen members, six of whom are French citizens elected by the French, six natives elected by the natives, the other four being members of the chamber of commerce of Saigon and the conseil prive.
The first book edited by a European in Pali was the Mahazamsa, or Great Chronicle of Ceylon, published there in 18 37 by Tumour, then colonial secretary in the island.
Various colonial products and the slave trade were favoured in this way.
Guides dressed in colonial garb will dot the trail and answer any questions you might have.
He soon, however, became entirely engrossed with colonial affairs, and, having impressed John Stuart Mill, Colonel Torrens and other leading economists with the value of his ideas, became a leading though not a conspicuous manager of the South Australian Company, by which the colony of South Australia was ultimately founded.
The conseil prive is a deliberative body under the presidency of the lieutenant-governor, composed of colonial officials together with two native members.
The inn's rooms are outfitted in rich colors with comfy armchairs and furnishings from the colonial era.
Hitherto it had been a part of colonial policy.
At the same time questions of trade, of local politics, finally of colonial autonomy, of imperial policy, had gradually, but already long since, replaced theology in leading interest.
The Colonial Arcade contains a hotel as well; it was finished in 1898.
- Colonial Period.
and Sao Bento, Conceicao and Livramento hills on the N., and extends inland to the Praca da Republica, though the defensive works in colonial times followed a line much nearer the bay.
But Mr Chamberlain's new programme for a general tariff, with new taxes on food arranged so as to give a preference to colonial products, involved a radical alteration of the established fiscal system, and such out-and-out Unionist free-traders in the cabinet as Mr Ritchie and Lord George Hamilton, and outside it, like Lord Hugh Cecil and Mr Arthur Elliot (secretary to the treasury), were entirely opposed to this.
During this critical fortnight the duke had apparently acquiesced in Mr Balfour's compromise, and had co-operated in reconstituting the ministry; his nephew and heir had been made financial secretary to the treasury, while Mr Alfred Lyttelton was appointed colonial secretary, Mr Austen Chamberlain chancellor of the exchequer, Mr Brodrick secretary for India, Mr H.
While the majority of Protestant leaders left the conversion of the heathen to some remote and inscrutable interposition of Providence, the Jesuits, Franciscans, Dominicans and kindred orders were busily engaged in making Roman Catholics of the nations brought by Oriental commerce or American colonial enterprise into contact with Spain, Portugal and France.
With Napoleon fell the temporal power; but the French hierarchy still kept his gifts in the shape of the congregations, the pro-Catholic colonial policy, and a certain control of education.
In 1833 he published anonymously England and America, a work primarily intended to develop his own colonial theory, which is done in the appendix entitled "The Art of Colonization."
He was, moreover, an Imperialist and a Colonial Federationist at a time when Liberalism was tied and bound to the Manchester traditions; and, to the consternation of, the official wire-pullers, he vigorously supported Disraeli's foreign policy, and in 1881 opposed the Gladstonian settlement with the Boers.
The Falklands are the seat of a colonial bishop. Education is compulsory.
" The West Indies " (Oxford, 1890); Colonial Reports Annual; MSSloane, 3295.
After the SpanishAmerican War he strongly disapproved of the colonial policy of his party, which, however, he continued to support.
The town has a public library and some old houses built in the colonial period, and is the seat of Phillips Exeter Academy (incorporated in 1781 and opened in 1783).
The restaurant is appointed in a decor that suits the colonial origins of the building, making it a quiet, lovely place to get a good meal.
The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9.
For several years Wakefield continued to direct the New Zealand Company, fighting its battles with the colonial office and the missionary interest, and secretly inspiring and guiding many parliamentary committees on colonial subjects, especially on the abolition of transportation.
In 1853, after the grant of a constitution to New Zealand, he took up his residence in the colony, and immediately began to act a leading part in colonial politics.
After every deduction it remains true that no contemporary showed equal genius as a colonial statesman, or in this 'department rendered equal service to his country.
The town lies among hills, has an excellent climate, and in colonial times was (like Holguin) an acclimatization station for troops fresh from Spain; it now has considerable repute as a health resort.
The most important are: Bezerros (17,484), Bom Jardim (40,160), Brejo da Madre de Deus (13,655), a town of the higher agreste region, Cabo (13,337), Caruaru (17,844), Escada (9331), Garanhuns (32,788, covering six towns and villages), Gloria de Goyta (24,554), Goyanna, Limoeiro (21,576), Olinda (8080), the old colonial capital and episcopal see, Rio Formosa (6080), Timbauba (9514) and Victoria (32,422).
In 1892 he was elected to the Dominion Parliament, but in 1899 he interrupted his political career to serve in the South African War, where he commanded a mixed force of English and colonial scouts in western Cape Colony.
Pilgrim Hall, a large stone building erected by the Pilgrim Society (formed in Plymouth in 1820 as the successor of the Old Colony Club, founded in 1769) in 1824 and remodelled in 1880, is rich in relics of the Pilgrims and of early colonial times, and contains a portrait of Edward Winslow (the only extant portrait of a "Mayflower" passenger), and others of later worthies, and paintings, illustrating the history of the Pilgrims; the hall library contains many old and valuable books and manuscripts - including Governor Bradford's Bible, a copy of Eliot's Indian Bible, and the patent of 1621 from the Council for New England - and Captain Myles Standish's sword.
This speech, which, according to reports, was extremely radical and denied the right of the king to disallow acts of the colonial legislature, made Henry the idol of the common people of Virginia and procured for him an enormous practice.
In 1774 and 1775 he was a delegate to the Continental Congress and served on three of its most important committees: that on colonial trade and manufactures, that for drawing up an address to the king, and that for stating the rights of the colonies.
" The wealth they brought into the country, and their fruitful commercial activity, especially in the colonial trade, soon revealed them as an indispensable element of the prosperity of the city.
At this period they controlled more of the foreign and colonial trade than all the other alien merchants in London put together.
The chief rabbi, who is the ecclesiastical head of the United Synagogue, has also a certain amount of authority over the provincial and colonial Jewries, but this is nominal rather than real.
More than l000 English and colonial Jews participated as active combatants in the South African War.
Baron Hirsch (q.v.) founded the Jewish colonial association, which has undertaken vast colonizing and educational enterprises, especially in Argentina, and more recently the Jewish territorial organization has been started to found a home for the oppressed Jews of Russia.
Educational interests were almost entirely neglected during the colonial and territorial periods.
Hamilton's Colonial Mobile (Boston and New York, 1898), and the Colonization of the South (Philadelphia, 1904) are standard authorities for the French and English periods (1699-1781).
His power is limited by a council of state, a relic of colonial days.
For the colonial and revolutionary periods there are some excellent studies.
Raper, North Carolina: a Study in English Colonial Government (New York, 1904), treats of the royal period (1729-1776) from the legal point of view; J.
The chief published sources are The Colonial Records of North Carolina (10 vols., Raleigh, 1886-1890); and The State Records of North Carolina (vols.
11 -20, 1776-1788; other vols., in continuation of the colonial series, Winston (11-15) and Goldsboro (16-20), 1895-1902; the series is to be continued).
Geographical Journal (London, 1904); A Tropical Dependency, by Lady Lugard (London, 1905); the Colonial Office Reports on Northern Nigeria from 1902 onward, and other works cited under NIGERIA.
This conjoint valley of the Rion-Kura was in remote antiquity the site of several Greek colonial settlements, later the seat of successive kingdoms of the Georgians, and for centuries it has formed a bulwark against hostile invasions from the south and east.
The terms of the treaty of Amiens may be thus summarized: Great Britain restored to France the colonial possessions (almost the whole of the French colonial empire) conquered in the late war.
It is certain that he was preparing to renew the struggle for the mastery of the seas and of the Orient, which must break out if he held to his present resolve to found a great colonial empire.
He, therefore, despite Napoleon's repeated demands, refused to subject his empire to the hardships imposed by the Continental System; at the close of the year 1810 he virtually allowed the entry of colonial goods (all of which were really British borne) and little by little broke away from Napoleon's system.
The campaign of 1812 may, therefore, be considered as resulting, fi-stly, from the complex and cramping effects of the Continental System on a northern land which could not deprive itself of colonial goods; secondly, from Napoleon's refusal to mitigate the anxiety of Alexander on the Polish question; and thirdly, from tie annoyance felt by the tsar at the family matters noticed above.
At home many industries were suffering from the lack of tropical and colonial produce: cane sugar sold at five, and coffee at seven, shillings the pound.
On Lord Milner's retirement in the spring of 1921 he succeeded him as Secretary of State for the Colonies; and a new arrangement was made by which the responsibility for Mesopotamia and Palestine was taken over by the Colonial Office.
It was the period of the agitation for the abolition of slavery in England, where Philip's charges against the colonists and the colonial government found powerful support.
One of Philip's ideals was the curbing of colonial "aggression" by the creation of a belt of native states around Cape Colony.
The second was the seat of the royal government of Massachusetts during the provincial period, and within its walls from 1760 to 1775 the questions of colonial dependence or independence probably first came into evident conflict.
Manufacturing is to-day the most distinctive industry, as was commerce in colonial times.
In the years 1760-1776 Boston was the most frequently recurring and most important name in British colonial history.
Finally came war, with Lexington and Bunker Hill, and beleaguerinent by the colonial army; until on the 17th of March 1776 the British were compelled by Washington to evacuate the city.
Holmes' Poet and Autocrat, and Hawthorne's Scarlet Letter, as pictures of Boston life at various periods since early colonial days.
Foreign and Colonial Laws: Field, Landholding and the relation of Landlord and Tenant in various Countries; Ruling Cases (American Notes), (London and Boston, 1894-1901).
Sagasta's attempt to conciliate both the Cubans and the United States by a tardy offer of colonial home rule, the recall of General Weyler, and other concessions, did not avert the disastrous war with the United States and its catastrophe.
The period of greatest material prosperity of New Haven in the colonial period began about 1750, when a thriving commerce with other American ports and the West Indies developed.
On the 22nd of February 1763 a town meeting resolved to encourage colonial manufactures and to refrain from importing from England hats, clothing, leather, gold and silver lace, buttons, cheese, liquors, &c. Two years later Jared Ingersoll (1722-1781), who had been sent to England to protest against the Stamp Act, but had accepted'the office of Stamp Distributor on the advice of Benjamin Franklin, was forced to resign his office.
About this time the broker of cotton only began to specialize from the ranks of the brokers who dealt in all kinds of colonial produce.
The turbulent Basuto warriors did not remain quiet for any length of time, and in 1879 Moirosi, a chief residing in the southern portion of Basutoland, openly repudiated colonial rule.
Desultory warfare was carried on between the colonial troops and the Basuto until 1881, when the intervention of the high commissioner, Sir Hercules Robinson (afterward Lord Rosmead), was asked for.
For current information see the annual report on Basutoland (Colonial Office, London).
Campbell's Historical Sketches of Colonial Florida (Cleveland, 1892), which treats at length of the history of Pensacola; H.
Lord Leighton pronounced the silver ware from Malaya to be the most artistic of any exhibited at the Colonial Exhibition held in London in 1886.
Nor did the commons obtain relief through any commercial or colonial enterprises such as those which alleviated social distress in many other Greek states.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
In May 1 775 a British schooner in the Mystic defended by a force of marines was taken by colonial militia under General John Stark and Israel Putnam, - one of the first conflicts of the War of Independence.
His colonial ancestors held official positions in the civil and military service of Virginia.
' See "The Survey in British Africa": the Annual Report of the Colonial Survey Commission.
Good maps of the Portuguese colonies are to be found in an Atlas colonial Portugues, a second edition of which was published by the Commissao de Cartographia in 1909.
The foreign and colonial clubs which are affiliated to the Kennel Club are: the Guernsey Dog Club, the Italian Kennel Club, the Jersey Dog Club, La Societe Centrale (Paris), Moscow Gun Club of the Emperor Alexander II., New South Wales Kennel Club, Nimrod Club (Amsterdam), Northern Indian Kennel Association, Royal St Hubert's Society (Brussels) and the South African Kennel Club (Cape Town).
From 1884 to 1898 the protectorate was attached for administrative purposes to Bombay, and was immediately dependent on Aden; in the last-named year it was transferred to the Foreign Office, and in 1905 passed under the control of the Colonial Office.
For the various protectorates, (I) British - the annual reports issued by the Colonial Office, London; Official History of the Operations in Somaliland, 1901-1904 (2 vols., London, 1907); War Office maps on the scale of I :1,000,000, also sketch map 1:3,000,000 (1907).
Not only Asiatics and Thracians thus became slaves, but in the many wars between Grecian states, continental or colonial, Greeks were reduced to slavery by men of their own race.
Not very long after the disappearance of serfdom in the most advanced communities comes into sight the new system of colonial slavery, which, instead of being the spontaneous outgrowth of social necessities and subserving a temporary need of human development, was politically as well as morally a monstrous aberration.
When the news of this reached Paris, it created a strong feeling against the planters; and on the motion of the Abbe Gregoire it was resolved by the assembly on the 15th of May 1791 " that the people of colour resident in the French colonies, born of free parents, were entitled to, as of right, and should be allowed, the enjoyment of all the privileges of French citizens, and among others those of being eligible to seats both in the parochial and colonial assemblies."
Canning carried against Buxton and his friends a motion to the effect that the desired ameliorations in the condition and treatment of the slaves should be recommended by the home government to the colonial legislatures, and enforced only in case of their resistance, direct action being taken in the single instance of Trinidad, which, being a crown colony, had no legislature of its own.
A well-conceived series of measures of reform was accordingly proposed to the colonial authorities.
We have seen that the last vestiges of the monstrous anomaly of modern colonial slavery are disappearing from all civilized states and their foreign possessions.
On the Colonial Slave Trade and Slavery: Washington Irving, Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828), several times reprinted; Arthur Helps, Life of Las Casas (1868); Bryan Edwards, History, Civil and Commercial, of the British West Indies (1793; 5th ed.
The Kew herbarium, founded by Sir William Hooker and greatly increased by his son Sir Joseph Hooker, is also very rich in types, especially those of plants described in the Flora of British India and various colonial floras.
In 1767 he was appointed to succeed Shakelton as principal painter to the king; and so fully employed was he on the royal portraits which the king was in the habit of presenting to ambassadors and colonial governors, that he was forced to take advantage of the services of a host of assistants - of whom David Martin and Philip Reinagle are the best known.
ALFRED MILNER MILNER, VISCOUNT (1854-), British statesman and colonial administrator, was born at Bonn on the 23rd of March 1854, the only son of Charles Milner, M.D., whose wife was a daughter of Major-General Ready, sometime governor of the Isle of Man.
On the 4th of May Milner penned a memorable despatch to the Colonial Office, in which he insisted that the remedy for the unrest in the Transvaal was to strike at the root of the evil - the political impotence of the injured.
Milner therefore returned to England to spend a "hard-begged holiday," which was, however, mainly occupied in work at the Colonial Office.
He left South Africa while the economic crisis was still acute and at a time when the voice of the critic was audible everywhere; but, in the words of the colonial secretary (Mr Alfred Lyttelton) he had in the eight eventful years of his administration "laid deep and strong the foundation upon which a united South Africa would arise to become one of the great states of the empire."
This thesis he further developed in a magazine article written in view of the colonial conference held in London in 1907.
He advocated the creation of a permanent deliberative imperial council, and favoured preferential trade relations between the United Kingdom and the other members of the empire; and in later years he took an active part in advocating the cause of tariff reform and colonial preference.
The strong, black perique of the delta - cultivated very generally in the lower alluvial region before the Civil War, but now almost exclusively in St James parish - is a famous leaf, grown since early colonial times.
The Spanish rulers made efforts to govern wisely and liberally, showing great complaisance, particularly in heeding the profit of the colony, even at the expense of Spanish colonial commercial regulations.
The editions are as follows: Romance of the History of Louisiana (New York, 1837, 1848); Histoire de la Louisiane (2 vols., Nouvelle Orleans, 1846-1847); Louisiana: its Colonial History and Romance (N.Y., 1851); Louisiana: its History as a French Colony,.
...1801-1803French Domination 1800-1803.4 Laussat, Colonial Prefect..
Under the colonial rule of Spain the head of government was a supreme civil-military officer, the governor and captaingeneral.
So early also began dissatisfaction with the economic regulations of the colonial system, even grave resistance to their enforcement; and illicit trade with privateers and foreign colonies had begun long before, and in the 17th and 18th centuries was the basis of the island's wealth.
The government of Spain, beginning in 1764, made notable breaches in the old monopolistic system of colonial trade throughout America; and Cuba received special privileges, also, that were a basis for real prosperity.
Partly because of political and social divisions thus revealed, conspiracies being rife in the decade 1820-1830, and partly as preparation for the defence against Mexico and Colombia, who throughout these same years were threatening the island with invasion, the captains-general, in 1825, received the powers above referred to; which became, as time passed, monstrously in disaccord with the general tendencies of colonial government and with increasing liberties in Spain, but continued to be the spiritual basis of Spanish rule in the island.
The inapplicability of many laws passed for the Peninsula - all of which under a constitutional system would apply to Cuba as to any other province, unless that system be modified - was indeed notorious; and Cuban opinion had repeatedly, through official bodies, protested against laws thus imposed that worked injustice, and had pleaded for special consideration of colonial conditions.
Intervention by the United States seemed probable, but did not come, and after alternations in the fortunes of war, Martinez Campos in January 1878 secured the acceptance by the rebels of the convention (pacto) of Zanjon, which promised amnesty for the war, liberty to slaves in the rebel ranks, the abolition of slavery, reforms in government, and colonial autonomy.
The demands of the Liberals were as in 1868; those for personal and property rights were much more definitely stated, and among explicit reforms demanded were the separation of civil and military power, general recognition of administrative responsibility under a colonial autonomous constitutional regime; also among economic matters, customs reforms and reciprocity with the United States were demanded.
Consult the literature of history and colonial reform given below.
Reviews Published by the Colonial Office in Madrid..
(New York, for the Spanish legation, 1896); and compilations of Spanish colonial laws listed under article Indies, Laws Of The.
1878-1893 (Philadelphia, 1894); Labra et al., El Problema colonial contempordnea (2 vols., Madrid, 1894) articles by Em.
A university, founded in 1825, three colleges, one of them dating from colonial times, a medical school, and a public library, founded in 1821, are distinguishing features of the city, which has always taken high rank in Peru for its learning and liberalism, as well as for its political restlessness.
Carter (governor, 1898-1904), issued in place of the ordinary annual report by the Colonial Office, London, 1902; also, Governor R.
In place of the movements of great fleets to a single end, we have a nine years' story (1805-1814) of cruising for the protection of commerce, of convoy, of colonial expeditions to capture French, Dutch or Spanish possessions and of combined naval and military operations in which the British navy was engaged in carrying troops to various countries, and in supporting them on shore.
The remaining colonial possessions of France, and of Holland, then wholly dependent on her, were conquered by degrees, and the ports in which privateers were fitted out to cruise against British commerce in distant seas were gradually rendered harmless.
Harderwyk is chiefly important as being the depot for recruits for the Dutch colonial army.
The Arcade, between Euclid and Superior avenues, and the Colonial Arcade, between Euclid and Prospect avenues, are office and retail store buildings worthy of mention.
The importance of Callao in colonial times, when it was the only open port south of Panama, did not continue under the new political order, because of the unsettled state of public affairs and the loss of its monopoly.
He was the son of Richard Dana (1699-1772), a leader of the Massachusetts provincial bar, and a vigorous advocate of colonial rights in the pre-revolutionary period.
Francis Dana graduated at Harvard in 1762, was admitted to the bar in 1767, and, being an opponent of the British colonial policy, became a leader of the Sons of Liberty, and in 1774 was a member of the first provincial congress of Massachusetts.
Specimens of the best known and of many of the lesser known rubbers are included in the Colonial and Indian Collections and Sample Rooms of the Imperial Institute, and many of the authentic specimens have been chemically and technically examined in the Scientific and Technical Department of the Institute and commercially valued.
Within this area Great Britain has exclusive jurisdiction, and is represented by a commissioner under the colonial office; and has, besides, the right to erect fortifications, station troops and take any other measures necessary for defensive purposes at any points on or near the coast in that part of the peninsula east of 121 0 40' E.
From the outset of his career he was known to be a most Liberal Conservative, and in 1855 Lord Palmerston offered him the post of colonial secretary.
Mulhausen carries on an active trade in grain, wine, colonial produce and timber, which is facilitated by its river harbour.
The Portuguese were persistent trespassers in early colonial times, and their land-hunger took them far beyond the limits fixed by Pope Alexander VI.
The old system of locating immigrants in colonies, or colonial nuclei, which involved an enormous outlay of money with but slight benefit to the country, has been superseded by a system of locating the immigrants on the large plantations under formal contracts.
During the colonial period sugar cane was cultivated from Parahyba S.
Cotton has been widely cultivated since early colonial days, principally in the northern Atlantic states.
The pastoral industries, which date from early colonial times, have suffered many vicissitudes, and their development has failed to keep pace with the country's growth in population.
and Piauhy in colonial times, and small flocks are still to be seen in the latter state, but no use is made of their wool, and the market for mutton is extremely limited because of popular prejudices.
The extractive or forest industries of Brazil were among the first to engage the attention of Europeans, and have always been considered a principal source of colonial and national wealth.
The Ypanema mine and ironworks, near Sorocaba, Sao Paulo, which belong to the national government, have been in operation since 1810, and small charcoal forges were in operation in colonial times and supplied the mines with a considerable part of the iron needed by them.
The two English authorities, Robert Southey's History of Brazil, covering the colonial period, and John Armitage's History of Brazil, covering the period between the arrival of the Braganza family (1808) and the abdication of Dom Pedro I.
Thus the old colonial government disappeared even in name.
An insulting decree was passed in the Cortes, ordering the prince Dom Pedro to come to Europe, which filled the Brazilians with alarm; they foresaw that without a central authority the country would fall back to its former colonial state subject to Portugal.
P. Oliveira Martins, 0 Brazil e as colonial Portuguezas (Lisbon, 1888); S.
Prior to 1899 the jurisdiction of the port was in the hands of a marine board, three members of which were elected by the shipping interest, and the remaining four nominated by the government, but in that year the board was replaced by a single official, known as the superintendent of the department of navigation and responsible to the colonial secretary.
Provision is made whereby a native can obtain relief from the operation of native law and be subject to the colonial law (Law No.
He now became the first premier and colonial secretary with Mr Harry Escombe (q.v.) as attorneygeneral and Mr F.
Among its recommendations was the direct political representation of natives in the colonial legislatures on the New Zealand model, and the imposition of direct taxation upon natives, which should not be less than £1 a year payable by every adult male.
It was suppressed by the colonial forces under Colonel (afterwards Sir) Duncan McKenzie, aided by a detachment of Transvaal volunteers.
Thereupon the Natal ministry resigned, giving as their reason the importance of maintaining the authority of the colonial administration at a critical period, and the constitutional question involved in the interference by the imperial authorities in the domestic affairs of a self-governing colony.
Smythe, who had been colonial secretary under Sir Albert Hime.
2399 (1905); and other parliamentary papers (consult The Colonial Office List, London, yearly).
As a strong advocate of colonial expansion he was also a bitter enemy of Great Britain, and he was to a large extent responsible for the anti-British feeling of German Chauvinism during the last years of the 19th century.
- This condition of affairs coincided with the second movement in South Africa for a confederation of its various colonies and states, a movement of which the then colonial secretary, the 4th earl of Carnarvon, was a warm advocate.
He declared that he had preserved the thing in its substance, if he had not actually used the word; and this view of the matter was always officially maintained in the colonial office (which, significantly enough, dealt with Transvaal affairs) whatever the political party in power.
Some urged an appeal to the Imperial government; but others, especially men of colonial birth and experience, objected that they would be leaning on a broken reed.
On the 30th of November the mobilization of a sixth division was ordered, offers of colonial aid were accepted, and every facility provided for local recruiting in the South African ports.
C. Smuts (colonial secretary), Jacob de Villiers (attorney-general), H.
C. Hull (colonial treasurer), J.
In colonial times the llanos were covered with immense herds of cattle and horses and were inhabited by a race of hardy, expert horsemen, the llaneros.
Other industries of the colonial period were the cultivation of indigo and tobacco.
Cotton was produced in several places in colonial times, but the output has declined to a few thousand pounds.
The Caracas institution dates from early colonial times and numbers many prominent Venezuelans among its alumni.
Watson, Spanish and Portuguese South America during the Colonial Period (2 vols., London, 1884); W.
If in regard to France his policy appeared to lack suavity and circumspection, it must be remembered that the French republic was then engaged in active anti-Italian schemes and was working, both at the Vatican and in the sphere of colonial politics, to create a situation that should compel Italy to bow to French exigencies and to abandon the Triple Alliance.
Lord Ripon became leader in the House of Lords; and Lord Elgin (colonial secretary), Lord Carrington(agriculture), Lord Aberdeen (lord lieutenant of Ireland), Sir Henry Fowler (chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster), Mr Sidney Buxton (postmaster-general), Mr L.
Meanwhile, though the Colonial Conference (re-named Imperial) of 1907 showed that there was a wide difference of opinion on the tariff question between the free-trade government and the colonial premiers, in one part of the empire the ministry took a decided step - in the establishment of a self-governing constitution for the Transvaal and Orange River colonies - which, for good or ill, would make the period memorable.
Burlington House, in Piccadilly, built in 1872 on the site of a mansion of the earls of Burlington, houses the Royal Society, the Chemical, Geological, Linnaean and Royal Astronomical Societies, the Society of Antiquaries and the British Association for the Advancement of Science, of which the annual meetings take place at different British or colonial towns in succession.
Vessels entered and cleared (foreign and colonial trade): - In the coastwise trade, in 1881, 38,953 vessels of 4,545,904 tons entered; in 18 95, 43,7 0 4 vessels of 6,555,618 tons; but these figures include vessels trading within the Thames estuary (ports of London, Rochester, Colchester and Faversham), which later returns do not.
in Colonial Office Library, London); C. Vijn (trans.
Between the last days of March and the day of the landing the defence system was overhauled and greatly developed.2 The Franco-British expeditionary force was to be composed of seven divisions - three, the 29th, the 42nd and the Royal Naval, furnished by the United Kingdom, two formed of Australian and New Zealand troops, and two composed of French colonial troops.
The older portions of the city are reminiscent of Dutch colonial days, and some fine specimens of the Dutch and later colonial architecture are still standing.
In 1689 Was held here the first inter-colonial convention in America, when delegates from Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut and New York met to treat with representatives of the Five Nations and to plan a system of colonial defence.
This body was to have control of Indian affairs, impose taxes, nominate all civil officers, authorize the opening of new lands to settlement, and in general have charge of colonial defence, and of the enlistment, equipment and maintenance of an army.
Neither the British government nor the growing party in the colonies which was clamouring for colonial rights received the plan with favour - the former holding that it gave the colonies too much independence, and the latter that it gave them too little.
15 1908) the country was placed under the control of a colonial minister responsible to the Belgian Parliament, which has modelled the administration much on the lines of a British Crown Colony.
1921, as the new governor-general a man without previous colonial experience - M.
Louis Franck, the Belgian Colonial Minister, paid a visit to the Congo in 1920.
The township government of Greenwich was instituted in the colonial period.
So wrote Mr Chamberlain, the colonial secretary, on the 9th of November following, to the treasury.
The island imports wines, spirits, tissues, clothing and ironmongery; and exports ores, nickel, cobalt and chrome (which represent over three-quarters of the total exports in value), preserved meats and hides, coffee, copra and other colonial produce.
Two important works are associated with his administration, the non-clerical organization of public education, and the beginning of the colonial expansion of France.
After the military defeat of France by Germany in 1870, he formed the idea of acquiring a great colonial empire, not to colonize it, but for the sake of economic exploitation.
Edwards soon became a leading member of the colonial assembly of Jamaica, but in a few years he returned to England, and in 1782 failed to secure a seat in parliament as member for Chichester.
Within the township are several noteworthy examples of colonial architecture.
The most prolific author of colonial times was Dr Pedro de Peralta y Barnuevo, who wrote more than sixty works, including an epic poem entitled Lima fundada.
During colonial times and down to the middle of the 19th century pack animals were the only means of transportation across the desert and over the rough mountain trails.
Olives were introduced early in colonial times and are cultivated in several coast valleys, especially in the provinces of Camanh (Arequipa) and Moquegua.
The foundation-stone of HongKong University was laid in March 1910, the buildings being the gift of Sir Hormusjee Mody, a colonial broker.
Colquhoun, China in Transformation (London, 1898); Colonial Possessions Report, No.
84; and other Colonial Annual Reports.
Throughout the Colonial wars they were loyal to the French, but fought for the English in the War of Independence and the War of 1812, and thereafter permanently maintained peace with the Whites.
The Polyzoa are colonial animals, the colony (zoarium) originating in most cases from a free-swimming larva, which attaches itself to some solid object and becomes metamorphosed into the primary individual, or "ancestrula."
By the colonial authorities Natick was considered as a " plantation " until the establishment of the church; in 1762 the parish (erected in 1745) became a district, and in 1781 this was incorporated as a town.
to William Cosby (c. 1695-1736), colonial governor of New York in 1732-36, and to his associates, and it was known as Cosby's Manor.
Whaling was an established in- dustry in Rhode Island as Eearly as 1723, and in 1731 the colonial assembly provided a bounty of five shillings a barrel for whale oil, and a penny a pound for whalebone.
The colonial secretary, Mr Stanley, afterwards Lord Derby, brought forward ry.
The Journal of Australasia (1856-1858), the Australian Monthly Magazine (1865-1867), which contained contributions from Marcus Clarke and was continued as the Colonial Monthly (1867-1869), the Melbourne Review (1876-1885) and the Victorian Review (1879-1886) may also be mentioned.
Many magazines dealing with the colonies have been published in England, such as the Colonial Magazine (1840-1843) See F.
Colonial interests have been cared for by the Tijdschrift voor nederlandsch Indie (1848).
6 parts folio, with index), includes journals, reviews, magazines and other works issued periodically, with the exception of transactions and proceedings of learned societies and of British and Colonial newspapers later than 1700.
In 1776, when he was leading the resistance to Lord North's colonial policy, he "neither abandoned gaming nor his rakish life.
English criticism avers that he ought to have recognized more fully the system of party government, and to have done more to promote our colonial and commercial development.
The title archbishop has been used in certain of the colonial churches, e.g.
His apprenticeship to politics was served in the Colonial Assembly of Bourbon, where he fought successfully to preserve the colony from the consequences of perpetual interference from the authorities in Paris, and on the other hand to prevent local discontent from appealing to the English for protection.
The duties of the secretary of the northern department of Europe comprised dealings with the northern powers of Europe, while the secretary of the southern department of Europe communicated with France, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland, Italy, Turkey, and also looked after Irish and colonial business, and carried out the work of the Home Office.
Colonization and colonial policy excited immense attention in Europe; and this extended into the 19th century (e.g.
The colonial policy proper was broken down by the revolt of the North American colonies from Great Britain, and later of Mexico and Central and South America from Spain.
Against this savage background of the forest Parkman shows the rise, progress and dramatic termination of the colossal struggle between France and Great Britain for colonial empire.
At this date he was ambitious of a political career, but his father had sustained severe losses in business, and in these circumstances Manning, having graduated with first-class honours in 1830, obtained the year following, through Viscount Goderich, a post as supernumerary clerk in the colonial office.
In colonial times Maracaibo had a famous Jesuits' college (now gone) and was one of the educational centres of Spanish America; the city now has a national college and a nautical school.
An attempt was made to utilize fully the abilities of this eminent administrator by creating him civil lieutenant-governor, in whom to concentrate both the real and the nominal power of detailed administration; but the military authorities objected to his corresponding directly with the Colonial Office; and a political deadlock began to develop. Sir A.
A regulation excluding Maltese from the navy (because of their speaking on board a language that their officers did not understand) provoked from Trinity College, Cambridge, the Strickland correspondence in The Times on the constitutional rights of the Maltese, and a leading article induced the Colonial Office to try an experiment known as the Strickland-Mizzi Constitution of 1887.
Although Macao is de facto a colonial possession of Portugal, the Chinese government persistently refused to recognize the claim of the Portuguese to territorial rights, alleging that they were merely lessees or tenants at will, and until 1849 the Portuguese paid to the Chinese an annual rent of X71 per annum.
As James Otis's vigour and influence declined, Adams took a more and more prominent place in the revolutionary councils; and, contrary to the opinion of Otis and Benjamin Franklin, he declared that colonial representation in parliament was out of the question and advised against any form of compromise.
It may be pointed out that all colonial settlements belonged at that time exclusively to England, and the war was made entirely by her, and in her interest, Scotland and Ireland having no share.
The colonial records are preserved with those of New York and Pennsylvania; only one volume of the State Records has been published, and Minutes of the Council of Delaware State, 1776-1792 (Dover, 1886).
It must be remembered that during the colonial period the Spanish and Mexican population was never very large, that the first permanent Anglo-American settlement was not established until 1821, that there was ill-feeling between the two peoples almost from the very beginning, and that in fifteen years the Americans carried through a successful rebellion.
The knowledge of colonial affairs gained from Franklin's testimony, probably more than all other causes combined, determined the immediate repeal of the Stamp Act.
The governor is commander of the colonial force, which consists of natives under white officers.
Dernburg, the colonial secretary.
(For the work of the botanic, forestry and scientific department, the government plantations, &c., see the Colonial Report [Miscellaneous], No.
The protectorate is administered by a governor and commanderin-chief, under the colonial office, residing at Entebbe, on the northwestern coast of the Victoria Nyanza.
In the early 'eighties the aspirations of several European powers turned towards Africa as a field for commercial and colonial expansion.
Bread-stuffs, colonial products and machinery are largely imported.
Among the principal imports are cocoa, coffee, grain (including Indian corn), fruit, provisions (including butter, eggs and potatoes from France and the Channel Islands), wines and spirits, sugar, wool, and other foreign and colonial produce.
Tobacco, which has been cultivated since colonial times, especially since the Civil War, is grown exclusively in the Connecticut Valley or on its borders.
Many of these industries have a history going back far into colonial times, some even dating from the first half of the 17th century.
The policy of the British government towards such industries in the colonial period was in general repressive.
Some industries which have since become dead or of relatively slight magnitude were once of much greater significance, economically or socially: such as the rum-distilling connected with the colonial slave trade, and various interests concerned with shipbuilding and navigation.
Privateering, piracy and slave-trading - which though of less extent than in Rhode Island became early of importance, and declined but little before the American War of Independence - give colour to the history of colonial trade.
A protective tariff was imposed in early colonial times and protection was generally approved in the state until toward the close of the 19th century, when a strong demand became apparent for reciprocity with Canada and for tariff reductions on the raw materials (notably hides) of Massachusetts manufactures.
The constitution of 1780, which still endures (the only remaining state constitution of the r8th century), was framed in the main by Samuel Adams, and as an embodiment of colonial experience and revolutionary principles, and as a model of constitution-making in the early years of independence, is of very great historical interest.
Another almost equally exceptional feature is the persistence of the colonial executive council, consisting of members chosen to represent divisions of the state, who assist the governor in his executive functions.
Property qualifications for the suffrage and for office-holding - universal through colonial times - were abolished in the main in 1780.
In Massachusetts, as in New England generally, the word " town " is used, officially and colloquially, to designate a township, and during the colonial era the New England town-meeting was a notable school for education in self-government.
The struggle with the Crown, which ended in independence, began at the foundation of the colony, with assumptions of power under the charter which the colonial government was always trying to maintain, and the crown was as assiduously endeavouring to counteract.
The colonists had been for many years almost independent; they made their own laws, the Crown appointed natives as officials, and the colonial interpretation of the old charter had in general been allowed to stand.
Throughout the continuance of the government under the provincial charter, there was a constant struggle between a prerogative party, headed by the royal governor, and a popular party who cherished recollections of their practical independence under the colonial charter, and who were nursing the sentiments which finally took the form of resistance in 1775.
In history, Winthrop and Bradford laid the foundations of her story in the very beginning; but the best example of the colonial period is Thomas Hutchinson, and in later days Bancroft, Sparks, Palfrey, Prescott, Motley and Parkman.
The colonial historical classics are William Bradford, History of Plimoth Plantation (pub.
v.-vii., 1878-1882), a fascinating and microscopic picture of colonial life; T.
Davis in Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, vol.
Considerable attention has always been given to education in Mexico, but in colonial times it was limited in scope, and to the dominant classes.
There was an appeal to it from all colonial governors and courts.
In the earlier stages of Spanish colonial history meetings of delegates (procurators) of the town councils, in imitation of the national cortes of Spain, were not uncommon.
The government of Spain administered its dominions from the beginning in the strictest spirit of the "colonial system."
The yearly fairs at these places received the imports from Europe and the colonial trade of the Pacific coast, first collected at Panama and then carried over the isthmus.
The Portuguese settlement in Brazil was more purely colonial than the Spanish possessions.
The death of King Francis, and the beginning of the wars of religion, suspended colonial enterprise under royal direction.
Though the British government gave, more or less unwillingly, a large measure of self-government to the Plantations, it was no less intent than the Spanish crown on retaining the whole colonial trade in British hands, and on excluding foreigners.
Like the Spaniards it held that this trade should be confined to an exchange of colonial raw produce for home manufactures.
To the north, to the west and to the south of the English settlements on the mainland, a most characteristic French colonial policy was being carried out.
It was true that the most active French colonial element, the trappers, were barbarized by the natives, and that the pursuit of the fur trade and other causes had brought the French into sharp collision with the most formidable of the native races, the confederation known as the Five (or Six) Nations.
A revolt of the Indians in Peru in 1780, which was savagely suppressed, forced the government to take note of the abuses of its colonial administration.
Spanish pride resented the interference of an alliance in which Spain had no part; Great Britain could not afford to allow any action to be taken which might end in the re-establishment of the old Spanish colonial system and the destruction of the considerable British trade, still nominally contraband, which had grown up with the colonies during the troubles.
President Monroe, in his message to Congress on the 2nd of December 1823, laid down the rule that no part of America was any longer res nullius, or open to colonial settlement.
Great Britain and the United States were, indeed, not in complete agreement as to the legitimacy of fresh colonial settlements in the New World, but they were practically resolved that nobody should make any new settlements except themselves.
But Canada is bound only by a voluntary allegiance, Guiana is unimportant, and in the West Indian islands, where the independence of Hayti and the loss of Cuba and Porto Rico by Spain have diminished the European sphere, European dominion is only a survival of the colonial epoch.
On the other are all the states formed out of the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal.
The first source of colonial wealth was the growing of tobacco, but the curing industry ceased early in the 18th century.
Cleveland, a clergyman of the Presbyterian Church, was of good colonial stock, a descendant of Moses Cleveland, who emigrated from Ipswich, England, to Massachusetts in 1635.
His father, Joseph Chatfield Alcox, was a farmer and mechanic whose ancestors, then bearing the name of Alcocke, had settled in eastern Massachusetts in colonial days.
The colonial museum and the museum of industrial art were established in this villa by the society in 1871 and 1877 respectively.
In 1905, however, the returns published in the colonial reports were combined with those of the United Kingdom, and the subjects of house-room, sex, age, civil condition, birthplace, occupation, and, where available, instruction, religion and infirmities, were reviewed as fully as the want of uniformity in the material permitted (Command paper, 2860, 1906).
in 1788, and a colonial bronze coinage was executed at this establishment as recently as the year 1875.
There is another mint in Birmingham worked by a private company (" The Mint, Birmingham, Limited "), where coinages for foreign governments are executed and in addition silver and bronze colonial coins are occasionally manufactured under the supervision of the London Mint.
But in 1836 a Colonial Missionary Society was founded in connexion with the Union.
Under the first constitution the decentralization of administration, which began early in the colonial era, continued without interruption, and under the second it was checked by a few measures only.
At the close of the colonial era there were a court of chancery, a supreme court, circuit courts and courts of oyer and terminer which were held in the several counties by the justices of the supreme court, a court of common pleas and a court of sessions in each county, and courts held by justices of the peace in the several towns.
But from the English conquest to the close of the colonial era the chief purpose of the government with respect to education was to prepare leaders for the state church; to this end King's College was founded in 1754, and from 1704 to 1776 the other schools were principally those maintained by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
The aboriginal inhabitants of New York had an important influence on its colonial history.
had abolished in 1686, and throughout the remainder of the colonial era the history of the province relates chiefly to the rise of popular government and the defence of the northern frontier.
Largely to secure the co-operation of the Iroquois the home government itself now called to meet at Albany (q.v.) the most important assembly of colonial deputies that had yet gathered.
This body, consisting of twenty-five members and representing seven colonies, met in June 1754, and, besides negotiating successfully with the Iroquois, it adopted, with some modifications, a plan of colonial union prepared by Benjamin Franklin; the plan was not approved, however, either by the home government or by any of the colonies.
Such a scheme, if successfully carried out, would have driven a wedge into the line of colonial defence and cut off communication between New England and the southern colonies.
The closing episode of the war as far as New York was concerned was the discovery of Benedict Arnold's attempt in 1780 to betray West Point and other colonial posts on the Hudson to the British.
Governors Of New York Colonial.
O'Callaghan in his Documentary History of the State of New York (4 vols., Albany, 18 491851); and more completely in Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New York procured by J.
Schuyler, Colonial New York: Philip Schuyler and his Family (2 vols., New York, 1885) is a family history, but especially valuable in the study of Indian affairs and the intermarriages of the landed families.
NEW ZEALAND, a British colonial Dominion (so named in 1907), consisting mainly of a group of islands lying in the south Pacific between 34° 25' and 47° 17' S., and between 166° 26' and 178° 36' E.
To meet their political wants the Constitution Act of 1852 created them into provinces, with elective councils and superintendents respectively, subordinated to one colonial legislature.
The colonial revenue is chiefly derived from customs, stamp duties, land tax, income tax, beer excise, postal and telegraphic services, railways, and crown land sales and rents.
Lord Glenelg, the colonial minister, had the support of the missionaries in withstanding Wakefield's New Zealand Company, which at length resolved in desperation to send an agent to buy land wholesale in New Zealand and despatch a shipload of settlers thither without official permission.
Round Mount Egmont, at Orakau, at Tauranga and in the Wanganui jungles, they more than once held their own against British regiments and colonial riflemen.
His successors, Sir George Bowen, Sir James Ferguson, the marquess of Normanby and Sir Hercules Robinson, were content to be constitutional governors and to respect strictly the behests of the colonial office.
Yet it was at this moment that a political financier, Sir Julius Vogel, at that moment colonial treasurer in the ministry of Sir William Fox, audaciously proposed that the central government should borrow ten millions, make roads and railways, buy land from the natives and import British immigrants.
Sir George Grey, entering colonial politics as a Radical leader, had appealed eloquently to the work-people as well as to the Radical "intellectuals," and though unable to retain office for very long he had compelled his opponents to pass manhood suffrage and a triennial parliaments act.
In 1897 all shipowners engaging in the coasting trade of the colony were compelled to pay the colonial rate of wages.
An Immigrants Exclusion Act voted by the general assembly in 1896 did not receive the royal assent; but, by arrangement with the colonial office, another measure, giving power to impose a reading test on aliens landing in the colony, became law in 1899.
Between 1887 and 1889 Captain Binger (an officer of marine infantry, and subsequently director of the African department at the colonial ministry) traversed the whole region between the coast and the Niger, visited Bontuku and the Kong country, and signed protectorate treaties with the chiefs.
Annual reports on the colony are published by the French colonial and the British foreign offices.
On the attainment of self-government the colonial legislature passed an act (1908) which in respect to primary and secondary education made attendance compulsory on all white children, the fee system being maintained.
Five days later the representatives of the elected delegates had an interview in London with the colonial secretary, the duke of Newcastle, who informed them that it was now too late to discuss the question of the retention of British rule.
The colonial secretary added that it was impossible for England to supply troops to constantly advancing outposts, "especially as Cape Town and the port of Table Bay were all she really required in South Africa."
Wessels, minister of public works, &c. Mr Fischer, besides the premiership, held the portfolio of colonial secretary.
Ramsbottom, formerly colonial treasurer, became the first administrator of the Free State as a province of the union.
- Strictly speaking, the United States has no colonial policy, for the Philippine Islands and Porto Rico can scarcely be called colonies.
In numerous speeches and addresses he expressed his belief in a strong colonial government, but a government administered for the benefit of the people under its control and not for the profit of the people at home.
Colonial legislatures are said to have delegated powers.
Indian and Colonial Law.
The statistical work includes compiling abstracts, memoranda, tables and charts relating to the trade and industrial conditions of the United Kingdom, the colonies and foreign countries, the supervision of the trade accounts, the preparation of monthly and annual accounts of shipping and navigation, statistics as to labour, cotton, emigration and foreign and colonial customs, tariffs and regulations.
CHARLES THEOPHILUS METCALFE, BARON METCALFE (1785-1846), Indian and colonial administrator, was born at Calcutta on the 30th of January 1785; he was the second son of Thomas Theophilus Metcalfe, then a major in the Bengal army, who afterwards became a director of the East India Company, and was created a baronet in 1802.
SIR EDMUND ANDROS (1637-1714), English colonial governor in America, was born in London on the 6th of December 1637, son of Amice Andros, an adherent of Charles I., and the royal bailiff of the island of Guernsey.
But his vexatious interference with colonial rights and customs aroused the keenest resentment, and on the 18th of April 1689, soon after news of the arrival of William, prince of Orange, in England reached Boston, the colonists deposed and arrested him.
Meanwhile his interests were not wholly confined to law: for some time (1840-1843) he wrote for The Times and the British Critic; he made a plunge into patristic learning, from which he soon recoiled; he was much interested in the controversies which distracted the Church on the subject of Tract 90; in the treatment of the Episcopal Church in Canada by the Canadian government and the Colonial Office; in the establishment by the crown, in conjunction with the king of Prussia, of the Jerusalem bishopric; and in the contest for the professorship of poetry at Oxford on Keble's retirement.
Unofficially he remained in frequent touch with the Emir Faisal; but he did not reemerge officially until March 1921, when Mr. Winston Churchill, on succeeding Lord Milner at the Colonial Office, appointed Lawrence to be his adviser there on Middle Eastern affairs, with a view to the subsequent creation of a special department dealing with them.
In 1874 Lord Carnarvon, then colonial secretary, sent Froude to South Africa to report on the best means of promoting a confederation of its colonies and states, and in 1875 he was again sent to the Cape as a member of a proposed conference to further confederation.
The army is purely colonial, i.e.
No portion of the regular army of the Netherlands is allowed to be sent on colonial service, but individual soldiers are at liberty to enlist, by permission of their commanding officers, in the army of Netherlands India, and they form its nucleus.
Unlike the army, which is purely colonial, the navy in Netherlands India is partly colonial, partly belonging to the royal navy of the Netherlands, and its expenses are therefore borne partly by the mother country and partly by the colony.
About six ironclads and twenty smaller vessels of the royal navy are stationed in colonial waters; the vessels of the colonial marine number about twenty-four, and undertake police supervision, prevention of slave trading, &c.
The weakness of Spain and Portugal and the withdrawal of the British left the Dutch company free to develop its vast colonial and commercial interests.
In 1627 the so-called Dutch "colonial system" had been inaugurated by the fourth governor-general, Jan Pieterszoon Coen.
In 1848 the Grondwet, or fundamental law of the Netherlands, recognized for the first time the responsibility of the Dutch nation for its colonial dependencies.
In 1863 Fransen van de Putte, minister for the colonies, introduced the first of the annual colonial budgets for which the Regulations had provided, thus enabling the statesgeneral to control the revenue and expenditure of Netherlands India; in 1865 he reduced and in 1872 abolished the differentiation of customs dues in favour of goods imported from Holland, substituting a uniform import duty of 6% and establishing a number of free ports throughout the archipelago.
While the Dutch were thus consolidating their authority, other countries were acquiring new commercial or colonial interests in the archipelago.
Cartagena is an episcopal see, and its cathedral dates from colonial times.
It was an important naval station under Spanish colonial rule, and is the principal naval station of Colombia.
Some of the business of the war department in those days fell to the colonial office, and Germain was practically the director of the war for the suppression of the revolt in the American colonies.
At first a trade was carried on in wine, colonial wares, alcoholic liquors and salt; there are now manufactures of earthenware, glass and crystal, arms, paper, woollens, tools, lead, copper and zinc work, as well as breweries, and tobacco and cigar factories, and a trade in corn and butter.
Root, Colonial Tariffs (Liverpool, 1906); E.
Many colonial Roman coins of the 3rd and 4th centuries, and silver dirhems, stamped at Samarkand, Balkh, Merv, &c., were also found in 1869.
SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN (1567-1635), French explorer, colonial pioneer and first governor of French Canada, was born at Brouage, a small French port on the Bay of Biscay, in 1567.
In 1558 it received a coat of arms and the title of "Muy noble y muy Leal" from the king of Spain - a distinction of great significance in that disturbed period of colonial history.
He entered the colonial army of Spain as a cadet in 1810, and served as one of the Creole supporters of the Spanish government till 1821.
Buckingham, a bronze statue by Karl Gerhardt of Nathan Hale, a bronze tablet (also by Karl Gerhardt) in memory of John Fitch (1743-1798), the inventor; a portrait of Washington, purchased by the state in 1800 from the artist, Gilbert Stuart; and a series of oil portraits of the colonial and state governors.
Here, facing MaiStreet, stands the city hall, a beautiful example of Colonial architecture, which was designed by Charles Bulfinch, completed in 1796, and until 1879 used as a state capitol; it has subsequently been restored.
With the approach of the crisis in the relations between Great Britain and the American colonies he adopted a conservative course, and, while recognizing the justice of many of the colonial complaints, discouraged, radical action and advocated a compromise.
ALFRED DOMETT (1811-1887), British colonial statesman and poet, was born at Camberwell Grove, Surrey, on the 20th of May 1811.
In 1842 Domett emigrated to New Zealand where he filled many important administrative posts, being colonial secretary for New Munster in 1848, secretary for the colony in 1851, and prime minister in 1862.
In the city are a public library, the Beverly hospital, the New England industrial school for deaf mutes (organized, 1876; incorporated, 1879), and the Beverly historical society (1891), which owns a large colonial house, in which there is a valuable historical collection.
Since far back in the colonial era, no minister, preacher, or priest The General Assembly regularly elected the governor during the period 1776-1838.
In the colonial era Maryland had an interesting list of governmental subdivisions - the manor, the hundred, the parish, the county, and the city - but the two last are about all that remain and even these are in considerable measure subject to the special local acts of the General Assembly.
Browne, Maryland: the History of a Palatinate (Boston, 188 4 and 1895), an excellent outline of the colonial history; N.
Clausel, who returned with the same colonial ambitions as in 1830, resolved to conquer the interior of the country.
PETER STUYVESANT (1592-1672), Dutch colonial governor, was born in Scherpenzeel, in southern Friesland, in 1592, the son of a minister.
farther) by way of the lagoon and inland channels, and is to be extended to San Carlos, farther S., as the fruit-growing industry of this region is developed Santa Marta was founded by Rodrigo de Bastidas in 1525, and became an important port and centre of trade during the Spanish colonial era.
The great power exercised by the Roman Catholic church during the colonial period enabled it not only to mould the spiritual belief of the whole people, but also to control their education, tax their industries, and shape the political policies governing their daily life.
At the beginning of the 19th century the colonial government undertook a comprehensive exploration of the best known groups of ruins and three expeditions were made in1805-1808under the direction of Captain Guillaume Dupaix, accompanied by Luciano Castaneda as artist.
The conquest of Mexico by the Spanish forces under Hernando Cortes (q.v.) in 1520, and the death of the last Aztec emperor, Guatemozin, introduced what is known as the colonial period of Mexican history, which lasted down to the enforced resignation of the last viceroy, O'Donoju, in 1821.
For the colonial period, Alexander v.
Although not much enforced, this, with some slight changes, continued to be the school law until the close of the colonial era.
Upon the failure of this attempt, a temporary nominal union with Massachusetts was formed, but in 1692 Samuel Allen, the assign of Mason, caused a royal government to be established with his son-in-law, John Usher, as lieutenant-governor, and during the remainder of the colonial era New Hampshire was separate from Massachusetts except that from 1699 to 1741 the two had the same governor.
British prestige after the disastrous Boer War of 1881 was at a very low ebb, and he realized that he could not count on any a ctive help from the imperial or colonial authorities.
Protectorate, issued by the Colonial Office, London.
He dedicated to his former chief a book (Jules Ferry, 1903), which is a valuable testimony to the efforts made by France to organize public education and found a colonial empire; but this fidelity also won him some enemies, who succeeded for some time in preventing him from becoming a member of the Institute.
From a military standpoint as well as politically it was a conspicuous and instructive conflict, - conspicuous, or even unique, as being the most famous struggle in history where colonial dependencies defeated their powerful parent state, and instructive as presenting exceptional conditions and consequent errors in the attempt to break down the revolt.
This encounter roused the New England colonies, and in a few days some 16,000 of their townsmen marched in small bands upon Boston to protest against and resist further similar incursions; and in this irregular body we have the nucleus of the colonial forces which carried the war through.
Freedom is offered to students who wish to be transferred from Oxford, Cambridge, or certain colonial universities to Trinity College, by the recognition of terms kept in the former institutions as part of the necessary course at Trinity College.
By his sermons and his writings he exerted a great influence in colonial Massachusetts, and according to Mather was "a most incomparable scholar."
At the instance of the lieutenant-governor he went to England in 1824, to discuss various colonial questions with the earl of Bathurst, then colonial secretary.
The storm of protest of the other religious denominations caused the colonial office to undertake an investigation of the whole question, the result of which was presented in the report of 1828.
Adverse criticism and a suggestion from the colonial office that he should cease from active participation in political affairs led to his resignation from the executive council, but he declined to give up his seat in the legislative council.
During the colonial period, the cocoa of western Guatemala and Soconusco was reserved on account of its fine flavour for the Spanish court.
The colonial period was marked by the destruction of the ancient Indian civilization, the extermination of many entire tribes, and the enslavement of the survivors, who were exploited to the utmost for the benefit of Spanish officials and adventurers.
10.4 D.-The Colonial Revolt, 1763-1776.
The three leading colonial cities, Philadelphia, w York and Boston, grew six-fold in the I 8th century, and fiftyfo in the next.
On the other hand, elaborate colonial censuses for New York in 1703 and 1812 show Whites under 16 Years per boo Sections of the of Total Population.
ratios of 1900 and 2000, and reinforce the suggestions of various other facts that the social, as well as the economic, conditions in colonial times were practically constant.
In the colonial period there were beginnings in some lines of manufacturing, but the policy of the British government was generally hostile and the increase was insignificant.
Commerce, Foreign and Domestic.The English colonies that became the United States carried on during the colonial period a commerce with the mother country, and also, both so far as the legislative trammels of the British colonial system permitted it and illicitly, a fairly active commerce with the West Indies.
This latter became of increasing moment in the successive periods of European colonial wars of the 18th century.
The whaling and cod and mackerel fisheries were of earlier colonial origin.
In each there was a governor, with minor executive officers, a legislature, and a judiciary; and although the Crown retained the power of altering the charter, and the British parliament could (in strict legal view) legislate over the head of the colonial legislature so as to abrogate statutes passed by the latter, still in practice each colony was allowed to manage its own affairs and to enact the laws it desired.
In two colonies, Rhode Island and Connecticut, the colonial charter was substantially maintained as the constitution of the state for many years, in the former case till 1842, in the latter till 1818.
In colonial days the superior judges were appointed by the governors, except in Rhode Island and Connecticut, where the legislatures elected them.
The historical origin of American municipal government is to be found in certain boroughs which had been chartered in the colonial period, after the fashion of English boroughs.
On March I 1921 the administration of Aden was transferred from the India Office to the Colonial Office, which also exercises political influence, in varying degrees, over the confederations of tribes inhabiting the interior as far as the Yemen frontier and over certain tribes of the Hadhramaut.
The town dates from colonial times, and has always been considered a place of military importance because of its nearness to the Uruguay frontier, only 25 m.
who was chancellor of the exchequer from 1823 to 1827; as Lord Goderich he became prime minister (and a peculiarly weak one) from August 1827 to January 1828, colonial secretary in 1831 and 1832, lord privy seal (1833-34), president of the Board of Trade (1841-43), and president of the India board (1843-46).
In 1886 he became first lord of the admiralty in the third Gladstone ministry; and on the return of the Liberals to power in 1892 he was appointed colonial secretary, which post he continued to hold until the resignation of the government in 1895.
This meant that the American type of colonial life would be reproduced in Canada; but it meant also bitter hostility on the part of these colonists to the United States, which refused in any way to compensate the loyalists for their confiscated property.
The French were suspicious of the Union, aimed avowedly at checking their influence, and the complete self-government for which the " Reformers " in English-speaking Canada had clamoured was not yet conceded by the colonial office.
Howe enlisted the support of John Bright and other members of parliament, but the imperial government was firm, and the duke of Buckingham, as colonial secretary, soon informed the governor-general in a despatch that consent could not be given for the withdrawal of Nova Scotia from the Dominion.
South Australia, as colonial members of the judicial committee still further established the position of that body as the final court of appeal for the British people.
English Canadian Literature Is Marked By The Weaknesses As Well As The Merits Of Colonial Life.
His jealousy for the political autonomy of Canada was noticeable in his attitude at the Colonial conference held at the time of King Edward's coronation, and marked all his diplomatic dealings with the mother country.
him from Stagira a Greek and Ionic but colonial origin, a medical descent and tendency, and a matter-of-fact worldly kind of character, nevertheless on coming to Athens as pupil of Plato he must have begun with his master's philosophy.
He was the leader of the free traders, and after 1878 refused to follow Bismarck in his new policy of protection, state socialism and colonial development; in a celebrated speech he declared that the day on which it was introduced was a dies nefastus for Germany.
He was educated at Cheltenham, and in 1892 entered the Colonial Office.
The fort, built in 1736, was first named Fort Augusta, and in 1780, at the time of the British occupation, was enlarged and renamed Fort Cornwallis; its site is now marked by a Memorial Cross, erected by the Colonial Dames of Georgia in the churchyard of St Paul's.
During the colonial period several treaties with Indians were made at Augusta; by the most important, that of 1763, the Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, Cherokees and Catawbas agreed (in a meeting with the governors of North and South Carolina, Virginia and Georgia) to the terms of the treaty of Paris.
The great development of its herring fishery in the latter part of the 18th century gave a new impulse to the city's trade, which was kept up by the influence of the "Continental System," under which Gothenburg became a depot for the colonial merchandise of England.
Stevens's History of Georgia to 1798 (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1847-1859) and C. C. Jones, jun., History of Georgia (2 vols., Boston, 1883) for the Colonial and Revolutionary periods; C. H.
corner, and is the seat of Dartmouth College, which has a strikingly beautiful campus, and among its buildings several excellent examples of the colonial style, notably Dartmouth Hall.
The water supply is derived from three sources: the small streams flowing down the mountain sides which serve small localities; the old Carioca aqueduct, dating from colonial times, which collects a considerable supply from the small streams of the Serra da Carioca and brings it into the city through a covered conduit which once crossed the gap between Santa Thereza and Santo Antonio hills on two ranges of stone arches (now used as a viaduct by the Santa Thereza Tramway Company); and the modern Rio do Ouro waterworks, which brings in an abundant supply from the Serra do Tinqua, N.W.
There remain many public edifices and dwellings of the colonial period, severely plain in appearance, with heavy stone walls and tile roofs.
The Senate occupies a plain unattractive building on the west side of the Praga da Republica, and the Chamber of Deputies an ugly colonial building in Rua da Misericordia, originally used as a city hall and jail.
The history of its settlement and colonial development will be found in Robert Southey, History of Brazil (3 vols., London, 1810-19).
After the grant of self-government to the Transvaal in 1907, General Botha was called upon by Lord Selborne to form a government, and in the spring of the same year he took part in the conference of colonial premiers held in London.
Ceara was subsequently detached, but the "state" of Maranhao remained independent until 1774, when it again became subject to the colonial administration of Brazil.
In 1825 a public company was formed and incorporated under the name of the British, Irish and Colonial Silk Company, with a capital of 1,000,000, principally with the view of introducing sericulture into Ireland, but it was a complete failure, and the rearing of the silkworm cannot be said ever to have become a branch of British industry.
While putting an end to the injustice of exclusion, it would obviously reduce the danger of nations seeking colonial aggrandizement with a view to imposing exclusion, and thus one of the chief temptations to colonial adventure would be eliminated.
COLONIAL OFFICE, the department of the administration of the United Kingdom which deals with questions affecting the various colonial possessions of the British crown.
The secretary of state for the colonies is the official medium of communication with colonial governments; he has certain administrative duties respecting crown colonies, and has a right of advising the veto of an act of a colonial legislature - this veto, however, is never exercised in the case of purely local statutes.
reorganized in 1907 the colonial office consists of three chief departments: (I) the Dominions Department, dealing with the affairs of the self-governing over-sea dominions of the British crown, and of certain other possessions geographically connected with those dominions; (2) the Colonial Department, dealing with the affairs of crown colonies and protectorates; (3) the General Department, dealing with legal, financial and other general business.
In the various colonial Methodist unions the Bible Christians have contributed a total of 159 ministers, 14,925 members and 660 chapels.
He had already taken orders, and in 1835 began his eighteen years' tenure of the vicarage of Wymeswold in Leicestershire, from which seclusion the twicerepeated offer of a colonial bishopric failed to draw him.
Apart from his sophistical defence of Spanish colonial policy, Acosta deserves high praise as an acute and diligent observer whose numerous new and valuable data are set forth in a vivid style.
Chamberlain remained colonial secretary, his son Austen being postmaster-general with a seat in the cabinet.
Mr Ritchie's remission of the shilling import-duty on corn led to Mr Chamberlain's crusade in favour of tariff reform and colonial preference, and as the session proceeded the rift grew in the Unionist ranks.