Cologne sentence examples

cologne
  • The smell of his cologne was soothing.

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  • He smelled faintly of cologne and leather and his lips were smooth and...

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  • The Lohengrin legend is localized on the Lower Rhine, and its incidents take place at Antwerp, Nijmwegen, Cologne and Mainz.

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  • The aroma of cologne surrounded him and his breath smelled like he had recently brushed his teeth.

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  • In his arms, with his warm breath on her cheek and the smell of his cologne surrounding them, it was actually an exciting experience.

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  • He smelled of cologne and something she always defined as masculinity.

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  • Speaking of that, whatever cologne you wear is wonderful.

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  • was published at Cologne in 1650; a more complete edition in 8 vols.

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  • That was the way it started, but the warmth of his body, the smell of his cologne and the feel of his muscular back begged her to linger.

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  • Another valet, with his finger over the mouth of a bottle, was sprinkling Eau de Cologne on the Emperor's pampered body with an expression which seemed to say that he alone knew where and how much Eau de Cologne should be sprinkled.

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  • He smelled of leather and cologne and his breath was warm on her cheek.

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  • Had anyone else been that close, she would have felt her space was being invaded, but in this case the smell of his cologne and his close proximity increased her pulse.

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  • The faint smell of his cologne was disturbing and she stepped back.

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  • He smelled of expensive cologne and felt warm against her chest.

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  • In such cases, however, the correct native form should be added within brackets, as Florence (Firenze), Leghorn (Livorno), Cologne (Coln) and so on.

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  • Mannheim is the chief commercial town on the upper Rhine, and yields in importance to Cologne alone among the lower Rhenish towns.

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  • After attending the Cologne gymnasium, he entered the university of Berlin in 1844, and took his doctor's degree there three years later.

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  • Pulling Alex's pillow from the bed, Carmen caught the faint whiff of his cologne.

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  • Jackson never wore cologne.

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  • Picking up his pillow and hugging it, she closed her eyes and breathed deeply, enjoying the scent of his cologne.

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  • The faint smell of disinfectant soap was washed away by expensive cologne.

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  • She ghosted up beside him, standing close enough to catch a whiff of his cologne.

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  • He smelled faintly of cologne.

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  • The theory was that all the imperial business in Germany was supervised by the elector of Mainz, and for Italy by the elector of Cologne.

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  • A bishopric was again founded in 1821, with nearly the same boundaries as the old archbishopric, but it was placed under Cologne.

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  • Cologne).

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  • Through these two men a military revolution was speedily accomplished, and early in 69 Vitellius was proclaimed emperor at Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne), or, more accurately, emperor of the armies of Upper Germany and Lower Germany.

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  • When the Fourth Crusade was proclaimed at Soissons, it was to Venice that the leaders applied for transport, and she agreed to furnish transport for 4500 horses, 9000 knights, 20,000 foot, and provisions for one year: the price was 85,000 silver marks of Cologne and half of all conquests.

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  • After visiting Luther at Wittenberg, he settled with his amanuensis William Roy in Cologne, where he had made some progress in printing a 4to edition of his New Testament, when the work was discovered by John Cochlaeus, dean at Frankfurt, who not only got the senate of Cologne to interdict further printing, but warned Henry VIII.

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  • The county of Recklinghausen belonged to the archbishopric of Cologne until 1803, when it passed to the duke of Arenberg.

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  • of Cologne by rail.

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  • And so opposition arose to the Modern Devotion, and the controversy was carried to the legal faculty at Cologne University, which gave a judgment strongly in their favour.

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  • In Germany a child from Cologne, named Nicolas, gathered some 20,000 young crusaders by the like promises, and led them into Italy.

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  • In a great meeting at Cologne in March 1887 he defended and justified his action, and claimed for the Centre full independence of action in all purely political questions.

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  • Knopp, Ludwig Windthorst: ein Lebensbild (Dresden, 1898); and Hiisgen, Ludwig Windthorst (Cologne, 1907).

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  • from Wiesbaden, on the railway from Frankfort-on-Main to Cologne.

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  • at Cologne, where he gathered round him a numerous band of followers.

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  • In 1327 the opponents of the Beghards laid hold of certain propositions contained in Eckhart's works, and he was summoned before the Inquisition at Cologne.

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  • EMMERICH (the ancient Embrica), a town of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine province, on the right bank of the Rhine and the railway from Cologne to Amsterdam, 5 m.

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  • Bach (Cologne, 1903).

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  • The Continental folio editions (Basel, 1563; Cologne, 1612 and 1688) contain many works which cannot by any possibility be Bede's.

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  • Two of Lassalle's comrades succeeded in carrying off the casket, which contained the lady's jewels, from the baroness's room at an hotel in Cologne.

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  • high and ranks, after those of Ulm and Cologne, as the third highest ecclesiastical edifice in the world.

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  • The Hamburg stations, connected with the other by the Verbindungs-Bahn (or metropolitan railway) crossing the Lombards-Brucke, are those of the Venloer (or Hanoverian, as it is often called) Bahnhof on the south-east, in close proximity to the harbour, into which converge the lines from Cologne and Bremen, Hanover and Frankfort-on-Main, and from Berlin, via Nelzen; the Klostertor-Bahnhof (on the metropolitan line) which temporarily superseded the old Berlin station, and the Lubeck station a little to the north-east, during the erection of the new central station, which occupies a site between the Klostertor-Bahnhof and the Lombards-Brucke.

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  • Towards 431 he crossed the great Roman road from Bavay to Cologne, which was protected by numerous forts and had long arrested the invasions of the barbarians.

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  • It was not until the Christian writer Salvian (who was born about 400) had already reached a fairly advanced age that they were able to seize Cologne.

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  • The Ripuarians subsequently occupied all the country from Cologne to Trier.

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  • The massive and richly decorated square tower in the centre of the west façade, which for centuries terminated in a temporary spire, was completed in 1890, according to the original plans, by the addition of an octagonal storey and a tall open spire (528 ft.), the loftiest ecclesiastical erection in the world, outstripping the twin spires of Cologne cathedral by 21 ft.

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  • of the Eifel range, at the junction of railways from Cologne and Bonn and 10 m.

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  • entrusted to his son Dagobert, subject to the guardianship of Pippin and Arnulf (623-629), and which Dagobert in his turn handed on to his son Sigebert (634-639), under the guardianship of Cunibert, bishop of Cologne, and Ansegisel, mayor of the palace.

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  • 2 Both this and the later editions of Frankfort (1581), Cologne (1690) and Pressburg (1744) are represented in the British Museum.

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  • Born at Ansbach on the 16th of May 1490, he was intended for the church, and passed some time at the court of Hermann, elector of Cologne, who appointed him to a canonry in his cathedral.

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  • Beyond Bonn and Cologne the banks are again flat and the valley wide, though the hills on the right bank do not completely disappear till the neighbourhood of Dusseldorf.

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  • In the narrow part of the valley, between Bingen and Cologne, the Rhine receives the waters of the Lahn and the Sieg on the right, and those of the Mosel, bringing with it the Saar, and the Ahr on the left.

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  • The traffic at the chief German ports of the river aggregated 4,489,000 tons in 1870, but by 1900 this had grown to a total of 17,000,000 tons, thus distributed: Ruhrort, 6,512,000 tons; Duisburg, 3,000,000 tons; Cologne, 1,422,000 tons; and Mannheim, 6,021,000 tons.

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  • thence to Cologne; 8 ft.

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  • from Cologne to St Goar, and 6 ft.

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  • Chambalu, Die Stromveranderungen des Niederrheins seit der vorrOmischen Zeit (Cologne, 1892), and handbooks of Baedeker, Meyer and Woerl.

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  • Glass-making in Germany during the Roman period seems to have been carried on extensively in the neighbourhood of Cologne.

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  • The Cologne museum contains many specimens of Roman glass, some of which are remarkable for their cut decoration.

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  • The Lex Ripuaria was the law of the Ripuarian Franks, who dwelt between the Meuse and the Rhine, and whose centre was Cologne.

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  • So late as 1260 the provincial synod of Cologne decreed that the vestis camisialis must be long enough entirely to cover the everyday dress.

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  • Two main lines of railway traverse the valley; that on the south is the main line from Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne and Dusseldorf to central Germany and Berlin, that on the north feeds the important towns of the Ruhr valley.

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  • In the 12th century the site of Elberfeld was occupied by the castle of the lords of Elverfeld, feudatories of the archbishops of Cologne.

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  • The most important was his De Origine ac Progressu schismatis Anglicani, which was continued after 1558 by Edward Rishton, and printed at Cologne in 1585; it has been often re-edited and translated, the best English edition being that by David Lewis (London, 1877).

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  • Cologne and the Westphalian towns, the most important of which were Dortmund, Soest and Munster, had long controlled this commerce but now began to feel the competition of the active traders of the Baltic, opening up that direct communication by sea from the Baltic to western Europe which became the essential feature in the history of the League.

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  • There also came into existence at Wisby the first association of German traders abroad, which united the merchants of over thirty towns, from Cologne and Utrecht in the West to Reval in the East.

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  • As a consequence of the close commercial relations early existing between England and the Rhenish-Westphalian towns, the merchants of Cologne were the first to possess a gildhall in London and to form a "hansa" with the right of admitting other German merchants on payment of a fee.

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  • created Lubeck a free imperial city, expressly declared that Lubeck citizens trading in England should be free from the dues imposed by the merchants of Cologne and should enjoy equal rights and privileges.

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  • the right to establish their own hansas in London, like that of Cologne.

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  • The situation thus created led by 1282 to the coalescence of the rival associations in the "Gild-hall of the Germans," but though the Baltic traders had secured a recognized foothold in the enlarged and unified organization, Cologne retained the controlling interest in the London settlement until 1476.

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  • The defeat of the Germans at Helsingborg only called into being the stronger town and territorial alliance of 1367, known as the Cologne Confederation, and its final victory, with the peace of Stralsund in 1370, which gave for a limited period the four chief castles on the Sound into the hands of the Hanseatic towns, greatly enhanced the prestige of the League.

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  • It became, indeed, increasingly difficult to obtain the support of the inland towns for a policy of seapower in the Baltic. Cologne sent no representatives to the regular Hanseatic assemblies until 1383, and during the 15th century its independence was frequently manifested.

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  • A conspicuous instance was the exclusion of Cologne from 1471 until its obedience in 1476, but the penalty had been earlier imposed, as in the case of Brunswick, on towns which overthrew their patrician governments.

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  • of Cologne by the railway to Frankfort-on-Main, at the foot of the Siebengebirge.

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  • The romantic Drachenfels (Ioio ft.), crowned by the ruins of a castle built early in the 12th century by the archbishop of Cologne, rises behind the town.

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  • The mountain is quarried, and from 1267 onward supplied stone (trachyte) for the building of Cologne cathedral.

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  • The family of his mother migrated to England from Cologne in the reign of Henry II.; his father, Thedmar by name, was a citizen of Bremen who had been attracted to London by the privileges which the Plantagenets conferred upon the Teutonic Hanse.

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  • Munich lies at the centre of an important network of railways connecting it directly with Strassburg (for Paris), Cologne, Leipzig, Berlin, Rosenheim (for Vienna) and Innsbruck (for Italy via the Brenner pass), which converge in a central station.

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  • Mayence) a city, episcopal see and fortress of Germany, situated on the left bank of the Rhine, almost opposite the influx of the Main, at the junction of the important main lines of railway from Cologne to Mannheim and Frankfort-onMain, 25 m.

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  • Otto's brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, was successful in restoring the royal authority in Lorraine, so that when Conrad and Frederick soon afterwards submitted to Otto, the struggle was confined to Bavaria.

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  • As Ludolf had died in 957 and Otto, his only son by Adelaide, had been chosen king at Worms, the government was entrusted to Bruno of Cologne, and Archbishop William of Mainz, a natural son of the king.

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  • Here cross and unite the lines from Berlin to Basel, from Cologne to Wiirzburg and Vienna, from Hamburg and Cassel, and from Dresden and Leipzig to France and Switzerland.

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  • This refrigerant and anhidrotic action is employed to soothe many forms of headache by bathing the forehead with eau de Cologne.

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  • He was educated by a certain Tigernach, and having become a monk he crossed over to the continent of Europe in 1056, and his subsequent life was passed in the abbeys of St Martin at Cologne and of Fulda, and at Mainz.

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  • theologici et historici (published by Mariana at Cologne, in 1609, containing in particular a tract, "De morte et immortalitate," and another, "De mutatione monetae") was put upon the index expurgatorius, and led to the confinement of its author by the Inquisition.

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  • He was sent to Namur, thence to Cologne and various other towns, being finally sent to Berlin (Oct.

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  • In the electorate of Cologne they were in friendly country, and the main army soon moved down the Rhine from Dusseldorf, the corps of Turenne on the left bank, that of Conde on the right.

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  • At the same time a corps under Marshal Luxemburg, composed of Louis' German allies (Cologne and Munster) moved from Westphalia towards Over-Yssel and Groningen.

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  • A war of manoeuvre on the middle Rhine ended in favour of the French, and the allies then turned against the territories of Cologne and Munster, while William, disappointed in his hopes of joining forces with his friends, made a bold, but in the end unsuccessful, raid on Charleroi (September-December 1672).

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  • The troops of Cologne and Munster formed part of his army, other friends of Louis were preparing to take the field, and after a severe winter campaign, the elector, defeated in combat and manoeuvre, was forced back to the Weser, and being but weakly supported by the Imperialists, found himself compelled to make a separate peace (June 6th, 1673).

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  • This fortress fell on the 12th of November, and the troops of the coalition gained possession of an unbroken line from Amsterdam to the Breisgau, while Louis' German allies (Cologne and Munster), now isolated, had to make peace at once.

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  • William wintered in Holland, Montecucculi in Cologne and Julich, and the Spaniards, who had served with William, in their own provinces of the Meuse.

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  • Bournonville, the imperial commander who now replaced Montecucculi, lay in the Cologne and Trier electorates.

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  • He immediately proceeded to Lower Germany, to assure himself of the fidelity of the troops in that province, and while at Cologne he received news of Nerva's death (Jan.

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  • In the Pilgerfahrt des Ritters Arnold von Harff (1496-1499: Cologne, 1860, p. 175), we find it stated that the Abyssinians had their chapel, &c., to the left of the Holy Sepulchre, between two pillars of the Temple, whilst the Armenian chapel was over theirs, reached by a stone staircase alongside of the Indians (or Abyssinians).

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  • Sometimes it is almost pasty, and crumbles to powder when dried, so as to be susceptible of use as a pigment, forming the colour known as Cologne earth, which resembles umber or sepia.

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  • Both in Germany and in Austria-Hungary the production of lignite is large - in the first-named especially in the districts about Halle and Cologne; in the second in northwestern Bohemia, Styria and Carniola.

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  • of Bremen, and at the crossing of the main lines of railway, Berlin to Cologne and Hamburg to Frankfort-on-Main.

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  • It is connected by railway with Berlin, Hamburg, Bremen, Hameln, Cologne, Altenbeken and Cassel, and the facilities of intercourse have, under the fostering care of the Prussian government, enormously developed its trade and manufactures.

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  • Wildungen, in the extreme south of Waldeck, is the terminus of a branch line from Wabern, and a light railway runs from Warburg to Marburg; Pyrmont is intersected by the trunk line running from Cologne,via Paderborn, to Brunswick and Berlin.

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  • BERTHOLD HALLER (1492-1536), Swiss reformer, was born at Aldingen in Wurttemberg, and after studying at Pforzheim, where he met Melanchthon, and at Cologne, taught in the gymnasium at Bern.

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  • A peculiar literary feud in Germany served, about 1515, to throw into sharp contrast the humanistic party, which had been gradually developing during the previous fifty years, and the conservative, monkish, scholastic group, who found their leader among the Dominicans of the university of Cologne.

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  • Indeed, there was reason to believe at this time that the archbishops of Mainz, Trier and Cologne, as well as some other bishops, were planning the secularization of their principalities.

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  • HERMANN OF WIED (1477-1552), elector and archbishop of Cologne, was the fourth son of Frederick, count of Wied (d.

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  • One step led to another, and as all efforts at union failed the elector invited Martin Bucer to Cologne in 1542.

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  • over William, duke of Cleves, and the hostility of the citizens of Cologne.

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  • Among the authors whose works were found specially serviceable in this way may be mentioned the Venerable Bede, who is credited with no fewer than 140 homilies in the Basel and Cologne editions.

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  • In the Cologne edition of 1530 the title runs- Homiliae seu mavis sermones sive conciones ad populum, praestantissimorum ecclesiae doctorum Hieronymi, Augustini, Ambrosii, Gregorii, Origenis, Chrysostomi, Bedae, &c., in hunt ordinem digestae per Alchuinum levitam, idque injungente ei Carolo M.

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  • He studied at Emmerich and Cologne, where the teaching of Peter Lombard led him, through Augustine and Chrysostom, to firsthand study of the Bible.

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  • of Hanover by railway, and on the main line from Berlin, via Magdeburg to Cologne.

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  • It was written before 821, and having been very popular during the middle ages, was first printed at Cologne in 1521.

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  • The coining presses now used are all modifications of the lever press invented by Uhlhorn of Grevenbroich near Cologne in 1839.

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  • in Saxony, and accompanied him to Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle; to Reims he also summoned a meeting of the higher clergy, by which several important reforming decrees were passed.

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  • Some of these bishoprics were under the authority of the archiepiscopal see of Cologne, others under that of Mainz, and this arrangement was unaltered when in 834 Hamburg was raised to an archbishopric. In 847 the bishopric of Bremen was united with Hamburg, but the authority of this archbishopric extended mainly over the districts north and east of the Elbe.

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  • In 1180, however, he was placed under the imperial ban and Saxony was broken up. Henry retained Brunswick and Luneburg; Westphalia, as the western portion of the duchy was called, was given to Philip, archbishop of Cologne, and a large part of the land was divided among nine bishops and a number of counts who thus became immediate vassals of the emperor.

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  • Henry, however, refused to give up the lands which he had seized belonging to the bishopric, and this conduct provoked a war in which Ulalrich was soon joined by Philip, archbishop of Cologne.

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  • of Cologne, 1837.

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  • In the zodiac of Merton College, Oxford, Libra is represented by a judge in his robes and Pisces by the dolphin of Fitzjames, warden of the college, 1482-1507.6 The great rose-windows of the Early Gothic period were frequently painted with zodiacal emblems; and some frescoes in the cathedral of Cologne contain the signs, each with an attendant angel, just as they were depicted on the vault of the church at Mount Athos.

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  • The name Brussel seems to have been derived from Broeksele, the village on the marsh or brook, and probably it was the most used point for crossing the Senne on the main Roman and Frank road between Tournai and Cologne.

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  • His friends and admirers were distributed over all the countries of Europe, and presents were continually arriving from small as well as great, from a donation of 200 florins, made by Pope Clement VII., down to sweetmeats and comfits contributed by the nuns of Cologne 666).

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  • AUGUST REICHENSPERGER (1808-1895), German politician, was born at Coblenz on the 22nd of March 1808, studied law and entered government service, becoming counsellor to the court of appeal (Appellationsgerichtsrat) at Cologne in 1849.

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  • He died on the 16th of July 1895 at Cologne.

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  • His brother, PETER REICHENSPERGER (1810-1892), counsellor to the appeal court at Cologne (1850) and until 1879 to the Obertribunal at Berlin, was elected to the Reichstag in 1867 as a member of the Liberal Opposition, but subsequently joined the Centre party.

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  • At a Hansetag held at Cologne on the 11th of November 1367, three groups of the towns, seventy in number, concerted to attack Denmark, and in January 1368 Valdemar's numerous domestic enemies, especially the Jutlanders and the Holstein counts, acceded to the league, with the object of partitioning the realm among them.

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  • The beautiful Gardens at Cologne, founded in 1860, contain many interesting features and in particular one of the finest aviaries in Europe.

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  • of Dusseldorf, at the junction of railways to Wesel and Cologne.

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  • ALBERTUS MAGNUS (ALBERT OF COLOGNE, ?

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  • Selected to fill the position of lecturer at Cologne, where the order had a house, he taught for several years there, at Regensburg, Freiburg, Strassburg and Hildesheim.

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  • Hayn (Cologne, 1896).

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  • In 1794 he was transferred to the nunciature at Cologne, but owing to the war had to make his residence in Augsburg.

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  • and archbishop of Cologne (953-965), who had himself learned Greek from certain Eastern monks at the imperial court, and who called an Irish bishop from Trier to teach Greek at the imperial capital.

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  • He remained in private life until 1835, when he was appointed archbishop of Cologne.

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  • (Printed by P. Quentel, Cologne, 1525, from the only remaining fragment, in British Museum.) i how e x cellent foe..si r,a i thero'?.

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  • from Wiesbaden, of which it is the river port, and on the main line of railway from Cologne to Frankfort-on-Main.

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  • in 863 at the death of his brother Charles of Provence; while Louis had the cities of Cologne, Trier and Metz, together with Alsace, the Escuens, and the Varais, i.e.

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  • In 1624 Benjamin Ursinus published at Cologne a canon of logarithms exactly similar to Napier's in the Descriptio of 1614, only much enlarged.

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  • of Coblenz on the main line to Cologne.

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  • At all events there is no doubt that in 1525 he was in Cologne, engaged in printing at the press of Peter Quentel a quarto edition of the New Testament.

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  • He had advanced as far as the tenth sheet, bearing the signature K, when his work was discovered by Johann Cochlaeus, a famous controversialist and implacable enemy of the Reformation, who not only caused the Senate of Cologne to prohibit the continuation of the printing, but also communicated with Henry VIII.

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  • When Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony fell under the ban of the empire in 1 i 80, and his duchy was divided, the bishops of Munster and Paderborn became princes of the empire, and the archbishop of Cologne, Philip of Heinsberg, received from the emperor Frederick I.

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  • By Maximilian's administrative organization of the empire in 1500 the duchy of Westphalia was included as an appanage of Cologne in the scattered circle of the Lower Rhine.

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  • Having been provided, in August 1610, by Ernest, archbishop of Cologne, with one of the new Galilean instruments, Kepler began, with unspeakable delight, to observe the wonders revealed by it.

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  • Cologne, 1882) and selections in Bibliothek der Kirchenviiter (1869, 1872); English by S.

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  • Bentivoglio's principal works are: - Della Guerra di Fiandria (best edition, Cologne, 1633-1639), translated into English by Henry, earl of Monmouth (London, 1654); Relazioni di G.

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  • Bentivoglio in tempo delle sue Nunziature di Fiandria e di Francia (Cologne, 1630); Lettere diplomatiche di Guido Bentivoglio (Brussels, 1631, frequently reprinted, best edition by L.

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  • Frojus (Louvain, 1568), and the Cologne reprints (1572, 1587).

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  • Hanover is intersected by important trunk lines of railway; notably the lines from Berlin to Cologne, from Hamburg to Frankfort-onMain, from Hamburg to Bremen and Cologne, and from Berlin to Amsterdam.

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  • He received a good education under the care of his uncle, Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, and his illegitimate half-brother, William, archbishop of Mainz.

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  • This visit was followed by a return visit to Paris and a similar exchange of visits between the London City Corporation and the Paris Municipal Council, exchange visits Of the city corporations of Manchester, Glasgow and Edinburgh and Lyons, and a visit of the Manchester Corporation to Dusseldorf, Barmen and Cologne.

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  • These variations are largely borrowed from and closely follow the language of various Lutheran litanies, especially that given in the consultation of Archbishop Hermann of Cologne issued in 1543.

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  • In 1120 it became a free town, with privileges similar to those of Cologne; but in 1219 it fell into the hands of a branch of the family of Urach.

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  • He pursued his studies still further in Cologne, and perhaps in Prague.

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  • Thomae archiepiscopi Cantuariensis, Thomae Mori (Douay, 1588; Cologne, 1612) and the Vila Thomae Mori (separately), (Gratz, 1689) translates Roper, interweaving what material he could find scattered through More's works and letters and the notices of him in the writings of his contemporaries.

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  • Lang, Maine de Biran and die neuere Philosophie (Cologne, 1901); monographs by A.

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    0
  • 16), and by Clematius, a citizen of Cologne, to whom the virgin martyrs of this city revealed themselves (Kraus, Inschriften der Rheinlande, No.

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  • The most famous relics discovered during the middle ages, were those of the apostle James at St Jago de Compostella in Spain (see Pilgrimage), the bodies of the three kings, which were brought from Milan to Cologne in 1164 by the emperor Frederick I.

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  • It was certainly built at a very early date, as it was restored by Frederick, archbishop of Cologne, in 1120, and it was a fortress until the end of the 15th century.

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  • from Cologne, on the main line of railway to Mainz, and at the junction of the lines to the Eifel and (by ferry) to the right bank of the Rhine.

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  • of Prussia; but as early as 1786 the academy which had been founded about nine years before was raised by Archbishop Maximilian Frederick of Cologne to the rank of a university, and continued to exercise its functions till 1794, when it was dissolved by the last elector.

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  • "Der alte Zoll," commanding a magnificent view of the Siebengebirge, is the only remaining bulwark of the old fortifications, the Sterntor having been removed in order to open up better communication with the rapidly increasing western suburbs and the terminus of the light railway to Cologne.

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  • It was again fortified by Konrad von Hochstaden, archbishop of Cologne (1238-1261), whose successor, Engelbert von Falkenburg (d.

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  • 1274), driven out of his cathedral city by the townspeople, established himself here (1265); from which time until 1 794 it remained the residence of the electors of Cologne.

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  • Little more is known of his life than that he resided successively in Vienna, Salzburg, Frankfurt and Cologne before settling in Holland, where he made his living chiefly by the sale of secret chemical and medicinal preparations.

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  • The controversy with Prussia about the education of children of whose parents but one was Roman Catholic led to the imprisonment of Droste-Vischering, archbishop of Cologne, and later of Dunin, archbishop of Gnesen-Posen; but the accession of the royal romanticist Frederick William IV.

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  • letzter Streit mit der Kurie (Berlin, 1866); Julius Ficker, Reinald von Dassel (Cologne, 1850); Th.

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  • De Luca, Relatio curiae romanae (Cologne, 1683); Bouix, De curia romana (Paris, 1859); Ferraris, Prompta bibliotheca (addit.

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  • Severin, Cologne.

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  • German (Cologne); second half of 15th century.

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  • Partial editions of his Latin works are dated Paris (1510), Antwerp (1533), Cologne (1535-36), Paris (1618); and in vol.

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  • died in Septe i ber 1197, some of the princes under the leadership of Ado ph, archbishop of Cologne, were anxious to find a rival to P ilip, duke of Swabia, who had been elected German king.

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  • ing at Cologne on the 9th of June 1198.

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  • But after a period of reverses, Otto was wounded during a fight in July 1206 and compelled to take refuge in Cologne.

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  • He escaped with difficulty from the fight and took refuge in Cologne.

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  • His former supporters hastened to recognize Frederick; and in 1216 he left Cologne for Brunswick, which he had received in 1202 by arrangement with his elder brother Henry.

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  • Leaving the hills above Opladen, it debouches on to the plain and enters the Rhine at Rheindorf between Cologne and Dusseldorf, after a course of 63 m.

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  • The father of Hebrew study among Christians was the humanist Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522), the author of the Rudimenta Hebraica (Pforzheim, 1506), whose contest with the converted Jew Pfefferkorn and the Cologne obscurantists, established the claim of the new study to recognition by the Church.

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  • His principal works were published in a collected form at Cologne, 1696, I vol.

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  • He then applied his financial knowledge to banking business in Cologne, Berlin, Gotha and Leipzig.

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  • HERFORD, a town in the Prussian province of Westphalia, situated at the confluence of the Werre and Aa, on the Minden & Cologne railway, 9 m.

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  • Educated privately, he entered the artillery in Cologne, but defective eyesight compelled him to leave the army.

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    0
  • In the middle ages Unna formed part of the electorate of Cologne.

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    0
  • Rupert died in 1504, and the following year an arrangement was made at the diet of Cologne by which the emperor and Philip's grandson, Otto Henry, obtained certain outlying districts, while Albert by securing the bulk of George's possessions united Bavaria under his rule.

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  • He secured the archbishopric of Cologne for his brother Ernest in 1583, and this dignity remained in the possession of the family for nearly 200 years.

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  • from Hanover on the main line to Cologne.

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  • from Hamburg by rail, on the main line to Cologne.

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  • But though in Bremen the efforts of the craftsmen's "arts" to secure a share of power had been held in check and the gilds never gained any importance, the city government did not, as at Cologne and elsewhere, develop into a close patrician oligarchy.

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  • They were again condemned by a synod held at Cologne in 1306; and at the synod of Trier in 1310 a decree was passed against those "who under a pretext of feigned religion call themselves Beghards.

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    0
  • Iron ore is found in abundance near Coblenz, the Bleiberg in the Eifel possesses an apparently inexhaustible supply of lead, and zinc is found near Cologne and Aix-la-Chapelle.

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  • The largest iron and steel works are at Essen, Oberhausen, Duisburg, Dusseldorf and Cologne, while cutlery and other small metallic wares are extensively made at Solingen, Remscheid and Aix-la-Chapelle.

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  • Linen is largely made at Gladbach, leather at Malmedy, glass in the Saar district and beetroot sugar near Cologne.

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  • For purposes of administration the province is divided into the five districts of Coblenz, Dusseldorf, Cologne, Aix-la-Chapelle and Trier.

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  • Coblenz is the official capital, though Cologne is the largest and most important town.

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    0
  • Being a frontier province the Rhineland is strongly garrisoned, and the Rhine is guarded by the three strong fortresses of Cologne with Deutz, Coblenz with Ehrenbreitstein, and Wesel.

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  • The present Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1815 out of the duchies of Cleves, Berg, Gelderland and Jiilich, the ecclesiastical principalities of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne, and nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.

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  • from Cologne by rail, pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Rhine at its confluence with the Mosel, from which circumstance it derived its ancient name Confluentes, of which Coblenz is a corruption.

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  • COLOGNE (Ger.

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  • Cologne is connected by bridges with the suburb of Deutz.

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  • Cologne, with the tortuous, narrow and dark streets and lanes of the old inner town, is still regarded as one of the least attractive capital cities of Germany; but in modern times it has been greatly improved, and the evil smells which formerly characterized it have yielded to proper sanitary arrangements.

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  • The cathedral or Dom, the principal edifice and chief object of interest in Cologne, is one of the finest and purest monuments of Gothic architecture in Europe (for plan,.

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  • It stands on the site of a cathedral begun about the beginning of the 9th century by Hildebold, metropolitan of Cologne, and finished under Willibert in 873.

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  • In the choir the heart of Marie de' Medici is buried; and in the adjoining side-chapels are monuments of the founder and other archbishops of Cologne, and the shrine of the Three Kings, which is adorned with gold and precious stones.

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  • The three kings of Cologne (Kaspar, Melchior and Balthazar) were supposed to be the three wise men who came from the East to pay adoration to the infant Christ; according to the legend, the emperor Frederick I.

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    0
  • Barbarossa brought their bones from Milan in 1162, and had them buried in Cologne cathedral, and miraculous powers of healing were attributed to these relics.

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  • Besides these may be mentioned the church of St Pantaleon, a 13th-century structure, with a monument to Theophano, wife of the emperor Otto II.; St Cunibert, in the Byzantine-Moorish style, completed in 1248; St Maria im Capitol, the oldest church in Cologne, dedicated in 1049 by Pope Leo IX., noted for its crypt, organ and paintings; St Cecilia, St Ursula, containing the bones of that saint and, according to legend, of the 1 r,000 English virgins massacred near Cologne while on a pilgrimage to Rome; St Severin, the church of the Apostles, and that of St Andrew (1220 and 1414), which contains the remains of Albertus Magnus in a gilded shrine.

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  • The Wolkenburg, a fine Gothic house of the 15th century, originally a patrician residence, was restored in 1874, and is now the headquarters of the famous men's choral society of Cologne (Kolner Mannergesangverein).

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  • Like all important German towns, Cologne contains many fine monuments.

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  • Cologne is richly endowed with literary and scientific institutions.

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  • Commercially, Cologne is one of the chief centres on the Rhine, and has a very important trade in corn, wine, mineral ores, coals, drugs, dyes, manufactured wares, groceries, leather and hides, timber, porcelain and many other commodities.

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  • Industrially, also, Cologne is a place of high importance.

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  • Of the numerous manufactures, among which may be especially mentioned sugar, chocolate, tobacco and cigars, the most famous is the perfume known as eau de Cologne (Kolnisches Wasser, i.e.

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  • Of the newspapers published at Cologne the most important is the Kolnische Zeitung (often referred to as the "Cologne Gazette"), which has the largest circulation of any paper in Germany, and great weight and influence.

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  • Cologne occupies the site of Oppidum Ubiorum, the chief town of the Ubii, and here in A.D.

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  • Cologne rose to be the chief town of Germania Secunda, and had the privilege of the Jus Italicum.

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  • Both Vitellius and Trajan were at Cologne when they became emperors.

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  • About 330 the city was taken by the Franks but was not permanently occupied by them till the 5th century, becoming in 475 the residence of the Frankish king Childeric. It was the seat of a pagus or gau, and counts of Cologne are mentioned in the 9th century.

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  • The succession of bishops in Cologne is traceable, except for a gap covering the troubled 5th century, from A.D.

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  • With Cologne itself, a free imperial city, the archbishop-electors were at perpetual feud; in 1262 the archiepiscopal see was transferred to Briihl, and in 1273 to Bonn; it was not till 1671 that the quarrel was finally adjusted.

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  • In Archbishop Hildebold's day Cologne was still contained by the square of its Roman walls, within which stood the cathedral and the newly-founded church of St Maria (known later as "im Capitol"); the city was, however, surrounded by a ring of churches, among which those of St Gereon, St Ursula, St Severin and St Cunibert were conspicuous.

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  • The municipal history of Cologne is of considerable interest.

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  • Peculiar to Cologne, however, was the Richerzeche (rigirzegheide), a corporation of all the wealthy patricians, which gradually absorbed in its hands the direction of the city's government (the first record of its active interference is in 1225).

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  • The greatness of Cologne, in the middle ages as now, was due to her trade.

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  • In spite of their feuds with the archbishops, the burghers of Cologne were stanch Catholics, and the number of the magnificent medieval churches left is evidence at once of their piety and their wealth.

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  • When in 1794 Cologne was occupied by the French, it was a poor and decayed city of some 40,000 inhabitants, of whom only 6000 possessed civic rights.

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  • der Stadt Kln (5 vols., Cologne, 1863-1880) to 1648, and Frankreich and der Niederrhein (2 vols., ib., 1855, 1856), a history of the city and electorate of Cologne since the Thirty Years' War; R.

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  • Korth, Kln im Mittelalter (Cologne, 1890); F.

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    0
  • Behnke, Aus Kolns Franzosenzeit (Cologne, 1901); Helmken, Koln and seine Sehenswurdigkeiten (loth ed., Cologne, 1903).

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  • Eckertz, Quellen zur Geschichte der Stadt Koln (6 vols., Cologne, 1860-1879); later sources will be found in U.

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  • Cologne, which gives also a full list of works on everything connected with the city; also in Dahlmann-Waitz, Quellenkunde (ed.

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    0
  • For the archdiocese and electorate of Cologne see Binterim and Mooren, Die Erzdiozese Koln bis zur franzosischen Staatsumweilzung, new ed.

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  • Ostend is in direct railway communication with Brussels, Cologne and Berlin.

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  • Cologne, , 428,503

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  • Cotton spinning and weaving are not confined to one district, but 60 are prosecuted in upper Alsace (MUihausen, Gebweiler, 25, 0 Colmar), in Saxony (Zwickau, Chemnitz, Annaberg), in 35,700 Silesia (Breslau, Liegnitz), in the Rhine province (Dssel 44,700 dorf, Mflnster, Cologne), in Erfurt and Hanover, in 50,900 Wrttember~ (Reutlingen, Cannstatt), in Baden, Bavaria 52, 00 - (Augsburg, Bamberg, Bayreuth) and in the Palatinate.

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  • Berlin and Mainz are celebrated for the manufacture of furniture; Bavaria for toys; the Black Forest for clocks; Nuremberg for pencils; Berlin and Frankfort-on-Main for various perfumes; and Cologne for the famous eau-de-Cologne.

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  • Saale, Hanover, Cassel, Kattowitz, Cologne, Konigsberg, Magdeburg, Munster, Posen, Saarbrucken and Stettin.

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  • On this point it must be borne in mind that the population of the larger towns, on account of the greater mobility of the population since the introduction of railways and the abolition of restrictions upon free settlement, has become more mixedBerlin, Leipzig, Hamburg, &c., showing proportionally more Roman Catholics, and Cologne, Frankfort-onMain, Munich more Protestants than formerly.

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  • 44 48 There are five archbishoprics within the 66 178 German empire: Gnesen-Posen, Cologne, 77 257 Freiburg (Baden), Munich-Freising 05 879 and Bamberg.

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  • They are increasingly numerous in Hamburg, Berlin, Frankfurt-on-Main, Breslau, Knigsberg, Posen, Cologne, Nurerhberg and Frth.

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  • near Stuttgart, Brunswick, Eisenach, Giessen and Books - 229 Karlsruhe, Other technical schools are again the five veterinary academies of Berlin, Hanover, Munich, Dresden and Stuttgart, the commercial colleges (Handclshochschulen) of Leipzig, Aix-la-Chapelle, Hanover, Frankfurt-on-Main and Cologne, in addition to 424 commercial schools of a lesser degree, ioo schools for textile manufactures and numerous schools for special metal industries, wood-working, ceramic industries, naval architecture and engineering and navigation.

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  • Some large cities, notably Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg, Dresden, Leipzig and Munich, have, however, newspapers with a daily circulation of over 100,000 copies, and in the case of some papers in Berlin a million copies is reached.

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  • In the interior only Spandau, Custrin, Magdeburg, Ingolstadt and Ulm were maintained as defensive supporting points, and similarly on the Rhine, which was formerly studded with fortresses from Basel to Emmerich, the defences were limited to New Breisach, Germersheim, Mainz, Cohlenz, Cologne and Wesel, all of a barrier character and not organized specially as centres of activity for field armies.

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  • Thus, the creation of a new series of forts extending from Thionville (Diedenhofen) to Metz and thence south-eastward was coupled with the construction of twelve strategic railway stations between Cologne and the Belgian frontier, and laterthe so-called fundamental plan of operations against France having apparently undergone modification in consequence of changes in the foreign relations of the German governmentan immense strategic railway station was undertaken at Saarburg, on the right rear of Thionville and well away from the French frontier, and many important new works both of fortification and of railway construction were begun in Upper Alsace, between Colmar and Basel.

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  • A number of important towns grew up, among which we may mention Trier (Augusta Trevirorum), Cologne (Colonia Agrippinensis),Bonn (Bonna), Worms(Borbetomagus), Spires (Noviomagus), Strassburg (Argentoratum) and Augsburg (Augusta Vindelicorum).

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  • Coming now to the Germans proper, the basin of the Rhine between Strassburg and Mainz was inhabited by the Tribocci Tribes Nemetes and Vangiones, farther down by the Mattiaci n the about Wiesbaden, and the Ubii in the neighborhood west a~d of Cologne; beyond them were the Sugambri, and nOrth, in the Rhine delta the Batavi and other smaller tribes.

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  • His jurisdiction embraced the territories occupied by the five ancient German tribes, and included the five archbishoprics of Mainz, Treves (Trier), Cologne, Salzburg and Bremen.

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  • In Lorraine, of which duchy Otto made his brother Bruno, archbishop of Cologne, Tb 111 administrator, his cause was triumphant; but every- wa~r.e where else dark clouds gathered over his head.

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  • watched by Anno, archbishop of Cologne.

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  • The young king was generous and was endowed with considerable intellectual gifts; but passing as he did from Annos gloomy palace at Cologne to Adalberts residence in Bremen, whore he was petted and flattered, he became wayward and wilful.

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  • The name was taken by the small portion of the former duchy which was given to Bernard, son of Albert the Bear, the founder of a new Saxon line, and the extensive western part was added to the archbishopric of Cologne.

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  • Less serious than the struggle with Henry the Lion was Fredericks struggle with Philip of Heinsberg, archbishop of Cologne (d.

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  • At this juncture Philip of Cologne andPhiiip united the German and the Italian oppositions.

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  • In March 1,88 Philip of Cologne submitted at Mainz.

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  • At once the rulers of Brabant, of Limburg and of Flanders, with the archbishops of Cologne and Trier, were in arms. In the east of Germany Ottakar I.

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  • But unfortunately for Germany the papal chair at this time was occupied by Innocent III., a pope who emulated Hildebrand in ambition and in statesmanship. At first vacillating, but by no means indifferent, Innocent was spurred to action when a number of princes met at Spires in May 1200, declared Philip to be the lawful king, and denied the right of the pope to interfere, lie was also annoyed by Philips attitude with regard to a vacancy in the archbishopric of Cologne, and in March 1201 he declared definitely for Otto.

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  • Deserted by Ottakar and even by Adolph of Cologne and his own brother Henry, count palatine of the Rhine, Otto was forced to take refuge in Brunswick, his last line of defence, and was only saved by Philips murder, which occurred at Bamberg in June 1208.

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  • During this period he was represented by his son Henry, in whose name the government of Germany was carried on by the regent Engelbert, archbishop of Cologne.

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  • This was the real beginning of the electoral college whose members at this time were the archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier, the duke of Saxony, the duke of Bavaria, who was also count palatine of the Rhine, the margrave of Brandenburg and the king of Bohemia.

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  • When the diet met at Cologne in 1505 Maximilian asked for an army and the request was granted, the necessary funds being raised by the old plan of a levy on the estates.

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    0
  • After Maximilian had taken the novel step of assuming the title of Roman emperor at Trent in 1508 the last of the reforming diets met at Cologne in 1512.

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  • The citizens of Regensburg accepted their doctrines, which also made considerable progress in the Palatinate and in Austria, while the archbishop of Cologne, Hermann von Wied, and William, duke of Gelderland, Cleves and Juliers, announced their secession from the Roman religion.

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  • Having restored Roman Catholicism in the archbishopric of Cologne and seen Henry of Brunswick settled in his duchy early in 1547, Charles led his men against his principal enemies, Philip of Hesse and John Frederick, who had quickly succeeded in driving ~iIaurice from his electorate.

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  • At Cologne the archbishop, Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg, married and announced his intention of retaining his spiritual office.

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  • The preliminary negotiations for peace were begun at Hamburg and Cologne before the death of the emperor Ferdinand Il.

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  • In the War of the Spanish Succession two Succes- powerful princes, the elector of Bavaria and the elector slon, of Cologne, joined Louis; but as the states of the Empire declared war against him in 1702, the other princes, more or less loyally, supported the emperor and his allies.

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  • He was then deprived of the temporalities of his office; but the Polish nobles continued to support him, and he continued to act as bishop. Heavy fines were imposed upon him, but he either could not or would not pay them, and in March 1874 he was condemned to imprisonment for two years, and dismissed from his bishopric. The bishop of Trier, the archbishop of Cologne, and other bishops soon incurred a similar fate.

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  • On the 24th of February 1880 the pope, in a letter to the ex-archbishop of Cologne, said he was willing to allow clerical appointments to be notified if the government withdrew the obnoxious laws.

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  • In 1836 an Urkundenbuchof Frankfort was published, and this example has been widely followed, the work done in Cologne, in Bremen and in Mainzbeingperhaps specially noticeable.

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  • in 1501) gave special directions to the archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, Trier and Magdeburg regarding the growing abuses of the printing press; in 1515 the Lateran council formulated the decree De Impressione Librorum, which required that no work should be printed without previous examination by the proper ecclesiastica' authority, the penalty of unlicensed printing being excommunication of the culprit, and confiscation and destruction of the books.

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  • AREMBERG, or Arenberg, formerly a German duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in the circle of the Rhine Palatinate, between Jiilich and Cologne, and now belonging to the Prussian administrative district of Coblenz.

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  • Under the later Babenbergs Vienna was regarded as one of the most important of German cities, and it was computed that the duke was as rich as the archbishop of Cologne, or the margrave of Brandenburg, and was surpassed in this respect by only one German prince, the Duchy of Austria created, 1156.

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  • above Coblenz, on the railway from Cologne to Frankfort-on-Main.

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  • Yet in this latter sense it would seem to have been assumed by Bruno of Saxony, archbishop of Cologne, and duke of Lorraine (953-965), when he divided his duchy into the dukedoms of Upper and Lower Lorraine.

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  • above Bonn, by the railway from Cologne to Coblenz, and at the junction of the Ahr valley railway to Adenau.

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  • According to legend, the ship conveying the relics of the three kings and of Bishop Apollinaris from Milan to Cologne in 1164 could not be got to move away from the spot until the bones of St Apollinaris had been interred .in St Martin's chapel.

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  • Lennep, which was the residence of the counts of Berg from 1226 to 1300, owes the foundation of its prosperity to an influx of Cologne weavers during the 14th century.

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    0
  • Ennen, Die Wahl des Konigs Adolf von Nassau (Cologne, 1866); L.

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  • below Coblenz, on the railway from Frankfort-on-Main to Cologne.

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  • from Minden, on the main railway from Cologne to Berlin.

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  • In an altarpiece at Ober St Veit and in the scattered wings of the Jabach altarpiece severally preserved at Munich, Frankfort and Cologne, the workmanship seems to be exclusively that of journeymen working from his drawings.

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  • He journeyed by the Rhine, Cologne, and thence by road to Antwerp, where he was handsomely received, .and lived in whatever society was most distinguished, including that of Erasmus of Rotterdam.

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  • Besides going to Aachen for the coronation, he made excursions down the Rhine from Cologne to Nijmwegen, and back overland by 's Hertogenbosch; to Brussels; to Bruges and Ghent; and to Zealand with the object of seeing a natural curiosity, a whale reported ashore.

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  • CARL SCHURZ (1829-1906), German American statesman and reformer, was born in Liblar, near Cologne, on the 2nd of March 1829, the son of a school-teacher.

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  • He studied in the Jesuit Gymnasium of Cologne in 1840-1846, and then entered the University of Bonn, where he became a revolutionary, partly through his friendship with Gottfried Kinkel, professor of literature and art-history.

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  • The town was walled in the 12th century, and in 1387-1388 successfully withstood the troops of the archbishop of Cologne, who besieged it for twenty-one months.

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  • He studied at Breslau and Bonn and was ordained priest at Cologne in 1834.

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  • 7); and to the same period belong the first women-pilgrims to Jerusalem of whom we have any cognisance - Hidda, mother of Gero, archbishop of Cologne (Thietm.

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  • In lower Germany, Cologne and Aix-laChapelle, in Switzerland Einsiedeln, were the principal resorts.

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    0
  • 1495), grand-inquisitor in Germany, founded the first confraternity of the rosary at Cologne in 1475.

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  • Several orders of knighthood have been under his protection; among these may be mentioned the Bavarian, the Bohemian and that of the electorate of Cologne.

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  • Stumpf, Die politischen Ideen des Nikolaus von Cues (Cologne, 1865); M.

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  • Navarre, and studied law at Louvain, Cologne and Heidelberg, returning to Paris in 1573.

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  • Becker, Geschichte der Stadt Radevormwald (Cologne, 1864).

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  • The king also worked with great zeal for the care of monuments, and the cathedrals of Spires and Cologne enjoyed his special care.

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  • The archbishop of Cologne, the elector of Brandenburg and his brother the archbishop of Mainz were for instant outlawry, while the elector of Saxony, who was resolved to protect Luther, had great influence with the archbishop of Trier and the Count Palatine of the Rhine.

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  • The shrine of the three kings at Cologne is the finest surviving example.

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  • From about 1299 Lubeck presided over a league of cities, Wismar, Rostock, Stralsund, Greifswald and some smaller ones, and this Hansa of towns became heir to a Hansa of traders simultaneously on the eastern and the western sea, after Lubeck and her confederates had been admitted to the same privileges with Cologne, Dortmund and Soest at Bruges and in the steelyards of London, Lynn and Boston.

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  • Though the great federal armament against Waldemar IV., the destroyer of Visby, was decreed by the city representatives assembled at Cologne in 1367, Lubeck was the leading spirit in the war which ended with the surrender of Copenhagen and the peace concluded at Stralsund on the 24th of May 1370.

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  • of Coblenz by the main line to Cologne.

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  • Among other buildings are a Gothic Minorite church (now Protestant), a town hall, and a prison, formerly the castle of the archbishops of Cologne.

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  • In 1109 Andernach received civic rights, passed in 1167 to the electors of Cologne, in 1253 joined the confederation of the Rhine cities and was the most southern member of the Hanseatic league.

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  • Worms was rebuilt by the Merovingians, and became an episcopal see, first mentioned in 614, although a bishop of the Vangiones had attended a council at Cologne as early as 347.

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  • of Wiesbaden by the main line from Frankfort-on-Main to Cologne.

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  • Prussia having declared for the cellular system constructed the well-known Moabit prison in Berlin, also those of Ratibor in Silesia and of Herford in Westphalia, while those of Graudenz, Breslau, Werden and Cologne have been added since.

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  • from Cologne, and 15 m.

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  • Crefeld is an important railway centre, and has direct communication with Cologne, Rheydt, Munchen-Gladbach and Holland (via Zevenaar).

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  • He was invited by the Jansenist clergy to Holland, where he wrote another controversial work against the Protestants: Defense de l'Eglise Romain contre la calomnie des Protestants (Cologne, 1688-1691).

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  • It has regular steamboat communication with Rotterdam, Cologne and Arnhem, and steamtramways connect it with the popular resorts of Neerbosch, Beek and Berg - en - Dal in the vicinity.

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  • These gilds would, where they existed, no doubt also influence the management of town affairs; but nowhere has the Rat, as used to be thought, developed out of a gild, nor has the latter anywhere in Germany played a part at all similar in importance to that of the English gild merchant, the only exception being for a time the Richerzeche, or Gild of the Rich of Cologne, from early times by far the largest, the richest, and the most important trading centre among German cities, and therefore provided with an administration more complex, and in some respects more primitive, than any other.

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  • Those of Cologne made a similar attempt in 1074.

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  • Cologne, Mainz, Worms, Spires, Strassburg, Basel and Regensburg, claimed a privileged position as "Free Cities," but neither is the ground for this claim clearly established, nor its nature well defined.

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  • Near the town are the ruins of the castle of the counts of Arnsberg, the last of whom, Gottfried, sold his countship, in 1368, to the archbishop of Cologne.

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  • It passed to, or at least broke out in, Arles and Aix in 1720, causing great mortality, but in Toulon not till 1721, when it destroyed ' Relation historique de la peste de Marseille (Cologne, 1721, Paris, 1722, &c.); Chicoyneau, Verny, &c., Observations et ref exions de la peste (Marseilles, 1721); Chicoyneau, Traite de la peste, Paris, 1744); Littre, article " Peste," in Dictionnaire de medicine, xxiv.

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  • Benedictus, De observatione in pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1 493); Nicolaus Massa, De febre pestilentia, 4to (Venice, 1556, &c.); Fioravanti, Regimento della peste, 8vo, Venice, 1556; John Woodall, The Surgeon's Mate, folio (London, 1639); Van Helmont, Tumulus pestis, 8vo (Cologne, 1644, &c.); Muratori, Trattato del governo della peste, Modena, 1714; John Howard, An Account of Lazarettoes in Europe, &c., 4to (London, 1789); Patrick Russell, A Treatise of the Plague, 4to (London, 1791); Thomas Hancock, Researches into the Laws of Pestilence, 8vo (London, 1821); Fodere, Lecons sur les epide'mies, &c., 4 vols.

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  • Always inclined to a roving life, he soon proceeded to the university of Paris and afterwards continued his studies at Cologne and Heidelberg, returning to Prague in 1407.

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  • He was accused of spreading Wycliffe's doctrines, and his general conduct at Oxford, Paris, Cologne, Prague and Ofen was censured.

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  • But Frederick was soon recalled to Germany by the news of a revolt raised by Philip of Heinsberg, archbishop of Cologne, in alliance with the pope.

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  • At their head stood the electors of Cologne, Mainz and Treves, temporal princes of no mean rank, usually chosen from the cadets of royal houses.

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  • Noticeable among these quarrels were the so-called Kolnische Wirren of 18 37-4 0, when the archbishop of Cologne defied the Prussian government over the question of " mixed marriages, "- and paid for his rashness by a long imprisonment.

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  • The archbishops of Gnesen and Cologne and many minor dignitaries were imprisoned (1874); and the so-called " Bread-basket Law " was passed to coerce the parish clergy by suspending the salaries of the disobedient.

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  • Not in Cologne or Tubingen but in Padua and Florence did the German pioneers of the Renaissance acquire their sense of liberal studies.

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  • It is an important junction for railways to all parts of Germany, and is on the main line from Cologne and Frankfort-on-Main to Munich, Vienna and Eger.

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  • The story, however, is unknown both to Jerome and to Gregory of Tours - and this though the latter gives a somewhat detailed description of the Cologne church dedicated to that Theban legion with which the tradition of the martyred virgins was very early associated.

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  • 663) associates a prominent incident in the life of this saint with the basilica of the sacred virgins at Cologne (Surius vi.

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  • Not only does Archbishop Wichfrid attest a grant to the church of the sacred virgins outside the walls of Cologne (in 927), but he was a large donor in his own person.

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  • Still earlier a Cologne martyrology, written, as Binterim (who edited it in 1824) argues, between 889 and 891, has the following entry under 21st October: "xi.

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  • the Netherlands (where many chapels still preserved their memory), and Cologne are called in evidence to prove the same origin.

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  • Thence they sail up the Rhine by way of Cologne to Basel, at which place they make fast their vessels and proceed on foot to Rome.

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  • Returning, they re-enter their ships at Basel, but are slaughtered by the Huns when they reach Cologne.

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  • These revelations, delivered in Latin, German or a mixed jargon of both languages, were turned into simple Latin by Elizabeth's brother Egbert, from whose words it would seem that in 1156 an old Roman burialground had lately been laid open near Cologne.

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  • Ursulae (Cologne, 1647), and the Bollandist Acta Sanctorum, 21st October, where the story fills 230 folio pages.

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  • Stein, Die Heilige Ursula (Cologne, 1879).

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  • of Cologne.

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  • The Carthusian, Laurentius Surius, carried on the work of Lippomano, completed it, and arranged the materials strictly in the order of the calendar (De probatis sanctorum histories, Cologne, 1570-1575).

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  • FERDINAND AUGUST BEBEL (1840-), German socialist, was born at Cologne on the 22nd of February 1840; he became a turner and worked at Leipzig.

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  • It is impossible to designate definitely as Henricians one of the two sects discovered at Cologne and described by Everwin, provost of Steinfeld, in his letter to St Bernard (Migne, Patr.

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  • This kidnapping of Mattioli, however, was no secret, and it was openly discussed in La Prudenza trionfante di Casale (Cologne, 1682), where it was stated that Mattioli was masked when he was arrested.

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  • He opposed Louis's candidate for the electorate of Cologne (1688), approved the League of Augsburg, acquiesced in the designs of the Protestant William of Orange, even in his supplanting James II., whom, although a Roman Catholic, he distrusted as a tool of Louis.

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  • VERVIERS, a town of Belgium, in the province of Liege, not far from the Prussian frontier, and on the main line from Liege to Aix-la-Chapelle and Cologne.

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  • his work; and he himself led one of the five sections of the pauperes to Constantinople, starting from Cologne in April, and arriving at Constantinople at the end of July 1096.

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  • The see was founded in 722 by St Willibrord, and the diocese thus formed, saving for a short time when it was an archbishopric, was subordinate to the see of Cologne.

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  • The Jansenist and Gallican influence was also strongly felt in Italy and in Germany, where Breviaries based on the French models were published at Cologne, Munster, Mainz and other towns.

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  • the Meuse and the Rhine belonging to the archiepiscopal principality of Cologne.

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  • The boy's education was undertaken by his uncle Martin Maier, parish priest at Rothenburg on the Neckar, who sent him at the age of twelve to the university of Heidelberg, and subsequently to those of Tubingen, Cologne and Freiburg in the Breisgau.

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  • He induced the universities of Cologne and Louvain to condemn the reformer's writings, but failed to enlist the German princes, and in January 1520 went to Rome to obtain strict regulations against those whom he called "Lutherans."

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  • He visited his sister, the princess of Orange, at Spa, and went to Aix-la-Chapelle, thence finally proceeding in November to Cologne, where he was hospitably received.

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  • Theophano died at Nimwegen on the 15th of June 991, and was buried in the church of St Pantaloon at Cologne.

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  • It lies at the junction of lines to Cologne, Viersen, Zevenaar (Holland), Dusseldorf, Duren and Rheydt.

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  • Having studied jurisprudence and political economy at the universities of Bonn, Heidelberg, Munich and Berlin, he entered the legal career at Cologne, and immediately devoted his attention to financial and commercial questions.

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  • of Cologne by rail, on the Sieg, a tributary entering the Rhine opposite Bonn.

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  • On this occasion he visited Paris, Ghent, Liege, Cologne, making the acquaintance of learned men and copying the manuscripts of classical authors.

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  • His most celebrated work was the Summa Theologiae (Nuremberg, 1452; Venice, 1576; Cologne, 1611), undertaken by the orders of Pope Innocent IV.

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  • Their appeal met with a response in a great part of Italy, France, Navarre, Portugal and England, and in Germany in the states subject to Wenceslas king of the Romans, the electors of Cologne and Mainz, the margrave of Brandenburg, &c. For a time the number of the fathers exceeded five hundred.

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  • from Cologne by the railway to Elberfeld and at the junction of lines to Speldorf and Bonn.

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  • In this mission he was successful and obtained some insight into the working of the German church during a stay of a year with Hermann II., archbishop of Cologne.

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  • published at Cologne (1617-1620); modern editions appeared in 8 vols.

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  • from Minden by the main line of railway from Hanover to Cologne, with a station on the Lane-Hameln line.

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  • from Aix-la-Chapelle on the main line of railway to Cologne.

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  • In 1303 he received his first colleague, the Franciscan Arnold of Cologne; in 1307 Pope Clement V.

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  • The possession of this stronghold was so injurious to the commerce of Tiel, Cologne and the Rhenish towns with England that complaints were made by the bishop of Utrecht and the archbishop of Cologne to the emperor.

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  • He was able to recover what he had lost and to make peace on his own terms. Two years later he was again assailed by a coalition headed by the archbishop of Cologne and the bishop of Utrecht.

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  • He found a formidable adversary in the able and warlike Floris >: William, who, becoming bishop of Utrecht in 1054, was determined to recover the lost possessions of his see; and in 1058, in alliance with Hanno, archbishop of Cologne, Egbert, margrave of Brandenburg, the bishop of Liege and others, invaded the Frisian territory.

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  • In 1852 he became schoolmaster at Cologne; in 1855 privatdozent in philosophy at Bonn; in 1858 schoolmaster at Duisburg, resigning when the government forbade schoolmasters to take part in political agitation.

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  • Serarius, Sacri peripatetici de sacris ecclesiae catholicae processionibus (2 vols., Cologne, 1607); Jac. Gretser, De ecclesiae romanae processionibus (2 vols., Ingolstadt, 1606); Jac. Eveillon, De processionibus ecclesiae (Paris, 1641); Edw.

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  • Hermann, who was archbishop of Cologne from 1036 to 1056, and Otto, who was for a short time duke of Swabia; and seven daughters, six of whom became abbesses.

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  • monastery at Brauweiler near Cologne, the place where his marriage had been celebrated.

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  • This was dedicated in 1028 by Piligrim, archbishop of Cologne, and here both Ezzo and his wife: were buried.

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  • From Strassburg he went to the Dominican college of Cologne, and perhaps to St James's College, Paris, ultimately returning to Strassburg.

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  • Tauler's sermons were printed first at Leipzig in 1498, and reprinted with additions from Eckhart and others at Basel (1522) and at Cologne (1543).

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  • by the bishopric of Cologne.

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  • Gocke, Das Grossherzogtum Berg unter Joachim Murat, Napoleon I TT and Louis Napoleon, 1806-1813 (Cologne, 1877).

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  • Its industries include the manufacture of machinery, casks, corks, soap, dolls and furniture, ironfounding and bell-founding - the famous "Kaiserglocke" of the Cologne cathedral was cast here.

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  • In the 12th century the abbots of Fulda claimed precedence of the archbishop of Cologne.

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  • ANNO, or [[Hanno, Saint]] (c. TOT 0-1 075),archbishop of Cologne, belonged to a Swabian family, and was educated at Bamberg.

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  • He became confessor to the emperor Henry III., who appointed him archbishop of Cologne in 1056.

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  • The office of chancellor of the kingdom of Italy was at this period regarded as an appanage of the archbishopric of Cologne,and this was probably the reason why Anno had a considerable share in settling the papal dispute in 106 4.

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  • He succeeded in putting down a rising against his authority in Cologne in 107 4, and it was reported he had allied himself with William the Conqueror, king of England, against the emperor.

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  • Having cleared himself of this charge, Anno took no further part in public business, and died at Cologne on the 4th of December 1075.

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  • JOHANN ADAM VON SCHALL (1591-1666), Jesuit missionary in China, born of noble parents in Cologne.

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