Collected Sentence Examples
I collected coins when I was younger.
Tears collected on her lids.
Alex collected their luggage and had it loaded in the car.
Jackson collected their glasses and poured their fourth drink.
Instead, she collected a few small photos and arranged them all in one frame.Advertisement
Where was the calm and collected man who always knew what to do?
He wrote in this connexion a number of articles collected in 1887 under the title Treu and Frei.
In the outskirts is a village of Africans from the Sudan - a curious remnant of the forces collected by Ali Pasha.
His collected Works were published in 3 vols.
I collected our cadre at the LeBlanc's house for discussion.Advertisement
There are a few creatures I've collected over the years that interest me.
In this task he was much helped by the materials collected in his library.
It was situated in such a way that it collected all the moisture from the hills and appeared to be planted in alfalfa.
His cabin was tiny, two rooms, with the walls lined with weapons he'd collected over the years.
In 1813-14 Rich spent some time in Europe, and on his return to Bagdad devoted himself to the study of the geography of Asia Minor, and collected much information in Syrian and Chaldaean convents concerning the Yezidis.Advertisement
Most of the movable paintings have since 1863 been collected in the Pinacoteca Vannucci, established in the Palazzo del Municipio; besides a considerable number of pieces by Perugino, there are specimens of Niccolo Alunno, Bonfigli, Pinturicchio, &c. A very interesting and important exhibition of Umbrian art was held here in 1907.
He avidly collected exotic, fast cars.
The fragments are collected in the Didot edition of Arrian by Karl Muller.
In each department an official collector (Trsorier payeur genral) receives the taxes and public revenue collected therein and accounts for them to the central authority in Paris.
It is collected in accordance with a register of property (cadastre) drawn up for the most part in the first half of the 19th century, dealing with every piece of property in France, and giving its extent and value and the name of the owner.Advertisement
Troops were collected, but whilst conducting a campaign against the Romans, Otto died at Paterno near Viterbo on the 23rd of January 1002, and was buried in the cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle.
In the next experiment the air was compressed as before, and then allowed to escape through a long lead tube immersed in the water of a calorimeter, and finally collected in a bell jar.
In every mature period of art it will be found that, however much the technical rules may be collected in one special category, every artistic category has a perfect interaction with all the others; and this is nowhere more perfectly shown than when the art is in its simplest possible form of maturity.
The metal is usually obtained from the flue-dust (produced during the first three or four hours working of a zinc distillation) which is collected in the sheet iron cones or adapters of the zinc retorts.
The pope insisted upon the tax being collected according to the true value, and Boiamund returned to Scotland to superintend its collection.Advertisement
The actual taxation to which this fragment refers was not the tenth collected by Boiamund but the tenth of all ecclesiastical property in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland granted by Pope Nicholas IV.
Statistics collected in 1893-1894 and 1896 revealed the existence of 1831 libraries, either private (but open to the public) or completely public. The public libraries have been enormously increased since 1870 by the incorporation of the treasures of suppressed monastic institutions.
It is proportional, and is collected by deduction from salaries and pensions paid to servants of the state, where it is assessed on three-eighths of the income, and from interest on consolidated stock, where it is assessed on the whole amount; and by register in the cases of private individuals, who pay on three-fourths of their income, professional men, capitalists or manufacturers, who pay on one-half or nine-twentieths of their income.
The failure of the strike caused the Socialists to quarrel among themselves and to accuse each other of dishonesty in the management of party funds; it appeared in fact that the large sums collected throughout Italy on behalf of the strikers had been squandered or appropriated by the syndacalist leaders.
With some associates he hired a room in the neighbouring Cato Street, collected arms and made ready to fall upon Harrowby's guests.
The Udgatri's duties being mainly confined to the chanting of hymns made up of detached groups of verses of the Rigveda, as collected in the Samaveda-samhita, the more important Brahmanas of this sacerdotal class deal chiefly with the various modes of chanting, and the modifications which the verses have to undergo in their musical setting.
He collected much valuable information on Graeco-Buddhist art and the origins of Indian art.
It is the same thought which collected in the cosmic space the divided masses into spheres, and combined these to solar systems; the same which caused the weather-beaten dust on the surface of our metallic planet to spring forth into living forms."
See this and other instances collected in Usages y demas derechos de Cataluna, by Vives y Cebria (Barcelona, 1835), tom.
Cases upon the execution of these statutes are collected in Stillingfleet, On Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction, p. 189; Gibson, Codex, 83.
Pieces of amber torn from the sea-floor are cast up by the waves, and collected at ebb-tide.
The trees are regularly tapped and the coagulated latex which exudes is collected and worked up into rubber.
Ball found the temperature one inch below the surface to be 83, and he collected over forty species in flower.
That the arctic flora was driven south into Central Europe cannot be contested in the face of the evidence collected by Nathorst from deposits connected with the boulderclay.
Besides what he learnt from his own observation, he collected much information from others concerning countries which he did not visit.
The records preserved in each city were examined, topographical information was diligently collected, and the Jesuit fathers checked their triangulation by meridian altitudes of the sun and pole star and by a system of remeasurements.
The operations were carried on during eight years on a plain to the south of Quito; and, in addition to his memoir on this memorable measurement, La Condamine collected much valuable geographical information during a voyage down the Amazon.
When the pursuit of game becomes the chief occupation of a people there is of necessity a higher development of courage, skill, powers of observation and invention; and these qualities are still further enhanced in predatory tribes who take by force the food, clothing and other property prepared or collected by a feebler people.
But out of the copies of Norfolk deeds and records collected for Thomas, earl of Arundel, in the early part of the 17th century, it seems clear enough that he sprang from a Norfolk family, several of whose members held lands at Wiggenhall near Lynn.
Fleeing into the north of his kingdom James collected an army and came to terms with his foes; but the rebels, having seized the person of the king's eldest son, afterwards James IV., renewed the struggle.
His brother Ummanmenan at once collected allies and prepared for resistance to the Assyrians.
In a few weeks he collected thousands of so-called Kuruczok (a corruption of Cruciati), consisting for the most part of small yeomen, peasants, wandering students, friars and parish priests, the humblest and most oppressed portion of the community, to whom alone a crusade against the Turk could have the slightest attraction.
Mangabeira rubber is collected to a limited extent, and piassava fibre is an article of export.
Orchids are also collected for export in the districts of Garanhuns and Timbauba.
Me`ir, but rejected much which was afterwards collected under the title of Tosefta (addition) and Baraita (outside the Mishnah).
As the existing halakhoth were collected and edited in the Mishnah, so the much larger agadic material was gathered together and arranged in the Midrashim.
Owing to the fact that the material collected by Mordecai was left to his pupils to arrange, the work was current in two recensions, an Eastern (in Austria) and a Western (in Germany, France, &c.).
His Discours were collected in 1818.
After his death Pibrac, assisted by De Thou and Scevole de Sainte-Marthe, collected a volume of the Poemata of L'Hopital, and in 1585 his grandson published Epistolarum seu Sermonum libri sex.
Many sources for the history of the Normans were collected by Andre Du Chesne in his Hist.
After Riccati's death his works were collected by his sons and published (1758) in four volumes.
The precipitate is washed, collected, and dried at a very moderate heat.
See the liturgical and ecclesiastical dictionaries of Martigny, Migne, and Smith and Cheetham, sub voce, where all the scattered references are collected together and summarized.
Besides these five books, Fordun wrote part of another book, and collected materials for bringing down the history to a later period.
The approximate revenue for 1906 was £65,000, and the expenditure about £60,000, but some of the revenue was still collected in paper of uncertain value.
The scientific works of Alembert have never been published in a collected form.
The surviving fragments of these works are collected and commented on in Hilgenfeld's Ketzergeschichte, 207-218.
With an eye to the future, he published their Ratio disciplinae, collected money for the "Hidden Seed" still worshipping in secret in Moravia, and had his son-in-law, Peter Jablonsky, consecrated a bishop, and Peter passed on the succession to his son Daniel Ernest Jablonsky.
The public acts of parliament referring to British railways are collected in Bigg's General Railway Acts.
Fragments of his poems have been collected by Wilke, De graecorum syllis (Warsaw, 1820), Paul, Dissertatio de syllis (Berlin, 1821), and Wachsmuth, Sillographorum graec. reliquiae (Leipzig, 1885).
The materials already collected for a third volume were suppressed.
The articles were published in collected form in 1889.
All fines collected under the penal laws, all escheats and 2% of the receipts of toll roads and bridges go into the school fund, which is invested in state and Federal securities and the interest apportioned among the counties according to their school population.
A poll tax is required of all males between the ages of 21 and 60 years, one half of which goes to the county in which it is collected and the rest to the state.
The Ostrogoth collected a fleet and established a severe blockade, which at length caused Odoacer to surrender the city.
Biography, with authorities there collected; lives in Wood's Athenae Oxonienses (Bliss), iv.
After long negotiations he accepted the Sicilian and Neapolitan crowns, and in 1264 he sent a first expedition of Provencals to Italy; he also collected a large army and navy in Provence and France with the help of King Louis, and by an alliance with the cities of Lombardy was able to send part of his force overland.
His writings were partially collected in four folio volumes, the first of which was published in the year 1564, containing his principal theological works.
Herschel marshals the evidence which can be collected on this point.
His collected works, including the series of articles on the proper-
The ova of Culex, on the other hand, are deposited in any stagnant water, including cesspools, drains, cisterns, or water collected in any vessel; they float in boat-shaped masses on the surface.
The collected works of Suarez have been printed at Mainz and Lyons (1630), at Venice (1740-1751), at Besancon (1856-1862) and in the collection of the Abbe Migne.
Only from an exhaustive comparison of controlling data can the scattered hints be collected and classified.
Between the publication of the collected edition of his poems and his settling down in the Luckenbooths, he had published a few shorter poems and had issued the first instalments of The Tea-Table Miscellany and The Ever Green (both 1724-1727).
A collected edition of his works, with a biographical preface, was published in 1737.
The cave sanctuary of the Dictaean Zeus has been explored, and throughout the whole length and breadth of the island a mass of early materials has now been collected.
He edited the Didascalia apostolorum syriace (1854), and other Syriac texts collected in the British Museum and in Paris.
The foundation of the united monarchy was the greatest advance in the whole course of the history of the Israelites, and around it have been collected the hopes and fears which a varied experience of monarchical government aroused.
His collected works were published in seven vols.
Boisguilbert's works were collected by Daire in the first volume of the Collection des grands economistes.
In 1818 he was appointed political agent for the states of western Rajputana, where he conciliated the chieftains, settled their mutual feuds and collected materials for his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan (2 vols., 1829-1832).
Most of his works appeared in a collected form in 1732, and an English translation of the Traite was published in 1780.
The Executive Mansion of the Confederate States of America, built in 1819, purchased by the city in 1862, and leased to the Confederate government and occupied by President Jefferson Davis in 1862-65, was acquired in 1890 by the Confederate Memorial Library Society, and is now a Confederate Museum with a room for each state of the Confederacy and a general library in the " Solid South " room; it has valuable historical papers, collected by the Southern Historical Society, and the society has published a Calendar of Confederate Papers (1908).
The Select Transactions of this society were collected and published in 1743 by Robert Maxwell, who took a large part in its proceedings.
Whilst the returns relating to the acreage of crops and the number of live stock in Great Britain have been officially collected in each year since 1866, the annual official estimates of the produce of the crops in the several sections of the kingdom do not extend back beyond 1885.
It they are to be tested, an indefinitely large number of special studies must be made, for which the original materials must be collected and examined.
That national poet collected in the earliest Scottish poem, written in the reign of Bruce's grandson, the copious traditions which clustered round his memory.
In Switzerland and parts of Germany, where it is collected in some quantity for commerce, a long strip of bark is cut out of the tree near the root; the resin that slowly accumulates during the summer is scraped out in the latter part of the season, and the slit enlarged slightly the following spring to ensure a continuance of the supply.
In the Alps and Vosges this resinous semi-fluid is collected by climbing the trees and pressing out the contents of the natural receptacles of the bark into horn or tin vessels held beneath them.
With the assistance of neighbouring princes and of many of the influential Dihkans, Mahmud collected a vast amount of materials for the work, and after having searched in vain for a man of sufficient learning and ability to edit them faithfully, and having entrusted various episodes for versification to the numerous poets whom he had gathered round him, he at length made choice of Firdousi.
A biographical sketch will be found in his collected Scientific Papers (2 vols., 1906).
Possibly the flesh was boiled off the bones at once ("scarification"), or left to rot in separate cists awhile; afterwards the skeletons were collected and the cists re-used.
Not enough evidence has been collected to affect the question of racial change during the Aegean period.
Upwards of 300,000 species have been collected and described, and at present the number of named forms increases at the rate of about 8000 species per annum.
Here he collected another army of 20,000 men, with which he so strongly entrenched himself on the Scanian coast in 1716 that his combined enemies shrank from attacking him, whereupon he assumed the offensive by attacking Norway in 1717, and again in 1718, in order to conquer sufficient territory to enable him to extort better terms from his enemies.
Together they studied, together they travelled and together they collected.
No real second edition ever appeared, but in anticipation of it Sir Thomas Browne prepared in or about 1671 (?) his " Account of Birds found in Norfolk," of which the draft, now in the British Museum, was printed in his collected works by Wilkin in 1835.
This is still incomplete, though the parts that have appeared have been collected to form two volumes and issued with title-pages.
The place was purchased for £25,000, and vested in the corporation of London for the use of the public. Of this amount the Gurney family contributed £io,000 and the corporation the same sum, the remaining £5000 being collected from the inhabitants of West Ham.
The present water supply, introduced in 1884, is brought from the commune of Trebaseleghe, where it is collected from 120 artesian wells.
Mannhardt collected a mass of information proving that the life of the corn is supposed to exist apart from the corn itself and to take the form, sometimes of an animal, sometimes of a man or woman, sometimes of a child.
His collected works, with a memoir by his son-in-law, Samuel Stanhope Smith (who succeeded him as president of the college), were edited by Dr Ashbel Green (New York, 1801-1802).
The Museum of Fine Arts was founded in 1870 (though there were art exhibits collected from 1826 onward) and its present building was erected in 1908.
References to Palmyra in later times have been collected by Quatremere, Sultans Mamlouks, ii.
The droits increased, but were not properly collected until 1724.
They are used on a very large scale in the vicinity of oil mills in southern cities like Memphis, New Orleans, Houston, and Little Rock, from Soo to s000 cattle being often collected in a single yard for this purpose.
The cotton from each is collected and kept separately, and at the end of the season carefully examined and weighed, and a final selection is then made which reduces the number to perhaps five; the cotton from each of these plants is gained separately and the seed preserved for sowing.
Ellison, in his work on the cotton trade of Great Britain, traces in detail the increase in the volume of information collected and made public. At the close of the 8th century there was a tacit understanding among brokers to supply one another with information.
The issue of this circular by subscribing firms, on the basis of particulars collected by brokers appointed at a weekly meeting, gave rise in 1841 to the Cotton Brokers' Association, to which the development of the market by the systematizing of procedure is largely due.
Recent statistics bearing upon cotton are collected annually in the two publications, Shepperson's Cotton Facts and Jones's Handbook for Daily Cable Records of Cotton Crop Statistics.
Twothirds of the matter had been contributed by the editor, and the two stout volumes in which the numbers were collected contained the best political thought which had for long appeared in Germany.
A collected edition of Ranke's works in fifty-four volumes was issued at Leipzig (1868-90), but this does not contain the Weltgeschichte.
Petroleum was collected for use in the most remote ages of which we have any records.
Some three or four months before the term fixed by Urban II., in April and May 1096, five divisions of pauperes had already collected.
It is true that the king had a revenue, collected by the vicomte and paid into the secretum or treasury - a revenue composed of tolls on the caravans and customs from the ports, of the profits of monopolies and the proceeds of justice, of poll-taxes on Jews and Mahommedans, and of the tributes paid by Mahommedan powers.
The authorities for the Crusades have been collected in Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611) (incomplete); Michaud, Bibliotheque des croisades (Paris, 1829) (containing translations of select passages in the authorities); the Recueil des historiens des croisades, published by the Academie des Inscriptions (Paris, 1841 onwards) (the best general collection, containing many of the Latin, Greek, Arabic and Armenian authorities, and also the text of the assizes; but sometimes poorly edited and still .incomplete); and the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin (founded in 1875), especially the Archives, of which two volumes were published in 1881 and 1884, and the volumes of the Revue, published yearly from 1893 to 1902, and containing not only new texts, but articles and reviews of books which are of great service.
The minor authorities for the Fifth Crusade have been collected by Rohricht, in the publications of the Societe de l'Orient Latin for 1879 and 1882; the ten valuable letters of Oliver, bishop of Paderborn, and the Historia Damiettina, based on these letters, have also been edited by Rohricht in the Westdeutsche Zeitschrift per Geschichte and Kunst (1891).
On the northern inland downs liquorice grows wild and is collected by the peasants and sent down to Alexandretta.
The mathematical fragments are collected by Fr.
Both facts are largely due to the opening (1882) of the St Gotthard railway, as merchandise collected from every part of north and central Europe is stored in Basel previous to being redistributed by means of that line.
From this it would appear that the documents were merely materials collected from various sources and possibly with a view to the compilation of a homogeneous law.
Part of his numerous pamphlets and addresses were collected in his Speeches, Arguments and Miscellaneous Papers (3 vols., 1884-1890).
The island now has free trade with the United States, and receives into its general revenue fund all customs duties and internal taxes collected in the island.
He was one of the first Muscovites who diligently collected foreign books, and we hear of as many as sixty-nine Latin works being sent to him at one time from abroad.
Biography and authorities there collected; Five Stuart Princesses, ed.
His materials, he tells us, were collected from foreign rather than native sources, the latter of which had been put beyond his reach by circumstances.
Lucian and Apuleius give descriptions of the beggar-priests who went round the great cities with an image of the goddess on an ass and collected money.
Bevan collected the carbon dioxide obtained in this way over mercury.
The collected literary works of Wagner in German fill ten volumes, and include political speeches, sketches for dramas that did not become operas, autobiographical chapters, aesthetic musical treatises and polemics of vitriolic violence.
It appears to have drawn its title, "To the Ephesians," from one of the churches for which it was intended, perhaps the one from which a copy was secured when Paul's epistles were collected, shortly before or after the year ioo.
Fir trees and branches from the neighbouring forest are collected and planted in front of the houses, so that for a few hours Hasselt has the appearance of being restored to its primitive condition as a wood.
These maps are based upon information collected during many years at the instance of King Roger.
Far superior to these maps is Fra Mauro's map (1457), for the author has availed himself not only of the information collected by Marco Polo and earlier travellers, but *was able, by personal intercourse, to gather additional information from Nicolo de' Conti, who had returned from the east in 1440, and more especially from Abyssinians who lived in Italy at that time.
Many of his essays were collected in a series of six volumes entitled Bausteine (Berlin, 1879-1884).
A collected edition of his works of fiction, both in prose and verse, has reached twenty-one volumes (Leipzig, 1898), and a new edition was published in 1901.
It is highly improbable that many of the 700,000 volumes collected by the Ptolemies remained at the time of the Arab conquest, when the various calamities of Alexandria from the time of Caesar to that of Diocletian are considered, together with the disgraceful pillage of the library in A.D.
Of the collected works of Bede the most convenient edition is that by Dr Giles in twelve volumes (8vo., 1843-1844), which includes translations of the Historical Works.
His letters, extending over the years 1474-1494, have been published, both separately and in his collected works.
Camp was formed at Omdurman and a new force of some 8000 fighting men collected - mostly recruited from the fellahin of Arabi's disbanded troops, sent in chains from Egypt.
Specimens intended for the herbarium should be collected when possible in dry weather, care being taken to select plants or portions of plants in sufficient number and of a size adequate to illustrate all the characteristic features of the species.
When the root-leaves and roots present any peculiarities, they should invariably be collected, but the roots should be dried separately in an oven at a moderate heat.
An annual poll-tax is also collected for the schools from every adult male.
More than half of the revenue was derived from customs duties (two-thirds of the total being collected at Havana).
His Collected Works were issued at Leipzig in 1899-1901.
Since then the import duties have been collected at the rate of 11% ad valorem under the supervision of the Public Debt Administration, the bondholders having certain rights, under the decree of Muharem, described below, over any increase of revenue arising from modification of the commercial treaties.
The taxes are collected by means of the mukhtars, termed for this purpose kabz-i-mal (receiver of treasure), and under the supervision of gendarmes specially named, termed tahsildar (collectors).
The official authorities provide lists of all the taxes to be collected to the tahsildars, who hand them, against formal receipt, to the kabz-i-mals.
The latter are bound to pay in to the local authorities all sums collected in five days in town districts, and in fifteen days in villages, if under 1500 piastres; sums of 1500 piastres and over are paid in at once.
The military exemption tax is not collected as above, but by the spiritual chiefs of the various religious communities.
In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
The bonds are secured on the surplus of the revenues assigned to the guarantee of the Anatolian railway collected by the Public Debt Administration, on the excess revenue, after certain deductions, accruing to the government under the " Annex-Decree to the Decree of Muharrem " above described, on the sheep tax of the vilayets of Koniah, Adana and Aleppo, and on the railway itself.
Here Lazarus, king of Servia, had collected an army of roo,000 Serbs, Hungarians, Moldavians, Walachians and others.
In 1448 Hunyadi, now governor of Hungary, collected the largest army yet mustered by the Hungarians against the Turks, but he was defeated on the famous field of Kossovo and with difficulty escaped, while most of the chivalry of Hungary fell.
Towards the end of Selim's reign the religious revolt of a certain Jellal, who collected 200,000 adherents, was the cause of much trouble; but he was eventually routed and his force dispersed near Tokat.
The remnants of the abolished new troops were collected and formed into regiments affiliated to the Janissaries under the name of seymen-i-jedid; the dignitaries of state were called upon to take an oath of fidelity and loyalty.
Flat-bottomed boats were gradually collected at Boulogne.
The Republic had collected some two hundred and forty vessels.
They were built in France and the Low Countries, in the coast towns and the rivers - even in Paris - and were collected gradually, shore batteries both fixed and mobile being largely employed to cover the passage.
Eggs of sea-birds are collected and eider-down.
Samples of water are collected periodically from a number of places in a large sea-area (the North or Norwegian seas, or the English Channel, for instance) at the surface, bottom and a number of intermediate levels.
His attainments included Latin, which he could both read and write; he knew something of the English laws and language, and it may have been from an interest in natural history that he collected, during his reign, the Woodstock menagerie which was the admiration of his subjects.
Spanish levies, numbering nearly ioo,000 regulars and militia, brave and enthusiastic, but without organization, sufficient training, or a commander-in-chief, had collected together; 30,000 being in Andalusia, a similar number in Galicia, and others in Valencia and Estremadura, but few in the central portion of Spain.
Wellington, convinced that no effort to bridge below Bayonne would be expected, decided to attempt it there, and collected at St Jean Pied de Port and Passages a large number of country vessels (termed chasse-marees).
The Works of John Home were collected and published by Henry Mackenzie in 1822 with "An Account of the Life and Writings of Mr John Home," which also appeared separately in the same year, but several of his smaller poems seem to have escaped the editor's observation.
If a certain minimum charge must be collected in order to start coagulation, it will need the conjunction of 6n monovalent, or 3n divalent, to equal the effect of 2n trivalent ions.
Collected works published at Amsterdam (6 vols., 1695-1701).
Collected as The Tabernacle Pulpit, the sermons form some fifty volumes.
The latex is collected in the so-called dry season between June and February.
In Nicaragua the latex is collected in April, when the old leaves begin to fall and the new ones are appearing, during which time the latex is richest.
The trees are tapped on the " herring-bone " plan and the milk collected in vessels at the base.
In some districts the collected milk is heated alone or diluted with water, to coagulate the rubber, but if heated alone an inferior rubber is apt to result owing to overheating.
In Prague, in November 1419, severe fighting took place between the Hussites and the mercenaries whom Queen Sophia (widow of Wenceslaus and regent after the death of her husband) had hurriedly collected.
Kjellmann, Vega Expeditionens Vetenskapliga Iakttagelser (Stockholm, 1872-1887) reckons their number at 182; 124 species were found by Middendorff on the Taymyr peninsula, 219 along the borders of the forest region of Olenek, and 344 species within the forest region of the same; 470 species were collected by Maack in the Vilui region.
His collected Works were published with a Memoir by William Jones in 1799.
He fixed the sum to be paid by each group of inhabitants, who then had to see that it was assessed, collected, and paid to the lord, electing commissaries (preud hommes) from among themselves for this purpose.
The royal taille naturally retained the distinctive characteristics of the seigniorial, as can be seen from an examination of the way in which it was assessed and collected; the chief characteristic being that ecclesiastics and nobles, who were exempt from the seigniorial taille, were also exempt from the royal.
In 1875 he was appointed director of the new astrophysical observatory established by the French government at Meudon, and set on foot there in 1876 the remarkable series of solar photographs collected in his great Atlas de photographies solaires (1904).
Wei-hai-wei being a free port no duties of any kind are collected there.
The slag is a waste product, and the flue-dust, collected by special devices in dust-chambers, is briquetted by machinery, with lime as a bond, and then resmelted with the ore-charge.
By the second addition of zinc most of the silver will be collected in a saturated zinc-silver-lead crust, which, when worked up, gives fine silver.
In 793 Hescham, the successor of Abd-al-Rahman II., proclaimed a holy war against the Christians, and collected an army of Ioo,000 men, half of which was directed against the kingdom of the Asturias, while the second invaded France, penetrating as far as Narbonne.
Each of these ruins has been visited by archaeologists who have copied inscriptions, described the temples, triumphal arches, porticos, mausoleums and the other monuments which are still standing, collected statues or other antiquities; and in many cases they have actually excavated.
He had there collected twenty-six relations or stories of the same description as that of the drum, in order to establish, by a series of facts, the opinion which he had expressed in his Philosophical Considerations.
Of the very numerous results published, a few of the most characteristic are collected in the following table.
Of the rest the uncanonical sayings have been collected by Preuschen (Reste der ausserkanonischen Evangelien, 1901, pp. 44-47) A different collection will be found in Hennecke, NTliche Apok.
As to the third complaint, that the compilers of the Digest altered the extracts they collected, cutting out and inserting words and sentences at their own pleasure, this was a process absolutely necessary according to the instructions given them, which were to prepare a compilation representing the existing law, and to be used for the actual administration of justice in the tribunals.
In the time of Amos the slaves collected by Philistines and Tyr'ans were sold en masse to Edom, and presumably went to Egypt or Arabia,.
With regard to birds and land shells the relation is much closer to the Comoros species, and the latter, of which I have collected seven species besides Rachis aldabrae, may serve to point out more than the birds the land connexion of Aldabra with the neighbouring countries."
The Goagnazes, or prevailing tribe of Indians in that neighbourhood, as soon as they discovered the intentions of the new-comers to fix themselves permanently there, collected for the purpose of expelling them.
The other three royal burghs associated with Edinburgh were Stirling, Roxburgh and Berwick; and their enactments form the earliest existing collected body of Scots law.
In 1763 he was elected an associate of the Academy of Inscriptions, and began to arrange for the publication of the materials he had collected during his eastern travels.
Thereupon certain Sienese citizens in Rome, headed by Aeneas Piccolomini (a kinsman of Pius II.), entered into negotiations with the agents of the French king and, having with their help collected men and money, marched on Siena and forced their way in by the new gate (now Porta Romana) on 26th July 1552.
In 1837 he founded the Panorama in imitation of the English Penny Magazine, and there and in Illustracdo he published the historical tales which were afterwards collected into Lendas e Narratives; in the same year he became royal librarian at the Ajuda Palace, which enabled him to continue his studies of the past.
His learning was not drawn from books only; he was also an archaeologist, and frequently went on expeditions in France, always on foot, in the course of which he examined the monuments of architecture and sculpture, as well as the libraries, and collected a number of notes and sketches.
He concludes that the genera and species exist as universals only in thought; but, inasmuch as they are collected from singulars on account of a real resemblance, they have a certain existence independently of the mind, but not an existence disjoined from the singulars of sense.
The collected works of Hrabanus himself contain nothing new, but in some glosses on Aristotle and Porphyry, first exhumed by Cousin, there are several noteworthy expressions of opinion in a Nominalistic sense.
The last collected edition of his works is that published in 9 vols.
Cobden's speeches were collected and published in 1870.
The most important of the essays have been collected under the title Historische and politische Aufscitze (4 vols., Leipzig, 1896); a selection from his more controversial writings was made under the title Zehn Jahre deutscher Kampfe; in 1896 a new volume appeared, called Deutsche Kampfe, neue Folge.
The first consists in the parallelism in the course of its rivers, as the Danube and the Theiss, the Drave and the Save, the Waag with the Neutra and the Gran, &c. The second is the direction of the rivers, which converge towards the middle of the country, and are collected either mediately or immediately by the Danube.
The diet, indeed, voted him aids and subsidies, but the great nobles either forbade their collection within their estates, or confiscated the amount collected.
The war of each against all continued; no taxes could be collected; the holders of the royal domains refused to surrender them at the command of the diet; and the boy king had very often neither clothes to wear nor food to eat.
About the beginning of the 17th century various mathematical works by Franciscus Vieta were published, which were afterwards collected by Franz van Schooten and republished in 1646 at Leiden.
These remarkable researches of Fraunhofer, carried out in the years 1817-1823, are republished in his Collected Writings (Munich, 1888).
In 1009, however, in accordance with a resolution made by the witan in the preceding year, !Ethelred collected such a fleet "as never before had been in England in any king's day"; but owing to a miserable court quarrel the effort came to nothing.
While it was being collected, the Danes sacked Canterbury and barbarously slew the archbishop Alphege.
The precipitate, after having been collected and washed, is digested with a warm concentrated solution of ammonium carbonate, which dissolves the uranium as a yellow solution of ammonium uranate, while the hydrated oxide of iron, the alumina, &c., remain.
Whatever may be the value of the titles to individual psalms, there can be no question that the tradition that the Psalter was collected by David is not historical; 1 Hippol., ed.
The passages are collected in Kimhi's preface to his commentary on the Psalms, ed.
When we thus understand its origin, the tradition becomes really instructive, and may be translated into a statement which throws light on a number of points connected with the book, namely, that the Psalter was (finally, at least) collected with a liturgical purpose.
Thus, for example, the numerous psalms in which the poets, though speaking perhaps, not as individuals but as members of a class, describe themselves as poor and afflicted at the hands of certain ungodly men, who appear to be Jews, can hardly have been originally collected by the Temple choirs.
For since the ministers of the Temple at Jerusalem were the aristocracy of the land, and were often, as we know both from the book of Malachi and from the history of the Maccabees, the chief offenders, it is extremely unlikely that they collected for the official services.
We need not suppose that congregations gathered together to worship away from Jerusalem, especially in times of distress, would necessarily sing the religious poems which they had collected, though it is by no means improbable that they would do so.
He had collected at Chieveley in Natal a brigade of mounted men, four brigades of infantry and six batteries of artillery, and he carried with him the trust alike of the army and the nation.
This great move was persevered in and accomplished, in spite of the fact that at the very outset of the cross-country march (February 13) the great body of transport which had been collected at Ramdam had been cut off by De Wet (who had stayed on the Riet after French had shaken him off).
His principal works (1 579, 1 599) treat of Gaulish and French antiquities, of the dignities and magistrates of France, of the origin of the French language and poetry, of the liberties of the Gallican church, &c. A collected edition was published in 1610.
The relative stability is then judged by the amount of nitrogen gas collected in a certain time.
During the war his services were wholly in the Channel, and he was engaged under Rodney in 1759 in destroying the vessels collected by the French to serve as transports in the proposed invasion of England.
His works have been collected and edited by Gaston Darboux with the title Ouvres de Fourier (Paris, 1889-1890).
His original papers were collected and published, with a memoir by his son, in 1901.
The temple is now in ruins, but the entire series of gorgeous pictures recording the expedition to "the balsam land of Punt," from its leaving to its returning to Thebes, still remains intact and undefaced.4 These are the only authenticated instances of the export of incense trees from the Somali country until Colonel Playfair, then political agent at Aden, in 1862-1864, collected and sent to Bombay the specimens from which Sir George Birdwood prepared his descriptions of them for the Linnean Society in 1868.
At the second of these points the majority of the chief roads from the southern suburbs and the south of England are collected.
Paternoster Row, still occupied by booksellers, takes name from the sellers of prayer-books and writers of texts who collected under the shadow of St Paul's Cathedral.
Under the act of 1899 all these rates are consolidated into a single rate, called the general rate, which is assessed, made, collected and levied as the poor rate, but the interests of persons previously entitled to exemptions are safeguarded.
We learn that in the year 418 " the Romans collected all the treasures that were in Britain, and hid some of them in the earth, that no man might afterwards find them, and conveyed some with them into Gaul."
Hamilton made Imbros his headquarters, and troops also were sometimes collected there owing to its vicinity both to Helles and to Anzac. Within the Dardanelles the battleship " Goliath " had been torpedoed by the Turkish destroyer " Muavenet-i-Milliye " on May 13; on the other hand British submarines were performing invaluable service, diving under the mine-fields, causing havoc amongst enemy craft in the channel itself and higher up, and threatening Ottoman communications with the peninsula.
Every drop of mercury, as it enters from the funnel, entirely closes the narrow tube like a piston, and in going past the place where the side tube enters entraps a portion of air and carries it down to the trough, where it can be collected.
His collected speeches and lectures were published under the title of Altertum and Gegenwart (5th ed., 1903 foll.), to which a third volume was added under the title of Unter drei Kaisern (2nd ed., 1895).
He includes besides, a few pieces peculiar to this Gospel which Luke had probably himself collected.
The Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884 and the Chitral expedition of 1895 opened up a vast area for geographical investigation, and the information collected is to be found in the reports and gazetteers of the Indian government.
In 1886-1887, the year after the annexation, the amount collected in Upper Burma from all sources was twentytwo lakhs of rupees.
The amount then collected was Rs.87,47,020 The total revenue of Burma in the year ending March 31, 1900 was Rs.7,04,36,240 and in 1905, Rs.9,65,62,298.
A collected edition of his works was published at Edinburgh in 1761 (4 vols., 8vo), and again at Perth in 1782 (5 vols., 8vo).
Notices in Greek authors are collected by P. Paulitschke, Die geographische Erforschung des afrikanischen Continents (Vienna, 1880); the inscriptions were edited and interpreted by G, Maspero, Revue archeol.
The bones of the martyred friars had been collected by Friar Jordanus of Severac, a Dominican, who carried them to Supera - the Suppara of the ancient geographers, near the modern Bassein, about 26 m.
The sap is collected in spring, just before the foliage develops, and is procured by making a notch or boring a hole in the stem of the tree about 3 ft.
In some factories they are collected in suitable tanks, and steam is blown into them, which further coagulates the albuminous par Scums. tides.
The reburnt and cooled char is collected and sent back to the char cisterns.
The filtered liquors, being collected in the various service tanks according to their qualities, are drawn up into the vacuum pans and boiled to crystals.
Several fine mansions are in the vicinity of the town, notably that of Deepdene, contain ing part of a gallery of sculpture collected here by Thomas Hope, the author of Anastasius.
His writings on this subject have been collected in a volume entitled Pagine sulla guerra (Naples, 1919).
As the evidence was collected by Peter's creatures, it is very doubtful whether Eudoxia was guilty, though she was compelled to make a public confession.
The juice is collected for use as a sheep-dip.
When sulphuric or sulphurous acid is to be collected, it is important to keep the fuel gas from admixture with the sulphur gases, and kilns for this purpose require some modification.
The zinc vapour produced descends through the pipe and condenses into liquid zinc, which is collected in a ladle held under the outlet end of the pipe.
A large part of Asir and northern Yemen has never been visited by Turkish troops, and such revenues as are collected, mainly from vexatious customs and transit duties, are quite insufficient to meet the salaries of the officials, while the troops, ill-fed and their pay indefinitely in arrears, live on the country as best they can.
Before the year 1899 mosquitoes had never been collected systematically, and had received little notice from entomologists, so that but few genera and comparatively few species were known.
The result has been that in subsequent years mosquitoes have been collected, studied and described by naturalists and medical men in all parts of the globe.
The nature of the breeding-place varies greatly according to the species, and while many of the mosquitoes that infest houses will breed even in the smallest accidental accumulation of water such as may have collected in a discarded bottle or tin, the larvae of other species less closely associated with man are found in natural pools or ditches, at the margins of slow-moving streams, in collections of water in hollow trees and bamboo-stumps, or even in the water-receptacles of certain plants.
The filtrate, which may be collected in glass vessels if an excess of hydrofluoric acid has been avoided, deposits the greater part of the salt on cooling.
The crystals are collected, washed, pressed and recrystallized, whereby the impurities are easily removed.
Much of the Arabic material has been collected and translated by Fraehn, "Veteres Memoriae Chasarorum" in Mem.
A noteworthy peculiarity in the foreign mail service is that an extra charge of 2 cents for each letter and 1 cent for each post-card is collected when they are sent across the isthmus of Panama.
Generally the components of a mixture will be vaporized in the order of their boiling-points; consequently if the condensates or "fractions" corresponding to definite ranges of temperature be separately collected, it is obvious that a more or less partial separation of the components will be effected.
He collected the works of several French writers who as contemporaries described the crusades, and published them under the title Gesta Dei per Francos (Hanover, 1611).
At dusk the martyrs' remains were collected in a cart and thrown into the Arno.
By the evening of the 10th great masses of men had been collected there and the last arm of the Danube, between Lobau and the left bank, bridged.
Undeterred by the news of heavy attacks on his rear from Tirol and from Bohemia, Napoleon hurried all available troops to the bridges, and by daybreak on the 21st, 40,000 men were collected on the Marchfeld, the broad open plain of the left bank, which was also to be the scene of the battle of Wagram.
The polypide consists of a "lophophore" bearing a series of ciliated tentacles by which Diatoms and other microscopic bodies are collected as food, of a U-shaped alimentary canal, and of a central nervous system.
In 1856 he returned to India, where the mutiny soon broke out; his descriptive letters were collected in a volume entitled The Indian Mutiny, its Causes and Results (1858).
Now a worse thing befell him, for in February 1850, having collected into one "long ledger-like book" all the elegies on Arthur Hallam which he had been composing at intervals since 1833, he left this only MS. in the cupboard of some lodgings in Mornington Place, Hampstead Road.
The Museo Lapidario contains a fine collection of Roman and Etruscan inscriptions and sculpture, mostly collected and published by Scipione Maffei in the 18th century.
The first volume, Vegetable Staticks (1727), contains an account of numerous experiments in plant-physiology - the loss of water in plants by evaporation, the rate of growth of shoots and leaves, variations in root-force at different times of the day, &c. Considering it very probable that plants draw "through their leaves some part of their nourishment from the air," he undertook experiments to show in "how great a proportion air is wrought into the composition of animal, vegetable and mineral substances"; though this "analysis of the air" did not lead him to any very clear ideas about the composition of the atmosphere, in the course of his inquiries he collected gases over water in vessels separate from those in which they were generated, and thus used what was to all intents and purposes a "pneumatic trough."
His essays, collected under the title Zeiten, Volker and Menschen (Berlin, 1874-1885), show clear discernment, a finely balanced cosmopolitan judgment and grace of style.
But the emperor died before the project could be consummated, and for twenty-five years Ares memory remained the sole depository of the collected annals.
Much more memorable, however, was a library formed by Iyeyasus grandson the feudal chief of Mito (1662I 700), who not only collected a vast quantity of books hitherto scattered among Shinto and Buddhist monasteries and private houses, but also employed a number of scholars to compile a history unprecedented in magnitude, the Dai-Nihon-shi.
Katsukawa Shunsho (d- 1792) must next be mentioned, not only for the beauty of his own work, but because he was the first master of Hokusai; then Yeishi (worked c. 178 11800), the founder of the Hosoda school; Utamaro (1754-1806), whose prints of beautiful women were collected by Dutchmen while he was still alive, and have had in our own day a vogue greater, perhaps, than those of any other of his fellows; and Toyokuni I.
It was only towards the end of the 19th century that his voluminous writings began to be properly collected and examined, with the result of proving that there was hardly one department of scientific activity in which he was not far ahead of his time.
The materials for a life of Fox were first collected by his nephew, Lord Holland, and were then revised and rearranged by Mr Allen and Lord John Russell.
His Speeches were collected and published in 1815.
He also collected and emended valuable MSS., which his monks were instructed to copy, and superintended the translation of various Greek works into Latin.
At the express request of Malesherbes he furnished some arguments to the materials collected for the defence of the king.
He published a large number of single sermons, and they appeared in a collected form in 1692 in six volumes, reaching a second edition in his lifetime in 1715.
The meagre data given by ancient writers are collected by Busolt and Marshall.
The taxes are collected directly, and must meet the needs of the province, before any sum is remitted to the Imperial Treasury.
The crowd, which collected on so shocking a discovery, took up the idea that he had been strangled by the family to prevent him from changing his religion, and that this was a common practice among Protestants.
In the collected Scientific Papers of Lord Kelvin (3 vols., Cambridge, 1882), of James Clerk Maxwell (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890), and of Lord Rayleigh (4 vols., Cambridge, 1903), the advanced student will find the means for studying the historical development of electrical knowledge as it has been evolved from the minds of some of the master workers of the 19th century.
Of greater interest, particularly from a historical point of view, are the original papers of Joule, Thomson and Rankine, some of which have been reprinted in a collected form.
He was only in part successful, and there was great difficulty in raising the chartermoney among those who had actually assembled (in 1202) at Venice, the sum collected falling far short of the stipulated amount.
The washing is repeated until enough of the enriched sand is collected, when the gold is finally recovered by careful washing or " panning out " in a smaller pan.
The precipitate is collected in a filter-press, and then roasted in muffle furnaces with nitre, borax and sodium carbonate.
In the same edition are collected the various fragments of the Targum Jerushalmi, which are to be found in the early editions of the Pentateuch and in part also in various manuscripts.
After travelling in Europe, he visited the East in 1637, where he collected a considerable number of Arabic, Persian and Greek manuscripts, and made a more accurate survey of the pyramids of Egypt than any traveller who had preceded him.
In the first letter of the first book Pliny states that he has collected certain of his letters without regard to chronological order (non servato temporis ordine).
Sculptures in large numbers, both of the Greek city and the Roman, are collected in the new museum erected by the Greek government near the plane tree.
Its catkins are collected in England in celebration of Palm Sunday, the bright-coloured flowers being available in early spring when other decorations of the kind are scarce.
Its merchants in 1686 owned forty ships, of a total carrying power of 3300 tons, and the customs collected were close upon X20,000.
Hence arise the springs which run perennially, several of which have been collected into the gravitation water supplies of the Vignacourt and Fawara aqueducts.
When the leaves are cut the juice flows out, and is collected and evaporated.
Various computations were made at different times, from Biblical sources, as to the age of the world; and Des Vignoles, in the preface to his Chronology of Sacred History, asserts that he collected upwards of two hundred different calculations, the shortest of which reckons only 3483 years between the creation of the world and the commencement of the vulgar era and the longest 6984.
It is believed to have been in use from the very time of its origin; for the observations of eclipses which were collected in Chaldaea by Callisthenes, the general of Alexander, and transmitted by him to Aristotle, were for the greater part referred to the beginning of the reign of Nabonassar, founder of the kingdom of the Babylonians.
In it he collected with great fulness and discussed with marked moderation the arguments against Johannine authorship. This called forth a number of replies.
Indian literature supplies few data for the period, and the available information has been collected chiefly from notices in Chinese annals, from inscriptions found in India, and above all from coins.
Anything the rodents may meet with on their journeys, such as thistle-stalks or bones, are collected and deposited on the viscachera.
In the 27th of September the Dutch appeared in force off the mouth of the Thames, and Blake, whose fleet was collected in the Downs, stood to sea.
Penn was recalled from the north, Richard Deane and George Monk were united with Blake as "admirals and generals at sea," and a competent force was collected by the middle of February.
On the 18th of February 1653 the Dutch admiral, who had now collected the homeward-bound convoys, was off Plymouth on his way back to Holland, and was attacked by the English fleet.
Louis' own army, originally collected for the relief of Charleroi in December, advanced on Maastricht, and after a brief siege, in which Vauban directed the besiegers, captured this most important fortress (June 29th, 1673).
A collected edition of his works was published in Leipzig and Gorlitz in 1734.
Local revenues are collected by the revenue office.
After his death his papers were collected and published by his cousin and successor in the Plumian chair, Dr Robert Smith, under the title Harmonia Mensurarum (1722).
He attended lectures on grammar, and his favourite work was St Augustine's De civitate Dei, He caused Frankish sagas to be collected, began a grammar of his native tongue, and spent some of his last hours in correcting a text of the Vulgate.
La destruction de Rome is a 13th-century version of the older chanson of the emir Balan, who collected an army in Spain and sailed to Rome.
The "cash on delivery" or "collect on delivery" system, known as C.O.D., is one whereby a tradesman can, through a delivery agency, send goods to a customer, and have the money due to him collected on the delivery of the same, with a guarantee from the carrier that, if no money be collected, the goods shall be returned.
The Hydrographic Office of the United States had collected 3800 meteorological logs with 3,200,000 entries before 1888; but since that time the logs have contained only one observation daily (at Greenwich noon) and of these 2,380.000 entries had been received by 1904.
Larger quantities of deposit may be conveniently collected by means of the dredge, which can be worked in any depth and brings up large stones, concretionary nodules or fossils, of the existence of which a sounding-tube could give no indication.
Red clay is the deposit peculiar to the abysmal area; 70 carefully investigated samples collected by the " Challenger " came from an average depth of 2730 fathoms, 97 specimens collected by the " Tuscarora " came from an average depth of 2860 fathoms, and 26 samples obtained by the " Albatross " in the Central Pacific came from an average depth of 2620 fathoms. Red clay has not yet been found in depths less than 2200 fathoms. The main ingredient of the deposit is a stiff clay which is plastic when fresh, but dries to a stony hardness.
Pettersson in 1894, two portions of sea-water are collected in glass tubes which have been exhausted of air, coated internally with mercuric chloride to prevent the putrefaction of any organisms, and sealed up beforehand.
In the second portion the carbonic acid is driven out by means of a current of hydrogen, collected over mercury and absorbed by caustic potash.
The older, devised by Hooke in 1667, is provided with valves above and below, both opening upward, through which the water passes freely during descent, but which are closed by some device on hauling up. The newer or slip water-bottle type consists of a cylinder allowed to drop on to a base-plate when a sample is tro be collected.
In deep water the closing mechanism is usually actuated by a screw propeller which begins to work when the line is being hauled in and can be set so as to close the waterbottle in a very few fathoms. A small but heavy water-bottle has been devised by Martin Knudsen, provided with a pressure gauge or bathometer, by which samples may be collected from any moderate depth down to about roc fathoms, on board a vessel going at full speed.
The value of his work consists not only in the stores of material which he collected, but also in the success with which he dealt with many of the problems raised by the inscriptions.
The earliest collected edition of his works, Historia et monumenta Joannis Hus et Hieronymi Pragensis, was published at Nuremberg in 1558 and was reprinted with a considerable quantity of new matter at Frankfort in 1715.
He collected all the money he could command, between £3000 and £4000, lent it to Congress before he set sail, and arrived at Paris on the 22nd of December.
Franklin wrote a paper on the causes of earthquakes for his Gazette of the 15th of December 1737; and he eagerly collected material to uphold his theory that waterspouts and whirlwinds resulted from the same causes.
Franklin's works were not collected in his own lifetime, and he made no effort to publish his writings.
The valuable Frankliniana collected by Henry Stevens were purchased by Congress in 1885.
He continued in service as a military officer, and was commandant of the second battalion of the regiment "Asturias," which formed part of the army collected at Cadiz
A small amount of tortoise-shell is collected.
It reviews all the abuses, declares that the German people are the victims of war, devastation and dearth, and that the common man is beginning to comment on the vast amount of wealth that is collected for expeditions against the Turk through indulgences or otherwise, and yet no expedition takes place.
But such attacks were rare and isolated and were not intended to effect a breach in the solid ramparts of the medieval Church, but rather to exhibit the ingenuity of the critic. In the libraries collected under humanistic influences the patristic writers, both Latin and Greek, and the scholastic doctors are conspicuous.
It would appear, however, that the production of power alcohol within the British Empire from waste materials, which can be collected and treated at low cost, offers the best chance of the solution of the problem of the supply to the United Kingdom of an alternative liquid fuel for internal-combustion engines.
The yearly fairs at these places received the imports from Europe and the colonial trade of the Pacific coast, first collected at Panama and then carried over the isthmus.
Many of his theological writings were collected in one volume (Paris, 1622), and at the time of his death in 1623 he was engaged on a translation of the New Testament which is still in manuscript.
It still means " doctrine " when the collected decreta of Trent bear on their title-page (1564) reference to an Index dogmatum et reformationis; but here " dogma " is already verging towards the narrower and more precise sense - truth defined by church authority.