I collected coins when I was younger.
She then pushed the three smaller denomination coins across the coffee table toward Fred.
She squeezed the coins in her hand.
She lifted both coins and looked down.
I kicked in more coins to our marriage than Paul ever did.
"Sounds like your coins are worth about three times what Claire's are," Dean said, and then asked, "how did you make out with the blonde bombshell?"
Rostov took the money and, mechanically arranging the old and new coins in separate piles, began counting them.
of Coins of Greek and Scythic Kings of Bactria and India, Brit.
The herm is a dry work and the head upon the coins shows various degrees of idealization.
I spent my last coins calling you!
During the excavations on Chatham Hill after 1758 a number of tumuli containing human remains, pottery, coins, &c., suggestive of an ancient settlement, were found.
Not only this here coded notebook but questions like why was a minister's wife squirreling away $27.50 in gold coins in her comb?
2.) The greatest masters of the time executed portraits of him, Lysippus in sculpture, Apelles in painting and Pyrgoteles in graven gems. Among surviving monuments, we have no completely certified portraits except the Tivoli herm (now in the Louvre) and the coins struck by his successors.
A Roman road may have run past the site; coins, &c., have been found, and the district at any rate was inhabited in Roman times.
The coins demonstrate that Hellenism had become quite extinct in Persis, while the old historical and mythical traditions and the Zoroastrian religion were supreme.
Gold coins (dinars) of this caliph are extant on which al Reza's name appears with the title of heir-apparent.
See also Desjardins, Geographie historique et administrative de la Gaule romaine (Paris, 18 77); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (Paris, 1877); for Caesar's campaigns, article CAESAR, JULIUS, and works quoted; for coins, art.
447; few traces remain of the Roman city, but more than one hundred types of its coins attest its importance.
With very few exceptions only the name AP/AKHI (with various epithets) occurs on the coins of the Parthian kings, and the obverse generally shows the seated figure of the founder of the dynasty, holding in his hand a strung bow.
Coins of Cyprus (London, 1904), (Coins).
Its reputed founders were Heracles and Apollo, who frequently appear on its coins: the former of these names may point to the influence of Phoenician traders, who, we know, visited the Laconian shores at a very early period.
Mommsen (Unteritalische Dialekten, p. 345) pointed out that in the social war all the coins of Pompaedius Silo have the Latin legend "Italia," while the other leaders in all but one case used Oscan.
His coins bore the heads of Augustus and Tiberius, and his government was worthy of the best Roman traditions - he succeeded where proconsuls had failed.
This tribe, called Bruttii and Brittii in Latin inscriptions, and Bpirrtot on Greek coins and by Greek authors, occupied the south-western peninsula of Italy in historical times, the ager Bruttius (wrongly called Bruttium) corresponding almost exactly to the modern Calabria.
Centuries ago, North America saw a shortage of small coins, so large ones were cut into bits to circulate as small change.
"Flip five coins and hope they all come up the same," I cautioned.
Dean figured, This bitch isn't going to let go of these newly discovered century-old coins without a hell of a fight.
"You could perhaps give Mr. O'Connor the little coins," Effie offered.
He then added, "But when your sister was so snooty about the coins and other items and short changed Fred O'Connor, we decided to keep the notebook."
She and her husband related their conversation with Effie to Fred, how she had read the notebook, her comments regarding the gold coins, and their new, more respectful evaluation of Miss Effie Quincy.
Now that you're going to make a little money on those gold coins, added to what you took in on that Flotsam Electronics stock last June, maybe you should consider seeing the light and turning Republican.
He located a public telephone and, with a pocketful of coins, he commenced dialing.
Dean spent a pocket full of coins before he found the one housing the person for whom he was searching.
Megan dug some coins and her calling card from her purse.
Thus (though earlier Indian and Bactrian coins do not show it) it is found with the gods on some of the coins of the Indian kings Kanishka, Huvishka and Vasudeva, 58 B.C. to A.D.
Larissa, written Larisa on ancient coins and inscriptions, is near the site of the Homeric Argissa.
Silver coins of Carthaea and Coressia have been found dating from the 6th century B.C.
In the 3rd century we find it issuing coins with an Oscan legend, but in 211 B.C. it shared the fate of Capua.
The fact that the Aeginetan scale of coins, weights and measures was one of the two scales in general use in the Greek world is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island.
Of the Zeus we have unfortunately lost all trace save small copies on coins of Elis, which give us but a general notion of the pose, and the character of the head.
In ancient sculptures and coins he is represented as a young man, habited like a shepherd, and sometimes carrying a sheep on his shoulders.
It contains, besides a fine library, a collection of the presents he received during his long career; numerous autographs, and other historical relics, a collection of rare coins, armour, portraits and various minerals.
His fine collections of manuscripts and coins was purchased by the British Museum.
He holds supreme command by land and sea, appoints ministers and officials, promulgates the laws, coins money, bestows honors, has the right of pardoning, and summons and dissolves the parliament.
From the 8th to the 11th century a commercial route from India passed through Novgorod to the Baltic, and Arabian coins found in Sweden, and particularly in the island of Gotland, prove how closely the enterprise of the Northmen and of the Arabs intertwined.
Five-sixths of these coins preserved at Stockholm were from the mints of the Samanian dynasty, which reigned in Khorasan and Transoxiana from about A.D.
For three years and a half he held his own and issued coins in the name of Simon, which commemorate the liberation of Jerusalem.
To these may be added the industrial museum, the cabinet of coins, the museum of natural history, the collection of majolica vases in the new palace, and the Wurttemberg museum of antiquities.
The old man, Liam, had fed her and given her a handful of euro coins before putting her on the ferry.
"I hope you're not going to try and tell me these coins are yours," she snapped to Fred.
The mines were known to the Carthaginians, as discoveries of lamps, coins, &c. (now in the museum at Cagliari), testify.
The vivid narrative of his career given by Lucian might be taken as fictitious but for the corroboration of certain coins of the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius (J.
Coins of Ceos exhibit the head of Aristaeus and Sirius in the form of a dog crowned with rays.
She unwrapped the paper to reveal seven gold coins.
"Here, take them," she said, handing Fred the comb and brush, but not the coins.
Cynthia came out of the parlor, followed by Fred, who was still seething over Claire Quincy's appropriation of the gold coins.
And," she added, "three gold coins.
My own flesh and blood, selling herself to half-drunk miners for a few gold coins.
Then she added, And tell that nice Mr. O'Connor not to spend his $2.50 gold coins.
What's this business about my coins?
Thus at Ozieri the men wear ordinary jackets and trousers with a velvet waistcoat; the shepherds of the Sulcis wear short black trousers without kilt and heavy black sheepskin coats, and the two rows of waistcoat buttons are generally silver or copper coins.
Other buildings of note are the massive episcopal palace (1470-1500), afterwards a royal palace, and the old gymnasium founded by Gustavus Adolphus in 1627, which contains the valuable library of old books and manuscripts belonging to the diocese and state college, and collection of coins and antiquities.
A half, fifth and tenth of a peso are coined in silver, in addition to bronze coins.
Coin Catalogue, Crete, &c.; P. Gardner, The Types of Greek Coins), which during the good period display a peculiarly picturesque artistic style distinct from that of the rest of the Greek world, and sometimes indicative of a revival of Minoan types.
The coins were of standard purity (or higher); they are now very rare.
and fine collections of coins and armour.
71,00,000 of Bhopali coins were converted.
The cathedral, of the 12th century, has a carved portal and three apses decorated with small arches and pilasters, and contains a fine pulpit and episcopal throne in marble mosaic. Near it are two grottos 1 To the period after 335 belong numerous silver and bronze coins with the legend Caleno.
1 Here the satrap Andragoras appears to have shaken off the Seleucid supremacy, as he struck gold and silver coins in his own name, on which he wears the diadem, although not the royal title (Gardner, Numism.
probably belong the earliest Parthian coins; the oldest simply bear the name Arsaces; others, evidently struck after the coronation in Asaak, have the royal title (ifictutMcos 'Apob.Kcv).
on the coins) are almost always called Arsaces, whereas the historians generally use their individual names.
Wroth, Catalogue of the Coins of Parthia in the British Museum (London, 1903), who carefully revised the statements of his predecessors.
The provincial museum contains antiquities and especially coins from the ancient cities of Magna Graecia, and a few pictures.
of Asia, and were brought, through Russian caravans, even so far as to Pomerania, Sweden and Norway, where Samanid coins have been found in great number, were in their turn overthrown by a more youthful and vigorous race, that of Sabuktagin, which founded the illustrious Ghaznevid dynasty and the Mussulman empire of India.
Our knowledge of the Indian Hunas is chiefly derived from coins, from a few inscriptions distributed from the Punjab to central India, and from the account of the Chinese pilgrim Hsuan Tsang, who visited the country just a century after the death of Mihiragula.
Many of his coins bear the Nandi bull (Siva's emblem), and the king's name is preceded by the title sahi (shah), which had previously been used by the Kushan dynasty.
Spon brought back many valuable treasures, coins, inscriptions and manuscripts, and in later years published various important works on archaeology, notably his Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant (1678), and a Histoire de la republique de Geneve (1680).
His coins of 270 struck at Alexandria bear the legend v(ir) c(onsularis) R(omanorum) im(perator) d(ux) R(omanorum) and display his head beside that of Aurelian, but the latter alone is styled Augustus.
Wahab-allath(5th year)begins to issue coins at Alexandria without the head of Aurelian and bearing the imperial title; and Zenobia's coins bear the same.
She was worshipped, under the form of a conical stone, in an open-air sanctuary of the usual Cypriote type (not unlike those of Mycenaean Greece), the general form of which is known from representations on late gems, and on Roman imperial coins;' its ground plan was discovered by excavations in 1888.2 It suffered repeatedly from earthquakes, and was rebuilt more than once; in Roman times it consisted of an open court, irregularly quadrangular, with porticos and chambers on three sides, and a gateway through them on the east.
The position of the sacred stone, and the interpretation of many details shown on the gems and coins, remain uncertain.
Coins of Cyprus (London, 1904) (coins); art.
The Corinthian Li LJi and (also at Corcyra) and the of Byzantine coins are other adaptations of the same symbol.
Tortosa, the Dertosa of Strabo and the Colonia Julia Augusta Dertosa of numerous coins, was a city of the Ilercaones in Hispania Tarraconensis.
Schlumberger has written on the coins and seals of the Latin East in various publications; while Rey has written an Etude sur les monuments de l'architecture militaire (Paris, 1871).
On coins, see article NUMISMATICS, and Dieudonne, Mélanges numism.
But about the year 1452 he finally retired to Florence, where he was admitted to the burghership, and on the death of Carlo Aretino in 1453 was appointed chancellor and historiographer to the republic. He had already built himself a villa in Valdarno, which he adorned with a collection of antique sculpture, coins and inscriptions.
A large hoard of coins was found here in 1891.
'ASptctvos : and numerous inscriptions and coins.
20-38; see also SICILY: History, and SYRACUSE; for his coins see NUMISMATICS: Sicily.
Numerous less distinguished adepts also practised the art, and sometimes were so successful in their deceptions that they gained the ear of kings, whose desire to profit by the achievements of science was in several instances rewarded by an abundant crop of counterfeit coins.
The day of its dedication (August i) corresponded with the birthday of Claudius, which explains the frequent occurrence of Spes on the coins of that emperor.
In the Academy is a valuable collection of coins superintended by Svoronos.
(8) Coins: B.
No more is known of the place until it appears as Germanicia-Caesarea, striking imperial coins with the head of L.
Tradition tells of an older town buried under the sea; and Roman coins and other remains have been washed up on the beach.
Roman coins and other remains have been found at this place, and an urn appears built into the wall of an inn.
of Asoka, of the Guptas of Maghada, or of the ancient Hindu kingdom of Vidarbha (Berar); and inscriptions and numerous discoveries of coins prove that, during the middle ages, the open spaces were occupied by a series o Rajput dynasties.
Alexander's gold coinage, indeed (possibly not struck till after the invasion of Asia), follows in weight that of Philip's staters; but he seems at once to have adopted for his silver coins (of a smaller denomination than the tetradrachm) the Euboic-Attic standard, instead of the Phoenician, which had been Philip's.
None of the coins with Alexander's own image can be shown to have been issued during his reign; the traditional gods of the Greeks still admitted no living man to share their prerogative in this sphere.
" Greek Coins, Macedonian."
AvT17rarpos), and coins began to be issued with his image.
From this date onwards coins bearing its Semitic name, Ras Melkart, become common, and it was obviously an important border fortress.
Heraclea Sintica, a town in Thracian Macedonia, to the south of the Strymon, the site of which is marked by the village of Zervokhori, and identified by the discovery of local coins.
At any rate it was a notable trading-place and emporium as early as the Stone Age, and continued to enjoy its importance as such through the Bronze and Iron Ages, as is proved, inter alia, by the large number of Arabic, Anglo-Saxon and other coins which have been found on the island..
In the days of its independence it issued an important series of coins, and in luxury it vied with Capua.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
The gold coins issued were 500, 250, 100, 50, and 25 piastres in value, the weight of the loo-piastre piece (Turkish pound), 7 .
The silver coins were of 20, 10, 5, 2, I and 2 piastre in value, the 20-piastre piece weighing 24.055 grammes, .830 fine.
The heavy depreciation in silver causing large losses to the government, free coinage was suspended in 1880, and the nominal value of the mejidie was reduced by decree to 19 piastres (105.26 piastres thus = £T1), while in the same year the debased currencies were reduced, altilik, the 6-piastre piece to 5 piastres, the 3-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 12-piastre piece to 14 piastre; beshlik, the 5-piastre piece to 22 piastres, the 22-piastre piece to 1;-piastre; metallik, the 1-piastre piece to 2 piastre, the 2-piastre piece to 4 piastre, the *-piastre piece to a piastre - these values representing approximately the intrinsic value of the silver, at mejidie standard, contained in the debased coins.
The 20-piastre mejidie currency, in spite of the further enormous depreciation of silver since 1880, has scarcely varied in the Constantinople market, but has always remained at a discount of about 3% (between 108 and 109 piastres to the pound) under government rate; this is doubtless due to the fact that the demand and supply of the coins in that market are very evenly balanced.
The fractional mejidie coins (5, 2 and 1 piastres) are quoted at a separate rate in the market, usually at a premium over the 20-piastre piece.
Foreign gold coins, especially the pound sterling (par value 110 piastres) and the French 20-franc piece (par value 872 piastres) have free currency.
In his 1910 budget speech the minister of finance, Javid Bey, demanded authority to create a new aluminium coinage of 5, 10, 20 and 40 para pieces, of which he would issue, in the course of three years, a nominal amount of £T1,000,000 to those provinces in which there was a great scarcity of small coins.
As to ancient coins, and all kinds of treasure of which the proprietor is unknown, reference must be made to the Dustur, No.
The Thracians of the region from Olympus to the Pangaean district, usually regarded as rude tribes, had from a very early time worked the gold and silver of that region, had begun to strike coins almost as early as the Greeks, and displayed on them much artistic skill and originality of types.
197 sqq.; on coins found in 1909, see Jameson in Rev. Num.
Inscriptions and coins show that its civilization consisted of a layer of Roman ideas and customs superimposed on Celtic tribal characteristics.
For coins, Brit.
The form of the name Hadrumetum varied much in antiquity; the Greeks called it ASpbµns, 'ASpbµnros, 'ASpa o rns, ASpaµn-ros: the Romans Adrumetum, Adrimetum, Hadrumetum, Hadrymetum, &c.; inscriptions and coins gave Hadrumetum.
The town had no Punic coins, but under the Roman domination there were coins from the time of the Republic. These are of bronze and bear the name of the city in abbreviations, Hadr or HadrVM accompanying the head of Neptune or the Sun.
Under Augustus the coins have on the obverse the imperial effigy, and on the reverse the names and often the effigies of the pro-consuls who governed the province, P. Quintilius Varus, L.
According to tradition the temple of Minerva, founded by Diomede, contained the Trojan Palladium, and the town struck numerous bronze coins; but in history it is first heard of as on the Roman side in the Samnite Wars (321 B.C.), and in 315 or 314 B.C. a Latin colony was sent here.
P. Sextilius, pro praetor Africae, according to coins of Hadrumetum of the year 94 B.C. The towns which had fought on the side of the Romans during the Third Punic War were declared civitates liberae, and became exceedingly prosperous.
Metallic money is limited to nickel and bronze coins, but in 1906 the government was authorized to purchase bar silver for the coinage of pieces of the denomination of two milreis, one milreis and 500 reis (2-milreis).
Coins: Catalogue of Greek Coins in the British Museum: Peloponnesus (London, 1887), xlvi.
8) calls himself on his coins " Mazdai, who is [placed] over the country beyond the Euphrates and Cilicia."
It successfully resisted the attacks of Hannibal; and it is noteworthy that it continued to strike copper coins even under Augustus and Tiberius.
Thurii had a democratic constitution and good laws, and, though we hear little of its history till in 390 it received a severe defeat from the rising power of the Lucanians, many beautiful coins testify to the wealth and splendour of its days of prosperity.
Of the Cappadocian rulers the best-known one ("PhiloRomaeus" on the coins) reigned nominally from 93 to 63 B.C., but was three times expelled by Mithradates the Great and as often reinstated by Roman generals.
Discovery of Roman coins makes it probable that it was once occupied by the Romans.
Towards the second half of the 2nd century B.C. this kingdom seems to have become the nucleus of a great state under Scilurus, whose name appears on coins of Olbia, and who at the same time threatened Chersonese in the Crimea.
It is doubtful whether this should be distinguished from the o-TE¢avos, a crown of the same breadth and design all round, as on the coins of Argos with the head of Hera, who is expressly said by Pausanias to wear a stephanos.
94) and Xenophanes of Colophon, the Lydians were the first coiners of money at the beginning of the 7th century, and, further, the oldest known Aeginetan coins are of later date than Pheidon.
Foreign coins were formerly legal tender in the republic, but this has been changed by the exclusion of foreign silver coins and the acceptance of foreign gold coins as a commodity at a fixed value.
By Diodorus 33, 18 he is praised as a mild ruler; and the fact that from 140 he takes on his coins the epithet Philhellen (W.
Wroth, Catalogue of the Coins of Parthia, p. 14 seq.; till then he only calls himself "the great king Arsakes") shows that he tried to conciliate his Greek subjects.
The site has been excavated by the Greek Archaeological Society; it contained a temple, a sacred spring, into which coins were thrown by worshippers, altars and porticoes, and a small theatre, of which the proscenium is well preserved.
The monuments of Persepolis and the coins of the Sassanians show that the religious use of incense was as common in ancient Persia as in Babylonia and Assyria.
The begging fakirs also go about with a lighted stick of incense in one hand, and holding out with the other an incense-holder (literally, "incense chariot"), into which the coins of the pious are thrown.
The great building in Bloomsbury (1828-1852) with its massive Ionic portico, houses the collections of antiquities, coins, books, manuscripts and drawings, and contains the reading-rooms for the use of readers.
Smith has, however, still stronger arguments, which he states as follows: " Throughout the entire line of the old bridge, the bed of the river was found to contain ancient wooden piles; and when these piles, subsequently to the erection of the new bridge, were pulled up to deepen the channel of the river, many thousands of Roman coins, with abundance of broken Roman tiles and pottery, were discovered, and immediately beneath some of the central piles brass medallions of Aurelius, Faustina and Commodus.
The enormous quantities of Roman coins may be accounted for by consideration of the well-known practice of the Romans to make these imperishable monuments subservient towards perpetuating the memory, not only of their conquests, but also of those public works which were the natural result of their successes in remote parts of the world.
The early Pamphylians, like the Lycians, had an alphabet of their own, partly Greek, partly "Asianic," which a few inscriptions on marble and coins preserve.
The coins of Aspendus, though of Greek character, bear legends in a barbarous dialect; and probably the Pamphylians were of Asiatic origin and mixed race.
A few more names of kings occur on coins, which were struck in Greek characters till about A.D.
700, after which time that language seems definitely to have been displaced in favour of Ethiopic or Geez: the condition of the script and the coins renders them all difficult to identify with the names preserved in the native lists, which are too fanciful and mutually contradictory to furnish of themselves even a vestige of history.
Coins found here bearing the inscription KatXLvcov prove that it was once an independent town.
Its coins were widely diffused in S.
It was formerly a resort of pilgrims, and Roman coins have been found in the vicinity.
A number of coins have been brought to the British Museum from Aden, San'a and Ma'rib.
It contains a rich collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities; of coins and medals, and of industrial art.
Knowledge of ancient Iberian language and history is mainly derived from a variety of coins, found widely distributed in the peninsula,' and also in the neighbourhood of Narbonne.
The commonest reverse type, a charging horseman, reappears on the Roman coins of Bilbilis, Osca, Segobriga and other places.
The survival of the non-Aryan language among the Basques around the west Pyrenees has suggested the attempt to interpret by its means a large class of similarsounding place-names of ancient Spain, some of which are authenticated by their occurrence on the inscribed coins, and to link it with other traces of non-Aryan speech round the shores of the Western Mediterranean and on the Atlantic seaboard of Europe.
There are small silver and copper coins, which are legal tenders for amounts not exceeding two dollars and one dollar respectively.
The ethnographical museum, the cabinet of coins, and the collections of fossils, minerals, and physical and optical instruments, are also worthy of mention.
By means of his coins his accession may be dated with practical certainty at A.D.
Tomaschek, Die alten Thraker (Vienna, 1893); and for the coins of the Bisaltic kings, B.
As a memorial of the miraculous interference, the Byzantines erected an altar to Torch-bearing Hecate, and stamped a crescent on their coins, a device which is retained by the Turks to this day.
It also contains a fine collection of coins.
in inscriptions and on coins).] Polemoniacus included the sea-coast from the Thermodon to Cotyora and the inland cities Zela, Magnopolis, Megalopolis, Neocaesarea and Sebasteia (according to Ptolemy, but apparently annexed since 2 B.C., according to its coins).
About 488 B.C. Anaxilas and the Samians occupied Zancle in the absence of Skythes, and it was then that the name was changed to Messene, as the existence of coins of the Samian type, bearing the new name, proves.
z This account is at variance with the literary evidence and rests on that of the coins, as set forth by I.
Coins bearing the inscription "Khokand the Charming," and known as khokands, have or had a wide currency.
DELPHI (the Pytho of Homer and Herodotus; in Boeotian inscriptions BeXcboi, on coins AaX001), a place in ancient Greece in the territory of Phocis, famous as the seat of the most important temple and oracle of Apollo.
Copper plates amalgamated with mercury are also used when the gold is very fine, and in some instances amalgamated silver coins have been used for the same purpose.
This arch appears on Roman coins from Augustus to Commodus; according to Pausanias it bore two four-horse chariots, one driven by Helios and the other by Phaethon, his son, all in gilded bronze.
He is credited with having brought about a reduction of the quantity of silver in the smaller coins; he was the author of the Tariff Act of 1857 and of the bonded-warehouse system, and was one of the first to advocate civil service reform.
Many Arab coins, some Kufic inscriptions and several burial-places were left by the Arabs; but they did not establish their religion or leave a permanent impression on the Phoenician inhabitants, or deprive the Maltese language of the characteristics which differentiate it from Arabic. There is no historical evidence that the domination of the Goths and Vandals in the Mediterranean ever extended to Malta: there are fine Gothic arches in two old palaces at Notabile, but these were built after the Norman conquest of Malta.
inra roi TE-yEar eoi /vvOL 4 tou (Athens, 1896); for coins: B.
The scope of the archaeologist's studies must include every department of the ancient history of man as preserved in antiquities of whatever character, be they tumuli along the Baltic, fossil skulls and graven bones from the caves of France, the flint implements, pottery, and mummies of Egypt, tablets and bas-reliefs from Mesopotamia, coins and sculptures of Greece and Rome, or inscriptions, waxen tablets, parchment rolls, and papyri of a relatively late period of classical antiquity.
Indian literature supplies few data for the period, and the available information has been collected chiefly from notices in Chinese annals, from inscriptions found in India, and above all from coins.
Their coins show a remarkable union of characteristics, derived from many nations.
On the obverse is generally the king, who, in the earlier coins at any rate, wears a long open coat, knee boots and a tall cap - clearly the costume of a nomad from the north.
Such of the inscriptions on their coins as are not in Greek or an Indian language are in a form of Persian written in Greek uncials.
The physical type represented on these coins has a strong prominent nose, large eyes, a moderately abundant beard and somewhat thick or projecting lips.
See Vincent Smith, Early History of India (1908); Hoernle and Stark, History of India (1905); Rapson, Indian Coins (1898); Gardner, Coins of Greek and Scythian Kings in India (1886); Franke, Beitrage aus Chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Tiirkvolker und.
It was borne by several dynasts of Persis, when it formed an independent kingdom in the time of the Parthian empire (on their coins they call themselves Artakhshathr; one of them is mentioned by Lucian, Macrobii, 15), and by three kings of the Sassanid dynasty, who are better known under the modern form Ardashir.
The confidence which existed between Trajan and his army finds expression in some of the coins of his reign.
(2) (From Tamil kasu, Sinhalese kasi, a small coin, adopted by Portuguese as caixa, a box, and similarly assimilated in English to "cash" above), a name given by English residents in the East to native coins of small value, and particularly to the copper coinage of China, the native name for which is tsien.
On the coins of the later Roman emperors she is frequently represented holding a cornucopia, from which she shakes her gifts, thereby at the same time in dicating the liberality of the emperor or empress.
The Evangelical parish church contains some fine statues by Christian Rauch, and the palace (built 1710-1720), in addition to a valuable library of 30,000 vols., a collection of coins and pictures, among the latter several by Angelica Kauffmann.
Some of the emperors wore crowns on occasion, as Caligula and Domitian, at the games, and stellate or spike crowns are depicted on the heads of several of the emperors on their coins, but no idea of imperial sovereignty was indicated thereby.
Pictorial representations in early manuscripts, and the rude effigies on their coins, are not very helpful in deciding as to the form of crown worn by the Anglo-Saxon and Danish kings of England before the Norman Conquest.
We reach surer ground after the Conquest, for then the great seals, monumental effigies, and coins become more and more serviceable in determining the forms the crown took.
14 shows the form of crown used by Edward VI., but a tendency (not shown in the illustration) began of flattening the arches of the crown, and on some of the coins of Elizabeth the arches are not merely flattened, but are depressed in the centre, much after the character of the arches of the crown on many of the silver coins of the 19th century prior to 1887.
The crown which strangely enough surmounts the shield with the arms of the Commonwealth on the coins of Oliver Cromwell (as distinguished from those of the Commonwealth itself, which have no crown) is a royal crown with alternate crosses and fleurs-de-lys round the circlet, and is surmounted by three arches, which, though somewhat flattened, are not bent.
It was walled, and inscribed stones, coins, pottery, &c., have been found.
Though the name Trecht or Trajectum is almost universally found in old documents and on coins, the town was known by another name among the Frisians and Franks.
Some coins of Venusia of this period exist.
They had a temple and altar on the Via Sacra, near the Palatine, and were represented on coins as young men wearing the chlamys, carrying lances, seated, with a dog, the emblem of watchfulness, at their feet.
Its history in the Samnite period is unknown; but the coins of Fistelia (or Fistlus in Oscan) probably belong to Puteoli, as Mommsen thought.
mynt), a place where coins are manufactured with the authority of the state.
Coins are pieces of metal, of weight and composition fixed by law, with a design upon them, also fixed by law, by which they are identified, their value made known and their genuineness certified.
The earliest metallic money did not consist of coins, but of unminted metal in the form of rings and other ornaments or of weapons, which were used for thousands of years by the Egyptian, Chaldean and Assyrian Empires.
Coins may be made by casting in moulds or by striking between engraved dies.
The Romans cast their larger copper coins, in clay moulds carrying distinctive markings, not because they knew nothing of striking, but because it was not suitable for such large masses of metal.
The most ancient coins were cast in bulletshaped or conical moulds and marked on one side by means of a die which was struck with a hammer.
Olivier introduced screw presses for striking coins, together with rolls for reducing the cast bars and machines for punching-out round disks from flattened sheets of metal, in Paris in 1553.
The Romans at first imported their coins, and no Roman mints were established until about the end of the 3rd century, when coins were being struck at London and Colchester.
Copper coins were struck by Boulton at Soho, Birmingham, 4 H.
Grueber, Coins of Great Britain and Ireland, p. viii.
There is another mint in Birmingham worked by a private company (" The Mint, Birmingham, Limited "), where coinages for foreign governments are executed and in addition silver and bronze colonial coins are occasionally manufactured under the supervision of the London Mint.
Turning to mints in British Dominions beyond the Seas, Ruding enumerates twenty-six mints in France and Flanders used by British monarchs between 1186 and 1513, and Anglo-Hanoverian coins were struck at Clausthal, Zellerfeld and Hanover in the period 1714-1837.
The Bombay mint was set up about the year 1671, but the coins were made by hammer and anvil until 1800.
A mint at Ottawa was opened in 1908 for the manufacture of all Canadian coins as well as English sovereigns.
Hocking, Catalogue of Coins in the Royal Mint, i.
Silver coins are not weighed but are selected for withdrawal when they present a worn appearance.
The remedy for English silver coins varies from 2 grains or 4.58 per moo in the case of the crown, to 0.087 grain or 11.97 per moo in the case of the silver penny.
The remedies for weight on foreign coins are in general greater than those allowed in the British Empire, averaging 2 per moo for gold coins.
In England the remedy for fineness is 2 per moo on gold coins and 4 per moo on silver coins above and below the legal standard.
Thus gold coins would be within the limits if they contained between 914.6 and 918.6 parts of gold per 1000.
In the case of very large silver coins only one blank is cut in the width of the fillet, but bronze fillets are made wider so that three penny blanks are cut out at each stroke of the machine.
This is still done in the case of many foreign coins.
Like the graining or " milling " on the edge of many coins, the inscriptions were intended to put a stop to the practice of clipping and filing coins, which was prevalent in the 16th and 17th centuries.
A similar method was formerly used for gold coins in England and is still employed in some mints.
of many foreign coins, are put on by the marking machine, and a plain collar is used in striking.
The at the Mint strike from 90 to 125 coins per minute, most of them working at the rate of Iio coins per minute.
Gold and silver coins are examined and tested by ringing, and each coin is then weighed separately by being passed over delicate automatic balances.
The first automatic balance for weighing single coins was introduced at the Bank of England in 1843, and was designed by William Cotton, the deputy governor of the Bank.
For mint use it is necessary that they shall distinguish between " light," " heavy " and " good " coins which do not differ from standard by more than the small weight known as the " remedy " (see above).
The coins are placed in a rouleau in the hopper C and the lowest one is pushed on to the pan B by a slide not shown in the figure.
The middle step and slot are for coins within the remedy.
Each slot leads into a separate compartment and the coins are consequently sorted into three classes, light, correct weight and heavy.
The driving power is applied by shafting through a number of cams. In the Royal Mint both light and heavy coins are returned to the melting pot.
Since 1870 no adjusting of the weight of coins has been attempted at the Royal Mint.
The counting or telling is now carried out in the case of bronze and silver coins by ingenious machines introduced in 1891.
The coins are spread on an inclined table by hand.
The coins are then gripped by a pair of india-rubber driving wheels, which force them past the rim of a thin disk with notches in its edge to fit the coins.
As the disk is thus made to revolve, the coins are pushed forward, and falling down a shoot are received in a bag.
The machine can be set to deliver a certain number of coins, after which the counting wheel stops automatically.
- Periodical examinations of the coins issued by the Mint have been made from very early times in England by persons appointed by the Crown.
At intervals these coins are weighed and assayed by a jury of skilled persons and the results reported to the Crown.
Coins from the London and Australian mints are examined.
Coins of foreign mints are generally submitted to examination by a committee of eminent chemists and metallurgists whose report is published in the official journals.
Coins of the time of Alexander the Great, found on the island of Oesel, show that the coasts of the Baltic were at an early period in commercial relation with the civilized world.
The last variety is both the most ancient and the most commonly found, and is the sacred barley of antiquity, ears of which are frequently represented plaited in the hair of the goddess Ceres, besides being figured on ancient coins.
It was the capital of the British chief Cunobelin and is named on his coins: after his death and the Roman conquest of south Britain, the Romans established (about A.D.
Heliopolis was made a colonia probably by Octavian (coins of 1 st century A.D.), and there must have been a Baal temple there in which Trajan consulted the oracle.
The foundation of the present buildings, however, dates from Antoninus Pius, and their dedication from Septimius Severus, whose coins first show the two temples.
The inscriptions and coins give the names of more than forty-five Sabaean kings.
All royal inscriptions are signed by him at the beginning and the end, and he appears with the king on coins.
In older times and in many districts coins were not used, and trade was carried on mainly by barter.
Nor have there been many great finds of coins; indeed most of the pieces in European collections probably come from the same hoard.
At the same time the coins throw a general light on the relations of ancient Yemen.
Of younger coins the first series has a king's head on the reverse, and the old obverse is enriched with two Sabaean monograms, which have been interpreted as meaning " majesty " and "eponymus " respectively.
As the standard of the coins of Attic type is not Attic but Babylonian, we must not think of direct Athenian influence.
One remarkable tetradrachm with the Sabaean legend Abyath'a is imitated from an Alexander of the 2nd century B.C., the execution being quite artistic and the weight Attic. There are also coins struck at Raydan and Harib, which must be assigned to the Himyarite period (1st and 2nd century A.D.).
speak of " bright Hayyili coins in high relief," but of these none have been found.
The museum contains various valuable collections of curiosities, interesting mosaics, coins, casts, a library of 230,000 volumes, and valuable manuscripts.
It was already in the hands of the Romans in 306 B.C., and since in the 3rd century B.C. it issued copper coins with a Latin legend it must have had the civitas sine suffragio.
He was also concerned in the reform of the currency by the withdrawal of the debased Bolivian coins.
A ram frequently stamped on coins of Antiochus, with head reverted towards the moon and a star (the planet Mars), signified Aries to be the lunar house of Mars.
Cities and kingdoms were allotted to their several patronage on a system fully expounded by Manilius: Hos erit in fines orbis pontusque notandus, Quem Deus in partes per singula dividit astra, Ac sua cuique dedit tutelae regna per orbem, Et proprias gentes atque urbes addidit altas, In quibus exercent praestantia sidera vires.s Syria was assigned to Aries, and Syrian coins frequently bear the effigy of a ram; Scythia and Arabia fell to Taurus, India to Gemini.
10 Individuals, too, adopted zodiacal emblems. Capricornus was impressed upon the coins of Augustus, Libra on those ' of Pythodoris, queen of Pontus; a sultan of Iconium displayed Leo as his " horoscope " and mark of sovereignty; Stephen of England chose the protection of Sagittarius.
the African coast of the Red Sea; his effigy occurs also on Greek coins of Arabia.
Of no great importance in early times, in the and century B.C. it fell under the dominion of native kings whose names appear on its coins, and it was destroyed by the Getae about 50 B.C. In A.D.
There exists a series of its coins with heads of emperors from Domitian to Alexander Severus.
The types of its coins suggest a trade in wheat, wine and fish.
He was worshipped as a national hero by the Opuntian Locrians (on whose coins he appears), who always left a vacant place for him in the ranks of their army when drawn up in battle array.
The following table affords comparisons in the revenue and expenditure: - The monetary system is similar to that of Holland (the unit being the guilder), but there are also certain silver and copper coins of small value bearing Malay or Javanese inscriptions.
The Latin stipendium (for stipipendium) is derived from slips, a gift, contribution (originally a heap of coins, stipare, to press; mass together) and pendere, to weigh out, pay.
Pietas is represented on coins as a matron throwing incense on an altar, her attribute being a stork.
Many colonial Roman coins of the 3rd and 4th centuries, and silver dirhems, stamped at Samarkand, Balkh, Merv, &c., were also found in 1869.
Magnesia continued under the kings of Pergamum to be one of the most flourishing cities in this part of Asia; it resisted Mithradates in 87 B.C., and was rewarded with civic freedom by Sulla; but it appears to have greatly declined under the Roman empire, and its name disappears from history, though on coins of the time of Gordian it still claimed to be the seventh city of Asia.
The coins of the town bear the head of the river god.
This Saturninus was the middle one of the three governors of Syria named above, and as his successor Varus must have arrived by the middle of 6 B.C. at latest (for coins of Varus are extant of the twenty-fifth year of the era of Actium), his own tenure must have fallen about 8 and 7 B.C., and his census cannot be placed later than 7 or 7-6 B.C. The independence of Tertullian's information about this census is guaranteed by the mere fact of his knowledge of the governor's name; and if there was a census about that date, it would be unreasonable not to identify it with St Luke's census of the Nativity.
On the other hand, coins whose genuineness there is no apparent reason to doubt are extant of Agrippa's ninth year; and this can only be reconciled even with A.D.
It was a self-governing municipality, striking its, own coins, and stood on the Apamea-Synnada-Pessinus road, by which the celebrated marble called Synnadic, Docimian and Phrygian was conveyed to the coast.
Palma probably owes, if not its existence, at least its name (symbolized on the Roman coins by a palm branch), to Metellus Balearicus, who in 123 B.C. settled three thousand Roman and Spanish colonists on the island.
The gold coins of the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany are legally current.
And coins have long been recognized as one of the great sources of metrology -- valuable for their wide and detailed range of information, though most unsatisfactory on account of the constant temptation to diminish their weight, a weakness which seldom allows us to reckon them as of the full standard.
Another defect in the evidence of coins is that, when one variety of the unit of weight was once fixed on for the coinage, there was (barring the depreciation) no departure from it, because of the need of a fixed value, and hence coins do not show the range and character of the real variations of units as do buildings, or vases, or the actual commercial weights.
Of weights there are scarce any dated, excepting coins, which nearly all decrease; the Attic tetradrachm, however, increased in three centuries (28), owing probably to its being below the average trade weight to begin with.
The average of coins (21) of Ptolemy I.
In coinage it is one of the commonest units in early times; from Phoenicia, round the coast to Macedonia, it is predominant (17); at a maximum of 230 (Ialysus), it is in Macedonia 224, but seldom exceeds 220 elsewhere, the earliest Lydian of the 7th century being 219, and the general average of coins 218.
It is needless to give the continual evidences of this being the later Jewish shekel, both from coins (max.
But the earliest coinage in Cilicia, before the general Persian coinage (17) about 380 B.C., is Tarsus, 164 grains; Soli, 169, 163, 158; Nagidus, 158, 161-153 later; Issus, 166; Mallus, 163-154 -- all of which can only by straining be classed as Persian; but they agree to this standard, which, as we have seen, was used in Syria in earlier times by the Khita, &c. The Milesian or "native" system of Asia Minor (18) is fixed by Hultsch at 163 and 81.6 grains -- the coins of Miletus (17) showing 160, 80 and 39.
also struck a series of coins (32) averaging 199.
of Coins, Egypt;
(33) Vazquez Queipo, Essai sur les systÃ¨mes metriques (1859) (general, and specially Arab and coins);
(1881) (many papers on Egyptian weights, measures, and coins);
Aug.; on coins see articles in Numism.
Her meeting with Poseidon at the spring is frequently represented on ancient coins and gems.
The coinage of Mexico, now concentrated at the mint in the capital (all others having been closed) is based (since November 28, 1867) on the decimal system - the peso being divided into 100 centavos - and consists of gold, silver, nickel and bronze coins, whose weight and fineness are determined by the monetary law of 1904.
The coins minted under this law are Gold: 10 pesos, .900 fine, weighing 8.3331 grammes.
Fractional silver coin is not legal tender above 20 pesos, and bronze and nickel coins not above 1 peso, but the government maintains conversion offices where such coins can be converted into silver pesos without loss.
Foreign coins are permitted to circulate in the republic.
Written as this name is in pictures or rebus, it probably suggested the invention of the well-known legend of a prophecy that the war-god's temple should be built where a prickly pear was found growing on a rock, and perched on it an eagle holding a serpent; this legend is still commemorated on the coins of Mexico.
VESTINI, an ancient Sabine tribe which occupied the eastern and northern bank of the Aternus in central Italy, entered into the Roman alliance, retaining its own independence, in 304 B.C., and issuing coins of its own in the following century.
From this time it is the name of the caliph that is inscribed on Mahmud's coins, together with his own new titles.
Thereafter his father's name does not appear on his coins, but it is inscribed again on his tomb.
He was appeased by Khalaf's speedy submission, together with the gift of a large sum of money, and further, it is said, by his subdued opponent addressing him as sultan, a title new at that time, and by which Mahmud continued to be called,, though he did not formally adopt it, or stamp it on his coins.
It should be added that what we know of Saka history is mostly derived from coins and inscriptions which admit of various interpretations and that scholars are by no means agreed as to" names and dates.
Franke, Beitrage aus chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Tiirkvolker and Skythen (1904); P. Gardner, Coins of Greek and Scythian Kings in India (1886); and various articles by Vincent Smith, Fleet, Cunningham, A Stein, Sylvain Levi and others in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Journal asiatique, Indian Antiquary, Zeitsch.
Traces of a large Roman camp may still be seen to the southeast of Wiveliscombe (Wellescombe, Wilscombe, Wiviscombe), which is near the line of a Roman road, and hoards of Roman coins have been discovered in the neighbourhood.
About the foundation of Halicarnassus various traditions were current; but they agree in the main point as to its being a Dorian colony, and the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa, Athena and Poseidon, or the trident, support the statement that the mother cities were Troezen and Argos.
Many inscriptions, coins, &c., have been found here, and traces of the ancient fortifications and of a Roman aqueduct are visible.
In coins the " milling is the serrated edge, called " crenneling " by John Evelyn (Discourse on Medals, 1697, p. 225), which is formed on them to prevent clipping and filing.
This machine also enabled legends to be impressed round the edges of coins, such as the Decus et tutamen suggested by Evelyn (see W.
Hocking, Catalogue of the Coins, &c., in the Museum of the Royal Mint, 1906).
The nickel coins include the real (nominal value 6d.), half-real and quarter-real.
Several of his coins are extant.
Aquileia; it became a naval station and, probably, the seat of the correctorVenetiarum et Histriae; a mint was established here, the coins of which are very numerous, and the bishop obtained the rank of patriarch.
The museum, in the old East India Company's house, has fine collections in natural history, entomology, botany, anatomy, archaeology and ethnography, a picture and sculpture gallery, and exhibits of coins and industrial art.
The coins are few in number, very difficult to decipher, and often without date.
Within the present borough area there have been found neolithic implements and British urns, as well as Roman coins.
1 C represents the instrument used for guineas, the circular plates A representing plates of lead, which are used as ballast when lighter coins than guineas are examined.
Inscriptions, beautiful mosaics and other traces of comfortable houses have been found, with many potsherds, coins and bronze, iron and other objects; and a large part of the town walls, several mosaics and parts of buildings, can be seen.
Among other educational institutions are a conservatory of music, school of fine arts, normal school, a national library with upwards of 260,000 volumes and a large number of manuscripts, maps, medals and coins, the national observatory on Castle Hill, the national museum now domiciled in the Sao Christovao palace in the midst of a pretty park, a zoological garden in the suburb of Villa Isabel, and the famous Botanical Garden founded by Dom Joao VI.
There are also a valuable cabinet of coins and a collection of ancient works of art.
After a brief visit to France, where his collection of ancient coins attracted some attention, Galland returned to the Levant in 1676; and in 1679 he undertook a third voyage, being commissioned by the French East India Company to collect for the cabinet of Colbert; on the expiration of this commission he was instructed by the government to continue his researches, and had the title of "antiquary to the king" conferred upon him.
Smaller objects abound - coins, pottery, window and bottle and cup glass, bronze ornaments, iron tools, &c. - and many belong to the beginnings of Calleva, but few pieces are individually notable.
See also Sir John Evans, Stone Implements, Bronze Implements, and Ancient British Coins (with suppl.); Boyd Dawkins, Early Man in Britain (1880); J.
Here the wergild of the ceorlisc class amounted to ioo shillings, each containing twenty silver coins (sceattas), as against zoo shillings of four (in Wessex five) silver coins, and was thus very much greater than the latter.
- The earliest coins which can be identified with certainty are some silver pieces which bear in Runic letters the name of the Mercian king 'Ethelred (675-704).
655) But it is clear from the laws of iEthelberht that a regular silver coinage was in use at least half a century before this time, and it is not unlikely that many unidentified coins may go back to the 6th century.
Their designs are derived from Roman or Frankish coins, especially the former, and their weight varies from about Do to 21 grains, though the very light coins are rare.
Anonymous gold coins, resembling Frankish trientes in type and standard (21 grains), are also fairly common, though they must have passed out of use very early, as the laws give no hint of their existence.
Larger gold coins (solidi) are very rare.
In the same reign the silver coins underwent a considerable change in type, being made larger and thinner, while from this time onwards they always bore the name of the king (or queen or archbishop) for whom they were issued.
It is to be observed that with the exception of Burgred's coins and a few anonymous pieces the silver was never adulterated.
No bronze coins were current except in Northumbria, where they were extremely common in the 9th century.
Originally scilling (" shilling ") and sceatt seem to have been the terms for gold and silver coins respectively.
As to the value of the bronze coins we are without information The purchasing power of money was very great.
Coins with Runic legends were issued at least until the middle of the 8th century, and some of the memorial stones date probably even from the 9th.
Keary, Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon Coins in the British Museum, vol.
Among the points of interest within it are the old chapel of 1318, with Leopold's tomb and the altar of Verdun, dating from the 12th century, the treasury and relic-chamber, the library with 30,000 volumes and many MSS., the picture gallery, the collection of coins, the theological hall, and the winecellar, containing an immense tun like that at Heidelberg.
Generally, it is that part of archaeology which has to do with inscriptions engraved on stone, metal or other permanent material (not, however, coins, which come under the heading Numismatics) .
The famous "Noah" coins of the emperor Philip commemorate this belief.
The coins were at first not struck specially for Tibetan use, but were so afterwards.
The quality of these coins (weighing about 81 grains troy) was low, and at last deteriorated so much that the Tibetans deserted the Nepal mints.
The Gurkhas, however, in 1788 and following years continued to strike coins of progressively debased quality, which were rude imitations of the old Nepalese mintage, and to endeavour to force this currency on the Tibetans, eventually making the departure of the latter from old usage a pretext for war and invasion.
This brought the intervention of the Chinese, who drove the Gurkhas out of Tibet (1792), and then began to strike silver coins for Lhasa use, bearing Chinese and Tibetan characters.
For practical use these Tibeto-Chinese coins (of which 21 =1 rupee, and which are known as'naktang, i.e.
They are called Piling Lanka, (foreign coins), from the Hindi tank - a, a rupee.
In 1852 he became an assistant in the British Museum, and was assigned to the department of coins and medals, of which in 1870 he became keeper.
The latter was the chief town; its coins are found in considerable number, the types being sometimes the Athenian goddess and her owl, sometimes native religious symbols, the caps of the Dioscuri, Apollo, &c. Few coins of Myrina are known.
A few coins are also known which bear the name, not of either city, but of the whole island.
and his successors the coins of Laodicea of Libanus bear the legend " Of Laodicea which is in Canaan "; 1 the Old Testament also sometimes denotes Phoenicia and Phoenicians by " Canaan " and " Canaanites " (Isa.
- Inscriptions, coins, topographical names preserved by Greek and Latin writers, names of persons and the Punic passages in the Poenulus of Plautus, all show conclusively that the Phoenician language belonged to the North-Semitic group, and to that subdivision of it which is called the Canaanite and includes Hebrew and the dialect of Moab.
(`Abd- `ashtart, 346-332) before the Persian Empire came to an end.2 Towards the close of the 5th century the Phoenician coins begin to supplement our historical sources (see Numismatics).
Hence Aradus, Byblus, Sidon and Tyre issued a coinage of their own, of which many specimens exist: the coins are stamped as a rule with emblem or name of the city, sometimes with the name of the ruler.'
Thus from the coins of Byblus we learn the names of four kings, 'El-pa'al, 'Az-ba'al (between 360 and 340 B.C.), Adar-melek, `Ain-el; from the coins of the other cities it is difficult 1 The naval expeditions against Greece in 480-449 and Sparta in 396-387 were mainly fitted out by Phoenicia.
The Tyrian coins of the period, stamped with native, Greek and Egyptian symbols, illustrate the traditional relations of the city and the range of her ambitions.
At last in the time of Tigranes, the Armenian holder of the kingdom of the Seleucids, or soon afterwards, the coins of Marathus cease; the city was levelled to the ground, and its land, with that of Simyra, was parcelled out among the Aradians (Strabo xvi.
Laodicea of Libanus was founded by Seleucus Nicator on the plain south-east of Hemesa (Horns) in the region of the upper Orontes, and became an important city; its coins of the 2nd century B.C. bear the interesting legend in Phoenician, " Of Laodicea which is in Canaan " (NSI.
During the Macedonian period Greek influences had been steadily gaining ground in Phoenicia; relations with the Greek world grew closer; the native language fell into disuse, and from the beginning of the Roman occupation Greek appears regularly in inscriptions and on coins, though on the latter Phoenician legends do not .entirely vanish till the 2nd century A.D.; while the extent to which Hellenic ideas penetrated the native traditions and mythologies is seen in the writings of Philo of Byblus.
It was in the times of the Persian monarchy that Phoenician art reached its highest development, and to this period belong the oldest sculptures and coins that have come down to us.
Hill, Church Quarterly Rev. (April 1908), pp. 118-141, who specially emphasizes the evidence of the Phoenician coins.
In the court sometimes stood a conical stone, probably the symbol of Astarte, as on the Roman coins of Byblus (illustrated in Rawlinson, Phoenicia, 146, Perrot et Chipiez, Hist.
569), a figure which is represented on the coins of Gebal-Byblus (2nd century B.C.) as the mythical founder of the city.
Hill, Catalogue of the Greek Coins of Cyprus (1904); V.
326-375), one of the greatest of Indian kings, who conquered nearly the whole of India, and whose alliances extended from the Oxus to Ceylon; but his name was at one time entirely lost to history, and has only been recovered of recent years from coins and inscriptions.
It was built as a Jesuit college in 1651, but since 1776 has been the seat of the Accademia di Belle Arti, and contains besides the picture gallery a library of some 300,000 volumes, a collection of coins numbering about 60,000, and an excellent observatory founded in 1766.
A relief figure in stone, some pavements, potsherds, coins and burials have been found, but nothing to indicate an important station.
Among his works are: Types of Greek Coins (1883): A Numismatic Commentary on Pausanias (with F.
A number of statues, busts, gems and coins represented Antinoos as the ideal type of youthful beauty, often with the attributes of some special god.
Coins were also struck, showing her crowned and veiled on the obverse, with a double cornucopia on the reverse.
The gold coins are for 10 and 20 francs, silver for half francs, francs, 2 francs and 5 francs.
He is described at this period as intellectual, upright and absolutely trustworthy, but obstinate and self-opinionated to the highest degree, arguing with antiquaries about coins, with equerries about horses, and with foreigners about their own countries, always certain that he was right and they wrong, whatever the discussion might be.
The coins show that he was in full possession of the throne from 42 to 45.
Large numbers of British coins have been found in the neighbourhood.
On his death on the i ith of January 1753 he bequeathed his books, manuscripts, prints, drawings, pictures, medals, coins, seals, cameos and other curiosities to the nation, on condition that parliament should pay to his executors £20,000, which was a good deal less than the value of the collection.
(Landesninzen) began to be called in and replaced by new gold and silver coins.
The old gold coins, amounting to 4,550,000, had been called in 1900 8 as early as 1873: and the old silver coins have 1901 7 since been successively put out of circulation, so 1902 6 that none actually remains as legal tender but the 1903 6 thaler (3s).
Silver coins are 5, 2 and I mark pieces, equivalent to 5, 2 and 1 shillings respectively, and 50 pfennige pieces=6d.
Nickel coins are 10 and 5 pfennige pieces, and there are bronze coins of 2 and I pfennige.
The total value of silver coins is not to exceed 10 marks, and that of copper and nickel 21/2 marks per head of the population.
It is interesting to note how the Celts absorb Roman and still more Greek culture, even imitating foreign coins, and pass on their new arts to their Teutonic neighbors; but in spite of the strong foreign influence the Celtic civilization can in some sort be termed national.
The graves of the period contain urns of earthenware or glass, cremation being the prevalent practice, and the objects found include one or more coins in accordance with Roman usage.
The right of coinage was, however, left to the individual states, and as a special concession it was determined that the rulers of the states should be permitted to have their head placed on the reverse of the gold coins.
The cathedral dates from the i 8th century; and to the same period belongs another church, rebuilt after a fire, but originally erected as a votive offering after the pestilence of 1348, and dedicated to San Biagio (St Blaize), the patron of Ragusa, whose name and effigy continually appear on coins and buildings.
A first step, however, had been taken in this direction by the issue of gold coins of the value of eight and four gulden.
No attempt was made, however, to regulate the relations of these coins to the " Austrian " silver coinage; the two issues were not brought into connexion, and every payment was made in silver, unless it was definitely agreed that it should be paid in gold.
The first step towards putting this act into practice was the issue of one-krone pieces (silver), which circulated as half gulden, and of nickel coins; all the copper coins and other silver coins were recalled, the silver gulden alone being left in circulation.
It paid them, however, not in gold, but in silver (one-krone pieces and gulden) and in bank notes, the coins and notes being provided by the bank, and in exchange the newly-coined gold was paid to the bank to be kept as a reserve to cover the issue of notes.