Coals Sentence Examples
The price of coals at Darlington fell from 18s.
He turned his attention to the fire and tucked another piece of bark into the bright coals.
The earliest arrangement of this kind was patented by John Blenkinsop, of the Middleton Colliery, near Leeds, in 1811, and an engine built on his plan by Mathew Murray, also of Leeds, began in 1812 to haul coals from Middleton to Leeds over a line 32 m.
Coals are extracted at Neudorf, Lesitz, Ratiskowitz and Ceic; lignite at Rossitz, Oslavan and Mahrisch-Ostrau.
But the value of the protectorate depends upon the carrying trade with Harrar and the supplying of victuals and coals to French warships.Advertisement
The stories of a scorpion stinging itself to death when placed in a circle of burning coals are due to erroneous observation.
Around Dundee and Newcastle the coals are bituminous.
In the 15th and 16th centuries the town was a leading seat of the salt industry ("salt to Dysart" was the equivalent of "coals to Newcastle"), but the salt-pans have been abandoned for a considerable period.
The plural, coals, seems to have been used from a very early period to signify the broken fragments of the mineral as prepared for use.
The maximum hardness is from 2.5 to 3 in anthracite and hard bituminous coals, but considerably less in lignites, which are nearly as soft as rotten wood.Advertisement
Coal is never definitely crystalline, the nearest approach to such a structure being a compound fibrous grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which occurs in some of the steam coals of South Wales, and is locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or arrangement can be made out of the fibres.
There is generally a tendency in coals towards cleaving into cubical or prismatic blocks, but sometimes the cohesion between the particles is so feeble that the mass breaks up into dust when struck.
As the amount of ash varies very considerably in different coals, and stands in no relation to the proportion of the other constituents, it is necessary in forming a chemical classification to compute the results of analysis after deduction of the ash and hygroscopic water.
That nothing analogous to bitumen exists in coals is proved by the fact that the ordinary solvents for bituminous substances, such as bisulphide of carbon and benzol, have no effect upon them, as would be the case if they contained bitumen soluble in these re-agents.
The proportion of carbon in bituminous coals may vary from 80 to 90% the amount being highest as they approach the character of anthracite, and least in those which are nearest to lignites.Advertisement
Thus the semi 'anthracitic coals of South Wales are known as " dry " or " steam coals," being especially valuable for use in marine steam-boilers, as they burn more readily than anthracite and with a larger amount of flame, while giving out a great amount of heat, and practically without producing smoke.
Coals richer in hydrogen, on the other hand, are more useful for burning in open fires - smiths' forges and furnaces - where a long flame is required.
The proportion of this residue is greatest in the more anthracitic or drier coals, but a more valuable product is yielded by those richer in hydrogen.
Very important distinctions-those of caking or non-caking-are founded on the behaviour of coals when subjected to the process of coking.
The caking property is best developed in coals low in oxygen with 25 to 30% of volatile matters.Advertisement
Lignite or brown coal includes all varieties which are intermediate in properties between wood and coals of the older.
The best varieties are black and pitchy in lustre, or even bright and scarcely to be distinguished from true coals.
Lignites, as a rule, are generally found in strata of a newer geological age, but there are many instances of perfect coals being found in such strata.
The composition of the ashes of different coals is subject to considerable variation, as will be seen by Table II.
An indication of the character of the ash of a coal is afforded by its colour, white ash coals being generally freer from sulphur than those containing iron pyrites, which yield a red ash.Advertisement
An anthracite occurring in connexion with the old volcanic rocks of Arthur's Seat,Edinburgh, which contains a large amount of sulphur in proportion to the Caking coals.
The amount of water present in freshly raised coals varies very considerably.
It is generally largest in lignites, which may sometimes contain 30% or even more, while in the coals of the coal measures it does not usually exceed from 5 to io%.
In cannel coals the prevailing constituents are the spores of cryptogamic plants, algae being rare or in many cases absent.
This is actually the case; the Carboniferous, Cretaceous and Jurassic systems (qq.v.) contain coal-bearing strata though in unequal degrees,- the first being known as the Coal Measures proper, while the others are of small economic value in Great Britain, though more productive in workable coals on the continent of Europe.
Mesozoic coals are more abundant in the southern hemisphere, while Tertiary coals seem to be tolerably uniformly distributed irrespective of latitude.
The next member of the series is a mass of coarse sandstones, with some slates and a few thin coals, known as the Millstone Grit, which is about equally developed in England and in Scotland.
Cannel coals are generally variable in quality, being liable to change into shales or black-band ironstones within very short horizontal limits.
In some instances the coal seams may be changed as a whole, as for instance in South Wales, where the coking coals of the eastern side of the basin pass through the state of dry steam coal in the centre, and become anthracite in the western side.
In the South Staffordshire and other Midland coalfields, where only shallow pits are required, and the coals are thick, a pair of pits may be sunk for a very few acres, while in the North of England, on the other hand, where sinking is expensive, an area of some thousands of acres may be commanded from the same number of pits.
The ventilation of pillar working is often attended with difficulty, and the coal is longer exposed to the influence of the air, a point of importance in some coals, which deteriorate in quality when exposed to a hot damp atmosphere.
Thomas, of the gases dissolved or occluded in coals from South Wales basin shows them to vary considerably with the class of coal.
The gases from the bituminous house coals of South Wales are comparatively free from marsh gas, as compared with those from the steam coal and anthracite pits.
The latter class of coal contains the largest proportion of this dangerous gas, but holds it more tenaciously than do the steam coals, thus rendering the workings comparatively safer.
Much important information on American coals will be found in the three volumes of Reports on the Coal Testing Plant at the St Louis Exhibition, published by the United States Geological Survey in 1906.
According to one of these stories Thetis used to lay the infant Achilles every night under live coals, anointing him by day with ambrosia, in order to make him immortal.
They are rarely metamorphosed to the point of recrystallization, though locally shales are altered to roofing slates, sandstones are indurated, limestones slightly marblized, and coals, originally bituminous, are changed to anthracite in northern Pennsylvania, and to graphite in Rhode Island.
Geologically the anthracite and bituminous coals mainly belong to the same formation, the Carboniferous, and this is especially true of the better qualities; though it is stated by the United States Geological Survey that the geQlogic age of the coal beds ranges from Carboniferous in the Appalachian and Mississippi Valley provinces to Miocene (Tertiary) on the Pacific coast, and that the quality of the coal varies only to a very uncertain degree with the geologic age.
But it is to be remembered that the amount and the fuel value of both the lignite and, to a lesser degree, the sub-bituminjus coals, is uncertain to a high degree.
Coal of a bituminous and also semi-anthracite kind is produced, the best mined on the Pacific slope of the continent, the coking coals of the Fernie region supplying the fuel of the great metal mining districts of the Kootenays in British Columbia, and of Montana and other states to the south.
This access is especially desirable as regards the store-yards and framing ground, where fermenting manures and tree leaves for making up hot beds, coals or wood for fuel and ingredients for composts, together with flower-pots and the many necessaries of garden culture, have to be accommodated.
No assemblage of stratified rocks has received such careful and detailed examination as the Carboniferous system; consequently our knowledge of the stratigraphical sequence in isolated local areas, where the coals have been exploited, is very full.
This comprised dark shales, with grits and thin limestones and thin, impure coals, locally called " culm " (q.v.).
The so-called " unproductive " or barren strata, that is, those without workable coals, are not always limestones; quite as often they are shales, red sandstones and red marls.
Farther south in the Donetz basin the coals only appear at the close of the Lower Carboniferous.
An examination of its lists of exports and imports will show that Holland receives from its colonies its spiceries, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cinnamon; from England and Belgium its manufactured goods and coals; petroleum, raw cotton and cereals from the United States; grain from the Baltic provinces, Archangel, and the ports of the Black Sea; timber from Norway and the basin of the Rhine, yarn from England, wine from France, hops from Bavaria and Alsace; ironore from Spain; while in its turn it sends its colonial wares to Germany, its agricultural produce to the London market, its fish to Belgium and Germany, and its cheese to France, Belgium and Hamburg, as well as England.
Moreover, the coals which deoxidized the iron would inevitably carburize some lumps of it, here so far as to turn it into the brittle and relatively useless cast iron, there only far enough to convert it into steel, strong and very useful even in its unhardened state.
Commercially, Cologne is one of the chief centres on the Rhine, and has a very important trade in corn, wine, mineral ores, coals, drugs, dyes, manufactured wares, groceries, leather and hides, timber, porcelain and many other commodities.
Compared with English coals those of this coal-field are of but poor quality; they contain much ash, and are generally non-coking.
Californian coal is almost wholly inferior brown lignite, together with a small quantity of bituminous coals of poor quality; the state does not produce a tenth part of the coal it consumes.
Here there is an ascending sequence from the Calciferous Sandstone, through the Carboniferous Limestone with thin coals formerly worked, to the Coal Measures, the strata being inclined at high angles to the north.
The lower limestones are well seen at Corrie, but the thin coals are not there represented.
Rule Vi I I.-Expenses Of Lightening A Ship When Ashore, And Consequent Damage When a ship is ashore, and, in order to float her, cargo, bunker coals and ship's stores, or any of them, are discharged, the extra cost of lightening, lighter hire, and reshipping (if incurred), and the loss or damage sustained thereby, shall be admitted as G.A.
Rule Ix.-Cargo, Ship'S Materials, And Stores Burnt For Fuel Cargo, ship's materials and stores, or any of them, necessarily burnt for fuel for the common safety at a time of peril, shall be admitted as G.A., when and only when an ample supply of fuel had been provided; but the estimated quantity of coals that would have been consumed, calculated at the price current at the ship's last port of departure at the date of her leaving, shall be charged to the shipowner and credited to the G.A.
His grandfather, William Scott of Sandgate, a suburb of Newcastle, was clerk to a "fitter" - a sort of water-carrier and broker of coals.
Its markets for cereals are among the most important in Prussia, and it is also the centre of a brisk trade in cattle, coals, building materials and the products of its various manufactories.
Its present importance, however, rests on the commercial facilities afforded by its connexion with the North Sea and the Baltic through the Kaiser Wilhelm canal, by which transit trade is carried on in grain, timber, Swedish iron and coals.
Owing to the fact of his being unknown in London, to his exceptional courage and coolness, and probably to his experience in the wars and at sieges, the actual accomplishment of the design was entrusted to Fawkes, and when the house adjoining the parliament house was hired in Percy's name, he took charge of it as Percy's servant, under the name of Johnson_ He acted as sentinel while the others worked at the mine in December 1604, probably directing their operations, and on the discovery of the adjoining cellar, situated immediately beneath the House of Lords, he arranged in it the barrels of gunpowder, which he covered over with firewood and coals and with iron bars to increase the force of the explosion.
Coal, the raw material from which the gas is produced by a process of destructive distillation, varies very widely in composition (see Coal), and it is only the class of coals rich in hydrogen, known as bituminous coal, that can with advantage be utilized in gas manufacture.
The basalts are submarine flows which formed the basis of the land upon which grew the vegetation which gave rise to the coals; the effusion of dolerite which covered up the Coal formation was subaerial.
Some coals occur in the Millstone Grit horizons.
Coals are found in the Cracow district at Jaworzno, at Siersza near Trzebinia and at Dabrowa.
As the impurities increase in amount the clay rocks pass gradually into argillaceous sands and sandstones, argillaceous limestones and dolomites, shaly coals and clay ironstones.
A considerable trade is carried on in grain, wood and coals.
In the simplest cases the functions of two or more of these parts may be combined into one, as in the smith's forge, where the fire-place and heating chamber are united, the iron being placed among the coals, only the air for burning being supplied under pressure from a blowing engine by a second special contrivance, the tuyere, tuiron, twyer or blast-pipe; but in the more refined modern furnaces, where great economy of fuel is an object, the different functions are distributed over separate and distinct apparatus, the fuel being converted into gas in one, dried in another, and heated in a third, before arriving at the point of combustion in the working chamber of the furnace proper.
If he kept her alive and well and his eye on any potential opportunity to rake the Dark One over the coals, he'd do it.
Josh strode across the barn, his hands balled into fists, gray eyes smoldering like hot coals.
Then, the angel fills the censer with fiery coals and hurls them upon the earth.
It has a drawer beneath the seat where hot coals were placed to keep the guards warm on chilly nights.
Over the coals hands in the users google gulp.
Thus we have the familiar modern phrase ` To carry coals to Newcastle ', an expression of something which is quite needless.
A brown recluse shifted, ready to spring from an old scrap of oak I angled through the iron doors onto the coals.
In a coals to Newcastle kind of deal, the UK club promoters exported their newly repackaged youth culture back to Ibiza.
She set out with 29 hands from Cardiff for Bombay with coals, initially being towed by two tugs.
The specific gravity is highest in anthracite and lowest in lignite, bituminous coals giving intermediate values (see Table I.).
They are divisible into three parts, the Lower Coal Measures, the middle or Pennant, a mass of sandstone containing some coals, and the Upper Coal Measures, also containing workable coal.
Oh, yes, they want you to walk on red-hot coals.
On the wicked he will rain fiery coals and burning sulfur; a scorching wind will be their lot.
Throw anger into the mix and soon a volatile potion of discord is brewing on the coals of what was once a happy marriage.
Millions of divorced couples across America have expressed remorse over having gone into divorce proceedings too soon and smothered the still-smoldering coals of their relationships.
Purer coals do produce carbon dioxide but they also produce fewer bi-products.
The original farm houses would have utilized the hot coals from the fireplace.
Pots would be set in the bed of red coals.
Cast iron lids were made with lips so hot coals could be scooped on top of the pots for consistent heat for even cooking.
Grill onion on a greased rack set six inches over the simmering coals.
Arrange hot coals on either side of the drip pan and place the seasoned turkey on a rack over the pan, breast-side down.
To produce a smoky flavor in the meat, water-soaked wood chips may be added to the hot coals.
Whether you're using gas or coals, there's nothing better than cooking outside in the fresh air.
It's easy for some veggies to slide through the grill cracks and fall into the coals, but you can prevent that from happening by skewering veggie slices and pieces together on kabobs before you place them on the grill.
Allow the coals to cool completely, cover them with water and mix together to ensure they are all extinguished.
Some of the recipes don't even require a grill and use things like broomsticks over hot coals instead.
Add more fuel until the bed is a layer of red glowing coals.
Once a bed of coals forms, you can stop adding fuel and let it burn down.
Place the foil packets on top of a low grate (nearer to the coals) and cook until done, about 1 hour.
Simply remove the grate--be careful since it could still be very hot--and stick your toasting sticks near the smoldering coals to create a gooey marshmallow treat.
The grill should be adjustable so that you can increase or decrease the distance from the hot coals.
Cover it with foil and put in the coals for about 20 to 40 minutes.
You can put coals under the pot and on top of the lid to regulate the temperature in the pot to cook the food.
Put the dinner into the fire on the outer edge of the coals for approximately 30 minutes or on top of the grill grate.
Heat Dutch oven on coals until it is hot.
A mesh micro bikini will generate more heat than the coals on your barbecue.
In most of these cases, the wives are also attorneys and they stand the in public while the husband is raked over the coals.
For charcoal grills, remember to distribute the coals evenly to prevent hot spots.
Steaming lobster on the grill is a great alternative to cooking directly over the coals.
A volcano scene was created using coals and a smoke machine.
Because the grill's coals burn slowly, they allow the meats to baste in their natural juices for a longer time making them more succulent.
The fire ebbed to glowing coals in the silent old building and she snuggled against him.
Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London.
Coals vary much in calorific value, some producing only 12,000 B.Th.U.
Later followed the appearance of lights; quasi-human voices; musical sounds, produced, it is said, without instruments; the "materialization" or presence in material form of what seemed to be human hands and faces, and ultimately of complete figures, alleged to be not those of any person present, and sometimes claimed by witnesses as deceased relatives; "psychography," or "direct writing and drawing," asserted to be done without human intervention; "spirit-photography," or the appearance on photographic plates of human and other forms when no counterpart was visible before the camera to any but specially endowed seers; 3 unfastening of cords and bonds; elongation of the medium's body; handling of red-hot coals; and the apparent passage of solids through solids without disintegration.
They yield valuable coals, clays, marls and ganister.
The most important class of coals is that generally known as bituminous, from their property of softening or undergoing an apparent fusion when heated to a temperature far below that at which actual combustion takes place.
Long-wall work is best suited for thin coals, and those having a good roof, i.e.
The inflammability of coal dust varies with different coals, but none can be said to be entirely free from risk.
Cretaceous coals have long been worked in the North Island, north of Auckland, on the shores of the Bay of Islands, where the age of the coal is shown by its occurrence under the Whangarei or Waimio limestone.
In southern Otago the Oligocene beds are brown coals and lignites with oil shales, which, at Orepuki, contain 47% of oil and gas, with 8% of water.
Do not kindle the coals of a sinner, lest you be burned in his flaming fire.
His jaws worked and his eyes were so dark they were like two coals in a burning face.
The Ecca shales contain some of the best coals of South Africa, but the seams contain much unmarketable coal.