The three coalitions against France had not produced a single warrior worthy of his steel.
The coalitions, once so brittle as to break at the first strain, had now been hammered into solidity by his blows.
Although they made some concessions, .the Beaujeus succeeded in maintaining the results of the previous reign, and in triumphing over the feudal intrigues and coalitions, as was seen from the meeting of the estates general in 1484, and the results of the "Mad War" (1485) and the war with Brittany (1488); and in spite of the efforts of Maximilian of Austria they concluded the marriage of Charles VIII.
Geoffrey the Handsome, with his indefatigable energy, was eminently fitted to suppress the coalitions of his vassals, the most formidable of which was formed in 1129.
Trained in a school where the principles of responsible government were still in an embryonic state, where the adroit management of coalitions and cabals was essential to the life of a political party, and where plots and counterplots were looked upon as a regular part of the political game, he acquired a dexterity and skill in managing men that finally gave him an almost autocratic power among his political followers.
It was a period of constant conflict conducted by shifting coalitions of the nobles, who under pretence of freeing the king from the undue influence of his favourite were intent on making a puppet of him for their own ends.
It was possible under these to procure decisions in courts of justice dissolving the General Union of Workers and the coalitions and unions of working men.
Of monarchy; nor did he regard Bonaparte's coup d'etat as revealing the weakness of republics, but rather as revealing the danger of standing armies; he did not look on the war of the coalitions against France as one of mere powers, but as one between forms of government; and though the immediate fruits of the Revolution belied his hopes, as they did those of ardent humanitarians the world over, he saw the broad trend of history, which vindicated his faith that a successful reformation of government in France would insure" a general reformation through Europe, and the resurrection to a new life of their people."Each of these statements could be reversed as regards Hamilton.
Louis was the soul of all hostile coalitions, especially urging on the Swiss and Sigismund of Austria, who ruled Tirol and Alsace.
In the first years of the reign of Charles VIII., Louis made a determined stand against the government of the Beaujeus, stirred up coalitions of the feudal nobles against them, and was finally defeated and taken prisoner at St Aubin du Cormier in 1488.
The decimated and impoverished nobility proved their impotence in the coalitions they attempted between 43~ and 1442, of which the most important, the Praguerie, fell to pieces almost directly, despite the support of the dauphin himself.
This was the end of the great feudal coalitions, for royal vengeance soon settled the account of the lesser vassals; the duke of Alencon was condemned to prison for life; the count of Armagnac was killed; and the Germans were soon to disembarrass Louis of Charles the Bold.
The support of Sagasta did not last long, and he managed with skill to elbow the Dynastic Left out of office, and to convince all dissentients and free lances that there was neither room nor prospect for third parties in the state between the two great coalitions of Liberals and Conservatives under Sagasta and Canovas.