The third coalition was formed between Great Britain, Russia and Austria, Naples soon joining its ranks.
Fox's India Bill led to the downfall of the Coalition ministry in 1783.
In 555 or 554 B.C. a coalition of the Plain and the Coast succeeded in expelling him.
during the coalition ministry, and with this his political career may be said to have closed.
He reappeared for a few months after General Pavia's coup d'Nat in January 1874, to join a coalition cabinet formed by Marshal Serrano, with Sagasta and Ulloa.
4 His approach was the signal for the formation of a coalition, which was overthrown in 738.
In this way `Ophrah became the centre of the coalition under Gideon in the tribe of Manasseh.
P g P P ment a royal autograph letter stating the reasons which had actuated the king in taking this course, and giving as the task of the new ministry the continuance of negotiations with the Coalition on the basis of the exclusion of the language question.
Towards the close of the 13th century the Egyptian king Merneptah (Mineptah) records a successful campaign in Palestine, and alludes to the defeat of Canaan, Ascalon, Gezer, Yenuam (in Lebanon) and (the people or tribe) Israel.3 Bodies of aliens from the Levantine coast had previously threatened Egypt and Syria, and at the beginning of the 12th century they formed a coalition on land and sea which taxed all the resources of Rameses III.
In 842 Shalmaneser records a campaign against Hazael of Damascus; no coalition is mentioned, although a battle was fought at Sanir (Hermon, Deut.
Massena's triumph at Zurich (September 25th-26th, 1799) paralysed the Second Coalition; and, though the Austrians continued to make progress along the Italian riviera, the French Republic was in little danger on that side so long as it held Switzerland.
The outcome of it all was the War of the Second Coalition, in which Russia, Austria, Great Britain, Naples and some secondary states of Germany took part.
In 1883 he resigned his seat in parliament owing to the reactionary measures of the government, which made it impossible for him to continue his former co-operation with Bismarck, but returned in 1887 to support the coalition of national parties.
A defensive coalition was formed in which the kings of Cilicia, Hamath, the Phoenician coast, Damascus and Ammon, the Arabs of the Syrian desert, and " Ahabbu Sinai " were concerned.
It is now known, also, that Ben-hadad and a small coalition were defeated by the king of Hamath; but the bearing of this upon Israelite history is uncertain.
He served as a Free Soiler in the Massachusetts house of representatives from 1849 to 1853, and was speaker in 1851 and 1852; he was president of the state Constitutional Convention of 1853, and in the same year was elected to the national House of Representatives as a coalition candidate of Democrats and Free Soilers.
The pope urged the king of Hungary to take advantage of this favourable opportunity by breaking the truce solemnly agreed upon, and nineteen days after it had been concluded a coalition was formed against the Turks; a large army headed by Ladislaus I., king of Hungary, Hunyadi, voivode of Walachia, and Cardinal Cesarini crossed the Danube and reached Varna, where they hoped to be joined by the Greek emperor.
P.) Long negotiations between the crown and the leaders of the Coalition having failed to give any promise of a; modus vivendi, the king-emperor at last determined to appoint an o The question involves rather complex issues.
In December 1852, however, be became first lord of the treasury and head of a coalition ministry of Whigs and Peelites.
He lived with the exiled court of Margaret of Anjou at Bar until 1470, and took an active part in the diplomacy which led to the coalition of Warwick and Clarence with the Lancastrians and Louis XI., and indirectly to Edward IV.'s expulsion from the throne.
The war which broke out early in October 1806 (sometimes known as the war of the Fourth Coalition) ran a course curiously like that of 1805 in its main outlines.
In 849 and 846 other indecisive battles were fought, but the precise constitution of the coalition is not recorded.
In this supreme crisis, then, it is not surprising that the masses listened with sullen indifference to the fiery eloquence of the Coalition leaders.
It was natural that the popes should endeavour to form a coalition between the various Christian powers which were threatened by the Turks; and Venice, anxious to preserve her possessions in the Aegean, zealously seconded their efforts.
Livingston and Aaron Burr; and such Federalist control as there was from time to time after 1799 depended upon coalition with one or other of these groups.
During the first years of the French Revolution Catherine's sympathy with philosophic liberalism rapidly evaporated, and the European sovereigns to the democratic movement; but she carefully abstained from joining the Coalition, and waited patiently for the moment when the complications in western Europe would give her an opportunity of solving independently the Eastern Question in accordance with Russian interests.
fatal to that body and to popular institutions in France After the coup detat of Brumaire (November 1799) he as First Con~uI, began to~ organize an expedition against th~ Atistrians (Russia having now retired from the coalition), ii northern Italy.
Sella, uncertain of the loyalty of the Right, challenged a vote on the immediate discussion of further financial reforms, and on the 23rd of June was overthrown by a coalition of the Left under Depretis with a part of the Right under Minghetti and the Tuscan Centre under Correnti.
The parallel extends even to the secret negotiations; for, if Austria could have been induced in May 1807 to send an army against Napoleon's communications, his position would have been fully as dangerous as before Austerlitz if Prussia had taken a similar step. Once more he triumphed owing to the timidity of the central power which had the game in its hands; and the folly which marked the Russian tactics at Friedland (14th of June 1807), as at Austerlitz, enabled him to close the campaign in a blaze of glory and shiver the coalition in pieces.
Napoleon was surprised by the news of Prussia's mobilization; he had come to regard her as a negligible quantity, and now he found that her unexpected sensitiveness on points of honour was about to revivify the Third Coalition against France.
On the reconciliation of the king-emperor with the coalition he was therefore selected as the most suitable man to lead the new government, and on the 8th of April 1906 was appointed prime minister, taking at the same time the portfolio of finance.
In consequence of the decision of the Labour party to terminate its support of the Coalition Government he resigned office in Nov.
For this purpose Dimitri Donskoi formed in 1380 a coalition of Russian princes, and gained a great victory over Khan Mamai of the Golden Horde on the famous battlefield of Kulikovo, the memory of which still lives in the popular legends.
The arrival of the Bonapartes at Toulon coincided with a time of acute crisis in the fortunes of the republic. Having declared war on England and Holland (1st of February 1793), and against Spain (9th of March), France was soon girdled by foes; and the forces of the first coalition invaded her territory at several points.
A few days later he was succeeded in the premiership by the marquis di Rudini, leader of the Right, who formed a coalition cabinet with Nicotera and a part of the Left.
When Mr. Asquith formed the first Coalition Ministry in 1915, he included Mr. Henderson in the Cabinet as President of the Board of Education, and also adviser of the Government on Labour questions arising out of the World War.
On the 17th of October Napoleon handed Venice over to Austria by the peace of Campo Formio, and between 1798 and 1814 she passed from France to Austria and Austria to France till the coalition of that latter year assigned her definitely to Austria.
An attempt was made to form an anti-Prussian coalition, but it failed in consequence of the cordial understanding between the German and Russian chancellors.
After proclaiming his intention of conferring on his subjects the blessings of peace, he joined in 1798 an Anglo-Austrian coalition against France; but when Austria paid more attention to her own interests than to the interests of monarchical institutions in general, and when England did not respect the independence of Malta, which he had taken under his protection, he succumbed to the artful blandishments of Napoleon and formed with him a plan for ruining the British empire by the conquest of India.
A coalition of generals and Conservatives turned Sagasta out in July 1890, and he only returned to the councils of the regency in December 1892, when the Conservative party split into two groups under Canovas and Silvela.
Moreover the Dorian population of Delphi constantly strove to establish its independence and about 590 B.C. induced a coalition of Greek states to proclaim a "Sacred War" and free the oracle from Phocian supervision.
Moreover, by refusing the royal terms, the Coalition had forced the crown into an alliance with the extreme democratic elements in the state.
Soon after the conquest of the Median empire, Cyrus was attacked by a coalition of the other powers of the East, Babylon, Egypt and Lydia, joined by Sparta, the greatest military power of Greece.
Coalition to patriots.
Their recollection of his conduct during the congress of Chatillon was the determining fact at this crisis; his professions at Lyons or Paris had not the slightest effect; his efforts to detach Austria from the coalition, as also the feelers put forth tentatively by Fouche at Vienna, were fruitless.
The coalition formed against Sweden by Johann Reinhold Patkul, which resulted in the outbreak of the Great Northern War (1699), abruptly put an end to Charles XII.'s political apprenticeship, and forced into his hand the sword he was never again to relinquish.
When Antigonus Gonatas threatened to restore Macedonian power in Greece, the Athenians, supported perhaps by the king of Egypt, formed a large defensive coalition; but in the ensuing " Chremonidean War " (266-263) a naval defeat off Andros led to their surrender and the imposition of a Macedonian garrison.
He declined to accept office under the earl of Derby; but on the formation of the coalition ministry under the earl of Aberdeen in January 18J3, he received the appointment of postmaster-general.
In 301 the coalition triumphed over Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus (in Phrygia) and he himself was slain.
In 1906 Dr Affonso Penna, three times minister under Pedro II., and at that time governor of the state of Minas-Geraes, of which he had founded the new capital, Bello Horizonte, was elected president, a choice due to a coalition of the other states against Sao Paulo, to which all the recent presidents had belonged.
It has been assumed that Israel had withdrawn from the great coalition, that Jehu sent tribute to Shalmaneser to obtain that monarch's recognition, and that Hazael consequently seized the first opportunity to retaliate.
There are no signs of an extensive coalition as in the days of Shalmaneser; Ammon is probably included under Damascus; the position of Moab - which had freed itself from Jehoram of Israel - can hardly be calculated.
In 57 B.C., after the defeat of Ariovistus, the Belgae formed a coalition against Caesar, and in 52 took part in the general rising under Vercingetorix.
When the Labour party joined the Coalition movement in 1915 he became a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury; he was parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade 1916-7; Minister of Labour, 1917-8; Food Controller, Jan.
The plan, concerted by Kossuth and Apponyi, with the approval of Baron Aehrenthal, was to carry on a modified coalition government with the aid of the Andrassy Liberals, the National party, the Clerical People's party 2 and the Independence party, on a basis of suffrage reform with plural franchise, the 2 The People's party first emerged during the elections of 1896, when it contested 98 seats.
How desperate the situation had now become was shown by the fact that on the 27th the king sent for Count Tisza, on the recommendation of the very Coalition ministry which had been formed to overthrow him.
The Serbo-Croat coalition, formed on the basis of the Fiume Resolution, at once acquired the mastery in Croatia, and even when its short-lived alliance with the Hungarian coalition - in power in Hungary since April 1906 - was replaced by acute conflict in the summer of 1907, no amount of repression from Budapest could destroy its solid majority in the Croatian diet.
When at the last moment war was averted by the surrender of Serbia and Russia, an attempt was made to withdraw the article, but the first copies had already been issued: and Count Aehrenthal now had the double embarrassment of the Zagreb trial, which no longer served any purpose of foreign policy, but suited the aggressive game of Budapest against Zagreb, and of a libel action brought against Friedjung by those leaders of the Serbo-Croat coalition whose honour he had impugned.
The Cuvaj Dictatorship. - The triumphant vindication of Mr. Supilo and his colleagues of the Serbo-Croat coalition gave a fresh incentive to the idea of unity throughout the southern Slav provinces of Austria-Hungary.
His attempt to emancipate himself from the control of the coalition at the general elections of Oct.
But in spite of wholesale terrorism he only succeeded in wrenching five more seats from the coalition, and on Jan.
The coalition maintained its majority, the Government only obtaining ten seats: but though this time the Diet was allowed to meet, no attempt was made to satisfy Yugoslav aspirations or to solve the real issues at stake between Hungary and Croatia.
The diet of Zagreb was allowed to meet, and the Serbo-Croat coalition pursued a policy of pure opportunism, avoiding any pronouncement on matters of high policy, but buying a certain relaxation of regime in Croatia by supporting the Budapest Government and its nominee Skerlecz.
But Pasic, free from the restraints of a coalition and from all parliamentary control, had reverted to his original pan-Serb standpoint, and steadily declined to reconstruct his Cabinet on a wider Yugoslav basis.
Napoleon showed his indifference to the opinion of the tsar by ordering the seizure of the British envoy at Hamburg, Sir George Rumbold (24th of October); but set him free on the remonstrance of the king of Prussia, with whom he then desired to remain on friendly terms. Nevertheless, the general trend of his policy was such as powerfully to help on the formation of the Third Coalition against France - a compact which Pitt (who returned to power in May 1804) had found it very difficult to arrange.
But, in fact, it failed; and the friction engendered between the First Lord and the First Sea Lord was one of the causes which drove Mr. Asquith to invite the Unionists in May to join in a Coalition Government.
This was the signal for a general coalition against Turkey; Venice, Poland and the pope allied themselves with the Austrians; Russia, Tuscany and Malta joined in the attack.
In May 1905 Sir George Sutton was replaced by a coalition ministry under Mr C. J.
Leaving Paris for the time to its own resources, he struck eastwards in the hope of terrifying that potentate and of detaching him from the coalition.
On the 19th of February 1906 the parliament was dissolved, without writs being issued for a new election, a fact accepted by the country with an equanimity highly disconcerting The agreement with the crown which had made this course possible included the postponement of the military questions that had evoked the crisis, and the acceptance of the principle of Universal Suffrage by the Coalition leaders, who announced that their main tasks would be to repair the mischief wrought by the " unconstitutional " Fejervary cabinet, and then to introduce a measure of franchise reform so wide that it would be possible to ascertain the will of the whole people on the questions at issue between themselves and the crown.
For two years and a half the Coalition ministry continued in office without showing any signs that they intended to carry out the most important item of their programme.
Y, 9 P ?, PP ment of a Coalition cabinet 2 under Dr Sandor Wekerle was announced, the world was taken completely by surprise.
This proposal was at once recognized by public opinion - to use the language of the Journal des Debats (May 21, 1909) - as " an instrument of domination " rather than as an attempt to carry out the spirit of the compact under which the Coalition goyernment had been summoned to power.
It was not, indeed, simply a reactionary or undemocratic measure; it was, as The Times correspondent pointed out, " a measure sui generis, designed to defeat the objects of the universal suffrage movement that compelled the Coalition to take office in April 1906, and framed in accordance with Magyar needs as understood by one of the foremost Magyar noblemen."
On the 14th Dr Wekerle, at the ministerial conference assembled at Vienna for the purpose of discussing the estimates to be laid before the delegations, announced that the dissensions among his colleagues made the continuance of the Coalition government impossible.
During 1919 internal politics centred in a struggle between the Radicals, who still possessed the best party machine and stood for a narrowly Serbian as opposed to a Yugoslav programme, and the newly constituted Democratic party, which absorbed most of the Serbian Opposition parties, the old Serbo-Croat coalition of Zagreb, and the Slovene Liberals.
Protic was replaced by Davidovic, the Democrat leader, and though the Government remained a coalition, its weight was transferred farther to the Left.
As the coalition lacked the necessary majority, it was reduced to gathering support piecemeal among the more neutral groups: and for this task Pa g e, who became Premier in Jan.
(See further, South Africa: History, § D.) Sir Richard Solomon, 3 it was thought, might have formed a coalition cabinet, but he was among the defeated candidates.
In 1744 the king was compelled to abandon Carteret, and the coalition or " Broad Bottom" party, led by Chesterfield and Pitt, came into office.
The formation of the coalition and the outbreak of war for a while raised his hopes, in spite of his lively distrust of the competence of Austrian ministers; but the hopes were speedily dashed by Austerlitz and its results.
1206), and then his son-in-law, Ferrand (Ferdinand) of Portugal, count of Flanders, disputed the possession of the country with the king of France, Ferrand being in the coalition which was overthrown by Philip Augustus at Bouvines (1214).
The accession of Russia to the anti-Prussian coalition (1756) was made over his head, and the cowardice and incapacity of Bestuzhev's friend, the Russian commander-in-chief, Stephen Apraksin, after the battle of Gross-Jagersdorf (1757), was made the pretext for overthrowing the chancellor.
His unwillingness to agree to the coalition was magnified into a determination to defeat it, though it is quite obvious that he could only gain by the humiliation of Frederick, and nothing was ever proved against him.
In August 1791, Fersen was sent to Vienna to induce the emperor Leopold to accede to a new coalition against revolutionary France, but he soon came to the conclusion that the Austrian court meant to do nothing at all.
Owing to the dissensions among the ruling family of Riad, the towns of eastern Nejd gradually reverted to their former condition of independence, but menaced in turn by the growing power of Hail, they formed a coalition under the leadership of Zamil, sheik of Aneza, and in the spring of 1891, Aneza, Bureda, Shakra, Ras and Riad assembled their contingents to contest with Ibn Rashid the supremacy in Nejd.
2 Sprague was elected over the radical Republican candidate through a coalition of Democrats and conservative Republicans.
The new government was a coalition of Whigs and Peelites.
In 1891 the National Liberals had but a majority of one in the diet; from 1893 they could maintain themselves only with the aid of the Conservatives; and in 1897 a coalition of Ultramontanes, Socialists, Social-democrats and Radicals (Freisinnige), won a majority for the opposition in the chamber.
But in 1813 Baden joined the coalition, and since then that nation created of odds and ends (de brit et de broc) and always handsomely treated by us, had not ceased to take a leading part in the struggles against our country.
On the 14th of February 1783 he formed a coalition with Lord North, based as they declared on "mutual goodwill and confidence."
Plausible excuses were made for the alliance, but to the country at large this union, formed with a man whom he had denounced for years, had the appearance of an unscrupulous conspiracy to obtain office on any terms. In the House of Commons the coalition was strong enough to drive Shelburne from office on the 24th of February.
The coalition, and Fox in particular, were assailed in a torrent of most telling invective and caricature.
On the 6th of May 1791 occurred the painful scene in the House of Commons, in which Burke renounced his friendship. In 1792 there was some vague talk of a coalition between him and Pitt, which, came to nothing.
William started a new coalition against him in October 1681 by making a treaty with Sweden, and subsequently with the empire, Spain and several German princes.
Even then the new league would not fight and allowed Louis to retain his conquests by the truce of Regensburg (1685), but none the less these humiliations gave rise to a more closelyknit and aggressive coalition, which was organized in 1686 and known as the League of Augsburg.
He held together his ill-assorted coalition, and finally concluded peace at Ryswick in September 1697.
The inherent weakness of the coalition had, however, become apparent.
This new coalition naturally alarmed Sparta, which at once made overtures to Athens on the ground of their common danger from Thebes.
Slezevicius, widening the Cabinet on coalition lines.
The Government which took office in June 1920 was a coalition Cabinet of the Christian Democrat and Popular Socialist parties plus three ministers who did not belong to any party.
(1158-1214), king of Castile only, and grandson of Alphonso VII., is a great name in Spanish history, for he led the coalition of Christian princes and foreign crusaders who broke the power of the Almohades at the battle of the Navas de Tolosa in 1212.
Early in the next year he was made Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, but when the first Coalition Ministry was formed he returned to his former post at the Treasury.
But it was obvious that a permanent coalition could not be expected unless some definite understanding on the debated point could be attained; and on the very same day the landgrave despatched to Zwingli an invitation to a colloquy, and received his prompt acquiescence.
In 423 they broke out into open war with the Mantineians, and when the latter rebelled against Sparta and allied themselves with Argos and Athens, the Tegeans stood firmly by Sparta's side: in the decisive battle of Mantineia (418) their troops had a large share in the overthrow of the coalition.
The congress appointed him to conduct an expedition against Santa Fe de Bogota, where Don Cundinamarca had refused to acknowledge the new coalition of the provinces.
The coalition then formed continued the struggle till 1678.
The emperor followed, and Louis was now opposed, not by one:state, but by a formidable coalition.
But the coalition had not yet developed its full strength, and Turenne's skill checked the advance of the Imperialists under Montecucculi and of the Brandenburgers under the Great Elector.
This fortress fell on the 12th of November, and the troops of the coalition gained possession of an unbroken line from Amsterdam to the Breisgau, while Louis' German allies (Cologne and Munster), now isolated, had to make peace at once.
The German princes and the empire itself rallied to the emperor, Denmark joined the coalition (January 1674), the Great Elector re-entered the war, and soon afterwards England made peace.
He was threatened by the intervention of England on the side of the coalition, and would have made peace earlier but for his reluctance to abandon his ally Sweden.
To his diplomacy was due the coalition in 1864 between Macdonald, Brown and Cartier, which carried the federation of the British North American provinces, and throughout the three years of negotiation which followed his was one of the chief influences.
would assist him in recovering his father's kingdom; but a coalition formed for this purpose was ineffectual, and a rising led by his ally Rothgaud, duke of Friuli, was easily crushed by Charles in 776.
Having failed to rouse Spain and Venice against the Turks, Gregory attempted to form a general coalition against the Protestants.
In 1783 Fox produced his India Bill, which led to the overthrow of the coalition government.
He also encountered and heavily defeated a coalition of two great naval powers of the Asiatic coast, Miletus and Lesbos.
Nerra (21st of July 987-21st of June 1040) found himself confronted on his accession with a coalition of Odo I., count of Blois, and Conan I., count of Rennes.
So, from the first, France was faced with another war against an affrighted and infuriated Europe, a war in which the big battalions would be on the side of the Seventh Coalition; and to oppose their vast armies, Napoleon only had in March the 150,000 men he had taken over from Louis XVIII when the Bourbon hurriedly quitted the throne.
Napoleon therefore stayed his hand and proceeded to hasten forward the organization, almost the creation, of an army, with which he could confront the coalition.
Thus he designed to crush a part of the coalition before the Russians and Austrians poured over the eastern frontier.
The two great political issues of the time were the secularization of the clergy reserves in Ontario, and the abolition of seigniorial tenure in Quebec. Both of these reforms Macdonald long opposed, but when successive elections had proved that they were sup ported by public opinion, he brought about a coalition of Conservatives and moderate reformers for the purpose of carrying them.
Out of this coalition was gradually developed the Liberalconservative party, of which until his death Macdonald continued to be the most considerable figure, and which for more than forty years largely moulded the history of Canada.
This first coalition had now accomplished its temporary purpose, but so closely were parties divided at this period, that the defeat and reinstatement of governments followed each other in rapid succession.
At this critical period a proposal was made for a coalition of parties in order to carry out a broad scheme of British-American confederation.
Many Republicans who had sympathized with his criticisms of the administration, and with the declaration of principles adopted at the first convention, were repelled by the coalition.
In 1166 a coalition was formed against him a, Merseburg under the leadership of Albert the Bear, margrave of Brandenburg, and Archbishop Hartwig.
By means of this coalition the Ministry succeeded, indeed, in passing the military service reforms on April 24 1911 (reduction of the three years' service to two years, combined with an increase in the contingent of recruits); but this completely exhausted its parliamentary strength, and the first parliamentary suffrage Parliament ended with but poor results in the midst of unsolved national problems.
Thus it happened that the elections to the Reichsrat in July 1911 were characterized by a temporary coalition of the German Liberals with the Social Democrats against the Christian Socialist party; this led to heavy losses on the part of the latter, especially in the towns.
Kdrber' s successor, Clam-Martinitz,' who belonged to the violently Czech feudal nobility, tried to form a national coalition Cabinet, including two German politicians.
In the face of this uncompromising display of opposition there could be no hope for the Coalition planned by Clam-Martinitz for the creation of a new Austria, and on June 19 he resigned.
In national politics South Dakota has been consistently Republican, except in the election of 1896, when, as a result of the hard times which followed the panic, the Populists and Democrats were able to form a coalition and carry the state for William J.
Next came the defeat of a northern coalition headed by Sar-duris of Ararat, no fewer than 72,950 of the enemy being captured along with the city of Arpad, where the Assyrian king received the homage of various Syrian princes.
On the 7th of June the French minister Hedouville quitted St Petersburg; and on the 11th of August a note dictated by Czartoryski to Alexander was sent to the Russian minister in London, urging the formation of an anti-French coalition.
The excuse for the Terror that followed was the imminent peril of France, menaced on the east by the advance of the armies of the Coalition, on the west by the Royalist insurrection of La Vendee, and the need for preventing at all costs the outbreak of another civil war.
1921 the Government of the republic had remained in the hands of a Coalition Cabinet, or (as at the latter date) of a Cabinet composed of permanent officials supported by a coalition of parties.
He was full of the idea of a league of republics against the league of sovereigns; but he was unaware that the Jacobins themselves were already considering the best mode of detaching Prussia, Poland's worst enemy, from the anti-French coalition.
Ferdinand was one of the first sovereigns to enter into diplomatic relations with the French republic (1793); and although, a few months later, he was compelled by England and Russia to join the coalition against France, he concluded peace with that power in 1795, and by observing a strict neutrality saved his dominions from invasion by the French, except for a temporary occupation of Livorno, till 1799, when he was compelled to vacate his throne, and a provisional Republican government was established at Florence.
While sympathizing with the ideas and aims of the "Young Turkey" party, he was anxious to restrain its impatience, but the sultan's obduracy led to a coalition between the grand vizier, the war minister and Midhat Pasha, which deposed him in May 1876, and he was murdered in the following month.
After the short ministry of Shelburne, succeeding the death of Rockingham, the duke of Portland was selected by Fox and North as a "convenient cipher" to become the head of the coalition ministry, to the formation of which the king was with great reluctance compelled to give his assent.
Bibulus became a virtual prisoner in his own house, and Caesar placed himself outside the pale of the free republic. Thus the programme of the coalition was carried through.
Caesar at once approached both Pompey and Crassus, who alike detested the existing system of government but were personally at variance, and succeeded in persuading them to forget their quarrel and join him in a coalition which should put an end to the rule of the oligarchy.
In 56 B.e., at the conference of Luca (Lucca), Caesar, Pompey and Crassus had renewed their agreement, and Caesar's Break-up command in Gaul, which would have expired on the of thak-up ist of March 54 B.e., was renewed, probably for five Coalition.
He lost no time in choosing a coalition cabinet, and then personally took up the negotiation of peace.
In European waters the Channel had been invaded by a combined French and Spanish fleet of sixty-six sail of the line, Spain having now joined the coalition against Great Britain.
A coalition cabinet was formed, including the foremost Liberals and Conservatives drawn from the different provinces.
Thus in 1427 he was solemnly expelled by a coalition of the nobles, only to be recalled in the following year.
In 1858 the LiberalConservative party, formed in 1854 by a coalition, attempted to bring him out as a candidate for the upper house, which was at this date elective, but though he had broken with the advanced reformers, he could not approve of the tactics of their opponents, and refused to stand.
In 1902 he was again returned as deputy for Albi, and during the Combes administration his influence secured the coherence of the radical-socialist coalition known as the bloc. In 1 9 04 he founded the socialist paper, L'Humanite.
He was one of the earliest advocates of a federation of the British colonies in North America, and in 1864, to accomplish this end, entered into a coalition with his bitter personal and political opponent, Mr (afterwards Sir) John A.
Largely owing to Brown's efforts, Federation was carried through the House; but on the 21st of December 1865 he resigned from the Coalition government, though continuing to support its Federation policy, and in 1867 he was defeated in South Ontario and never again sat in the House.
The formation of the third coalition against France in 1805 induced Napoleon to purchase the support of Prussia by allowing her troops to seize Hanover; but in 1807, after the defeat of Prussia at Jena, he incorporated the southern part of the electorate in the kingdom of Westphalia, adding the northern portion to France in 1810.
It seemed an easy task for such a coalition to wrest the coveted spoil from the young Charles XII.; yet Peter was the only one of the three conspirators who survived the Twenty-one Years' War in which they so confidently embarked during the summer of 1701.
During the existence of the coalition ministry of North and Fox, the great seal was in commission (April to December 1783), and Lord Loughborough held the leading place among the commissioners.
While the French were marching on Naples there arose a hostile coalition which compelled them to beat a hasty retreat - the Holy League of March 1495.
Fear of the coalition, however, led the Grand Monarch to make peace with Innocent (1691-1700).
The duke's share in the coalition against France made his service incompatible with Constant's political opinions, which were already definitely republican, and, on the dissolution of his marriage in 1794, he resigned his post.
The raids of two Aetolian chiefs in Achaean territory (220) led to a coalition between Achaea and Philip V.
This led to a coalition, formed in March 1167, between the cities of Cremona, Mantua, Bergamo and Brescia to confine Frederick to the rights which the emperors had enjoyed for the past hundred years.
The Revolution of 1688 ensued, and England became, under William's strong rule, the chief member of the Great Coalition against French aggression.
When war broke out between the French revolutionary government and the coalition of kings, the Provinces remained neutral as long as they could.
Opposed to them is the coalition of the orthodox Protestant conservatives, styled antirevolutionaries, supported by the Calvinistic peasantry, and the Catholics, who represent about one-third of the population and have their headquarters in Dutch Brabant, Dutch Flanders and Limburg.
The liberals were in power from 1871 to 1888 continuously, but a Catholic-anti-revolutionary ministry under Baron Mackay held office from 1888 to 1891, and again a coalition ministry was formed in 1901 with Dr Kuyper at its h e ad.
But the long liberal ascendancy closed the ranks of the CatholicCalvinist coalition, and united them against the neutral schools, and in 1889 they were able to pass a law enabling not only the unsectarian public schools, but all private schools organized by societies and bodies recognized by the law to receive subventions from the state.
The passing of such a law was deferred by the coalition (Catholic-Orthodox) ministry of 1888-1891.
Parker's orders were to give Denmark twenty-four hours in which to withdraw from the coalition, and on her refusal to destroy or neutralize her strength and then proceed against the Russians before the breaking up of the ice allowed the ships at Reval to join the squadron at Kronstadt.
The Danish government, which had entered the coalition largely from fear of Russia, was not prepared to make very great sacrifices, and now entered into negotiations for an armistice.
The Swedes, who like the Danes had entered the coalition under pressure from Russia, did not send their ships to sea.
2), it joined the coalition against Babylonia (Jer.
England and Holland were determined to prevent, however, at all costs the acquisition of Belgium by a French prince, and a coalition, known as the Grand Alliance, was formed between these two powers and the empire to uphold the claims of the archduke Charles, second son of the emperor.
The battle was fought between Olaf Trygvesson, king of Norway, and a coalition of his enemies - Eric Hakonson, his cousin and rival; Olaf, the king of Sweden; and Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark.
Ill-disposed as Bernstorff was towards the Jacobins, he now condemned on principle any interference in the domestic affairs of France, and he was persuaded that Denmark's safest policy was to keep clear of every anti-French coalition.
The Assyrian king claimed a victory, but his immediate return and subsequent expeditions in 849 and 846 against a similar but unspecified coalition seem to show that he met with no lasting success.
Little is known of his early years, but in 1180 he joined a coalition against Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony, and with his brother, the landgrave Louis III., suffered a short imprisonment after his defeat at Weissensee by Henry.
On the 3rd of July 187 9 Cairoli returned to power, and in the following November formed with Depretis a coalition ministry, in which he retained the premiership and the foreign office.
The Ultramontane party in Austria, France and Bavaria had, after 1866, been hostile to Prussia; there was some ground to fear that it might still succeed in bringing about a Catholic coalition against the empire, and Bismarck lived in constant dread of European coalitions.
The victory was secured by a coalition between the agricultural interests and the manufacturers; the latter promised to vote for duties on corn if the landlords would suppoi~t the duties on iron.
At the elections of 1881 they secured forty-seven seats, but they were not strong enough to maintain themselves, and with great reluctance ~fl 1884 formed a coalition with the Progressives (Freisinnigen), who had gained greatly in strength owing to the breach among the government parties.
Under his influence the Conservatives and National Liberals formed a coalition or Cartel by which each agreed to support the candidates of the other.
There was therefore no prospect of forming anything like a stable coalition.
In the discussions from which sprang the federation of 1867, Ontario was the one province strongly in favour of the union, which was only rendered possible by the coalition of her rival leaders, J.
The first provincial government, formed on coalition lines by John Sandfield Macdonald, was thrifty and not unprogressive, but in 1871 was defeated by a reorganized liberal party, which held power from 1871 to 1905, and on the whole worthily.
In 1849 he was elected to the United States Senate as the result of a coalition between the Democrats and a small group of Free-Soilers in the state legislature; and for some years thereafter, except in 1852, when he rejoined the Free-Soilers, he classed himself as an Independent Democrat, though he was out of harmony with the leaders of the Democratic party.
Although, with the exception of Seward, he was the most prominent Republican in the country, and had done more against slavery than any other Republican, he failed to secure the nomination for the presidency in 1860, partly because his views on the question of protection were not orthodox from a Republican point of view, and partly because the old line Whig element could not forgive his coalition with the Democrats in the senatorial campaign of 1849; his uncompromising and conspicuous anti-slavery record, too, was against him from the point of view of "availability."
Tisza appealed to the country and suffered, on the 26th of January 1905, an overwhelming defeat at the hands of a coalition composed of dissentient Liberals, Clericals, Independents and a few Banffyites.
The Coalition gained an absolute majority and the Independence party became the strongest political group. Nevertheless the various adherents of the dual system retained an actual majority in the Chamber and prevented the Independence party from attempting to realize its programme of reducing the ties between Hungary and Austria to the person of the joint ruler.
The Coalition, though possessing the majority in the Chamber, resolved not to take office unless the crown should grant its demands, including the Magyar words of command and customs separation from Austria.
Seeing that the Coalition would not take office on acceptable terms, Fejervary obtained the consent of the crown to a scheme, drafted by Kristoffy, minister of the interior, that the dispute between the crown and the Coalition should be subjected to the test of universal suffrage and that to this end the franchise in Hungary be radically reformed.
Yet the Coalition did not yield at once.
The pact concluded (April 8, 1906) between the Coalition and the crown is known to have contained the following conditions: - All military questions to be suspended until after the introduction of universal suffrage; the estimates past of g ?
These " capitulations " obliged the Coalition government to carry on a dualist policy, although the majority of its adherents became, by the general election of May 1906, members of the Kossuth or Independence party, and, as such, pledged to the economic and political separation of Hungary from Austria save as regards the person of the ruler.
During the deadlock (June 2, 1905) Kossuth had obtained the adoption of a motion to authorize the compilation of an autonomous Hungarian tariff, and on the 28th of May 1906, the Coalition cabinet was authorized by the crown to present the Szell-Korber tariff to the Chamber in the form of a Hungarian autonomous tariff distinct from but identical with the Austrian tariff.
In the Coalition cabinet itself opinion was sharply divided, but in the end the views of the Independence party prevailed, and Dr Wekerle laid the proposal for a separate Hungarian Bank before the king-emperor and the Austrian government.
Taught by experience and adversity, they did not scruple to enter into an ministry, alliance with their old enemies, and a coalition ministry 1893' was formed from the Left, the Clericals and the Poles.
This would probably have been fatal to the coalition, but the final blow was given by a matter of very small importance arising from the disputes on nationality.
In August 1905 the crown took into consideration and in September sanctioned the proposal that universal suffrage be introduced into the official programme of the Fejervary cabinet then engaged in combating the Coalition in Hungary.
This coalition between two different elements - an anti-oligarchic party and a war party - had no chance of permanent existence.
For a cause not easy to determine Alcibiades was defeated by Nicias in the election to the post of strategus in the next year, and the suspicions of the Peloponnesian coalition were roused by the inadequate assistance sent by Athens, which arrived too late to assist Argos when the Spartan king Agis marched against it.
Ultimately the Spartans were successful over the coalition at Mantinea, and soon afterwards an oligarchic revolution at Argos led to an alliance between that city and Sparta (c. Feb.
The unsatisfactory character of the Athenian Peloponnesian coalition was one of the negative causes which led up to the Sicilian Expedition of 415.
BOUVINES, a village on the French-Belgian frontier between Lille and Tournay, the scene of one of the greatest battles of the middle ages, fought on the 27th of July 1214, between the forces of Philip Augustus, king of France, and those of the coalition formed against him, of which the principal members were the emperor and King John of England.
Victory declared itself also on the other wing, where the French at last routed the Flemish cavalry and captured Count Ferdinand of Flanders, one of the leaders of the coalition.
Meanwhile Napoleon, little deterred by the Russian autocrat's youthful idealogy, never gave up hope of detaching him from the coalition.
A party too in Russia itself, headed by the tsar's brother the grand-duke Constantine, was clamorous for peace; but Alexander, after a vain attempt to form a new coalition, summoned the Russian nation to a holy war against Napoleon as the enemy of the orthodox faith.
The coalition, however, failed, and in August 1128 Honorius invested Roger at Benevento as duke of Apulia.
Bernard of Clairvaux, Innocent's champion, built up against Anacletus and his " half heathen king " a coalition joined by Louis VI.
In March 1578, a coalition of his public and private foes caused Morton to resign the regency, while the young earl of Mar became custodian of the boy king.
During the Nationalist and Dreyfus agitations he fought vigorously on behalf of the Republican government and when the coalition known as the "Bloc " was formed he took his place as a Radical leader.
He approved of the subsequent decision of the Labour party to sever itself from the Coalition, and to appeal to the electorate in Dec. 1918 for independent support, announcing as his own battle-cry " No more war."
When the first Coalition Ministry was formed in May 1915, he was appointed Solicitor-General and knighted, and he succeeded Sir Edward Carson in November as AttorneyGeneral, a post he held till 1919.
On his return to Australia in 1916 he was obliged to reconstruct his Cabinet and to effect a coalition with Mr. Cook, leaving out most of his previous colleagues of the Labour party.
In 1851, however, by means of "Free-Soil" votes, he was chosen governor, and was re-elected by the same coalition in 1852.
The country was saved a desperate civil war by the death of the king's brother, Charles, the nominal head of the coalition, on the 24th of May 1472.
On the outbreak of the French Revolution the king and queen were not at first hostile to the new movement; but after the fall of the French monarchy they became violently opposed to it, and in 1793 joined the first coalition against France, instituting severe persecutions against all who were remotely suspected of French sympathies.
Early in 1891 he succeeded Crispi as premier and minister of foreign affairs by forming a coalition cabinet with a part of the Left under Nicotera; his administration proved vacillating, but it initiated the economies by which Italian finances were put on a sound basis and also renewed the Triple Alliance.
On the other hand, he made a violent speech in the senate in 55 against Lucius Piso, the col ' Caesar, at one time, offered him a place on the coalition, which on his refusal became a triumvirate (Att.
He now effected a coalition with Antonius and Lepidus, and on the 27th of November 43 B.C. the three were formally appointed a triumvirate for the reconstitution of the commonwealth for five years.
.By 1186 Hugh, duke of Burgundy, the only member of the coalition not yet subdued, was forced to submit.
Again a formidable coalition was formed against him, including Baldwin IX., count of Flanders and Hainaut, Renaud of Dammartin, count of Boulogne, Louis, count of Blois, and Raymond VI., count of Toulouse.
In 65 he was censor, and in 60 he joined Pompey and Caesar in the coalition known as the first triumvirate.
He pictured the consequences of that temper of vengeance which animated the Parisian mob and was fatally controlling the policy of the Convention, and the prostration which would ensue to France after even a successful struggle with a European coalition, which would spring up after the murder of the king.
Finally, Brunnow was empowered to arrange a coalition of the great powers with a view to the settlement of the Egyptian question; and in this coalition the tsar was willing, for political reasons, that France should be included, though he stated his personal preference for her exclusion.
Palmerston, on the other hand, believed that the Ottoman empire would never be secure until "the desert had been placed between" the pasha of Egypt and the sultan; and the view that the coalition should be directed against Mehemet Ali was shared by the other powers.
The injured husband called to his aid Roderic, the high king (airdrigh) of Connaught; and in 1166 Dermot fled before this powerful coalition to invoke the aid of England.
In 1774 Lord Dunmore, the governor, led an army to the Ohio river to break an Indian coalition which had been formed to check the rapid expansion of Virginia over what is now Kentucky and West Virginia.
2 The chief dates are: 720, defeat of a coalition (Hamath, Gaza and Musri) at Karkar in north Syria and Raphia (S.
The general election in the autumn gave him no fresh support in the Chamber of Deputies, while he had now to face a formidable coalition between Guizot, the Left Centre under Thiers, and politicians of the Dynastic Left and the Republican Left.
(3) A territory near Mount Hermon, a seat of the Hivites, which joined the coalition of Jabin against Joshua (Joshua xi.
It joined the great coalition in which Philistia and Israel were leagued against Assyria, and drove out the Judaeans who had been in possession of Elath.
In the year 1 000, when the Norwegian king was in Pomerania, a coalition was formed between the king of Sweden, Sweyn Forkbeard, king of Denmark, and earl Eric of Lade, and the allies waylaid their enemy off the coast near Riigen and overthrew him in Reign of the great sea-battle of Svolder.
After the dissipation of the first coalition against him by the peace of Travendal (Aug.
When, on the 14th of September 1714, he suddenly returned to his dominions, Stralsund and Wismar were all that remained to him of his continental possessions; while by the end of 1715 Sweden, now fast approaching the last stage of exhaustion, was at open war with England, Hanover, Russia, Prussia, Saxony and Denmark, who had formed a coalition to partition her continental territory between them.
The French subsidies, which might have sufficed for a six weeks' demonstration (it was generally assumed that the king of Prussia would give little trouble to a European coalition), proved quite inadequate; and, after five unsuccessful campaigns, the unhappy Hats were glad to make peace and ignomini- YearsThe Sevenar.
with such a hatred of Napoleon that European when a general coalition was formed against the Coalition, French emperor he was one of the first to join it 1804 (Dec. 3, 1804), pledging himself to send an army corps to cooperate with the English and Russians in driving the enemy out of Holland and Hanover.
of Prussia detained him in Pomerania; and when at last (December 1805) he led his 6000 men towards the Elbe district the third coalition had already been dissipated by the victories of Ulm and Austerlitz.
These two treaties were, in effect, the corner-stones of a fresh coalition against Napoleon, and were confirmed on the outbreak of the FrancoRussian War by a conference between Alexander and Charles John at Abo on the 30th of August 1812, when the tsar undertook to place an army corps of 35,000 men at the disposal of the Swedish crown prince for the conquest of Norway.
On the resignation of the Ramstedt ministry Mr Lundeberg formed a coalition ministry consisting of members of the various parties in the Riksdag, after which the Riksdag was prorogued on the 3rd of August.
As a consequence of these conditions Conservative, Liberal and coalition ministries held office at short intervals.
Cyrus and hi~ Persians paid little heed to the treaties which the Median kink had concluded with the other powers; and the result was I great coalition against him, embracing Nabonidus of Babylon Amasis of Egypt, Croesus of Lydia, and the Spartans, whosi highly efficient army seemed to the Oriental states of great value In the spiing of 546 B.C., Croesus opened the attack.
There had been a strong agitation for a coalition cabinet, and negotiations took place to this end between General Botha and Dr Jameson.
They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition permanently crippled the power of Sparta.
Lord Eldon was continued in office as chancellor under Pitt; but the new administration was of short duration, for on the 23rd of January 1806 Pitt died, worn out with the anxieties of office, and his ministry was succeeded by a coalition, under Lord Grenville.
A coalition of the minor Mahommedan states was prevented by the great Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, which comprised the southern half of the Indian Peninsula.
After 1565, when the power of Vijayanagar was broken at the battle of Talikot, a Mussulman coalition was at last formed, and the Portuguese were confronted by a line of hostile states stretching from Gujarat to Achin; but by this time they were strong enough to hold their own.
Costa Cabral, who became count of Thomar in 1845, ruled despotically, despite many insurrections, until May 1846, when a coalition of Miguelites, Septembrists and Chartist malcontents drove him into exile.
Thomar again fled from the country; Saldanha again became prime minister, but at the head of a moderate coalition.
A coalition government took office on the 14th of January, with Serpa Pimentel as prime minister and J.
Franco organized a coalition in defence of the Crown, but in January 1907 business in the cortes was brought to a standstill and many sittings ended in uproar.
A coalition ministry, representing all the monarchist parties, was formed under the presidency of Admiral Ferreira do Amaral.
He actually ridiculed the coalition in a work entitled the Three-Headed Monster (Tpuaipavos in the Greek of Appian).
His conduct of the foreign affairs of Russia plunged the country first into the second coalition against France in 1778, and then into the armed neutrality against Great Britain in 1801.
When Antigonus, master of Asia in 315, showed dangerous ambitions, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him, and, on the outbreak of war, evacuated Palestine.
When the coalition was renewed against Antigonus in 302, Ptolemy joined it, and invaded Palestine a third time, whilst Antigonus was engaged with Lysimachus in Asia Minor.
The other members of the coalition had assigned Palestine to Seleucus after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years the question of its ownership becomes the standing ground of enmity between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties.
Prominent in this new coalition was Theodoric, king of the Visigoths, whose capital city was Toulouse.
During his rule, which lasted till 1879, the Fiji Islands were annexed; telegraphic communication with England and mail communication with the United States were established; and the long series of political struggles, which prevented any administration from remaining in office long enough to develop its policy, was brought to an end by a coalition between Sir Henry Parkes and Sir John Robertson.
He was a member of the Quebec Legislature from 1897; and, after holding minor offices, in 1905-20 was Prime Minister and Attorney-General in the province of Quebec. Attempts were made by Sir Robert Borden to get him to join his Coalition Ministry, but these failed, and subsequently Sir Lomer declared his allegiance to the Liberal Opposition.
In danger of his life he escaped with his son Demetrius into Greece, where he obtained the favour of Antipater, regent of Macedonia (321); and when, soon after, on the death of Perdiccas, a new division took place, he was entrusted with the command of the war against Eumenes, who had joined Perdiccas against the coalition of Antipater, Antigonus, and the other generals.
Effecting his escape from Nora, he raised an army, and formed a coalition with the satraps of the eastern provinces.
He was sent by the emperor Leopold to Italy with the view of binding the duke of Savoy to the coalition against France and of cooperating with the Italian and Spanish troops.
He returned to Italy in time to take part in the battle of Staff arda, which resulted in the defeat of the coalition at the hands of the French marshal Catinat; but in the spring of 1691 Prince Eugene, having secured reinforcements, caused the siege of Coni to be raised, took possession of Carmagnola, and in the end completely defeated Catinat.
He followed up his success by entering Dauphine, where he took possession of Embrun and Gap. After another campaign, which was uneventful, the further prosecution of the war was abandoned owing to the defection of the duke of Savoy from the coalition, and Prince Eugene returned to Vienna, where he soon afterwards received the command of the army in Hungary, on the recommendation of the veteran count Riidiger von Starhemberg, the defender of Vienna in 1683.
He finally discredited himself by joining the Coalition ministry formed by North and Fox, and with its fall disappeared from public life.
In June 1512 a coalition between Spain, Venice and the pope re-established the Sforza dynasty in power at Milan in the person of Ludovico's son Massimiliano.
He was able to recover what he had lost and to make peace on his own terms. Two years later he was again assailed by a coalition headed by the archbishop of Cologne and the bishop of Utrecht.
These cities he refused to cede to the sultan, and, about this period, he entered into negotiations with Venice and the shah of Persia, in the vain hope of organizing a world-wide coalition against the Turks.
The Liberal party had been out of office for eight years, the Conservative -Junimist coalition had practically carried out its complete programme, and legislation was at a deadlock owing to the abstention of the Liberal opposition.
In 1851 control of the Massachusetts legislature was secured by the Democrats in coalition with the Free Soilers, but after filling the state offices with their own men, the Democrats refused to vote for Sumner, the Free Soilers' choice for United States senator, and urged the selection of some less radical candidate.
In spite, therefore, of the vigour, or even violence, of his opposition before the war, it was comparatively easy for Mr. Asquith to approach him in May 1915 with a view to the formation of a National Coalition Government, and for him to respond with immediate acceptance.
He took the view that for the due prosecution of the war a Coalition Government was necessary.
In this second Coalition Mr. Law's position was much more considerable than in the first.
As the general election approached he responded heartily to Mr. Lloyd George's proposal that the Coalition should be continued, and that the country should be definitely invited to return candidates who should undertake to support the Coalition Government; and he joined with him in issuing the letters or certificates, nicknamed " coupons," accepting Coalition candidates.
Mr. Bonar Law was whole-heartedly in favour of the Coalition, and frequently adjured his Conservative friends to remain true to it.
But when the French monarchy was abolished and the royal pair beheaded, Ferdinand and Carolina were seized with a feeling of fear and horror and joined the first coalition against France in 1793.
Soon after the Civil War a Democratic " machine " got firm control of the city, and although a struggle to overthrow the machine was begun in earnest in 1875 by a coalition of the reform element of the Democratic party with the Republican party, it was not till 1895 that the coalition won its first decisive victory at the polls.
In 152 Philometor joined the coalition against the Seleucid king Demetrius I.
The protege of the coalition, Alexander Balas, married Philometor's daughter Cleopatra (Thea), and reigned in Syria in practical subservience to him.
Disarmed, however, by the dukes frank submission they wisely resolved not to push him to extremes, and the first council which was appointed to act for the new monarch was a sort of coalition ministry in which Lancasters followers as well as his foes were represented.
The Restoration was effected by a coalition between the Cavaliers, or followers of Charles I., and the Presbyterians who had originally opposed him.
They formed a coalition with Lord North, whose politics and character, they had denounced for years.
The coalition, as soon as the peace with America and France had been signed (f 783), drove Shelburne from office.
Burke drew up a bill, which was adopted by the coalition government, for taking all authority in India out of the hands of the company, and even placing the companys management of its own commercial affairs under control.
When, therefore, it was understood that the government bill meant the council to be named in the bill for four years, or, in other words, to be named by the coalition ministry, it was generally regarded as an unblushing attempt to turn a measure for the good government of India into a measure for securing the ministry in office.
In choosing Pitt, the young son of Chatham, or his prime minister, as soon as he had dismissed the coalition, George III.
This view was soon to be stultifind by the effect of the coalition against France in 1792 of Prussia and Austria.
rhe government majorities in the House now rapidly dwindled;)n the 26th of April 1804, Addington resigned; and Pitt, after Iis attempt to form a national coalition ministry had broken down on the kings refusal to admit Fox, became head of a government constructed on a narrow Tory basis.
Abroad, Pitts whole energies were directed to forming a fresh coalition against Bonaparte, who, on the 14th of May 1804, had proclaimed himself emperor of the French; but it was a year before Russia signed with Great Britain the treaty of St Petersburg (April ii, 1805), and the accession to the coalition of Austria, Sweden and Naples was not obtained till the following September.
by the offer of a partition of the world, concluded the treaty of Tilsit, which not only brought Russia into the Continental System, but substituted for a coalition against France a formidable coalition against England.
Before this coalition could be completed, however, Canning died (August 8).
The short-lived Goderich administration followed; and in January 1828 the king, weary of the effort to arrange a coalition, summoned the duke of Wellington to office as head of a purely Iuiu,g.
This may have been a proper thing to do if their distrust of Shelburne was incurable, but the next step, coalition with Lord North against him, was not only a political blunder, but a shock to party morality, which brought speedy retribution.
It served its immediate purpose, however, for Lord Shelburne found himself (February 24, 1783) too weak to carry on the government, and was succeeded by the members of the coalition, with the duke of Portland for prime minister (April 2, 1783).
Young William Pitt, then only in his twenty-fifth year, had been chancellor of the exchequer in Lord Shelburne's short ministry, and had refused to enter the coalition government from an honourable repugnance to join Lord North.
He had found out the instability of the coalition and the power of France.
Most of these rebellions were easily quelled by Sparta, though in 469 and again in 420 the disaffected cities, backed by Argos, formed a dangerous coalition and came near to establishing their inde pendence.
He was minister without portfolio in the Berry cabinet (1880-1881), and as minister of education in the coalition government of 1886 to 1890 he was able to pass into law many of the recommendations of his report.
His first budget was a quaint failure, and was thrown out by a coalition of Liberals and Peelites which he believed was formed against Mr Disraeli more than against the chancellor of the exchequer.
Thus was formed the first coalition.
Thus the summer passed away without any decisive achievement of the coalition.
Administrators of the first rank, these men renovated the warlike power of France, and enabled her to deal those crushing blows which broke up the coalition.
In the autumn of 1793 the war against the coalition took a turn favourable to France.
By degrees a coalition against Robespierre was formed in the Mountain.
Against the coalition the Republic was gloriously successful.
The coalition thus fell into ruin and France occupied a more commanding position than in the proudest days of Louis XIV.
The possibility of foreign interference had vanished with the failure of the coalition.
Under these circumstances Nelson's victory of Aboukir (1st of August), which gave the British full command of the Mediterranean and secluded Bonaparte in Egypt, was the signal for a second coalition.
But the second coalition, like the first, was doomed to failure by the narrow views and conflicting interests of its members.
After the emeute of August 10 and Lafayette's flight he was appointed to the command of the "Army of the Centre," and at the same moment the Coalition assumed the offensive.
But his principal work during the war was effected at the Ministry of Munitions, where Mr. Lloyd George obtained his assistance as Parliamentary Secretary when the office was created under the first Coalition Ministry in 1915.
He soon found another constituency at Oxford, and upon the formation of Lord Aberdeen's coalition ministry became president of the Board of Trade, although debarred by the jealousy of his Whig colleagues from a seat in the cabinet.
The defeat of the southern coalition is based, as the doublets show, upon two sources; the war arises from two causes (vengeance upon the Gibeonites, and the attempt to overthrow Israel), and concludes with a twofold victory: in x.
Louis naturally joined the coalition of 1173, but showed no more vigour in this than in his other wars; and his fate would have been sealed had not the pope checked Henry by the threat of an interdict, and reconciled the combatants (1177).
John seized the opportunity to consolidate Coaiftion against Philip a European coalition, which included against most of the feudal lords in Flanders, Belgium and Philip Lorraine, and the emperor Otto IV.
The king of England had entered into the coalition formed by the nobility of Poitou and the count of Toulouse to prevent the execution of the treaty of 1229 and the enfeoffment IX.
These isolated rebellions, however, were crushed by the ever-ready coalition of royal and feudal forces at Roosebeke (1382).
But even the splendid victories of Gaston de Foix could not shake that formidable coalition; and despite the efforts of Bayard, La Palice and La Trmoille, it was the Church that triumphed.
of England, who only needed bribing, and Wolsey, accessibleto flattery, took part in the temporary coalition.
He resumed the policy of Henry IV., confining his military operations to the region of the Alps, and contenting himself at first with opposing the coalition of the Habsburgs with a coalition of Venice, the Turks, Bethlen Gabor, king of Hungary, and the Protestants of Germaay and Denmark.
Richelieu had been able to surmount these difficulties because he governed in the name of a king of full age, and against isolated adversaries; while Mazarin had the latter against Richelicu him in a coalition which had lasted ten years, with aria, the further disadvantages of his foreign origin and a royal minority at a time when every one was sick of government by ministers.
It was the fiscal question that arrayed against Mazarin a coalition of all petty interests and frustrated ambitions; this was always the Achilles heel of the French monarchy, Financial which in 1648 was at the last extremity for money.
Civil war now began against the rebellious coalition of great nobles, lawyers of the parlement, populace, and mercenaries The just set free from the Thirty Years War.
He could never make the rights over the drink traffic uniform and equal, nor restrict privileges in the matter of the taille; while he was soon much embarrassed, not only by the coalition of particular interests and local immunities, which made despotism acceptable by tempering it, but also by Louis XIV.s two masterpassions for conquest and for building.
Power had passed from the hands of the burghers of Amsterdam into those of William of Orange, who on the 30th peace ~ of August 1673, profiting by the arrest of the army Ni/rn- brought about by the inundation and by the fears of wegen, Europe, joined in a coalition with the emperor, the ~ king of Spain, the duke of Lorraine, many of the princes of the Empire, and with England, now at last enlightened as to the projects of Catholic restoration which Louis XIV.
The kings death did not result in the unanimity so much desired by all parties; it only caused the reaction on themselves of the hatred which had been hitherto concentrated upon the king, and also an augmentation in the armies of the foreigner, which obliged the revolutionists to coalition.
There was a coalition of monarchs, and the people of La Vende rose in defence of their faith.
Instead of profiting by Dumouriezs treachery and the successes in La Vende, the Coalition, divided over the resuscitated Polish question, lost time on the frontiers of this new Poland of the west which was sacrificing itself for the sake of a Universal Republic. Thus in January 1794 the territory of France was cleared of the Prussians and Austrians by the victories at Hondschoote, Wattignies and Wissembourg; the army of La Vende was repulsed from Granville, overwhelmed by Hoches army at Le Mans and Savenay, and its leaders shot; royalist sedition was suppressed at Lyons, Bordeaux, Marseilles and Toulon; federalist insurrections were wiped out by the terrible massacres of Carrier at Nantes, the atrocities of Lebon at Arras, and the wholesale executions of Fouch and Collot dHerbois at Lyons; Louis XVI.
The festival of the new doctrine, which turned the head of the new pontiff (June 8), the loi de Prairial, or code of legal murder (June 10), which gave the deputies themselves into his hand; and the multiplication of executions at a time when the victory of Fleurus (June 25) showed the uselessness and barbarity of this aggravation of the Reign of Terror provoked against him the victorious coalition of revenge, lassitude and fear.
This it was the C0fl which had sustained Robespierres dictatorship; and, yen Ofl~ owing to the amalgam and the re-establishment of discipline, Belgium arid the left bank of the Rhinehad been conquered and Holland occupied, simultaneously with Kosciuskos rising in Poland, Prussias necessity of keeping and extending her Polish acquisitions, Robespierres death, the prevalent desires of the majority, and the continued victories of Pichegru, Jourdan and Moreau, enfeebled the coalition.
The bureaucrats of the old systemhaving returned to their offices and being used to these indirect taxeslent their assistance, and thus the Directory was enabled to maintain its struggle against the Coalition.
The disaster of Aboukir (August 1, 1798) speedily decided the coalition pending between England, Austria, the Empire, Portugal, Naples, Russia and Turkey.
Thus the aristocratic constitution of Sieys was transformed into an unavowed dictatorship, a public ratification of which the First Consul obtained by a third coup detat from the intimidated and yet reassured electors-reassured by his dazzling but unconvincing offers of peace to the victorious Coalition (which repulsed them), by the rapid disarmament of La Vende, and by the proclamations in which he filled the ears of the infatuated people with the new talk of stability of government, order, justice and moderation.
Germany, to stem which Pitt, back in power, appealed once more to an Anglo-Austro-Russian coalition against this new Charlemagne, who was trying to renew the old Empire, who was mastering France, Italy and Germany; who finally on the 2nd of December 1804 placed the imperial crown upon his head, after receiving the iron crown of the Lombard kings, and made Pius VII.
To the coalition of the northern powers blockade, he added the league of the Baltic and Mediterranean ports, and to the bombardment of Copenhagen by an English fleet he responded by a second decree of blockade, dated from Milan on the 17th of Dec~mbcr 1807.
would eventually be found disarmed in face of a last coalition; but Spanish heroism infected Austria, and showed the force of national resistance.
of France, tried to form a coalition to aid the deposed elector, the only assistance which he obtained came from John Casimir, administrator of the Palatinate of the Rhine.
The invaders were a coalition of Arabs, Syrians and Berbers.
Spain withdrew from the projected coalition against France, and sought to maintain an attitude of neutrality, which alienated the other powers, while it failed to conciliate the Republic. The repressive measures of Floridablanca were withdrawn; society and the press regained their freedom; and no opposition was offered to the propaganda of French ideas.
was roused to demand vengeance for the insult to his family, and Spain became an enthusiastic member of the first coalition against France.
The military plans of the Directory were unsuccessful during the absence of their greatest general in Egypt, and the second coalition gained successes in 1799 which had seemed impossible since 1793.
But the coalition soon broke up. Espartero was overthrown by General Leopold ODonnell, who in 185k formed the Union-Liberal ministry which did at last give Spai1
Canovas ruled his own coalition of Conservatives and Catholics with an iron hand, managing the affairs of Spain for six years with only two short interruptions, when he stood aside for a few months, just long enough to convince the king that the Conservative party could not retain its cohesion, even under such men as Marshals Jovellar and Campos, if he did not choose to support them.
The old Liberal feeling still prevailing among them was too strong, however, for their leaders to take office in a coalition ministry.
30, 1851) and for the long term (April 24, 1851) by a coalition of Democrats and Free Soilers and served only until February 1851.
In the same year he received a plurality of the votes cast for governor, but as the constitution required a majority vote, the election was thrown into the legislature, where he was defeated by the same coalition.
Prussia was bound by the treaty of London of 1852, which guaranteed the integrity of the Danish monarchy; to have disregarded this would have been to bring about a coalition against Germany similar to that of 1851.
When Pitt returned to power in 1804 Grenville refused to join the ministry unless his political ally, Fox, was also admitted thereto; this was impossible and he remained out of office until February 1806, when just after Pitt's death he became the nominal head of a coalition government.
Kerak is identified with the Moabite town of Kir-Hareseth (destroyed by the HebrewEdomite coalition, 2 Kings iii.
(ii.) Les Emigres et la seconde coalition (1886), (iii.) Coblenz,1789-1793 (1890).
The states which Ben-Hadad had brought together into a coalition against the advancing power of Assyria all revolted; and Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, took advantage of this in 842 and attacked Syria.
The Kapp coup in Berlin, which in some of its aspects sprang from similar anxieties in Prussia, gave the signal for political action in Munich, and at a midnight sitting the Bavarian Socialist Ministry was somewhat unceremoniously hustled out of office - it is alleged under military pressure - and a Coalition Cabinet under von Kahr installed.
The Coalition included reactionary Conservatives whose influence became more and more predominant.
It was one of several bellicose statements by one of its coalition partners.
The grand coalition government of the center right and center left in Germany is pushing through retirement at 67.
The death agony of the coalition ministry began on the day of its birth.
allytanyahu claimed these concessions did not undermine his budget, but he spent every penny in the reserves to pay off his coalition allies.
Their coalition was re-elected by a landslide following the armistice.
Both locations have a history of Iraqi antiaircraft artillery firing on coalition jets.
Make Poverty History is the largest ever coalition assembled in the UK to fight against global poverty.
bipartisan coalition of 110 Members of Congress.
broad-based student coalition against the war.
The creaking world economy was started up again by a coalition of industrial capitalists and government, with the trade unions as junior partner.
The first deputy chairperson is chosen by the majority Frelimo Party, and the second by the opposition Renamo- Electoral Union coalition.
coalition assembled in the UK to fight against global poverty.
Predictably, the financial markets favor a continuation of the economic policies pursued by the governing coalition.
coalition against terrorism.
Loyalist followers of the former dictator are accused of targeting Iraqis they perceive to be working with the U.S.-led coalition.
He called for a broad-based student coalition against the war.
The specter looms of a return to the centre-right coalition that ruled the Federal Republic from 1983 to 1998.
The UK anti-war coalition is urging everyone who can to get to London on April 12th.
coalition troops of about 30,000 have stayed about level.
coalition forces have gone onto Baghdad, should an attempt have been made to arrest...?
coalition aircraft departed the area safely, " added the statement.
But the most important thing the centre-left coalition might achieve is proportional representation.
Labor leaders here are said to be increasingly disenchanted with their Lib Dem coalition partners and considering alternative alliances after May 2007.
We should look very carefully at this anti-terrorism coalition and who is joining it and why.
On the one hand the ruling coalition is firmly committed to economic reforms.
Schroeder has argued that a strike against Baghdad could wreck the international anti-terror coalition and throw the Middle East into turmoil.
The No campaign would be a rainbow coalition, to which the Green Party would add green and would co-operate wholeheartedly.
coalition with the SPD.
coalition with the bourgeoisie leads to the proletariat's abnegating the revolutionary struggle against imperialism.
cobbled up a coalition Government in the making.
If any country threatened to dominate the continent, Britain would join with the opposing coalition to prevent it.
Nevertheless, the coalition forces are still unable to penetrate the Iraqi defenses.
deposed by force in 1991 when, instead, the Iraqi opposition forces were effectively betrayed by the coalition.
destruction inflicted by the coalition in 1991.
Therefore, we provide a potent deterrence against action toward coalition ground forces.
Currently the coalition command is deciding how better use the 4th Infantry division.
These pictures have been freely donated to the Stop the War Coalition by a number of photographers.
L. Paul Bremer III was appointed presidential envoy in May and, as such, is the senior coalition official in Iraq.
It is also critical to cementing a potentially fractious executive, with four parties thrown together in involuntary coalition.
fudge on the issue to keep its coalition together?
The Make poverty history coalition called for three things: Trade Justice.
Some individuals who support the insurgency are known to have traveled to Iraq in order to fight against coalition forces.
interethnic coalition was formed before independence, and it occupied the center of the ethnic spectrum.
Of the coalition wage a multi-million lawsuits in this be lied to.
The chance of this coalition lasting the full four years appears minimal.
In a way, we have just had an object lesson in the power of coalition unity.
object lesson in the power of coalition unity.
FUMO's decision not to renew the coalition pact was connected with the need for the party to grow, Samo Gudo said.
A new coalition Cabinet was approved by parliament on May 5, 2000.
Office says west parsons Fairness for Good Drivers Coalition we will take advantage of offered through that organization.
How else could Fifers bring themselves to punish Labor by rewarding its Scottish coalition partners with a victory?
There were talks about a formal coalition, but the scale of Labor's victory in 1997 rendered the discussions pointless.
The rise of the Liberals in Aberdeen underlines the pitfalls of coalition politics at the level of the Parliament.
polity management dimension of the Coalition's statecraft.
This is the same coalition of the shilling that now purports to export its sordid distortion of democracy to Baghdad.
rainbow coalition like Jesse Jackson's bringing together disparate sections of society.
As a result, the coalition between big capital and bourgeois reformism has disappeared.
The Coalition is now trying to have psychological counseling and financial reparations written into the law.
The so-called banlieues rouges reached their peak in the mid-1930s with the electoral sucess of left- wing coalition of Le Front Populaire.
ruling coalition is firmly committed to economic reforms.
In January, the Anonymous Digital Coalition issued a plan for virtual sit-ins on five web sites of Mexico City financial corporations.
The Iraqis destroyed one coalition APC wounding two coalition soldiers.
Even the capture of the undoubtedly vile Saddam Hussein has not staunched attacks on coalition troops or made the war any more popular.
operation telic - Support to coalition Forces in Iraq.
Other innocent soldiers from coalition troops dead number 176.
The liberals who believed in the union with Ireland, the Liberal unionists, moved into coalition with the Conservatives.
The coalition of the willing seems to be increasingly unwilling.
coalition warplanes bombed an Iraqi air defense site in retaliation, a Pentagon statement said.
Or so western media and Coalition authorities would have us believe.
1227), who was one of the coalition crushed by King Philip Augustus at the battle of Bouvines (1214), left two co-heiresses, of whom the elder, Maud (Matilda or Mahaut), married Philip Hurepel, son of Philip Augustus, and the second, Alix, married Jean de Trie, in whose line the countship was reunited after the death of Philip Hurepel's son Alberic. The countship passed, through heiresses, to the houses of Fayel and Nanteuil, and in the 15th century was acquired by Antoine de Chabannes (d.
Though on more than one occasion personal rancour against the men of the Moderate Left prevented the Right from following Sellas advice and regaining, by timely coalition with cognate parliamentary elements, a portion of its former influence, the bulk of the party, with singular inconsistency, drew nearer and nearer to the Liberal cabinets.
During his foreign tour he had discovered that the idea of a grand crusade against the infidel was irrealizable, for France was, according to her traditional policy, the ally of the sultan, Austria wished to avoid trouble on her eastern frontier in order to devote her energies to the question of the Spanish succession, and all the other countries which he wished to draw into the coalition had good reasons of their own for desiring the maintenance of peace in eastern Europe.
This time Mehemet Ali was supported by the French government, which aimed at establishing predominant influence in Egypt, but he was successfully opposed by a coalition of Great Britain, Russia, Austria and Prussia, which checkmated the aggressive designs of France by the convention of London (July 15, 1840) (see Mehemet Ali and Turkey).
Afterwards their strength declined, because the people became more prosperous, because the national Democratic party in 1896 and 1900 adopted their views on the money question, and because of the unpopularity of a coalition with Republicans, which made it necessary to give the coloured people a share of the offices.
But he was unpopular at Antioch, and fell before a coalition of the three kings of Egypt, Pergamum and Cappadocia.
The war of the Second Coalition having brought about the expulsion of the French from Italy, the Directors were exposed to a storm of indignation in France, not unmixed with contempt; and this state of public opinion enabled the young conqueror within a month of his landing at Frejus (9th of October 1799) easily to prevail over the Directory and the elective councils of the nation.
Save for the benevolent neutrality of Prussia, therefore, which enabled her to obtain supplies from the north, Russia was pitted singlehanded against a coalition of Turkey, Great Britain and France, to which Sardinia was added later.
But the Coalition represented, in fact, not the mass of the people, but only a small dominant minority,' and for years past this minority had neglected the social and economic needs of the mass of the people in the eager pursuit of party advantage and the effort to impose, by coercion and corruption failing other means, the Magyar language and Magyar culture on the non-Magyar races.
Their official organs, indeed, continued to fulminate against the " unconstitutional " government, but the enthusiasm with which the programme had been received in the country showed the Coalition leaders the danger of their position, and henceforth, though they continued their denunciations of Austria, they entered into secret negotiations with the king-emperor, in order, by coming to terms with him, to ward off the fatal consequences of Kristoffy's proposals.