Towards the close of the Palaeozoic era France had become a part of a great continent; in the north the Coal Measures of the Boulonnais and the Nord were laid down in direct connection with those of Belgium and England, while in the Central Plateau the Coal Measures were deposited in isolated and scattered basins.
The Coal Measures become narrower in the south, until, owing to the eastward projection of the highlands, the Lower Palaeozoic rocks reach the coast.
Kitson's work in Tasmania shows that there also the glacial beds may be correlated with the lower or Greta Coal Measures of New South Wales.
of Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures (Phil.
The coal is here confined to the lower division of the system; the Upper Carboniferous (corresponding with the English Coal-Measures) is exclusively marine, consisting chiefly of Fusulina limestone.
This swelling includes the Donets coal-measures and the middle granitic ridges which give rise to the rapids of the Dnieper.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lies on the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
East of Bolsover, the Coal Measures are covered uncomformably by the Permian breccias and magnesian limestone.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lieson the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
East of Bolsover, the Coal Measures are covered unconformably by the Permian breccias and magnesian limestone.
A remarkable fossil from the Scottish Coal-measures (Lithomantis) had apparently small wing-like structures on the prothorax, and in allied genera small veined outgrowths - like tracheal gills - occurred on the abdominal segments.
Its centre is of volcanic rocks, complex in character, while the Coal-measures and New Red Sandstone appear round the edges.
The coal belongs to the Cretaceous beds, and while not so heavy as that of the Coal Measures is of excellent quality.
Of the Coal Measures above these, if they occur, we know nothing at present.
Fossil scorpions of the modern type are found in the Coal Measures.
It is generally largest in lignites, which may sometimes contain 30% or even more, while in the coals of the coal measures it does not usually exceed from 5 to io%.
This is actually the case; the Carboniferous, Cretaceous and Jurassic systems (qq.v.) contain coal-bearing strata though in unequal degrees,- the first being known as the Coal Measures proper, while the others are of small economic value in Great Britain, though more productive in workable coals on the continent of Europe.
The Coal Measures which form part of the Palaeozoic or oldest of the three great geological divisions are mainly confined to the countries north of the equator.
The nature of the Coal Measures will be best understood by v1.19 considering in detail the areas within which they occur in Britain, together with the rocks with which they are most intimately associated.
The uppermost portion of the Coal Measures consists of red sandstone so closely resembling that of the Permian group, which are next in geological sequence, that it is often difficult to decide upon the true line of demarcation between the two formations.
These are not, however, always found together, the Coal Measures being often covered by strata belonging to the Trias or Upper New Red Sandstone series.
The areas containing productive coal measures are usually known as coalfields or basins, within which coal occurs in more or less regular beds, also called seams or veins, which can often be followed over a considerable length of country without change of character, although, like all stratified rocks, their continuity may be interrupted by faults or dislocations, also known as slips, hitches, heaves or troubles.
Poetsch in 1883, and originally applied to shafts passing through quicksands above brown coal seams, has been applied with advantage in opening new pits through the secondary and tertiary strata above the coal measures in the north of France and Belgium, some of the most successful examples being those at Lens, Anzin and Vicq, in the north of France basin.
Coal-measures, as will be seen, have been found near Dover.
Cephalopod molluscs have been traced back to the straight-shelled nautiloids of the genus Volborthella, while true ammonites have been found in the inferior Permian of the Continent and by American palaeontologists in the true coal measures.
West of the Mississippi the Coal Measures are subdivided into two series, the Des Moines below and the Missouri above.
Monongahela formation (or series)Upper Productive Coal Measures.
- Barren Coal Measures.
Allegheny formation (or series)Lower Prodtictive Coal Measures.
The chief interest of the palaeontology of this system is in the plants, which were very like those of the Coal Measures of other parts of the earth and showed a high development, of forms that are now degenerate.
The Upper Barren Coal Measures of some parts of the east (Ohio, Pennsylvania, &c.) are now classed as Permian on the basis of their fossil plants.
The Laramie is the great coalbearing series of the west, and corresponds in its general physical make-up and in its mode of origin to the Coal Measures of the east.
The coal measures of Upper Silesia, in the south-east part of the province, are among the most extensive in continental Europe, and there is another large field near Waldenburg in the south-west.
Besides having practically all the anthracite, Pennsylvania has the thickest bituminous coal-measures, and most of the coal obtained from these is of the best quality.
The Coal-Measures and Millstone Grit are usually grouped together in the Upper Carboniferous, the Carboniferous Limestone series constituting the Lower Carboniferous.
Besides the considerable exposed area of Carboniferous rocks in Great Britain, there is as much or more that is covered by younger formations; this is true particularly of the eastern side of England and the south-eastern counties, where the coal-measures have already been found at Dover.
The fossil plants connect this group with the coal-measures; the marine fossils have, to some extent, a Carboniferous limestone aspect.
True coniferous trees (Walchia) do appear at the top of the coal measures.
Certain footprints in the coal measures of Kansas have been supposed to belong to lacertilian or dinosaurian forms.
The clayey siderite of the British coal measures is called " clay band," and that containing bituminous matter is called " black band."
In the southern half of the trough the folding of the Coal Measures is intense; in the northern half it is much less violent.
The structure is complicated by a thrust-plane which brings a mass of older beds upon the Coal Measures in the middle of the trough.
Subsequently he was appointed to the post of superintendent of education (1850-1853); at the same time he entered zealously into the geology of the country, making a special study of the fossil forests of the coal-measures.
The southern edge of the county is formed by the scarps and moorlands of the Carboniferous Limestone and Millstone Grit (both of which form also the outlier of Pen-ceryg-calch north of Crickhowell), while the lowest beds of the Coal Measures of the South Wales coalfield are reached in the Tawe and Neath valleys (where the beds are much folded) and near Tredegar and Brynmawr.
In the basins of the Forth and Clyde the following subdivisions are well marked: (5) Upper Red Sandstone series (red and grey sandstones, fireclays, shales, marls); (4) Coal Measures (white and grey sandstones, dark shales, fireclays, coal seams, ironstones); (3) Millstone Grit (massive sandstones and grits, with fireclays, thin limestones and coal); (2) Carboniferous Limestone series - (c) sandstones and shales, with three or more seams of limestone; (b) sandstones, shales, coals and ironstones, but with no limestone bands; (a) sandstones, shales, fireclays, coals and iron XXIV.
The coal-fields contain two main groups of seams, the lower in the middle section of the Carboniferous Limestone, and the upper in the Coal Measures.
These may represent partly the Millstone Grit and partly the Coal Measures.
The Coal Measures have been reached under Sydney, by a deep bore at Balmain, which pierced a seam of coal io ft.
The Coal Measures are classified by Professor T.
This is shown by palaeontological evidence; and some of the most successful bores, such as those at Coonamble, Moree, Gil Gil and Euroka, have pierced rocks of Triassic age, corresponding with the Ipswich Coal Measures.
Where the Coal Measures reach the sea at Whitehaven, there are coal-mines, and the hematite of the Carboniferous Limestones has given rise to the active ironworks of Barrow-in-Furness, now the largest town in the district.
The whole region may be looked upon as formed by an arch or anticline of Carboniferous strata, the axis of which runs north and south; the centre has been worn away by erosion, so that the Coal Measures have been removed, and the underlying Millstone Grit and Carboniferous Limestone exposed to the influences which form scenery.
On both sides of the arch, east and west, the Coal Measures remain intact, forming outcrops which disappear towards the sea under the more recent strata of Permian or Triassic age.
Compared with the rugged and picturesque scenery of the Lower Carboniferous rocks, that of the Coal Measures is, as a rule, featureless and monotonous.
To the west and south the Coal Measures dip gently under the New Red Sandstone, to reappear at several points through the Triassic plain.
The iron ores of the Coal Measures have given rise to great manufactures of steel, from cutlery to machinery and armour-plates.
The great coal-field on the south is a perfect example of a synclinal basin, the Millstone Grit and Carboniferous Limestone which underlie the Coal Measures appearing all round the margin.
One such outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone in the south forms the Mendip Hills; another of the Coal Measures increases the importance of Bristol, where it stands at the head of navigation on the southern Avon.
Smaller patches of the Coal Measures appear near Tamworth and Burton, while deep shafts have been sunk in many places through the overlying Triassic strata to the coal below, thus extending the mining and manufacturing area beyond the actual outcrop of the Coal Measures.
Slowly this sea shallowed, giving rise to the alternating estuarine marine and freshwater deposits of the Coal Measures.
This line defines the eastern limit of the Coal Measures proper, which cover a belt 20 to 80 m.
Finally, to the west of these, and covering the north-western corner of the state, are the upper coal measures.
The area of the Coal Measures is about 23,000 sq.
The beds above the limestone are shales and sandstones, sometimes reaching the true Coal-Measures, but rarely younger than the English Millstone Grit.
The Upper Coal-Measures, as a rule, have been lost by denudation, much of which occurred before Triassic times.
Carboniferous one at Ballycastle, the high outliers of Millstone Grit and Coal-Measures round Lough Allen, and the Dungannon and Coalisland field in county Tyrone.
The only important occurrences of coal in the south are in eastern Tipperary, near Killenaule, and in the Leinster coalfield (counties Kilkenny and Carlow and Queen's County), where there is a high synclinal field, including Lower and Middle Coal-Measures, and resembling in structure the Forest of Dean area in England.
The Coal Measures are covered by marine shales with numerous bryozoa; and, on the horizon of the Greta Coal Measures of New South Wales, is a bed of Carboniferous glacial deposits.
In the Coal Measures of England and of certain German and Austrian districts (e.g.
The first evidence for the existence of Palaeozoic Bacteria was obtained in 1879 by Van Tieghem, who found that in silicified vegetable remains from the Coal Measures of St Etienne Bacteria.
In one or two cases Palaeozoic plants, resembling the true Mosses in habit, have been discovered; the best example is the Muscites polytrichaceus of Renault and Zeiller, from the Coal Measures of Commentry.
In Asterophyllites., the generic distinction of which from Annularia is not always clear, the narrow linear leaves are in crowded whorls, and the ultimate branches distichously arranged; in the Calamocladus of Grand' Eury - characteristic of the Upper Coal Measures - the whorls are more remote, and the twigs polystichous in arrangement.
The above description applies to the stems of Calamites in the narrower sense (Arthropitys of the French authors), to which the specimens from the British Coal Measures mostly belong.
This form of strobilus, from the Coal Measures of Germany, is imperfectly known, and its relation to Calamarieae not beyond doubt.
A more important deviation from ordinary Lepidostroboid structure is shown by the genus Lepidocarpon, from the English Coal Measures and the Lower Carboniferous of Scotland.
Another case of a " seed-bearing " Lycopod has lately been discovered by Miss Benson in Miadesmia membranacea, a slender Selaginella-like plant from the Lower Coal Measures of Lancashire.
Generally, the Eusigillariae are characteristic of the older Carboniferous strata, the Subsigillariae of the Upper Coal Measures and Permian.
or more in diameter) were found lying loose on the sporophylls by Zeiller; the sporangia containing them were first observed by Kidston, in a species from the Coal Measures of Yorkshire.
In the Coal Measures they commonly occur in the underclay beneath the coal-seams. Complete specimens of the stumps show that from the base of the aerial stem four Stigmarian branches were given off, which took a horizontal or obliquely descending course, forking at least twice.
In the genus Danaeites, from the Coal Measures of the Saar, the synangia are much like those of the recent Danaea, each sporangium opening by an apical pore.
tiliaeoides, a Coal Measures species, where the preservation is remarkably perfect.
The Medullosa stems have been found chiefly in the Permo-Carboniferous of France and Germany, but a Coal Measures species (M.
In the new genus Sutcliffia, also from the Coal Measures of Lancashire, the stem had a single, large central stele, from which smaller strands were given off, forming a kind of network, which gave rise to the numerous concentric leaf-traces which entered the (After Kidston.
Stems (Mesoxylon) intermediate in structure between Poroxylon and Cordaites have lately been discovered in the English Coal Measures.
Pterophyllum, Sphenozamites) occur in the Coal Measures and Permian, and it is possible that the obscure Coal Measure genus Noeggerathia may have Cycadean affinities.
For our present purpose we may divide the formation into Lower Carboniferous and Lower and Upper Coal Measures.
The Lower Coal Measures (Westphalian) have an enormously rich flora, embracing most of the types referred to in our systematic description.
The Upper Coal Measures (Stephanian) are characterized among the Calamarieae, now more than ever abundant, by the prevalence of the Calamodendreae; new species of Sphenophyllum make their appearance; among the Lycopods, Lepidodendron and its immediate allies diminish, and smooth-barked Sigillariae are the characteristic representatives.
In the Upper Coal Measures the first Cycadophyta and Coniferae make their appearance.
I), applied by Brongniart in 1828 to sub-lanceolate or tongue-shaped leaves from India and Australia, taceous genus Cingularia from the Coal Measures of Germany.
The most important evidence on which this conclusion is based is afforded by the occurrence of European forms of Carboniferous shells in marine strata in New South Wales, which are intercalated between Coal Measures containing members of the Glossopteris flora, and.
The genus Sphenophyllum, abundant in the Coal Measures and Permian rocks of Europe and America, is represented by a single species recorded from India,.
In his account of some plants from the Coal Measures of Kansu (Map A, IV.) Dr Krasser has drawn attention to the apparent identity of certain leaf-fragments with those of Naeggerathiopsis Hislopi, a typical member of the Glossopteris flora; but this plant, so far as the evidence of vegetative leaves may be of value, differs in no essential respects from certain species of a European genus Cordaites.
The most highly valued fireclays are derived from the Coal Measures.
The principal French fireclays are derived from the Tertiary strata in the south, and more nearly resemble porcelain clays than those of the Coal Measures.
Silica is used in furnace-building in the forms of sand, ganister, a finely ground sandstone from the Coal Measures of Yorkshire, and the analogous substance known as Dinas clay, which is really nearly pure silica, containing at most about 2-1% of bases.
igneous intrusions into the Coal Measures.
There are also a number of igneous intrusions into the Coal Measures.
The Upper Coal Measures outcrop between Halesowen and West Bromwich and largely comprise marls, red sandy mudstones and grits.
overliean To the east, the Coal Measures are overlain by rocks of Permian age.
In contrast the southern North Sea gas province has been charged almost entirely from the Carboniferous Coal Measures.
siderite nodules from the Coseley fossil assemblage contain an abundant, diverse, and well preserved coal measures flora.
It is roughly estimated that the Coal Measures at present practically explored extend over an area of about 24,000 sq.
This branch of the subject, founded by Corda, Goppert, Stenzel and others in Germany, was enoi~mously advanced by Williamsons work on the Coal Measures plants, recorded in the magnificent series of memoirs, Researches on the Organization.
The Donets Coal-Measures, containing abundant remains of a rich land-flora, cover nearly 16,000 sq.
Animals of the next higher order, the amphibians of the coal measures and the Permian, were first comprehensively treated in the masterly memoirs of Christian Erich Hermann von Meyer (1801-1869) beginning in 1829, especially in his Beitrage zur Petrefactenkunde (1829-1830) and his Zur Fauna der Vorwelt (4 vols., 1845-1860).
Siderite nodules from the Coseley fossil assemblage contain an abundant, diverse, and well preserved coal measures flora.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.