Coal-gas Sentence Examples
Poulsen immensely improved this process by placing the arc in an atmosphere of hydrogen, coal-gas or some other nonoxidizing gas, and at the same time arranging it in a strong magnetic field.'
The electric arc is formed between cooled copper (positive) and carbon (negative) electrodes in an atmosphere of hydrogen or coal-gas.
Petroleum products are also largely utilized in gas manufacture for, (1) the production of " air-gas," (2) the manufacture of oil-gas, and (3) the enrichment of coal-gas.
Crismer, and others, all conclusively show that acetylene is much less toxic than carbon monoxide, and indeed than coal gas.
His first research, carried out in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, was on coal-tar, and his investigation of the organic bases in coal-gas naphtha established the nature of aniline.Advertisement
The potassium sulphocyanide is obtained from ammonium sulphocyanide, which is formed by washing crude coal gas with water containing suspended sulphur.
Sulphuretted hydrogen having no action upon it, articles made of it are not blackened in foggy weather or in rooms where crude coal gas is burnt.
Oxygen is also administered in chloroform poisoning, and in threatened death from the inhalation of coal gas or nitrous oxides.
Oxygen and coal-gas were found to be without effect.
A year later he noticed that spongy platinum in presence of oxygen can bring about the ignition of hydrogen, and utilized this fact to construct his "hydrogen lamp," the prototype of numerous devices for the self-ignition of coal-gas burners.Advertisement
The chief applications are found in the analysis of flue gases (in which much information is gained as to the completeness and efficiency of combustion), and of coal gas (where it is necessary to have a product of a definite composition within certain limits).
It is clear from these facts that, prior to Murdoch's experiments, it was known that illuminating gas could be obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, but the experiments which he began at Redruth in 1792, and which culminated in the lighting of Messrs Boulton, Watt & Co.'s engine works at Soho, near Birmingham, in 1802, undoubtedly demonstrated the practical possibility of making the gas on a large scale, and burning it in such a way as to make coal-gas the most important of the artificial illuminants.
Since the advent of the incandescent mantle, the efficiency of which is dependent upon the heating power of the gas more than on its illuminating power, the manu facture of coal gas has undergone considerable modifications.
The light-giving power of coal gas is undoubtedly entirely due to the hydrocarbons.
In 1876 M.P.E.Berthelot came to the conclusion that the illuminating value of the Paris coal gas was almost entirely due to benzene vapour.Advertisement
The series of operations connected with the manufacture and distribution of coal gas embraces the processes of distillation, condensation, exhaustion, wet purification by washing and scrubbing, dry purification, measuring, storing and distribution to the mains whence the consumer's supply is drawn.
The most soluble of the constituents of crude coal gas is ammonia, 780 volumes of which are soluble in one volume of water at normal temperature and pressure, and the water in the hydraulic main absorbs a considerable quantity of this compound from the gas and helps to form the ammoniacal liquor, whilst, although the liquor is well agitated by the gas bubbling through it, a partial separation of tar from liquor is effected by gravitation.
The fact that coal gas of an illuminating power of from 14 to 16 candles can be made from the ordinary gas coal at a fairly low rate, while every candle power added to the gas increases the cost in an enormous and rapidly growing ratio, has, from the earliest days of FIG.
A partly successful attempt to make use of certain portions of the liquid products of distillation of coal before condensation by the second method was the Dinsmore process, in which the coal gas and vapours which, if allowed to cool, would form tar, were made to pass through a heated chamber, and a certain proportion of otherwise condensible hydrocarbons was thus converted into permanent gases.
In carburetting poor coal gas with hydrocarbons from mineral oil it must be borne in mind that, as coal is undergoing distillation, a rich gas is given off in the earlier stages, but towards the end of the operation the gas is very poor in illuminants, the methane disappearing with the other hydrocarbons, and the increase in hydrogen being very marked.Advertisement
Undoubtedly the best process which has been proposed for the production of oil gas to be used in the enrichment of coal gas is the" Young "or" Peebles "process, which depends on the principle of washing the oil gas retorted at a moderate temperature by means of oil which is afterwards to undergo decomposition, because in this way it is freed from all condensible vapours, and only permanent gases are allowed to escape to the purifiers.
The fundamental objections to oil gas for the enrichment of coal gas are, first, that its manufacture is a slow process, requiring as much plant and space for retorting as coal gas; and, secondly, that although on a small scale it can be made to mix perfectly with coal gas and water gas, great difficulties are found in doing this on the large scale, because in spite of the fact that theoretically gases of such widely different specific gravities ought to form a perfect mixture by diffusion, layering of the gas is very apt to take place in the holder, and thus there is an increased liability to wide variations in the illuminating value of the gas sent out.
The wonderful carburetting power of benzol vapour is well known, a large proportion of the total illuminating power of coal gas being due to the presence of a minute trace of its vapour carried E in suspension.
One of the most generally adopted methods of enrichment now is by means of carburetted water gas mixed with poor coal gas.
Mixing with the coal gas oil gas, obtained by decomposing crude oils by heat.Advertisement
Mixing the coal gas with water gas, which has been highly carburetted by passing it with the vapours of various hydrocarbons through superheaters in order to give permanency to the hydrocarbon gases.
The use of such furnaces has very considerably diminished, owing to the general introduction of coal-gas for heating purposes in laboratories, which has been rendered possible by the invention of the Bunsen burner, in which the mixture of air and gas giving the least luminous but most powerfully heating flame is effected automatically by the effluent gas.
Petroleum, or rather the heavy oils obtained in tar refineries, having an equal or superior heating power to coal-gas, may also be used in laboratories for producing high temperatures.
In chemical technology enormous strides have been made, as is apparent from the coal-gas, coal-tar, mineral oil, spirits and mineral acids industries.
The sodium compound was first obtained by Wohler on reducing sodium tungstate with hydrogen; coal-gas, zinc, iron or tin also effect the reduction.
This scheme is particularly applicable to coal-gas Carbon dioxide is absorbed by a potash solution containing one part of potash to between two and three of water; the stronger solution absorbs about 40 volumes of the gas.