The city has immense coal piers.
Coal is found in the ground, too.
Near the city are valuable coal mines, and there is one within the city limits.
The borough is finely situated in the Wyoming Valley among the rich anthracite coalfields of eastern Pennsylvania, and its inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the coal industry; in 1906 and 1907 (when it shipped 24,081,4 9 1 tons) Luzerne county shipped more anthracite coal than any other county in Pennsylvania.
Among later additions were gunmounting stores, boiler shop, boat sheds, canteen, coal stores, &c., together with a double dock 750 ft.
In my time too; the war brought some money in and coal was getting dug so's there was jobs.
It is the largest peanut market in the world, is in a great truck-gardening region, and makes large shipments of cotton (822,930 bales in 1905), oysters, coal, fertilizers, lumber, grain, fruits, wine, vegetables, fish and live stock.
It is the carrier of a heavy tonnage of coal to Pittsburg, Pennsylvania.
It stands at the head of the effective navigation on the Rhine, and is not only the largest port on the upper course of that stream, but is the principal emporium for south Germany for such commodities as cereals, coal, petroleum, timber, sugar and tobacco, with a large trade in hops, wine and other south German produce.
Iron ore is found in the state in the coal hills (especially Laurel Hills and Beaver Lick Mountain), but the deposits have not been worked on a large scale.
She possessed a head of coal black hair, tied in a single braid that extended below her waist, dark eyes, and a smile that lit up the room.
Railway development in West Virginia has been due largely to the exploitation of the coal and lumber resources of the state.
Petroleum ranks second to coal among the state's mineral resources.
The Flemish coal-basin, employing over 100,000 hands, produces 60% of the coal mined in France.
The Alleghany Plateau consists of nearly horizontal beds of limestone, sandstone and shales, including important seams of coal; inclines slightly toward the north-west, and is intricately dissected by extensively branching streams into a maze of narrow canyons and steep-sided hills.
Kitson's work in Tasmania shows that there also the glacial beds may be correlated with the lower or Greta Coal Measures of New South Wales.
Coal.The principal mines of France are coal and iron mines.
Extensive coal mines are in the vicinity, and there are manufactures of iron and steel, mill machinery, door and sash factories, etc., as well as several shipbuilding yards.
It was coal country, or had been, as much of the depressed countryside screamed of poverty.
Where was platinum, palladium, scandium, coal or peanuts slacking off?
Charcoal, coke or anthracite coal are the fuels generally used in slow combustion heating stoves.
Butter is the principal export, and petroleum, coal and iron the imports.
Trade is also brisk, and is facilitated by a canal connecting the town with Vienna, and used chiefly for the transport of coal and timber.
After eleven pairs of shoes, two stray dogs who gave up on me, and a girl friend who skipped off with a coal truck driver in West Virginia, here I am.
The imports consist principally of coal, salt, grain and flour, groceries, textiles, wood, and mineral oils.
Gas fires, as a substitute for the open coal fire, have many points in their favour, for they are conducive to cleanliness, they need but little attention, and the heat is easily controlled.
Its fires are not volcanic, but result from the combustion of coal some distance underground, giving off much smoke and steam; geologists estimate that the burning has been going on for at least 800 years.
The Coal Measures become narrower in the south, until, owing to the eastward projection of the highlands, the Lower Palaeozoic rocks reach the coast.
In New South Wales there are, together with coal and limestone Iron.
Her eyes pierced through him, black as coal; all traces of warmth extinguished.
Limestone, iron and coal are also found.
Coal, coke, &c 7,018 9,883 10,539
Birmingham, situated in an immensely rich iron, coal and limestone region, is the principal manufacturing centre in the state, and the most important centre for the production and manufacture of iron in the southern states.
In Jefferson county there were in 1900 more than 300 mining and manufacturing establishments, engaged, chiefly, in the production of iron, coal and coke, and a majority of these are in Birmingham and its suburban towns.
In 1900 the Birmingham district produced six-sevenths of the total pig iron exported from the United States, and in 1902 nine-tenths of Alabama's coal, coke and pig iron; in 1905 Jefferson county produced 67.5% of the total iron and steel product of the state, and 62.5% of the pig iron produced by the state.
Deposits of copper, tin, iron and tungsten have been discovered, and a variety of other mineral products (graphite, mica, spodumene, coal, petroleum, &c.).
Iron, coal and slate are the chief products, and copper and cobalt may be added.
Minerals remained for the most part unworked, though the profitable coal fields and oil wells in Ferghana were used when disturbances in Trans-Caspia cut Turkestan off from the Baku oil, on which it relies entirely for its industrial life.
Europe generally, the principal coal seams occur in the Upper Carboniferous, while the Lower Carboniferous is mainly composed of marine deposits, with, however, the first bed of coal near its summit.
Aisne imports coal, iron, cotton and other raw material and machinery; it exports cereals, live-stock and agricultural products generally, and manufactured goods.
The industries of the town include manufactures of cotton, silk, earthenware, machinery and tobacco, with brass and iron founding; while slate and stone are quarried, and there are coal, iron and lead mines in the neighbourhood.
The lack of coal in Argentina greatly increases the difficulty and cost of maintaining these industries, and high prices of the products result.
Howard dropped her hand like it was a hot coal.
Natural facilities for transportation, afforded by the Ohio river and its branches, the Monongahela, at the northern end of the state, and the Little Kanawha and the Great Kanawha, are of special value for the shipment of lumber and coal.
Iron and coal are probably abundant, and silverlead, copper and antimony are believed to exist.
These older beds are overlaid, especially in the western part of the country, by a sandstone series which contains thin seams of coal and many remains of plants.
Water traffic, which is chiefly in heavy merchandise, as coal, building materials, and agriculture and food produce, more than doubled in volume between 1881 and 1905.
Amongst imports raw materials (wool, cotton and silk, coal, oilseeds, timber, &c.) hold the first place, articles of food (cereals, wine, coffee, &c.) and manufactured goods (especially machinery) ranking next.
They are also preserved in basins on the western plateau, as shown by brown coal deposits passed through in the Lake Phillipson bore.
In this valley were laid down, either in Eocene or Oligocene times, a great series of lake beds and thick accumulations of brown coal.
Near Lithgow extensive deposits of limonite, or clay-band ore, are interbedded with coal.
Some samples of ore, coal and limestone, obtained in the Mittagong district, with pig-iron and castings manufactured therefrom, were exhibited at the Mining Exhibition in London and obtained a first award.
Five distinct varieties of black coal, of well-characterized.
types, may be distinguished, and these, with the two extremes of brown coal or lignite and anthracite, form a perfectly continuous series.
Brown coal, or lignite, occurs principally in Victoria.
Black coal forms one of the principal resources of New South Wales; and in the other states the deposits of this valuable mineral are being rapidly developed.
Coal of a very fair description was discovered in the basin of the Irwin river, in Western Australia, as far back as the year 1846.
The most important discovery of coal in the state, so far, is that made in the bed of the Collie river, near Bunbury, to the south of Perth.
The coal has been treated and found to be of good quality, and there are grounds for supposing that there are 250,000,000 tons in the field.
The coal mines of New South Wales give employment to 14,000 persons, and the annual production is over 6,600,000 tons.
Black coal has been discovered in Victoria, and about 250,000 tons are now being raised.
The quantity of coal extracted annually in Australia had in 1906 reached 7,497,000 tons.
It is a species of cannel coal, somewhat similar to the Boghead mineral of Scotland, but yielding a much larger percentage of volatile hydro-carbon than the Scottish mineral.
Excluding coal lines and other lines not open to general traffic, the length of railways in private hands is only 382 m.
The lack of employment in factories naturally affected the coal mining industry, and indeed every industry in the states, except those connected with the export trade, was severely affected.
After the year 1884 Labour troubles became very frequent, the New South Wales coal miners in particular being at war with the colliery owners during the greater part of the six years intervening between then and what is called the Great Strike.
It was hard indeed for a carter drawing coal to a gasworks to recognize the necessity which compelled a reduction in his wages because wool had fallen 20 7 0.
It has large coal mines, which form the south-western portion of the extensive Upper Silesian coal fields, the largest Austrian deposit.
Impure coal has also been recorded.
Belleville is in a rich agricultural region, and in the vicinity there are valuable coal mines, the first of which was sunk in 1852; from this dates the industrial development of the city.
The commerce of the lake consists principally of coal, wood pulp and building material, besides general merchandise.
Petroleum and coal have been worked, and there is a rich yield of chalk, while a good quality of bricks is made from the xxii.
Machines used for lifting only are not called cranes, but winches, lifts or hoists, while the term elevator or conveyor is commonly given to appliances which continuously, not in separate loads, move materials like grain or coal in a vertical, horizontal or diagonal direction.
A transporter of this kind, when fitted with a grab, is a very efficient machine for taking coal from barges and depositing it in a coal store.
Vessels go to Porman to land coke and coal, and to load iron ore and lead.
Timber is largely imported from the United States, Sweden and Russia; coal from Great Britain; dried codfish from Norway and Newfoundland.
Pipeclay and china clay, from Kingsteighton, are shipped for the Staffordshire potteries, while coal and general goods are imported.
This is mixed with small coal, and when redistilled gives an enriched dust, and by repeating the process and distilling from cast iron retorts the metal is obtained.
Iron, coal, copper and manganese are mined.
If the available water-power of Italy, already very considerable, be harnessed, converted into electric power (which is already being done in some districts), and further increased by reafforestation, the effect upon the industries of Italy will be incalculable, and the importation of coal will be very materially diminished.
A quantity of it is really brushwood, used for the manufacture of charcoal and for fuel, coal being little used except for manufacturing purposes.
This led to deficiencies in the supply of coal to the manufacturing centres, and to some diversion elsewhere of shipping.
The most important imports are minerals, including coal and metals (both in pig and wrought); silks, raw, spun and woven; stone, potters earths, earthenware and glass; corn, flour and farinaceous products; cotton, raw, spun and woven; and live stock.
In 1894 the excess of imports over exports fell to 2,720,000, but by 1898 it had grown to 8,391,000, in consequence chiefly of the increased importation of coal, raw cotton and cotton thread, pig and cast iron, old iron, grease and oil-seeds for use in Italian industries.
Of the surplus 1,000,000 was allocated to the improvement of posts, telegraphs and telephones; 1,000,000 to public works (~72o,ooo for harbour improvement and 280,000 for internal navigation); 200,000 to the navy (~I32,ooo for a second dry dock at Taranto and 68,000 for coal purchase); and 200,000 as a nucleus of a fund for the purchase of valuable works of art which are in danger of exportation.
Lincoln is situated in a productive grain region, and has valuable coal mines.
Near Tokat copper pyrites, with iron and manganese, kaolin and coal are found; but most of the copper worked here comes from the mines of Keban Maden and Arghana Maden, on the upper Euphrates and Tigris.
Thus various parts of criminals, such as the thigh bone of a hanged man, moss grown on a human skull, &c., were used, and even the celebrated Dr Culpeper in the 17th century recommended " the ashes of the head of a coal black cat as a specific for such as have a skin growing over their sight."
The Eastern railway has works at Romilly, and there are iron works at Clairvaux and wire-drawing works at Plaines; but owing to the absence of coal and iron mines, metal working is of small importance.
The exports of Aube consist of timber, cereals, agricultural products, hosiery, wine, dressed pork, &c.; its imports include wool and raw cotton, coal and machinery, especially looms. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the main line to Belfort crosses it.
of Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures (Phil.
Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
Coal deposits exist in the immediate vicinity of the town.
There are salt works and important coal deposits in its vicinity, the latter at Naricual and Capiricual, 12 m.
The coasting trade consists chiefly of imports of coal and provisions, the exports being principally timber for shipbuilding and flint for the Staffordshire potteries.
Frostburg is in the midst of the coal region of the state, and is itself almost completely undermined; it has planing mills and manufactures large quantities of fire-brick.
Iron, zinc and lead are found in the vicinity, and some coal is mined.
Bethune lies in the midst of the richest coal mines in France.
The other minerals found are silver, lead, copper, magnesium and lignite coal.
Sublimed sulphur also results from the spontaneous combustion of coal seams containing pyrites.
It is also produced during the putrefaction of organic substances containing sulphur and is found among the products obtained in the destructive distillation of coal.
The principal manufactures are firearms, ironmongery, earthenware, woollen cloth, beer, stoneware, zinc goods, colours and salt; in the neighbourhood are iron and coal mines.
The products of the province are tea (the best quality of which is grown at Gan-hwa and the greatest quantity at Ping-kiang), hemp, cotton, rice, paper, tobacco, tea-oil and coal.
This area is divided into nearly two equal parts - one, the Lei river coal-fields, yielding anthracite, and the other the Siang river coal-fields, yielding bituminous coal.
Panama has had an important trade: its imports, about twice as valuable as its exports, include cotton goods, haberdashery, coal, flour, silk goods and rice; the most valuable exports are gold, india-rubber, mother of pearl and cocobolo wood.
Small vessels may coal at Naos, an island in the Gulf of Panama, which is owned by the United States.
In the Valdai plateau there are only a few beds of mediocre coal.
In the Moscow basin, which was a broad gulf of the Carboniferous sea, coal appears as isolated inconstant seams amidst littoral deposits, the formation of which was favoured by frequent minor subsidences of the seacoast.
The coal is here confined to the lower division of the system; the Upper Carboniferous (corresponding with the English Coal-Measures) is exclusively marine, consisting chiefly of Fusulina limestone.
m., and comprise a valuable stock of excellent anthracite and coal, together with iron-mines.
Germany, and containing brown coal and amber, has been met with only in Poland, Courland and Lithuania.
The imports of foreign metals in the rough and of coal are steadily increasing, while the exports, never otherwise than insignificant, show no advance.
The minerals chiefly produced in the Urals are iron, coal, gold, platinum, copper, salt and precious stones.
The output of coal in the Urals is, altogether, less than 3% of the total for all the empire and 4% of the output of European Russia (exclusive of Poland) alone.
Coal takes, however, an altogether secondary place as a fuel in Russia; wood is much more extensively used, not only for domestic, but also for industrial purposes.
Machinery, coal, iron, woollens, ships, lead and copper are the commodities supplied by the United Kingdom.
Railways had their origin in the tramways (q.v.) or wagon-ways which at least as early as the middle of the 16th century were used in the mineral districts of England round Newcastle for the conveyance of coal from the pits to the river Tyne for shipment.
It may be supposed that originally the public roads, when worn by the cartage of the coal, were repaired by laying planks of timber at the bottom of the ruts, and that then the planks were laid on the surface of special roads or ways' formed between the collieries and the river.
A locomotive depot further includes stores of the various materials required in working the engines, coal stages at which they are loaded with coal, and an ample supply of water.
At a small roadside station, where the traffic is of a purely local character, there will be some sidings to which horses and carts have access for handling bulk goods like coal, gravel,.
- One pound of good Welsh coal properly burned in the fire-box of a locomotive yields about 15,000 British thermal units of heat at a temperature high enough to enable from 50 to 80% to flow across the boiler-heating surface to the water, the rest escaping up the chimney with the furnace gases.
With this assumption, 0.06 is the fraction of the heat energy of the coal which is utilized in the engine cylinders as mechanical work; that is to say, of the 15,000 B.Th.U.
produced by the combustion of 1 lb of coal, 15,000 Xo 06 =900 only are available for tractive purposes.
Let E represent the pounds of coal burnt per hour in the fire-box of a locomotive, and let c be the calorific value in B.Th.U.
This maximum rate depends upon the kind of coal used, whether small, friable, bituminous or hard, upon the thickness of the fire, and upon the correct design and setting of the blast-pipe.
The maximum rate of combustion may be as much as so lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, and in exceptional cases even a greater rate than this has been maintained.
A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.
- One pound of coal requires about 20 lb of air for its proper combustion in the fire-box of a locomotive, though this quantity of air diminishes as the rate of combustion increases.
and burning too lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour would Table Xx require that 60,000 ib of air should be drawn through the furnace per hour in order to burn the coal.
This high mean pressure cannot be maintained for long, because as the speed increases the demand for steam per unit of time increases, so that cut-off must take place earlier and earlier in the stroke, the limiting steady speed being attained when the rate at which steam is supplied to the cylinders is adjusted by the cut-off to be equal to the maximum rate at which the boiler can produce steam, which depends upon the maximum rate at which coal can be burnt per square foot of grate.
If C is the number of pounds of coal burnt per square foot of grate per hour, the calorific value of which is c B.Th.U.
ft., that the rate of combustion is 150 lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, that the calorific value is 14000, and finally that n =0.06, the maximum indicated horse-power which the engine might be expected to develop would be o 06 X 150 x14000 X24 X 778/1980000 = I 190, corresponding to a mean effective pressure in the cylinders of 59.5 lb per square inch.
Holden developed the use of liquid fuel on the Great Eastern railway to a point beyond the experimental stage, and used it instead of coal with the engines running the heavy express traffic of the line, its continued use depending merely upon the relative market price of coal and oil.
The principal types to be found in the United Kingdom and on the continent of Europe are open wagons (the lading often protected from the weather by tarpaulin sheets), mineral wagons, covered or box wagons for cotton, grain, &c., sheep and cattle trucks, &c. The principal types of American freight cars are box cars, gondola cars, coal cars, stock cars, tank cars and refrigerator cars, with, as in other countries, various special cars for special purposes.
The long hauls in the United States make it specially important that the cars should carry a load in both directions, and so bcx cars which have carried grain or merchandise one way are filled with wool, coal, coke, ore, timber and other coarse articles for the return journey.
For years the standard freight cars have held 60,000 lb and now many carry 80,000 lb or 100,000 lb; a few coal cars have even been built to contain 200,000 lb.
Coal trains, excluding the engine, weigh up to Boo or 900 tons, and travel at from 18 to 22 m.
The dark bituminous layers of clay slate, which occur intercalated among the quartzites, have led, here as elsewhere, to the hope of coming upon a seam of coal, but it is contrary to experience that coal of any value should be found in rocks of that age.
Peat is largely used as fuel, coal being obtained only at a cost of £3 a ton.
PYRENE, C16H10, a hydrocarbon found together with chrysene in the last portion of the coal tar distillate, and also in "Stupp" fat.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
Its growth was accelerated by the establishment here, in 1863, of the shops of the railway from Pittston to Hawley built in 1849-1850 by the Pennsylvania Coal Company.
It has an increasing trade in iron, timber, coal and agricultural products, a trade which is fostered by a harbour opened in 1897; and also large factories for making aniline dyes and soda.
Large quantities of cranberries are raised in the township. Plymouth is a port of entry, but its foreign commerce is unimportant; it has a considerable coasting trade, especially in coal and lumber.
Parkersburg is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. Oil, coal, natural gas and fire-clay abound in the neighbouring region, and the city is engaged in the refining of oil and the manufacture of pottery, brick and tile, glass, lumber, furniture, flour, steel, and foundry and machine-shop products.
It would take 20 tons of coal a day burned on each square foot of the sun's surface to supply the daily radiation.
Even if the sun were made of one mass of fuel as efficient as coal, that mass must be entirely expended in a few thousand years if the present rate of radiation was to be sustained.
The principal mining product is mercury, extracted at Idria, while iron and copper ore, zinc and coal are also found.
The principal imports are grain and agricultural produce, timber and coal, and the exports cement and fish.
Michoacan is essentially a mining region, producing gold, silver, lead and cinnabar, and having rich deposits of copper, coal, petroleum and sulphur.
It is marked by grey clays and sands, lignitic fossiliferous clays, beds of lignite or brown coal, sometimes 8 ft.
The lack of mineral resources, especially of coal and iron, of a good harbour (until the improvement of Gulfport), and of an adequate supply of labour has discouraged most kinds of manufacturing.
The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.
They consist chiefly of sandstone and conglomerate, but include workable seams of coal.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal at several collieries in the vicinity; and at Fountain Springs, 1 m.
south-east, is a state hospital for injured persons of the Anthracite Coal Region of Pennsylvania, opened in 1883.
Ashland has an excellent harbour, has large iron-ore and coal docks, and is the principal port for the shipment of iron ore from the rich Gogebec Range, the annual ore shipment approximating 3,500,000 tons, valued at $12,000,000, and it has also an extensive export trade in lumber.
In the vicinity are large deposits of coal, of glass-sand, and of clay suitable for brick and tile.
The mouth of the Fox was early visited by French explorers, and Father Hennepin is said to have discovered here in 1680 the first deposit of coal found in America.
The land around Beauly is fertile and the town drives a brisk trade in coal, timber, lime, grain and fish.
The exports consist chiefly of woollen yarn, woollens, cotton goods, cotton yarn, machinery, &c. and coal.
The country has a great wealth of minerals, silver having been found, and copper, lead, iron, coal and rock-salt being wrought with profit.
Steam coal of good quality is reported to exist about 30 m.
About 50,000 tons of coal of very poor quality are, however, extracted annually, and the same quantity of salt in the Armenian highlands and in Kuban.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lies on the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
East of Bolsover, the Coal Measures are covered uncomformably by the Permian breccias and magnesian limestone.
The Coal Measures repose upon the Millstone Grit; the largest area of these rocks lieson the east, where they are conterminous with the coalfields of Yorkshire and Nottingham.
East of Bolsover, the Coal Measures are covered unconformably by the Permian breccias and magnesian limestone.
The principal mineral is coal.
Ironstone is not extensively wrought, but, on account of the abundant supply of coal, large quantities are imported for smelting purposes.
Iron has also been produced in Derbyshire from an early date, and coal mines were worked at Norton and Alfreton in the beginning of the 14th century.
part is a valuable granite quarry; and limestone, and some coal, iron and gold are also found.
Its industries include the manufacture of tiles, pasteboard wares and gardening implements, while there are coal mines in the vicinity.
Soon after her marriage miners had been brought from Lorraine to dig for gold at Crawford Moor, and she now carried on successful mining enterprises for coal and lead, which enabled her to meet the expenses of her government.
In the Carboniferous strata (Coal measures) remains of Hexapods become numerous and quite indisputable.
Barium chloride is present in some natural waters, and when this is the case the interaction of sulphates results in a deposition of barytes, as has occurred in the pipes and water-boxes of the Newcastle-on-Tyne coal mines.
Wheat, coal, cotton, petroleum, wood, lime and cement are brought into Venice for shipment to the Levant or for distribution over Italy and Europe.
The mineral wealth of Ohio consists largely of bituminous coal and petroleum, but the state also ranks high in the production of natural gas, sandstone, limestone, grindstone, lime and gypsum.
The coal fields, comprising a total area of 10,000 sq.
Coal was discovered here as early as 1770, and the mining of it was begun not later than 1828, but no accurate account of the output was kept until 1872, in which year it was 5,315,294 short tons; this was increased to 18,988,150 short tons in 1900, and to 26,270,639 short tons in 1908 - in 1907 it was 32,142,419 short tons.
There are 29 counties in which coal is produced, but 81.4% of it in 1908 came from Belmont, Athens, Jefferson, Guernsey, Perry, Hocking, Tuscarawas and Jackson counties.
Of far greater volume than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes.
The mineral wealth of Carinthia is great, and consists in lead, iron, zinc and coal.
Fibres and vegetable grasses, wool, hides and skins, cotton, sugar, iron and steel and their manufactures, chemicals, coal, and leather and its manufactures are the leading imports; provisions, leather and its manufactures, cotton and its manufactures, breadstuffs, iron and steel and.
Geologically, spiders date from the Carboniferous Period, Arthrolycosa and others from the coal beds of Europe and North America being closely allied to the existing genus Liphistius.
For a long time these shells or hulls, as they are called, were burned at oil mills for fuel, 22 tons being held equal to a cord of wood, and 43 tons to a ton of coal.
The surrounding country abounds in coal, iron ore, oil, clay, stone and timber, for which the city is a distributing centre.
In minerals Manchuria is very rich: coal, gold, iron (as well as magnetic iron ore), and precious stones are found in large quantities.
The earlier supporters of the organic theory held that it was a product of the natural distillation of coal or carbonaceous matter; but though in a few instances volcanic intrusions appear to have converted coal or allied substances into oil, it seems that terrestrial vegetation does not generally give rise to petroleum.
Similarly there is a difference of opinion as to the conditions under which the organisms have been mineralized, some holding that the process has taken place at a high temperature and under great pressure; but the lack of practical evidence in nature in support of these views has led many to conclude that petroleum, like coal, has been formed at moderate temperatures, and under pressures varying with the depth of the containing rocks.
The land is poor in minerals, including coal; water-power also is deficient, so that the introduction of European industries is attended with difficulties even apart from the insecurity of affairs, which forbids such experiments as the improvement of agriculture by means of European capital.
Coal is found in the province of Hualgayoc at the southern extremity of the department, which is also one of the rich silver-mining districts of Peru.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
Among the principal varieties are those which contain carbolic acid and other ingredients of coal tar, salicylic acid, petroleum, borax, camphor, iodine, mercurial salts, sulphur and tannin.
Imports are principally coal, iron and timber.
The finest agricultural land in the United States is near the lake, and there is an immense trade in all grains, fruits, livestock and lumber, and in products such as flour, pork, hides, leather goods, furniture, &c. Rich lead and copper mines abound, as also salt, iron and coal.
There are coal mines about 25 m.
It is in the Vermilion coal region, and clay for brick and tile is abundant in its vicinity.
The mineral wealth of Moravia, consisting chiefly of coal and iron, is very considerable.
The principal imports are coal, grain, manufactured articles and articles of luxury.
Coal is also found in large quantities near Kelung and sulphur springs exist in the north of the island.
MOLLY MAGUIRES, an Irish American secret society which maintained numerous branches in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania, U.S.A., from 1854 to 1877, and perhaps later.
The society grew in strength during the Civil War, when the increased demand for coal caused an influx of miners, many of them lawless characters, into the coal-fields, and in1862-1863it opposed enlistments in the Federal Army and roughly treated some of the enlisting officers.
After the war its activity was shown by an increasing number of assassinations, burnings and other outrages, until by 1875 it completely dominated the mining classes and forced a general strike in the coal regions.
Gowen (1836-1889), president of the Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company, sent James McParlan, an Irish Catholic and a Pinkerton detective (who some thirty years later attracted attention in the investigation of the assassination of Governor Steunenberg of Idaho), to the mining region in 1873; he joined the order, lived among the "Molly Maguires" for more than two years, and even became secretary of the Shenandoah division, one of the most notoriously criminal lodges of the order.
Imports include coal,timber, tar and hemp. Steam sawing, metal-founding, fish-salting, shipbuilding and repairing, and the manufacture of ship's-biscuits and fishing-nets are among the industries.
Timber makes up 59% of the imports, and coal and ships each about 30% of the exports.
Imports are coal, textiles, salt, grain and flour.
The only important industries are connected with cotton and coal.
The chief imports are cotton piece goods, cotton twist, salt, sugar, provisions, railway materials, raw cotton, metals, coal, tobacco, spices and kerosene oil.
be recovered by adding phlogiston, and experiment showed that this could generally be effected by the action of coal or carbon, which was therefore regarded as practically pure phlogiston; the other constituent being regarded as an acid.
Minerals, in which Oberhessen is much richer than the two other provinces, include iron, manganese, salt and some coal.
The chief article of export is coal from the neighbouring collieries, the other leading exports being ale, whisky, glass and manufactured goods.
The raw materials used in the manufacture are: (I) iron-free kaolin, or some other kind of pure clay, which should contain its silica and alumina as nearly as possible in the proportion of 2SiO 2: Al203 demanded by the formula assigned to ideal kaolin (a deficit of silica, however, it appears can be made up for by addition of the calculated weight of finely divided silica); (2) anhydrous sulphate of soda; (3) anhydrous carbonate of soda; (4) sulphur (in the state of powder); and (5) powdered charcoal or relatively ash-free coal, or colophony in lumps.
Eure-et-Loir exports the products of its soil and live-stock; its imports include coal, wine and wearing apparel.
Springfield is a trading and shipping centre for a prosperous agricultural region, and ships large quantities of bituminous coal from the immediate vicinity.
While washing out the sands of the North Saskatchewan for gold is still somewhat resorted to, the only real mining in Alberta is that for coal.
Vast beds of coal are found extending for hundreds of miles, a short distance below the surface of the plains.
The coal belongs to the Cretaceous beds, and while not so heavy as that of the Coal Measures is of excellent quality.
In the valley of the Bow river, alongside the Canadian Pacific railway, valuable beds of anthracite coal are worked, and the coal is carried by railway as far east as Winnipeg.
The usual coal deposits of Alberta are of bituminous or semi-bituminous coal.
Coal, oil, natural gas, clay and iron are found in the vicinity, and among the city's manufactures are iron, steel, glass, furniture and pottery.
The principal imports are manufactured cotton goods and other textiles, machinery, timber and coal.
On the south bank of the river is the township and urban district of Cowpen (pop. 17,879), with collieries and glass works; coal is shipped from this point by river.
In the Tertiary region are found small quantities of iron ore and an indifferent brown coal.
They serve the trade of Lake Pontchartrain and the Florida parishes, the lumber, coal, fish, oyster and truck trade of New Orleans, and to some extent are the highway of a miscellaneous coasting trade.
Much of the bituminous deposits is on the dividing line between asphalt and coal.
The state owes to this ruler the opening up of new railways across the great desert, which was formerly passable only by camels, and the tapping of the valuable coal deposits that occur in the territory.
Mehner patented heating the oxides of silicon, boron or magnesium with coal or coke in an electric furnace, and then passing in nitrogen, which forms, with the metal liberated by the action of the carbon, a readily decomposable nitride.
Bosnia is rich in minerals, including coal, iron, copper, chrome, manganese, cinnabar, zinc and mercury, besides marble and much excellent building stone.
After 1881 the Mining Company of Bosnia began to develop the coal and iron fields; and from 1886 its operations were continued by the government.
According to these statistics the most important articles of export are coal and turf, fruit, minerals, soda, iron and steel, and cattle.
The empire is rich in minerals, including gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, coal, mercury, borax, emery, zinc; and only capital is needed for successful exploitation.
includes receipts from commercial and industrial undertakings belonging to the stateThese are the Hejaz railway, £T152,000; the Dolma-Bagtche gas-works, £T59,130; technical school, £T8536; the Tigris and Euphrates steamships, £T62,513; and mines (Heraclea coal and other), £T120,710; forming a combined total of £T402,889.
Stock-raising, tobacco-growing, and coal and iron-mining are the industries of the district.
Cleveland's rapid growth both as a commercial and as a manufacturing city is due largely to its situation between the iron regions of Lake Superior and the coal and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
Cleveland is the largest ore market in the world, and its huge ore docks are among its most interesting features; the annual receipts and shipments of coal and iron ore are enormous.
The discovery of iron ore in the Lake Superior region made Cleveland the natural meeting-point of the iron ore and the coal from the Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia mines; and it is from this that the city's great commercial importance dates.
Of the Coal Measures above these, if they occur, we know nothing at present.
There is also coal on Kuhn Island.
Beds of this age, consisting of sandstones and coal, are found on the northern coast of Disco Island and the southern side of the Noursoak Peninsula, the beds in the former locality, " the Kome strata " of Nordenskiold, being the oldest.
Both these series contain numerous plant remains, evergreen oaks, magnolias, aralias, &c., and seams of lignite (coal), which is burnt; but in neither occur the marine beds of the United States.
It is limited to Disco Island, and perhaps to a small part of the Noursoak Peninsula, and the neighbouring country, and consists of numerous thin beds of sandstone, shale and coal - the sideritic shale containing immense quantities of leaves, stems, fruit, &c., as well as some insects, and the coal pieces of retinite.
A few other minerals may be noticed, and some have been worked to a small extent - graphite is abundant, particularly near Upernivik; cryolite is found almost exclusively at Ivigtut; copper has been observed at several places, but only in nodules and laminae of limited extent; and coal of poor quality is found in the districts about Disco Bay and Umanak Fjord.
Coal was brought down from the hills on the backs of mules, and iron carried in two-ton wagons.
The commercial greatness of Cardiff is due to the vast coal and iron deposits of the country drained by the Taff and Rhymney, between whose outlets the town is situated.
The Rhymney railway to Cardiff was completed in 1858 and the trade of the port so vastly increased that the shipment of coal and coke went up from 4562 tons in 1839 to 1,796,000 tons in 1860.
There is ample equipment of fixed and movable staiths and cranes of various sizes up to 70 tons, the Lewis-Hunter patent cranes being largely used for shipping coal owing to their minimizing the breakage of coal and securing its even distribution.
The total exports of the Cardiff docks in 1906 amounted to 8,767,502 tons, of which 8, 433, 629 tons were coal, coke and patent fuel, 151,912 were iron and steel and their manufactures, and 181,076 tons of general merchandise.
Taking "the port of Cardiff" in its technical sense as including Barry and Penarth, it is the first port in the kingdom for shipping cleared to foreign countries and British possessions, second in the kingdom for its timber imports, and first in the world for shipment of coal.
The mineral wealth of the department is considerable, including coal as well as manganese and bituminous schist; plaster, building stone and hydraulic lime are also produced.
Besides the products of the soil Allier exports coal, mineral waters and cattle for the Paris market.
Building materials, brandy and coal are among the imports.
The whole district is rich in coal, the mining of which is extensively carried on.
provided with transport facilities, which renders its cities the principal distributing centres both for the entire Northwest for coal shipped via the Great Lakes, and also for the eastern and middle Western states for the great staples, wheat and lumber, derived either from Minnesota itself or by means of its great transcontinental railways from the neighbouring Northwestern states and Canadian provinces.
Callias And Hipponicus The exports from Callao are guano, sugar, cotton, wool, hides, silver, copper, gold and forest products, and the imports include timber and other building materials, cotton and other textiles, general merchandise for personal, household and industrial uses, railway material, coal, kerosene, wheat, flour and other food stuffs.
Coal and limestone are found near the city.
Its principal imports are coffee (of which it is the greatest continental market), tea, sugar, spices, rice, wine (especially from Bordeaux), lard (from Chicago), cereals, sago, dried fruits, herrings, wax (from Morocco and Mozambique), tobacco, hemp, cotton (which of late years shows a large increase), wool, skins, leather, oils, dyewoods, indigo, nitrates, phosphates and coal.
Of the total importations of all kinds of coal to Hamburg, that of British coal, particularly from Northumberland and Durham, occupies the first place, and despite some falling off in late years, owing to the competition made by Westphalian coal, amounts to more than half the total import.
Gold is found in the sands of all its upper tributaries, and coal and petroleum are amongst the chief mineral products which have been brought into economic prominence.
in coal and building materials.
The export trade in corn and import trade in coal is considerable.
This is a wooded chain of mountains, with many branches, rich in brown coal and culminating in the GÃ¶blberg (2950 ft.).
Coal occurs in many Jurassic fresh-water;basins, namely, on the outskirts of the Altai, in south Yeniseisk, about Irkutsk, in the Nerchinsk district, at many places in the Maritime province, and on the island of Sakhalin.
Granite and wood-pulp are exported, and coal and grain imported.
Large quantities of coal and tea are exported.
Mining is only of slight importance, small quantities of coal and iron-ore being extracted in the Alpine foothill region; graphite is found near Miihldorf.
The surrounding country has good farming land and large coal mines.
The native carbonate or cerussite (q.v.) occasionally occurs in the pure form, but more frequently in a state of intimate intermixture with clay ("lead earth," Bleierde), limestone, iron oxides, &c. (as in the ores of Nevada and Colorado), and some times also with coal ("black lead ore").
As a preliminary to the melting process, the "browse" left in the preceding operation (half-fused and imperfectly reduced ore) is introduced with some peat and coal, and heated with the help of the blast.
It puts through 9-12 tons of ore in twenty-four hours, reducing the percentage of sulphur to 2-4%, and requires four to six men and about 2 tons of coal.
A furnace is served by three men, working in eight-hour shifts, and requires about 2 tons of coal, which corresponds to about 110 gallons reduced oil, air being used as atomizer.
PHENANTHRENE, C14H10, a hydrocarbon isomeric with anthracene, with which it occurs in the fraction of the coal tar distillate boiling between 270°-400° C. It may be separated from the anthracene oil by repeated fractional distillation, followed by fractional crystallization from alcohol (anthracene being the less soluble), and finally purified by oxidizing any residual anthracene with potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid (R.
The principal imports are coal, timber and slates, and the principal export stone of the Transition limestone or Devonshire marble.
The principal exports are Portland stone, bricks and tiles and provisions, and the imports are coal, timber, garden and dairy produce and wine.
Fossil scorpions of the modern type are found in the Coal Measures.
A fact of special interest in regard to them is that the genus Poliochera, from the Coal Measures, appears to be a member of the same group. The name Cryptostemma, given to the first-known genus of the order, described by Guerin-Meneville, refers to the supposed concealment of the eyes by the movable cephalic sclerite.
Brown coal has been discovered in Courland, while peat is already a valuable fuel.
Imports include coal, grain, flour and wine.
Besides wool, leading imports are jute, cotton, flax, timber, petroleum, coal, pitch, wine, cereals, oil-seeds and oil-cake, nitrate of soda and other chemical products, and metals.
The principal exports are sugar, coal, cereals, wool, forage, cement, chalk, phosphates, iron and steel, tools and metal-goods, thread and vegetables.
Anthracite coal is found in the neighbourhood.
There are coal-mines at and near Eregli (anc. Heracleia) which yield steam coal nearly as good in quality as the English, but they are badly worked.
In southern Brazil, on the other hand, in Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, &c., the beds of this period are of terrestrial origin, containing coal seams and remains of plants.
Modern industrial development in some of the states has greatly increased the importation of machinery, electric supplies, materials for construction, coal, &c. Kerosene oil also figures among the principal imports, and beef cattle are imported for consumption by some cities.
Bituminous coal of an inferior quality is mined to a limited extent in Rio Grande do Sul, and another mine has been opened in Santa Catharina.
These coal deposits extend from Rio Grande do Sul north into the state of Sao Paulo.
The coal resources of the southern states were investigated in 1904, under the auspices of the national government, by Dr J.
C. White, of the U.S. Geological Survey, who found strata of fairly good coal at depths of 100 to 200 ft.
The town is, industrially, remarkable for its paper mills and mines of coal and other minerals.
Fine white freestone abounds in the immediate vicinity (as at Craigleith, from the vast quarry of which, now passing into disuse, the stone for much of the New Town was obtained) and furnishes excellent building material; while the hard trap rock, with which the stratified sandstones of the Coal formation have been extensively broken up and overlaid, supplies good materials for paving and road-making.
There is a harbour on the Elbe here, and a brisk trade is carried on in coal, grain and timber.
There is trade in agricultural produce, wine, metals, &c. The canal from the Rhone to the Rhine passes under the citadel by way of a tunnel, and the port of Besancon has considerable trade in coal, sand, &c.
The chief exports are fish, cereals, bacon; imports, petroleum and coal.
These harbours on the eastern side of Sydney are mainly frequented by cargo boats trading in coal, corn, frozen meat, wool, hides and various ores.
Standing in the centre of a great coal-bearing basin, Sydney is naturally the seat of numerous manufactures, to the prosperity of which the abundance and cheapness of coal has been highly conducive.
The Ecca shales contain some of the best coals of South Africa, but the seams contain much unmarketable coal.
This consists of sandstones and shales with thin seams of coal.
The existence of coal in the north-east districts on or near the surface of the ground was reported as early as 1839, but it was not until 1880 that steps were taken to examine the coalfields.
that might be depended upon for the supply of coal, which is of all characters from lignite to anthracite.
In 1889 the extension of the railway from Ladysmith through the coal area first made coalmining profitable.
In 1896 the total output of coal was 216,106 tons (valued at £108,053 at the pit's mouth), in 1908 it had increased to 1,669,774 tons (valued at the pit's mouth at £737,169).
There is a considerable trade in bunker and export coal at Durban, the coal bunkered having increased from 118,740 tons in 1900 to 710,777 in 1908.
In the last-named year 446,915 tons of coal were exported.
The chief exports, not all products of the province, are coal, wool, mohair, hides and skins, wattle bark, tea, sugar, fruits and jams. The import trade is of a most varied character, and a large proportion of the goods brought into the country are in transit to the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Natal affording, next to Delagoa Bay, the shortest route to the Rand.
The governor was strongly opposed to this step, as he was anxious to protect the coal supply, and also feared the moral effect of a withdrawal.
Coal is known to exist to the southeast of Kobdo, in the Tannu-ola, and in the basin of the Yenisei, but its age is unknown (fresh-water Jurassic ?).
Its chief mineral products are coal, nitre, sulphur, alum, soda, saltpetre, gypsum, porcelain-earth, pipe-clay, asphalt, petroleum, marble and ores of gold, silver, mercury, copper, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, cobalt and arsenic. The principal mining regions are Zsepes-Giimor in Upper Hungary, the Kremnitz-Schemnitz district, the Nagybanya district, the Transylvanian deposits and the Banat.
Coal is extensively mined in the region of Budapest-Oravicza, Nagybanya, Zalatna, at Brennberg near Sopron, at Salgo-Tarjan, Pecs, in the counties of Krasso-Szoreny, and of Esztergom, and in the valley of the river Zsil.
The production of coal and iron trebled during the period 1880-1900, amounting in 1900 to 6,600,000 tons, and 463,000 tons respectively.
" Coal costs 3s.
Besides its manufactures of leather, silk, velvet and ribbons, Gandia has a thriving export trade in fruit, and imports coal, guano, timber and flour.
above sea-level, in a wheat-growing region, in which bituminous coal, limestone, and brick and potter's clay abound.
The mineral products include silver, lead, coal, copper, and iron.
A thriving export trade is carried on in agricultural produce, condensed milk is manufactured, and slate is extensively quarried in the neighbourhood, while some coal is exported from the neighbouring fields.
Mieres is the chief town of a mountainous, fertile and well-wooded region in which coal, iron, and copper are extensively mined and sulphur and cinnabar are obtained in smaller quantities.
Seams of coal lie near the base, some of them exceeding 20 ft.
in thickness, but in this case layers of shaly coal are included.
The minerals chiefly mined besides gold are diamonds and coal, but the country possesses also silver, iron, copper, lead, cobalt, sulphur, saltpetre and many other mineral deposits.
There are extensive beds of good coal, including thick seams of steam coal near the Rand and other goldfields.
Coal appears to have been first discovered in the neighbourhood of Bronkhorst Spruit between the Wilge and Olifants rivers, where it was so near the surface that farmers dug it up for their own use.
In 1887 coal was found at Boksburg in the East Rand, and a mine was at once started.
The principal collieries are those at Boksburg and at Brakpan, also on the East Rand, with a coal area of 2400 acres; at Vereeniging and Klerksdorp, near the Vaal; at Watervaal, 12 m.
Like that of Natal the Transvaal coal burns with a clear flame and leaves little ash.
Next in value came wool (£226,000), horses and mules (£110,000), skins, hides and horns (£106,000), tobacco (£89,000), tin, coal, copper and lead.
The department imports coal, lime, stone, salt, raw sulphur, skins and timber and exports agricultural and mineral products, bricks and tiles, and other manufactured goods.
In this process the purified ore is mixed with about one-fifth of its weight of a noncaking coal or anthracite smalls, the mixture being moistened to prevent it from being blown off by the draught, and is then fused on the sole of a reverberatory furnace for five or six hours.
The mines yield iron, coal, quicksilver and salt.
The shipping trade is considerable, chiefly in coal, timber and agricultural produce.
There is a steady export of coal, and the harbour is provided with a wet dock and patent slip. In smuggling days the "Canty carles" of Dysart were professed "free traders."
The city's chief interest is in the tobacco industry; it has also considerable trade in other agricultural products and in coal; and its manufactures include carriages and wagons, bricks, lime, flour and dressed lumber.
The imports include manufactured articles of all kinds, hardware and building materials, earthenware and glassware, furniture, drugs and medicines, wines, foodstuffs, coal, petroleum and many other things.
The principal minerals are gold, copper, iron, sulphur, coal, asphalt and petroleum.
The principal coal deposits developed are at Naricual, near Barcelona, and a railway has been constructed to bring the output to the port of Guanta.
There has been some development in the manufacture of agricultural machinery and implements, vehicles, pianos and furniture, and some older industries, such as tanning leather and the manufacture of saddles and harness, the milling of wheat and Indian corn, distilling, soap-making, &c. At Guanta there is a factory for the manufacture of patent fuel from Naricual coal and asphalt.
The chief imports are coal, timber and iron, and the exports grain and other agricultural products and salt.
From 1783 to 1825 agricultural produce was exported and coal imported.
Pittston is in the midst of the richest anthracite coal region of the state, and fire-clay also abounds in the vicinity.
The mineral wealth is great, including copper, tin, lead, zinc, iron and especially coal.
Bituminous coal and natural gas are found in the vicinity, and the borough ships coal and lumber, and has various important manufactures.
The mineral resources include silver, gold, copper, lead, tin, iron and coal, and mining is the chief industry.
Bath also manufactures lumber, iron and brass goods, and has a considerable trade in ice, coal, lumber and iron and steel.
They sometimes cause a serious dislocation of railway and other traffic. Their principal cause is the smoke from the general domestic use of coal.
Among these are the Corn Exchange in Mark Lane, where the privilege of a fair was originally granted by Edward I.; the Wool Exchange, Coleman Street; the Coal Exchange, Lower Thames Street; the Shipping Exchange, Billiter Street; and the auction mart for landed property in Tokenhouse Yard.
deep. Freight consists principally of coal shipped from Charlotte, Great and Little Sodus bays and Oswego to Canadian ports in the lakes, and to ports on the St Lawrence river; of grain shipped through the Welland canal to the St Lawrence; and of lumber from Canadian ports.
Anthracite is mined in the St Lucia Bay district, and bituminous coal is found in the Nqutu and Kyudeni hills.
Meantime the coal mines near St Lucia Bay were opened up and connected with Durban by railway.
In 1750, during a strike of coal workers at Elswick, James III.
The term 1 is not limited to underground operations, but includes also surface excavations, as in placer mining and open-air workings of coal and ore deposits by methods similar to quarrying, and boring operations for oil, natural gas or brine.
Special methods of mining are dealt with in the separate articles on Coal, Gold, and other minerals and metals.
Fragments of coal, or soil stained black with coal, will be found near the outcrop tif coal beds.
The bed of fire-clay under a coal seam, being impervious to water, frequently determines the horizon of numerous springs issuing from the hillsides.
As the coal and the associated rocks usually contain pyrites, these springs are often chalybeate.
In the case of the cheaper and more abundant minerals, such as coal and iron ore, and of large deposits of low-grade ores, the extent and character of the deposit can generally be determined by surface examinations at comparatively small expense.
In the case of coal, salt, iron ore, pyrite and other homogeneous minerals, boring may give all the information required.
In coal mines, entries and headings, bords and walls serve similar purposes.
Examples of other mining methods will be found under Coal.
In the United States cars in the coal and iron mines hold from 2 to 4 tons.
(For details see Hughes, Text-book of Coal Mining, pp. 236-272; Hildenbrand, Underground Haulage by Wire Rope.) Rope haulage is widely used in collieries, and sometimes in other mines having large lateral extent and heavy traffic. With the tail-rope system, cars are run in long trains at high speed, curves and branches are easily worked, and gradients may be steep, though undulating gradients are somewhat disadvantageous.
To mine ore or coal at minimum cost it is necessary to work the mine plant at nearly or quite its full capacity and to avoid interruption and delays.
In coal mining the market demand varies in different seasons, and surface storage is sometimes necessary to permit regular work at the mines.
In coal-mines we have to deal with " fire-damp " or marsh gas, and with inflammable coal dust, which form explosive mixtures with air and frequently lead to disastrous explosions resulting in great loss of life.
381), the force developed by the swelling under-clay broke through and lifted with the force and suddenness of an explosion a lower bench of coal 8 ft.
20, which shows the number of men killed in the coal and metal mines of Great Britain for a series of years.
In dry and dusty mines the danger may be greatly lessened by sprinkling the working places and passages, and the removal of the accumulated dust and fine coal.
Mine fires may originate from ordinary causes, but in addition they may result from the explosion of fire-damp or from the accidental lighting of jets of fire-damp issuing from the coal.
In some mining districts the coal is liable to spontaneous combustion.
A fire underground speedily becomes formidable, not only in coal but also in metal mines, on account of the large quantity of timber used to support the excavations.
These laws are enforced by mine inspectors of the timber produces falls of ground, making necessary the excavawho are empowered to call upon the courts and other government tion and removal at times of hundreds of tons of heated rock and burning coal, in order to reach the fire.
It is necessary, however, to keep the mine sealed until the burning timbers, or coal, and the red-hot rocks have become cool, or the fire will again break out.
When large areas are undermined, as in submarine coal mining, it is best to have several hundred feet of protecting rock.
In some mines dust seems to have but little effect on the health of the miners; indeed it is even claimed by some that coal dust decreases the mortality from phthisis.
1897); Hoefer, Taschenbuch fiir Bergmanner (Leoben, 1897); Hughes, Coal Mining (4th ed., London, 1900); M.
He had organized in 1826 a society to develop the coal and iron of the Aveyron, and the name of Decazeville was given in 1829 to the principal centre of the industry.
Coal, fireclay and blue and red brick clay are dug in the neighbourhood; and there are also market gardens.
Coal is found in the Tertiary deposits in the valley of the Irrawaddy and in Tenasserim.
In its three chief mineral products, earthoil, coal and gold, Burma offers a fair field for enterprise and nothing more.
Coal is found in the Thayetmyo, Upper Chindwin and Shwebo districts, and in the Shan States; it also occurs in Mergui, but the deposits which have been so far discovered have been either of inferior quality or too far from their market to be worked to advantage.
In some English works coal is still employed for direct heating with various forms of mechanical stokers.
These small furnaces are frequently arranged for direct coal firing, but regenerative gasfired furnaces are also employed.
In England directly-heated coal furnaces are still in common use, which in many cases are stoked by mechanical feeders.
A certain proportion of soda ash (carbonate of soda) is also used in some works in sheet-glass mixtures, while " decolorizers " (substances intended to remove or reduce the colour of the glass) are also sometimes added, those most generally used being manganese dioxide and arsenic. Another essential ingredient of all glass mixtures containing sulphate of soda is some form of carbon, which is added either as coke, charcoal or anthracite coal; the carbon so introduced aids the reducing substances contained in the atmosphere of the furnace in bringing about the reduction of the sulphate of soda to a condition in which it combines more readily with the silicic acid of the sand.
pure sand, a pure form of carbonate of lime, and sulphate of soda, with the addition of a suitable proportion of carbon in the form of coke, charcoal or anthracite coal.
Before the glass is introduced, the annealing kiln is heated to dull red by means of coal fires in grates which are provided at the ends or sides of the kiln for that purpose.
Slingsby for burning coal in furnaces, and coal appears to have been used in the Broad Street works.
In 1615 all patents for glass-making were revoked and a new patent issued for making glass with coal as fuel, in the names of Mansel, Zouch, Thelwall, Kellaway and Percival.
To the last is credited the first introduction of covered crucibles to protect the molten glass from the products of burning coal.
Burning the coal on a voyage has the reverse effect on a steamer.
The discovery of coal in the neighbourhood stimulated and altered its industries.
Fareham has a considerable trade in corn, timber and coal; the creek being accessible to vessels of 300 tons.
It is the centre for a farming region, in which there are deposits of coal, iron, lead and shale, and there are various manufactures in the city.
Tamaqua is in a rich anthracite coal district, and coal-mining is its chief industry..
The first settlement here was made in 1799 and anthracite coal was discovered in 1817.
In the neighbourhood there are numerous large collieries, and coal is shipped from wharves on the riverside, vessels of 300 or 400 tons being able to reach the quays at high tide.
There is a large export trade in coal, I copper, iron and tin, mostly shipped from nieghbouring ports, while the principal imrorts are timber and general merchandise.
From this tunnel the coal is conveyed by rail for i 2 m.
With the latter system practically as much sugar is obtained from the canes as by diffusion, and the resulting megass furnishes, in a well-appointed factory, sufficient fuel for the crop. With diffusion, however, in addition to the strict scientific control necessary to secure the benefits of the process, fuel - that is, coal or wood - has to be provided for the working off of the crop, since the spent chips or slices from the diffusers are useless for this purpose; although it is true that in some plantations the spent chips have to a certain extent been utilized as fuel by mixing them with a portion of the molasses, which otherwise would have been sold or converted into rum.
In the best days of the so-called Jamaica Trains in Demerara, three-quarters of a ton of coal in addition to the megass was burned per ton of sugar made, and with this for many years planters were content, because they pointed to the fact that in the central factories, then working in Martinique and Guadeloupe, with charcoal filters and triple-effect evaporation, 750 kilos of coal in addition to the megass were consumed to make woo kilos of sugar.
Thus, supposing that moo lb of coal were required to work a single vacuum pan, evaporating, say, 6000 lb of water in a given time, then 500 lb of coal would be required for a double-effect apparatus to do the same work, 333 lb for a triple effect, 250 for a quadruple effect, and 200 lb for a quintuple effect.
In some places where coal costs 60s.
a ton, and where steam is raised by coal, as in a beetroot factory, it might pay to adopt a quintuple-effect apparatus, but on a cane-sugar estate, where the steam necessary for the evaporator is raised by burning the megass as fuel, and is first used in the engines workifig the mills, the exhaust alone passing to the evaporator, there would be very little, if any, advantage in employing a quadruple effect instead of a triple effect, and practically none at all in having a quintuple-effect apparatus, for the interest and sinking fund on the extra cost would more than counterbalance the saving in fuel.
There is considerable agricultural trade, and iron founding is carried on; while in the neighbourhood some copper, lead, granite and slate are worked and exported in small vessels; coal, timber and general merchandise being imported.
STYROLENE, C 6 H 5 CH:CH 2, also known as phenylethylene or vinylbenzene, an aromatic hydrocarbon found to the extent of 1 to 4% in storax; it also occurs with crude xylene in coal tar fractions.
Coal has been worked near Noumea, and kaolin is found in places.
The charge of the retorts consists of a mixture of 1100 lb of roasted calamine and 550 lb of dry powdered coal per furnace.
Zinc oxide, ZnO, is maufactured for paint by two processes - directly from the ore mixed with coal by volatilization on a grate, as in the Wetherill oxide process, and by oxidizing the vapour given off by a boiling bath of zinc metal.
Airdrie was a market town in 1695, but owes its prosperity to the great coal and iron beds in its vicinity.
It lies in a hilly district rich in coal and iron, while a hard basaltic intrusion known as Rowley rag is largely quarried.
The three isomeric cresols are found in the tar obtained in the destructive distillation of coal, beech-wood and pine.
Several large islands fill the upper bay near the eastern shore; some are used as coal deposits for the great steamship companies, and one (Flores) is used as an immigrants' depot.
The church of St John the Baptist, principally Perpendicular, - has in its tower three bells presented by Charles Both this town and the adjacent urban district of Radstock (pop. 3355) have a considerable trade in coal, which is mined in the vicinity.
ANTHRACENE (from the Greek civOpa, coal), C 14 H 10, a hydrocarbon obtained from the fraction of the coal-tar distillate boiling between 270° and 400° C. This high boiling fraction is allowed to stand for some days, when it partially solidifies.
Ottawa has an important trade in grain and live-stock; soft coal and natural gas are found in the vicinity; the manufactures include flour, windmills, wire-fences, furniture, bricks, brooms and foundry products.
Coal mining is an important industry, and the borough is supplied with natural gas.
- Coal has been discovered in the Khmir ("Kroumir") country, but the principal mines at present worked in Tunisia are those of copper, lead and zinc. Zinc is chiefly found in the form of calamine.
The export of coal in that year was 74,000 tons, and copper ore 937 tons (vide supra, § Minerals).
The imports consist mainly of European manufactured goods (especially British cotton), machinery, flour, alcohol, sugar, timber, coal and petroleum.
Like the similar sandstone in Bolivia, it includes seams of coal and is frequently impregnated with cinnabar.
of private lines, the estimated cost to be about £37,500,000-a sum far beyond the resources of the republic. The two transandean lines were the famous Oroya railway, running from Callao to Oroya (1893), which crosses the Western Cordillera at an elevation of 15,645 ft., and later on to Cerro de Pasco (1904), the Goillarisquisga coal mines (1904) and Hauri (1906); and the southern line from Mollendo to Lake Titicaca, which reached Arequipa in 1869, Puno in 1871 and Checcacupe (Cuzco branch) in 1906.
Within these limits are to be found most of the minerals known - gold, silver, quicksilver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, wolfram, bismuth, thorium, vanadium; mica, coal, &c. On or near the coast are coal, salt, sulphur, borax, nitrates and petroleum.
In,the vicinity of some of the deposits of argentiferous galena are large coal beds, but timber is scarce on the table-lands.
Coal has been found in extensive beds near Piura, Salaverry, Chimbote, Huarmey and Pisco on the coast, and at Goillarisquisga, Huarochiri and other places in the interior.
The claims measure 100 X200 metres (about 5 acres) in the case of mineral veins or lodes, and 200 X 200 metres (about 10 acres) for coal, alluvial gold and other deposits.
Timber, pig-iron and iron ore are the leading imports, and coal, produce and iron the chief exports.
When the substance operated upon is of uncertain composition, as, for example, coal, wood, coal-tar, &c., the term destructive distillation is employed.
The southern half of the province, that portion south of the Yangtsze Kiang, forms part of the Nan-shan, or hilly belt of the south-eastern provinces, and produces, besides cotton, coal and iron ore, large quantities of green tea.
The principal articles imported are cotton and cotton goods, coffee, coal, cereals, hides, fruit and tobacco; the principal articles exported are wool and woollen goods,.
The exports mainly consist of grain, cattle, fish, dairy produce and potatoes; the imports of coal and timber.
The principal exports are grain, eggs, cattle, linen cloth and flax, and the imports include timber, groceries and coal.
The province contains gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal and salt, but mining has never been developed to any extent.
Coal is also found and several salt mines are worked.