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co-relation

co-relation

co-relation Sentence Examples

  • Theism si'ggests at the very outset that we should rather expect to find a correlation between the two.

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  • With the exception of these forms, reduced for the most part in correlation with a semi-parasitic mode of life, the tentacles are usually numerous.

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  • It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.

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  • When a character is said to be transmitted, or to be correlated with another character, the biometricist declares the statement valueless without numerical estimations of the inheritance or correlation.

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  • Such small granules have been observed in the sensitive cells, and there is an evident correlation between these and the power of receiving the geotropic stimulus.

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  • The orbito-sphenoids diverge only posteriorly, otherwise they are practically unpaired and form the median interorbital septum, which is very large in correlation with the extraordinary size of the eyeballs.

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  • Thus it has come to pass that the muscles of the hind limbs are, like their framework, more easily compared with those of reptiles and mammals than are the wings, whilst within the class of birds they show an enormous amount of variation in direct correlation with their manifold requirements.

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  • It is, however, fair to state that his system was not built entirely upon these muscular variations, but rather upon a more laborious combination of anatomical characters, which were so selected that they presumably could not stand in direct correlation with each other, notably the oil-gland, caeca, carotids, nasal bones and above all, the muscles of the thigh.

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  • A similar rotation and dislocation occurs in various petrels, in correlation with the indigestible sepia-bills, &c., which these birds swallow in great quantities.

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  • The larvae are stout and soft-skinned, with short legs in correlation with their burrowing habit.

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  • Mr Hooker has shown with reference to the wheat market how close is the correlation between prices in different places,' and the same has been observed of the cotton market, though the Conceivably some indication of the working of " futures " might be gleaned from observation of the relations of near and distant " futures " to one another and of both to spot."

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  • Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular theory.

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  • It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.

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  • Deferring the detailed discussion of cyclic or ringed hydrocarbons, a correlation of the various types or classes of compounds which may be derived from hydrocarbon nuclei will now be given.

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  • In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.

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  • It is to be noted that although the correlation of melting-point with constitution has not been developed to such an extent as the chemical significance of other physical properties, the melting-point is the most valuable test of the purity of a substance, a circumstance due in considerable measure to the fact that impurities always tend to lower the melting-point.

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  • He wrote Correlation Papers - Archaean and Algonkian (1892), Some Principles Controlling the Deposition of Ores (1901).

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  • Two classes between which a one-one relation exists have the same cardinal number and are called cardinally similar; and the cardinal number of the class a is a certain class whose members are themselves classes - namely, it is the class composed of all those classes for which a one-one correlation with a exists.

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  • In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.

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  • Recalling the formulae above which connect s P4 and a m, we see that dP4 and Dp q are in co-relation with these quantities respectively, and may be said to be operations which correspond to the partitions (pq), (10 P 01 4) respectively.

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  • The point at issue has an important bearing upon the possible correlation of magnetic phenomena, but, though it has given rise to much discussion, no accepted conclusion has yet been reached.'

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  • Cuvier's morphological doctikne received its fullest development in the principle of the " correlation of parts," which he applied to palaeontological investigation, namely, that every animal is a definite whole, and that no part can be varied without entailing correlated and law-abiding variations in other parts, so that from a fragment it should be possible, had we a full knowledge of the laws of animal structure or morphology, to reconstruct the whole.

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  • The bodywall is greatly simplified in the Gymnolaemata, in correlation with the functional importance of the skeletal part of the wall.

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  • Gregory, " The Maltese Fossil Echinoidea and their evidence on the correlation of the Maltese Rocks," Trans.

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  • In these years he had published De la correlation des figures de geometrie (1801), Geometrie de position (1803), and Principes fondamentaux del' equilibre et du mouvement (1803), all of which were translated into German.

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  • P. Elderton, Frequency-Curves and Correlation (1906); as to the formulae of § 82, see also Biometrika, v.

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  • They were recorded in the comparatively late surviving version of the 7th century B.C., on twelve tablets, with an obvious design of correlation with the twelve divisions of the sun's annual course.

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  • Thus the attempt to find out a constitution for the aether will involve a synthesis of intimate correlation of the various types of physical agencies, which appear so different to us mainly because we perceive them through different senses.

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  • While it cannot be said that the full significance of this very definite phenomenon, consisting of the splitting of the spectral line into a number of polarized components, has yet been made out, a wide field of correlation with optical theory, especially in the neighbourhood of absorption bands, has been developed by Zeeman himself, by A.

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  • But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing, running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be procured.

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  • The impossibility of safe correlation of units necessitates a division by countries.

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  • Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.

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  • The consequences of this principle when applied to the adaptations of animals bring us to the very antithesis of Cuvier's supposed "law of correlation," for we find that, while the end results of adaptation are such that all parts of an animal conspire to make the whole adaptive, there is no fixed correlation either in the form or rate of development of parts, and that it is therefore impossible for the palaeontologist to predict the anatomy of an unknown animal from one of its parts only, unless the animal happens to belong to a type generally familiar.

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  • Similarly, there is no correlation in the rate of evolution either of adjoining or of separated parts; the middle digit of the foot of the three-toed horse is accelerated in development, while the lateral digits on either side are retarded.

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  • - Diagram demonstrating that there are an indefinite number of combinations of various adaptive types of limbs and feet with various adaptive types of teeth, and that there is no fixed law of correlation between the two series of adaptations.

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  • All the great systems of rock formations are represented in the United States, though close correlation with the systems of Europe is not always possible.

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  • The number of systems is not everywhere the same, nor are they everywhere alike, and their definite correlation with one another is not possible now, and may never be.

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  • The Proterozoic formations have yielded a few fossils in several places, especially Montana and northern Arizona; but they are so imperfect, their numbers, whether of individuals or of species, are so small, and the localities where they occur so few, that they are of little service in correlation throughout the United States.

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  • This wide range is open to doubt as to the correlation of some of the beds involved.

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  • The tail and ears are generally very long; while, in correlation with the size of the latter, the auditory bullae of the skull are also large.

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  • They have long hind limbs, large eyes and ears; and in correlation with the latter an enlarged auditory bulla to the skull, which is hollow and divided into a tympanic and a mastoid portion.

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  • The consequence is that all the world admitted into his philosophy is what he called the " empirio-critical essential co-ordination " (empirio-kritische Prinzipialkoordination), an inseparable correlation of central part and counterpart, of ego and environment.

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  • No satisfactory correlation of solubility with chemical or other properties has been made.

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  • It is possible that a correlation may be made between solubility and the energy of surface tension.

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  • The physical investigation of osmotic pressure, and its correlation by Van't Hoff with the pressure of a gas, brought forward a new aspect of the phenomena, and suggested an identity of physical modus operandi as well as of numerical value.

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  • The groups of organisms utilized for zoning and correlation by different workers include brachiopods, pelecypods, cephalopods, corals, fishes and plants; and the results of the comparison of the faunas and floras of different areas where Carboniferous rocks occur are generalized in the table below.

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  • The relative value of any group of animals or plants for the correlation of distant areas must vary greatly with the varying conditions of sedimentation and with the precise definition of the zonal species and with many other factors.

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  • This view is still maintained by those who differentiate two acts of fertilization within the embryo-sac, and regard that of the egg by the first male-cell, as the true or generative fertilization, and that of the polar nuclei by the second male gamete as a vegetative fertilization which gives a stimulus to development in correlation with the other.

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  • He laid much stress on the unity of the organism in every stage of its existence, with the resulting correlation of variations, so that the favouring of one particular variation entailed modifications of correlated structures.

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  • One aspect of organic individuality is the correlation of variations, the fact that when one part varies, other parts vary more or less simultaneously.

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  • So far, our knowledge of correlation is almost entirely empirical, and the arrangement of the observed facts cannot be brought into exact harmony with our guesses at their causation.

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  • Much correlation is the inevitable result of organic structure.

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  • If we reflect on the multitude and complexity of such actions and reactions in operation from the youngest stages to the end of the life of each individual, we cannot be surprised at any correlation.

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  • But whatever be the theory of the mode of inheritance, or the mechanism by which the germinal plasm of an individual is made up, it is plain that there is correlation between the various qualities of an individual due to the mode of origin of its germ plasm as a selected individual portion of the parental germ plasm.

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  • Observed cases of correlation cover almost every kind of anatomical and physiological fact, and range from simple cases such as the relation between height of body and length of face to such an unexpected nexus as that between fertility and height in mothers of daughters.

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  • The theory of chance was applied to the study of human variation by Quetelet; but the most important applications of this theory to biological problems are due in the first instance to Francis Galton, who used the theory of correlation in describing the relation between the deviation of one character in an animal body from the mean proper to its race and that of a second character in the same body (correlation as commonly understood), or between deviation of a parent from the mean of its generation and deviation of offspring from the mean of the following generation (inheritance).

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  • Such differentiation may be measured by determining the correlation between the position or the time of production and the character of the organs produced, the methods by which the correlation is measured being those described in the article Error, Law Of.

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  • If, however, a series of leaves from the same tree be examined in pairs, the fact that one leaf from the tree is known to possess an abnormal number of veins makes it probable that the next leaf chosen from the same tree will also be abnormal-or, in other words, the fact that leaves are borne by the same tree establishes a correlation between them.

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  • Professor Pearson has measured this correlation.

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  • The pairs so formed were collected in a table, from which the correlation between the first leaf and the second leaf of a pair, chosen from one tree, could be determined by the methods indicated in the article Probability.

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  • The correlation between undifferentiated sets of serial homologues, produced by a single individual, is the measure of what Pearson has called homotyposis.

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  • 197 A., 1901), from which the foregoing statements about beech leaves are taken, Pearson has given the correlation between such sets of organs in a large number of plants: he and his pupils have subsequently determined the correlation between structures repeated in the bodies of individual animals.

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  • In spite of this difficulty, however, the values of the correlation coefficients so far obtained cluster fairly well round the mean value of all of them, which is almost exactly 2.

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  • Such measurements of fraternal correlation in the lower animal as Pearson and his pupils have at present made give values very close to 2.

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  • The evidence that the correlation between sexually produced brethren is the same as that existing between the asexually repeated organs on an individual body renders it impossible to accept Weismann's view that one of the results produced by the differentiation of animals and plants into two sexes is an increase in the variability of their offspring.

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  • This kind of selection, called by Pearson "reproductive" or "genetic" selection, may be measured by finding the correlation between the characters of the individuals which pair and the number of young.

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  • Assortative mating exists when individuals which mate are not paired at random, but a definite correlation is established between the characters of one mate and those of the other.

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  • This kind of selection is measured by the correlation between deviation of either mate from the type, and deviation of the other.

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  • 4 That they are not, however, psychological or acquired categories, due to " the workmanship of the mind " as conceived by Locke, is obvious from their attribution to the structure of mind' and from their correlation with immanent principles of the objective order.

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  • An important group of writers developed the conception of an adaptation between the two sides of Kant's antithesis, and made the endeavour to establish some kind of correlation between logical forms and the process of " the given."

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  • Another logical movement springs from those whom a correlation of fact within the unity of a system altogether failed to satisfy.

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  • To allow, however, that abstraction admits of degrees, and that it never obliterates all reference to that from which it is abstracted, is to take a step forward in the direction of the correlation of logical forms with the concrete processes of actual thinking.

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  • Thus Schleiermacher's posthumously published Dialektik (1839) may be characterized as an appeal from the absolutist element in Schelling's philosophy to the conception of that correlation or parallelism which Schelling had exhibited as flowing from and subsisting within his absolute, and therein as a return upon Kant's doctrine of limits.

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  • The simple fact at the bottom of the controversy is that in all empirical knowledge there is an intellectual element, without which there is no correlation of empirical data, and every judgment, however simple, postulates a correlation of some sort if only that between the predicate and its contradictory.

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  • By this recognition of the necessary correlation of Being and Not-being, Heraclitus is in a very real sense the father of metaphysical and scientific speculation, and in him the Ionian school of philosophy reached, its highest point.

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  • The Cambrian rocks of Ireland, a great series of purple and green shales, slates and grits with beds of quartzite, have not yet yielded sufficient fossil evidence to permit of a correlation with the Welsh rocks, and possibly some parts of the series may be transferred in the future to the overlying Ordovician.

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  • Formosa possesses a species of its own (C. taevanus), which, in correlation with the perpetual verdure of that island, is spotted at all seasons.

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  • The study of the urine is highly interesting in correlation with that of the influence of quinine upon the oxidising power of the blood, and upon the movements of the leucocytes.

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  • This combination of circumstances has given the Graptoloidea a paramount stratigraphical importance as palaeontological indices of the detailed sequence and correlation of the Lower Palaeozoic rocks in general.

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  • The East typifies the infinite, Greece the finite or reflective epoch, the modern era the stage of relation or correlation of infinite and finite.

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  • The correlation of the ideas of infinite and finite does not necessarily imply their correality, as Cousin supposes; on the contrary, it is a presumption that finite is simply positive and infinite negative of the same - that the finite and infinite are simply contradictory relatives.

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  • Although, in the extreme correlation of the radial food-grooves, nerves, watervessels, and so forth, with a radiate symmetry of the theca, such a type differs from the Cystidea, while in the possession of jointed processes from the radial plates, bearing the grooves and the various body-systems outwards from the theca, it differs from all other Echinoderms, nevertheless ancient forms are known which, if they are not themselves the actual links, suggest how the crinoid type may have been evolved from some of the more regular cystids.

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  • - Pelmatozoa in which radial polymeric symmetry of the theca is developed either not at all or not in complete correlation with the radial symmetry of the ambulacra (such as obtains in Blastoidea and Crinoidea); in which extensions of the food-grooves are exothecal or epithecal or both combined, but neither endothecal nor pierced by podia (as in some Edrioasteroidea).

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  • The former might be placed with Diploporita, were it not for a greater intimacy of correlation between ambulacral and thecal structures than is found in Cystidea as here defined.

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  • This subject, which is discussed in the article Molecule, has for its purpose (I) the derivation of a physical structure of a gas which will agree with the experimental observations of the diverse physical properties, and (2) a correlation of the physical properties and chemical composition.

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  • Further development of doctrine weeded out the last traces of Adoptionist belief, 2 though Christ's exaltation continued to be taught in correlation to His humiliation (Phil.

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  • The contrast and correlation of these two data of experience is suggested in the chapter on the " qualities of matter " in which we are introduced to a noteworthy vein of speculation (bk.

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  • It is hardly necessary to say that Spencer does not tell us how to bring the two ethical systems into correlation.

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  • He is also in all things, inasmuch as in everything the totality of the world and its transcendental basis is presupposed by virtue of their being and correlation.

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  • The correlation of these various remains presents considerable difficulties.

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  • The position of the branches is shown both on casts and in petrified specimens, and has helped in their identification, while the petrified remains sometimes show enough of the external characters to allow of their correlation with impressions.

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  • F., " On the age and correlation of the Plant-bearing Series of India, &c.," Quarterly Journal Geol.

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  • The accurate correlation in time of the various scattered plantbearing deposits is a matter of considerable difficulty, for plantremains are preserved principally in lacustrine strata laid down in separate basins of small extent.

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  • Brown has suggested a correlation of the Euphratean names with those of the Greeks and moderns.

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  • Dog gnawing is low overall, with no particular correlation with the presence of surface abrasion.

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  • Figure 7: Correlation between the novel wind sensor used in the Street Box and a conventional anemometer.

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  • The golden rule has to be: correlation does not imply causation!

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  • The connection we already have involves the Proposition of Neural Indeterminacy, probabilistic causation, and the Correlation Hypothesis.

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  • The correlation coefficient between adjacent pairs of axes can be viewed by clicking an axis with the right mouse button.

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  • Discrete Random Variables: mean and variance; linear combinations; covariance and correlation.

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  • Without a positive co-relation between school and home the education of children will suffer and hinder their academic progress.

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  • It is a well known fact that a child's education suffers if there is a negative co-relation between school and home.

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  • Unfortunately you cannot stop at the denary version as there is no direct co-relation between base 2 or base 16 and base 10.

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  • co-relation between school and home.

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  • This correlation could be investigated further by calculating a cross correlation between the RMSD and chi1 and chi2 angles.

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  • Scientific study and evidence clearly demonstrates the direct correlation between line speed, operator skill and contamination levels.

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  • The algorithms used to compute the correlation in the Question Statistics report have been improved in 2.2.

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  • This change becomes prominent in advanced stages of the cancer and shows a strong inverse correlation with protein expression.

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  • This paper proposes a new test of independence based on the maximum canonical correlation between pairs of discrete variables.

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  • The general negative correlation between the two data sets, dominated by the Galactic plane to high Galactic latitude variation, is readily apparent.

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  • Note that the population intraclass correlation can be estimated using variance component estimation methods.

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  • There was a significant positive correlation between.. ... .

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  • Mantel statistics may turn out significant even if they have values that would seem very low for a Pearson product-moment correlation between two variables.

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  • This has an effect on the two-point correlation function of the perturbations, but it seems to be quite small.

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  • Observational methods, e.g. eddy correlation techniques to measure turbulent fluxes or measurement of mean profiles to infer turbulent transport.

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  • The methods which represent experimental work most closely are those that include electron correlation.

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  • The quantity t is known as the Kendall rank correlation coefficient tau.

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  • To calculate the intracluster correlation coefficient, and thereby refine the estimation of the sample size needed for the trial.

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  • The degree of relationship between three or more sample populations may be quantified using the multiple correlation coefficient.

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  • Even with the modification the blanket estimator gave low correlation coefficients.

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  • One factor that had a high correlation coefficient was the rate of unemployment.

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  • identify a minimum correlation coefficient that describes true particles as opposed to erroneously selected particles.

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  • A robust measure of numerical model parameter sensitivity was employed, namely the rank order correlation coefficient.

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  • partial correlation coefficients suggest that geographic range is the most important predictor of description date, and shows an inverse relationship.

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  • Correlation Coefficient The r-squared correlation coefficient The r-squared correlation coefficient should also remain high.

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  • Two voxel-based similarity measures, the linear correlation coefficient and the entropy correlation coefficient, are used.

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  • The quantity t is known as the Kendall rank correlation coefficient tau.

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  • Main outcome measures: Relationship between variables examined by calculating Pearson's product moment correlation coefficients.

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  • The outcome was analyzed for correlation with patient characteristics, the disease including cytogenetics, and the graft itself.

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  • dissimilarity matrix, in addition to correlation matrices.

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  • A high correlation has been found between the scaled index and helical twisting power for a range of chiral dopants.

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  • eddy correlation techniques to measure turbulent fluxes or measurement of mean profiles to infer turbulent transport.

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  • Note that the population intraclass correlation can be estimated using variance component estimation methods.

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  • However, there is not a simple correlation between language (or name etymology) and script.

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  • You put this correlation down to market fear, when it has existed during times of market euphoria.

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  • The ' ecological fallacy ' is a statement about ' ecological correlation ', not about ecology in itself.

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  • fly-by-wire aircraft, there may not be much of a correlation between the position of the stick and the control surfaces.

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  • Figure 9 shows the correlation between the integration values of visibility graph analysis and pedestrian movement patterns.

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  • No correlation was found between baseline serum insulin and VEGF levels.

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  • latent semantic indexing, SVD, Pearson correlation and so on.

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  • The correlation between histologic atypia and MIB-1 li was poor, with only 1 tumor having both atypia and MIB-1 LI 2% .

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  • But they often assume linearity and usually there will be a good correlation between them.

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  • locus formal correlation of individual genes mapped to specific loci on the chromosomes with certain characters has only a limited meaning.

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  • A correlation matrix is derived across these six specifications.

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  • mean deviatione mean, standard deviation, variance, regression and correlation analysis.

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  • moment correlation coefficients.

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  • multiplying the path coefficient by the correlation coefficient.

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  • Generally, however, there is no correlation with either native state shift perturbations or with sequence proximity to aromatic groups.

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  • This should ensure that the data-mining analysis could find the most effective correlation between the observed polymorphs and the predicted thermodynamic and kinetic properties.

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  • probabilistic causation, and the Correlation Hypothesis.

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  • How do I get average ranks for rank correlation and rank sum test?

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  • relationships between continuous variables were examined with Pearson product moment correlation coefficients.

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  • Publication title: Correlation of solder paste rheology with computational simulations of the stencil printing process.

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  • Here is a graph of the correlation between badger roadkill tuberculosis prevalence and cattle tuberculosis incidence.

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  • No correlation was found between systolic blood pressure and urinary sodium.

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  • This international correlation was the first in Buckland's attempts to produce a world-wide stratigraphy.

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  • striking of the cue ball, does not screen off this correlation.

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  • No field data would appear to have been available for correlation with sulfate classes based on sulfate classes based on sulfate levels in groundwater.

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  • No field data would appear to have been available for correlation with sulfate classes based on sulfate levels in groundwater.

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  • Carter and Hart also, significantly, identified that syn-depositional tectonism was associated with the ' C ' correlation line.

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  • A direct correlation between survival and neutralizing antibody titer was found.

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  • concurrent validity was established by calculating correlation coefficients between Deleted Essential Test scores and scores on other integrative and holistic tests.

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  • In correlation with its burrowing habits, some of the vertebrae of the neck and of the loins are respectively welded together.

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  • - From the inevitable conclusion that there are three stages in the written sources for the Levitical institutions, the next step is the correlation of allied traditions on the basis of the genealogical evidence.

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  • Theism si'ggests at the very outset that we should rather expect to find a correlation between the two.

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  • With the exception of these forms, reduced for the most part in correlation with a semi-parasitic mode of life, the tentacles are usually numerous.

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  • Conscious life is viewed as conditioned by physical (organic and more especially nervous) processes, and as evolving itself in close correlation with organic evolution.

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  • It has been the habit of biologists to use the terms variation, selection, elimination, correlation and so forth, vaguely; the new school, which has been strongly reinforced from the side of physical science, insists on quantitative measurements of the terms. When the anatomist says that one race is characterized by long heads, another by round heads, the biometricist demands numbers and percentages.

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  • When a character is said to be transmitted, or to be correlated with another character, the biometricist declares the statement valueless without numerical estimations of the inheritance or correlation.

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  • The height or length of the arm of a human being, for instance, is the result of many factors, some inherent, some due to environment, and until these have been sifted out, numerical laws of inheritance or of correlation can have no more than an empirical value.

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  • Such small granules have been observed in the sensitive cells, and there is an evident correlation between these and the power of receiving the geotropic stimulus.

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  • The orbito-sphenoids diverge only posteriorly, otherwise they are practically unpaired and form the median interorbital septum, which is very large in correlation with the extraordinary size of the eyeballs.

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  • Thus it has come to pass that the muscles of the hind limbs are, like their framework, more easily compared with those of reptiles and mammals than are the wings, whilst within the class of birds they show an enormous amount of variation in direct correlation with their manifold requirements.

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  • It is, however, fair to state that his system was not built entirely upon these muscular variations, but rather upon a more laborious combination of anatomical characters, which were so selected that they presumably could not stand in direct correlation with each other, notably the oil-gland, caeca, carotids, nasal bones and above all, the muscles of the thigh.

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  • A similar rotation and dislocation occurs in various petrels, in correlation with the indigestible sepia-bills, &c., which these birds swallow in great quantities.

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  • In correlation with their heavy build and the frequent loss of the power of flight, many beetles are terrestrial rather than aerial in habit, though a large proportion of the order can fly well.

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  • The larvae are stout and soft-skinned, with short legs in correlation with their burrowing habit.

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  • In the following year .another set of hints - of a kind so different that probably no one then living would have thought it possible that they should ever be brought in correlation with those of Nitzsch - are contained in a memoir on Fishes contributed to the tenth volume of the Annales du Museum d'histoire naturelle of Paris by Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire in 1807.1 Here we have it stated as a general truth (p. too) that young birds have the ' sternum formed of five separate pieces - one in the middle, being its keel, and two " annexes " on each side to which the ribs are .articulated - all, however, finally uniting to form the single " breast-bone."

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  • 1, pp. 186-256, 308-352) an essay in two parts, wherein, following the researches of Muller 2 on the syrinx, in the course of which a correlation had been shown to exist between the whole or divided condition of the planta or hind part of the " tarsus," first noticed, as has been said, by Keyserling and Blasius, and the presence or absence of the perfect song-apparatus, the younger author found an agreement which seemed almost invariable in this.

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  • Mr Hooker has shown with reference to the wheat market how close is the correlation between prices in different places,' and the same has been observed of the cotton market, though the Conceivably some indication of the working of " futures " might be gleaned from observation of the relations of near and distant " futures " to one another and of both to spot."

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  • Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular theory.

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  • It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.

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  • Deferring the detailed discussion of cyclic or ringed hydrocarbons, a correlation of the various types or classes of compounds which may be derived from hydrocarbon nuclei will now be given.

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  • In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.

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  • It is to be noted that although the correlation of melting-point with constitution has not been developed to such an extent as the chemical significance of other physical properties, the melting-point is the most valuable test of the purity of a substance, a circumstance due in considerable measure to the fact that impurities always tend to lower the melting-point.

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  • He wrote Correlation Papers - Archaean and Algonkian (1892), Some Principles Controlling the Deposition of Ores (1901).

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  • Two classes between which a one-one relation exists have the same cardinal number and are called cardinally similar; and the cardinal number of the class a is a certain class whose members are themselves classes - namely, it is the class composed of all those classes for which a one-one correlation with a exists.

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  • In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.

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  • Recalling the formulae above which connect s P4 and a m, we see that dP4 and Dp q are in co-relation with these quantities respectively, and may be said to be operations which correspond to the partitions (pq), (10 P 01 4) respectively.

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  • The point at issue has an important bearing upon the possible correlation of magnetic phenomena, but, though it has given rise to much discussion, no accepted conclusion has yet been reached.'

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  • Cuvier's morphological doctikne received its fullest development in the principle of the " correlation of parts," which he applied to palaeontological investigation, namely, that every animal is a definite whole, and that no part can be varied without entailing correlated and law-abiding variations in other parts, so that from a fragment it should be possible, had we a full knowledge of the laws of animal structure or morphology, to reconstruct the whole.

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  • deliciosus, and it has been observed that the wing-bones of these birds are also much thickened, no doubt in correlation with this abnormal structure.

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  • The bodywall is greatly simplified in the Gymnolaemata, in correlation with the functional importance of the skeletal part of the wall.

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  • Gregory, " The Maltese Fossil Echinoidea and their evidence on the correlation of the Maltese Rocks," Trans.

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  • In these years he had published De la correlation des figures de geometrie (1801), Geometrie de position (1803), and Principes fondamentaux del' equilibre et du mouvement (1803), all of which were translated into German.

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  • P. Elderton, Frequency-Curves and Correlation (1906); as to the formulae of § 82, see also Biometrika, v.

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  • They were recorded in the comparatively late surviving version of the 7th century B.C., on twelve tablets, with an obvious design of correlation with the twelve divisions of the sun's annual course.

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  • Thus the attempt to find out a constitution for the aether will involve a synthesis of intimate correlation of the various types of physical agencies, which appear so different to us mainly because we perceive them through different senses.

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  • While it cannot be said that the full significance of this very definite phenomenon, consisting of the splitting of the spectral line into a number of polarized components, has yet been made out, a wide field of correlation with optical theory, especially in the neighbourhood of absorption bands, has been developed by Zeeman himself, by A.

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  • The mesogloea becomes enormously increased in quantity (hence the popular name "jelly-fish"), and in correlation with this the endoderm-layer lining the coelenteron becomes pressed together in the interradial areas and undergoes concrescence, forming a more or less complicated gastrovascular system (see Medusa).

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  • But swiftness, the apparatus necessary for climbing, running and digging, the mechanism of the tongue, the muscles of the jaws (hence modifications of the cranial arches) stand also in correlation with the kind of food and with the way in which it has to be procured.

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  • The impossibility of safe correlation of units necessitates a division by countries.

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  • Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.

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  • The consequences of this principle when applied to the adaptations of animals bring us to the very antithesis of Cuvier's supposed "law of correlation," for we find that, while the end results of adaptation are such that all parts of an animal conspire to make the whole adaptive, there is no fixed correlation either in the form or rate of development of parts, and that it is therefore impossible for the palaeontologist to predict the anatomy of an unknown animal from one of its parts only, unless the animal happens to belong to a type generally familiar.

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  • This latter animal is closely related to one which Cuvier termed Pangolin gigantesque, and had he restored it according to his " law of correlation " he would have pictured a giant " scaly anteater," a type as wide as the poles from the actual form of Chalicotherium, which in body, limbs and teeth is a modified ungulate herbivore, related remotely to the tapirs.

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  • Similarly, there is no correlation in the rate of evolution either of adjoining or of separated parts; the middle digit of the foot of the three-toed horse is accelerated in development, while the lateral digits on either side are retarded.

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  • - Diagram demonstrating that there are an indefinite number of combinations of various adaptive types of limbs and feet with various adaptive types of teeth, and that there is no fixed law of correlation between the two series of adaptations.

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  • All the great systems of rock formations are represented in the United States, though close correlation with the systems of Europe is not always possible.

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  • The number of systems is not everywhere the same, nor are they everywhere alike, and their definite correlation with one another is not possible now, and may never be.

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  • The Proterozoic formations have yielded a few fossils in several places, especially Montana and northern Arizona; but they are so imperfect, their numbers, whether of individuals or of species, are so small, and the localities where they occur so few, that they are of little service in correlation throughout the United States.

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  • This wide range is open to doubt as to the correlation of some of the beds involved.

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  • The tail and ears are generally very long; while, in correlation with the size of the latter, the auditory bullae of the skull are also large.

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  • They have long hind limbs, large eyes and ears; and in correlation with the latter an enlarged auditory bulla to the skull, which is hollow and divided into a tympanic and a mastoid portion.

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  • The consequence is that all the world admitted into his philosophy is what he called the " empirio-critical essential co-ordination " (empirio-kritische Prinzipialkoordination), an inseparable correlation of central part and counterpart, of ego and environment.

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  • No satisfactory correlation of solubility with chemical or other properties has been made.

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  • It is possible that a correlation may be made between solubility and the energy of surface tension.

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  • The physical investigation of osmotic pressure, and its correlation by Van't Hoff with the pressure of a gas, brought forward a new aspect of the phenomena, and suggested an identity of physical modus operandi as well as of numerical value.

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  • The groups of organisms utilized for zoning and correlation by different workers include brachiopods, pelecypods, cephalopods, corals, fishes and plants; and the results of the comparison of the faunas and floras of different areas where Carboniferous rocks occur are generalized in the table below.

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  • The relative value of any group of animals or plants for the correlation of distant areas must vary greatly with the varying conditions of sedimentation and with the precise definition of the zonal species and with many other factors.

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  • This view is still maintained by those who differentiate two acts of fertilization within the embryo-sac, and regard that of the egg by the first male-cell, as the true or generative fertilization, and that of the polar nuclei by the second male gamete as a vegetative fertilization which gives a stimulus to development in correlation with the other.

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  • When it is sought to consider algae with a view to the correlation of the external form to the conditions of life, a subject the study of which under the name of ecology has Ecoiogy.

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  • He laid much stress on the unity of the organism in every stage of its existence, with the resulting correlation of variations, so that the favouring of one particular variation entailed modifications of correlated structures.

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  • One aspect of organic individuality is the correlation of variations, the fact that when one part varies, other parts vary more or less simultaneously.

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  • So far, our knowledge of correlation is almost entirely empirical, and the arrangement of the observed facts cannot be brought into exact harmony with our guesses at their causation.

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  • Much correlation is the inevitable result of organic structure.

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  • If we reflect on the multitude and complexity of such actions and reactions in operation from the youngest stages to the end of the life of each individual, we cannot be surprised at any correlation.

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  • But whatever be the theory of the mode of inheritance, or the mechanism by which the germinal plasm of an individual is made up, it is plain that there is correlation between the various qualities of an individual due to the mode of origin of its germ plasm as a selected individual portion of the parental germ plasm.

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  • Observed cases of correlation cover almost every kind of anatomical and physiological fact, and range from simple cases such as the relation between height of body and length of face to such an unexpected nexus as that between fertility and height in mothers of daughters.

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  • The theory of chance was applied to the study of human variation by Quetelet; but the most important applications of this theory to biological problems are due in the first instance to Francis Galton, who used the theory of correlation in describing the relation between the deviation of one character in an animal body from the mean proper to its race and that of a second character in the same body (correlation as commonly understood), or between deviation of a parent from the mean of its generation and deviation of offspring from the mean of the following generation (inheritance).

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  • Such differentiation may be measured by determining the correlation between the position or the time of production and the character of the organs produced, the methods by which the correlation is measured being those described in the article Error, Law Of.

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  • If, however, a series of leaves from the same tree be examined in pairs, the fact that one leaf from the tree is known to possess an abnormal number of veins makes it probable that the next leaf chosen from the same tree will also be abnormal-or, in other words, the fact that leaves are borne by the same tree establishes a correlation between them.

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  • Professor Pearson has measured this correlation.

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  • The pairs so formed were collected in a table, from which the correlation between the first leaf and the second leaf of a pair, chosen from one tree, could be determined by the methods indicated in the article Probability.

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  • The coefficient of correlation is 0.5699, which indicates that the standard deviation of an array is equal to that of the leaves in general multiplied by 1 / I - (0.5699) 1; and performing this multiplication, we find 1.426 as the standard deviation of an array.

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  • The correlation between undifferentiated sets of serial homologues, produced by a single individual, is the measure of what Pearson has called homotyposis.

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  • 197 A., 1901), from which the foregoing statements about beech leaves are taken, Pearson has given the correlation between such sets of organs in a large number of plants: he and his pupils have subsequently determined the correlation between structures repeated in the bodies of individual animals.

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  • In spite of this difficulty, however, the values of the correlation coefficients so far obtained cluster fairly well round the mean value of all of them, which is almost exactly 2.

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  • Among the most important structures produced in repeated series are the reproductive cells; and Pearson points out that if the variability of animals or of plants be supposed to depend upon that of the germ-cells from which they arise, then the correlation between brothers in the array produced by the same parents will give a measure of the correlation between the parental germ-cells, the determination requiring, of course, the same precautions to avoid the effects of differentiation as are necessary in the study of other repeated organs.

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  • After a large series of measurements, involving the most varied characters of human brothers, Pearson has shown that the correlation has a value very nearly equal to z; so that the variability of human children obeys the same law as that of other repeated structures, the standard deviation of an array, produced by the same parents, having an average value equal to the standard deviation of the whole filial generation multiplied by 1 2 1 J I - (or by.

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  • Such measurements of fraternal correlation in the lower animal as Pearson and his pupils have at present made give values very close to 2.

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  • The evidence that the correlation between sexually produced brethren is the same as that existing between the asexually repeated organs on an individual body renders it impossible to accept Weismann's view that one of the results produced by the differentiation of animals and plants into two sexes is an increase in the variability of their offspring.

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  • Warren has shown by direct observation that the correlation between brothers among the broods produced parthenogenetically by one of the Aphides has a value not far from the 2 observed in sexually produced brethren (Biometrika, vol.

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  • Finally, Simpson has measured the correlation between the pairs of young produced by the simple asexual division, of Paramoecium (Biometrika, vol.

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  • This kind of selection, called by Pearson "reproductive" or "genetic" selection, may be measured by finding the correlation between the characters of the individuals which pair and the number of young.

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  • Assortative mating exists when individuals which mate are not paired at random, but a definite correlation is established between the characters of one mate and those of the other.

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  • This kind of selection is measured by the correlation between deviation of either mate from the type, and deviation of the other.

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  • 4 That they are not, however, psychological or acquired categories, due to " the workmanship of the mind " as conceived by Locke, is obvious from their attribution to the structure of mind' and from their correlation with immanent principles of the objective order.

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  • Or, on rather a different line of criticism, the use of corresponding letters in the two series of antecedents and consequents raises, it is said, a false presumption of correlation.

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  • An important group of writers developed the conception of an adaptation between the two sides of Kant's antithesis, and made the endeavour to establish some kind of correlation between logical forms and the process of " the given."

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  • Another logical movement springs from those whom a correlation of fact within the unity of a system altogether failed to satisfy.

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