==Fauna== The three climatic regions of Alberta have naturally a varying fauna.
The difficulty of sharply delimiting edaphic and climatic factors is seen in the case of temperature.
The winter rains of the Karst region show that it belongs to the sub-tropical climatic zone.
In external habit these exhibit adaptations to every kind of climatic or physical condition:
The evidence which has thus been briefly summarized, points unmistakably to the conclusion that existing vegetation originated in the northern hemisphere and under climatic conditions corresponding to what would now be termed sub-tropical.
Many of the great historic movements of peoples were doubtless due to the gradual change of geographical or climatic conditions; and the slow desiccation of Central Asia has been plausibly suggested as the real cause of the peopling of modern Europe and of the medieval wars of the Old World, the theatres of which were critical points on the great natural lines of communication between east and west.
Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia possess suitable climatic conditions, and in the first-named state the cotton has been grown on a commercial scale in past years, the crop in 1897 being about 450 bales.
The climatic conditions are not so favourable as in Argentina, but these are counterbalanced to some extent by the great river system of the Orinoco, whose large navigable tributaries cross the plains from end to end, and whose smaller streams from the surrounding highlands provide superior opportunities for water storage and irrigation.
The development of man is explained in connexion with that of the earth, and in relation to climatic variations, &c.
Various climatic factors may cause temporary checks, but the growing and maturing period is sufficiently long to allow the plants to overcome these disturbances.
Passing from the coast to the tableland, a distinct climatic region is entered.
In regions where climatic conditions are favourable, cotton grows more or less successfully on almost all kinds of soil; it can be grown on light sandy soils, loams, heavy clays and sandy " bottom " lands with varying success.
The nature of the soil appears, however, to be of secondary importance, provided that it is able to hold moisture and that climatic conditions of high and even temperature with considerable rainfall and absence of wind are satisfied.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
For example, rae Arenarion in one climatic or geographical region might be in~~ med an a-Arenarion and one in a different region a a-Arena- ~j1j ri, and so on (Moss, bc. cit.).
of this line it is customary to distinguish several zones, lying, generally, parallel to it, and, differentiated chiefly by climatic differences.
It is thinly wooded, except in the north, where the climatic conditions approach those of the Amazon valley.
- As already stated, the " Mediterranean region " forms a distinct climatic unit, chiefly due to the form and position of the Mediterranean Sea.
to 44.4 The climatic conditions of the western districts of the state are entirely different from those of the other two regions.
The climate is hot and dry, the rainfall being too small to influence climatic conditions.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
These arrangements have doubtless some reference to climatic phenomena, continuity of growth being arrested by cold and promoted by warmth.
Diogenes made this conception of a vital and intelligent air the ground of a teleological view of climatic and atmospheric phenomena.
Equally disastrous are those climatic or seasonal changes which involve temperatures in themselves not excessive but in wrong sequence; how many more useful plants could be grown in the open in the United Kingdom if the deceptively mild springs were not so often followed by frosts in May and June!
Such groups are interesting in that they are vegetation units whose physiognomy is, in a broad sense, related more to climatic than to edaphic conditions.
Hence, in any cosmopolitan treatment of vegetation, it is necessary to consider the groups of plant communities from the standpoint of the climatic or geographical district in which they occur; and this indeed is consistently done by Schimper.
They endeavoured to define aspects of vegetation in which the forms exhibited an obvious adaptation to their climatic surroundings.
The maximum gradient possible depends on climatic conditions, a dry climate being the most favourable.
The principal varieties of Egyptian cotton are: Mitafifi, the bestknown and most extensively grown, hardy and but little affected by climatic variation.
It has generally been forgotten that the utter want of march discipline in the French, and not the climatic conditions, was responsible for the appalling disasters which ensued.
His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.
The Sao Francisco, which belongs to the inland plateau region, is the largest river of the eastern coast of Brazil and exists by virtue of climatic conditions wholly different from those of the coast where it enters the Atlantic. The tributaries of the lower half of this great river, which belong to the Atlantic coast region, are small and often dry, but the upper river where the rainfall is heavier and more regular receives several large affluents.
The climatic conditions of the Brazilian plateau are widely different from those of the coast in many respects.
But the lowness of stature extends to the lower animals - cattle, horses, donkeys, &c. - and this may indicate that climatic causes have some part in the matter also, though Sergi denies this.
This evidence of a gradual process of upheaval still in action may throw some light on the physical (especially the climatic) changes which must have passed over that part of Asia since Balkh was the " mother of cities," the great trade centre of Asia, and the plains of Balkh were green with cultivation.
As an instance of the influence of climatic conditions combined with high cultivation the cane lands of the Sandwich Islands may be cited.
The prevailing winds, mild and humid, are west winds from the Atlantic; continental climatic influence makes itself felt in the east wind, which is frequent in winter and in the east of France, while the mistral, a violent wind from the north-west, is characteristic of the Mediterranean region.
In reality, however, it experiences fewer climatic variations than the other great continents, owing to its distance (28°) from the Antarctic circle and (11°) from the equator.
Practically the whole of the territory between the 145° meridian and the Great Dividing Range, as well as extensive tracts in the south and west, are a natural sheep pasture with climatic conditions and indigenous vegetation pre - eminently adapted for the growth of wool of the highest quality.
Physical FactorsThese are frequently classified as edaphic or soil factors and climatic factors; but there is no sharp line of demarcation between them.
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
Eaton discovered on the desolate shores of Kerguelen's 'Island apterous and semi-apterous Diptera (Tipulidae and jEph_ydridae) of a degraded type adapted to the climatic peculiarities of the locality.
The foregoing brief review of the principal territorial divisions according to which the forms of life are distributed in Asia, indicates how close is the dependence of this distribution on climatic conditions, and this will be made more apparent by a somewhat fuller account of the main features of the flora and fauna.
- Climatic conditions in Egypt differ radically from those in the United States, the rainfall being so small as to be quite insufficient for the needs of the plant, very little rain indeed falling in the Nile Delta during the whole growing season of the crop: yet Egypt is in order the third cottonproducing country of the world, elaborate irrigation works supplying the crop with the requisite water.
The improvements desired in cotton vary to some degree in different countries, according to the present character of the plants, climatic conditions, the chief pests, special market requirements, and other circumstances.
In spite of somewhat adverse climatic conditions, live stock is reared with a fair amount of success.
At Santos the rainfall is exceptionally heavy and the mean temperature high, but below that point the climatic conditions are considerably modified, the range in temperature being greater, the mean annual temperature lower, and the rainfall more evenly distributed throughout the year.
The rainfall throughout this region is abundant, except in northern Minas Geraes, where the climatic conditions are influenced to some extent by the arid eastern plateau.
In the vicinity of Buenos Aires the climatic conditions vary very little from those of the pampa region; the mean annual temperature is about 63° (maximum 104°; minimum 32°), and the annual rainfall is 34 in.; snow is rarely seen.
Whilst, however, the plant adapts itself to a great variety of climatic conditions and will grow on almost all kinds of soil, the flavour and quality of the produce are profoundly affected by variations in these two factors.
Owing to climatic causes the tract they occupied was slowly drying up. They were the outposts of civilization towards the encroaching desert, and the Tatar nomadism that advanced with it.
GEROLSTEIN, a village and climatic health resort of Germany, in the Prussian Rhine Province, attractively situated on the Kyll, in the Eifel range, 110o ft.
HONNEF, a town and climatic health resort of Germany, beautifully situated on the right bank of the Rhine, at the foot of the Siebengebirge, 8 m.
The health of the city, unfortunately, does not correspond with its favourable climatic conditions.
The westerly wind is almost constant and, in conjunction with the elevation of the land, greatly modifies the climatic conditions.
Agriculture is by far the most important industry of the state, and, owing to climatic conditions, it is rigidly limited to a few staple crops.
But though the great morphological features of this latitudinal valley forcibly recall the latitudinal valleys of Tibet, the climatic differences give rise to differences between the basins corresponding to the differences between the mountain-ranges themselves.
Owing to the proximity of two oceans, and the varied configuration of the surface of Costa Rica, an area of a few square miles may exhibit the most striking extremes of climate; but, over the entire country, it is possible to distinguish three climatic zones - tropical, temperate and cold.
Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.
Gregory (Climatic Variations, their Extent and Causes, International Geological Congress, Mexico, 1906), who holds that the extent of climatic changes in past times has been greatly exaggerated.
Because of the repetition of analogous physiographic and climatic conditions in regions widely separated both in time and in space, we discover that continental and local adaptive radiations result in the creation of analogous groups of radii among all the vertebrates and invertebrates.
This is due not only to its geographical position and its vertical climatic zones, which give it a range from tropical to arctic types, but also to its peculiar combination of humid and arid conditions in which we find an extensive barren table-land interposed between two tropical forested coastal zones.
The line of demarcation cannot be very sharply drawn, as the zones everywhere overlap each other and local climatic conditions greatly modify plant types.
In some localities the characteristic types of the two climatic extremes, the palm and the pine, are to be found growing side by side.
The varying climatic conditions of Mexico have produced breeds of cattle that have not only departed from the original Spanish type, but likewise present strikingly different characteristics among themselves.
In Guatemala, as in other parts of Central America (q.v.), each of the three climatic zones, cold, temperate and hot (Berra fria, tierra templada, tierra caliente) has its special charac' eristics, and it is not easy to generalize about the climate of the country as a whole.
The eastern boundary of the plains is more climatic than topographic. The line of 20 in.
C. Russell, have yielded evidence of past climatic changes second in importance only to those of the Pleistocene glaciated areas.
The climatic effects of relief are seen directly in the ascent of the higher mountain ranges to altitudes where low temperatures prevail, thus preserving snow patches through the summer on the high summits (over 12,000 ft.) in the south, and maintaining snowfields and moderate-sized glaciers on the ranges in the north.
So in various parts of the mountainous country of British Columbia, the flora varies according to climatic conditions.
Experimental farms were established in 1887 in different parts of the Dominion, and were so located as to render efficient help to the farmers in the more thickly settled districts, and at the same time to cover the varied climatic and other conditions which influence agriculture in Canada.
Possibly the rulers of Babylon had a freer hand in a city that they apparently raised to a dominant position than the Semitic rulers of Asshur, who seem to have succeeded to men of the stock which we have hitherto called Mitanni, if we may judge ' On the theory that it was climatic changes in Arabia that drove the Semites to seek new homes along the route mentioned above, see L.
along the parallel of 33° N., and arrests the monsoon currents), is subject to much the same climatic influences as the eastern Himalaya.
- From what has now been said it will readily be inferred that the distribution of lichens over the surface of the globe is regulated, not only by the presence of suitable substrata, but more especially by climatic conditions.
West Africa has taken heavy toll not only in money but in life, but the lesson has now been learned, and a system of frequent furloughs combined with a better understanding of the climatic requirements have appreciably lessened the peril.
The old-fashioned stereotyped flower garden that one met with almost everywhere is rapidly becoming a thing of the past, and grounds are now laid out more in accordance with their natural disposition, their climatic conditions and their suitability for certain kinds of plants.
That the vegetation during this period was unusually exuberant there can be no doubt, and that a general uniformity of climatic conditions prevailed is shown not only by the wide distribution of coal measures, but by the uniformity of plant types over the whole earth.
The experiment has been tried of rearing rare, wild, fur-bearing animals in captivity, and although climatic conditions and food have been precisely as in their natural environment, the fur has been poor in quality and bad in colour, totally unlike that taken from animals in the wild state.
The annual collection of fur skins varies considerably in quantity according to the demand and to the good or had climatic conditions of the season; and it is impossible to give a complete record, as many skins are used in the country of their origin or exported direct to merchants.
Chinchilla, La Plata, incorrectly named and known in the trade as "bastard chinchilla," size 9 X4 in., in a similar species, but owing to lower altitudes and warmer climatic conditions of habitation is smaller, with shorter and less beautiful fur, the underwool colour being darker and the top colour less pure.
Climatic conditions obviate the necessity of any superfluity of clothing.
But climatic conditions and racial temperament rendered the Oriental manner of monasticism unattainable, as a rule, in the West.
Soil, situation and climatic conditions have doubtless much influence on the peculiar character of the tea produced.
This process is checked after from 2 to 3 hours, according to climatic conditions.
Neolithic Age (in south Germany till C. 2000 B.C.).Neolithic man lived under the same climatic conditions as prevail to-day, but amidst forests of fir.
Originally the Sicilian system was perhaps due to climatic difficulties, but now it is recognized in most cases to be more rational than combined culture.
Climatic conditions prevent cattle-raising in Sicily from being as prosperous an undertaking as in central Italy.
The Achaeans, or Hellenes, as they were later termed, were on this hypothesis one of the fair-haired tribes of upper Europe known to the ancients as Keltoi (Celts), who from time to time have pressed down over the Alps into the southern lands, successively as Achaeans, Gauls, Goths and Franks, and after the conquest of the indigenous small dark race in no long time died out under climatic conditions fatal to their physique and morale.
Fertilization has been observed at Naples; but it apparently depends on climatic conditions, as at Plymouth the oospheres have been observed to germinate parthenogenetically.
Climatic conditions in Ecuador are very largely contingent on altitude, and the transition from one climate to another is a matter of only a few hours' journey.
In addition to the climatic changes due to altitude, there are others caused by local arid conditions, by volcanic influences and by the influence of mountain ranges on the temperature and rainfall of certain districts.
- The medical conditions prevailing in the Persian Gulf are largely determined by the peculiarly trying climatic influences to which the inhabitants are exposed.
The climatic conditions of the Persian Gulf particularly seem to predispose to this disease, for it very frequently attacks white persons resident there, especially if they are exposed to dietetic hardships.
The justification for their continued existence has been found in the climatic conditions of the Gulf, which make it difficult for the Persian Government to staff their own offices adequately, and in the fact that the rupee is the only currency common to all ports of the Gulf and to India, while the trade of these ports is mainly with India.
The great variety of altitude and of surface characteristics gives rise to a considerable number of local climatic peculiarities.
The summer crops (millet, sesame, figs, melons, grapes, olives, &c.) are fertilized by the heavy " dews " which are one of the most remarkable climatic features of the country and to a large extent atone for the total lack of rain for one half the year.
The flora of Palestine has a considerable range and variety, owing to the variation in local climatic conditions.
In the course of the 17th century the port became the great 1 Dr Carlos Finlay of Havana, arguing from the coincidence between the climatic limitation of yellow fever and the geographical limitation of the mosquito, urged (1881 sqq.) that there was some relation between the disease and the insect.
In 1894 the government divided forests into four classes: forests the preservation of which is essential on climatic or physical grounds, forests which supply valuable timber for commercial purposes, minor forests, and pasture lands.
Three distinct climatic zones are found: - (1) that of the coastlands, including altitudes up to 1650 ft., (2) that of the escarpments and valleys, and (3) that of the high plateau and alpine summits.
Very similar operations have been carried out in Austria-Hungary, where large tracts of land have been brought into cultivation, and watercourses have been diverted successfully despite serious difficulties, climatic and physical; in Russia convict labour has been largely used in the construction of the Trans-siberian railway; the military operations in the Sudan were greatly aided by convict labourers engaged in useful work at the base and all along the line; Italy passed a law in 1904 enacting outdoor labour for the reclamation and draining of waste lands by prisoners under long sentence; and France, although much wedded to cellular imprisonment, is beginning to favour extra-mural employment of prisoners under strict regulations.
Koreans suffer from malaria, but Europeans and their children are fairly free from climatic maladies, and enjoy robust health.
In the third place, the division of the year into two seasons - a wet one and a dry (and extremely dusty) one - marks this portion of the Pacific Coast in the most decided manner, and this natural climatic area coincides almost exactly in its extension with that of California; being truly characteristic neither of Lower California nor of the greater part of Oregon, though more so of Nevada and Arizona.
Distance from the ocean, situation with reference to the mountain ranges, and altitude are all important determinants of these climatic differences; but of these the last seems to be most important.
Hence that climatic characteristic of the entire Pacific Coast - already referred to and which is of extreme importance in determining the life-zones of California - the great amount of total annual heat supply at comparatively high latitudes.
Despite the presence of the pass, plants do not spread, so great is the difference of climatic conditions.
Staple products have changed with increasing knowledge of climatic conditions, of life-zones and of the fitness of crops; first hides and tallow, then wool, wheat, grapes (which in the early eighteen-nineties were the leading fruit), deciduous orchard fruits, and semi-tropical citrus fruits successively.
" The state has such a variety of soil, slope, elevation, temperature and climatic conditions as to reproduce, somewhere within its borders, any wine now manufactured " (United States Census, 1900); but the experience has not yet divided the state into districts of specialized produce, nor determined just how far indigenous American vines may profitably be used, either as base or graftings, with European varieties.
The following figures give some idea of the climatic variations.
Over such an extensive area there is, of course, great variety in the climatic character of different districts, especially when viewed in relation to health.
No definite conclusions can be drawn from the fossils as to the climatic peculiarities of the earth in Cambrian times.
The purpose of the company was to build up a profitable commercial and agricultural community; but the hostility of the natives, unfavourable climatic conditions and the character of the colonists delayed the growth of the new community.
Thus, owing to purely climatic vagaries, the quantity of wine produced in Germany in 1891 was only 16 million gallons, whereas in 1896 it amounted to tit millions.
Eleven topographical and climatic divisions are recognized by the United States Weather Bureau within its borders, including the several parks, the continental divide, and various river valleys.
As a matter of fact, he was personally in favour of insisting upon 54 40' as the boundary in Oregon, and threw upon Congress the responsibility for accepting 49° as the boundary, and he approved the acquisition of California, Utah and New Mexico, territory from which slavery was excluded by geographical and climatic conditions.
On the contrary, many species, in a new country and under somewhat different climatic conditions, seem to find a more congenial abode than in their native land, and at once flourish and increase in it to such an extent as often to exterminate the indigenous inhabitants.
From the foregoing facts and observations we may conclude, firstly, that some plants and many animals are not constitutionally adapted to the climate of their native country only, but are capable of enduring and flourishing under a more or less extensive range of temperature and other climatic conditions; and, secondly, that most plants and some animals are, more or less closely, adapted to climates similar to those of their native habitats.
Professor Theodor Waitz, in his Introduction to Anthropology, adduced many examples of the comparatively rapid constitutional adaptation of man to new climatic conditions.
Sweden thus occupies a climatic position between the purely coastal conditions of Norway and the purely continental conditions of Russia; and in some years the climate inclines to the one character, in others to the other.
It lends no support to Neumayr's theory of climatic zones.
At the extreme south, where Chilean territory extends across to the Atlantic entrance to the Straits of Magellan, a new climatic influence is encountered in the warm equatorial current flowing down the east coast of South America, which gives to eastern Tierra del Fuego a higher temperature than that of the western shore.
The insect life of these strangely associated regions is likewise greatly restricted by adverse climatic conditions, a considerable part of the northern desert being absolutely barren of animal and vegetable life, while the climate of Tierra del Fuego and the southern coast is highly unfavourable to terrestrial animal life, for which reason comparatively few species are to be found.
The southern and eastern coastlands, owing to different climatic conditions are very fertile.
A thawing night is said to promote the flow, and it ceases during a south-west wind and at the approach of a storm; and so sensitive are the trees to aspect and climatic variations that the flow of sap on the south and east side has been noticed to be earlier than on the north and west side of the same tree.
It is as builders or engineers that they have established their most permanent records, Makran being full of the relics of their irrigation works constructed in times when the climatic conditions of Baluchistan must have been very different from what they are now.
Extensive changes have taken place in the climatic condition of the country - changes which are some of them so recent as to be noted by surveyors who have found the remains of forests Climate.
Possibly the ordinary processes of denudation and erosion, acting on those recent deposits which overlie the harder beds of the older series, may have much to say to these climatic changes, and the wanton destruction of forests may have assisted the efforts of nature; but it is difficult to understand the widespread desiccation of large areas of the Baluch highlands, where evidences of Arab irrigation works and of cultivation still attest to a once flourishing agricultural condition, without appealing to more rapidly destructive principles for the change.
It is probably to climatic changes (whatever their origin may have been), rather than to the effects of tribal disturbances, that the Arab's disappearance from the field of trade and agriculture must be attributed.
North of Bhutan, between the Himalayan crest and Lhasa, this formation is approximately maintained; farther east, although the same natural forces first resulted in the same effect of successive folds of the earth's crust, forming extensive curves of ridge and furrow, the abundant rainfall and the totally distinct climatic conditions which govern the processes of denudation subsequently led to the erosion of deeper valleys enclosed between forest-covered ranges which rise steeply from the river banks.
The great mass of the Himalaya exhibits the same structure, due to the same conditions acting for longer periods and on a much larger scale; but the structure is varied in the eastern portions of the mountains by the effect of different climatic conditions, and especially by the greater rainfall.
This vertical arrangement of climatic zones is modified to some extent (less than in Argentina) by varying rainfall conditions, which are governed by the high mountain ranges crossing one corner of the republic, and also by the prevailing winds.
The natives designate the Bolivian climatic zones as yungas, valle or medio yungas, cabezera de valle, puna and puna brava.
Owing to the diversities in altitude the flora of Bolivia represents every climatic zone, from the scanty Arctic vegetation of the lofty Cordilleras to the luxuriant tropical forests of the Amazon basin.
The remaining native tribes under the supervision of the state have made little progress, and their number is said to be decreasing (notwithstanding the favourable climatic conditions under which most of them live) because of unsanitary and intemperate habits, and for other causes not well understood, one being the custom noticed by early travellers among some of the tribes of the La Plata region of avoiding the rearing of children.
The climatic conditions are highly favourable for this product in eastern Bolivia, but it is heavily taxed and is restricted to a small home market.
The great difference between absolute and sensible temperature is a very important climatic characteristic of Arizona.
The cause of the climatic variations which brought about this complex history of the Salt Lake region is not known; but it is worthy of note that the periods of highest water levels were coincident with a great expansion of local valley glaciers, some of which terminated in the waters of lake Bonneville.
The three geographical regions above described constitute three distinct climatic divisions.
The tableland is a distinct climatic region.
From the Channel and Scilly Islands, vegetables, especially seasonable vegetables, and also flowers which, owing to the peculiar climatic conditions of these islands, come early to perfection, are imported to the London market.
Hence the term is extended to signify the fall of such drops in a shower, and in the plural, "the rains," it signifies the rainy seasons in India and elsewhere where under normal climatic conditions such seasons are clearly distinguished from the dry.
of the Yukon basin climatic conditions are much less uniform.
Climatic differences cannot account for the treeless condition of the country W.
Some species, such as Poa stricta, are known only in this viviparous condition; others, like our British species Festuca ovina, and Poa alpina, become viviparous under the special climatic. conditions.
The principal climatic cause influencing the number of graminaceous species appears to be amount of moisture.
Climate.-On account of its great diversity in topography, the state of Utah is characterized by a wide range in climatic conditions.
The elevated plateaus and summits of the Andes are responsible, however, for many important and profound modifications in climate, not only in respect to the lower temperatures of the higher elevations, but also in respect to the higher temperatures of the sheltered lowland valleys and the varying climatic conditions of the neighbouring plains.
These lowland plains and valleys comprise the climatic tropical zone of Colombia, which is characterized by high temperatures, and by excessive humidity and dense forests, an exception to the last-named characteristic being the open llanos where dry summers prevail.
There is no satisfactory record of temperatures and rainfall in these widely different climatic zones from which correct averages can be drawn and compared.
The Colombian flora is richer in species and individual characteristics than the fauna, owing in part to its greater dependence on climatic conditions.
STARNBERG, a village and climatic health resort of Germany, in the kingdom of Bavaria, on the Starnberger See, 16 m.
It has been suggested that the presence of the remains of these animals indicates a communication to the north with the Arctic Ocean; but in view of the severe climatic conditions still prevailing at the time, this seems an unnecessary assumption.
The climate is in winter inclement in the higher elevations, and, as the snow lies deep until the spring, the range is largely frequented by devotees of winter sport, ski, toboganning, &c. In summer the air is bracing, and many climatic health resorts have sprung into existence, among which may be mentioned Kipsdorf, Barenfels and Oberwiesenthal.
paramount importance of ascertaining by experiment, not only what are the best varieties, but which are the best adapted for particular localities and particular climatic conditions.
Barcelona can be divided into three climatic zones; a temperate one near the sea, where even palm and orange trees grow; a colder one in the valleys and plains, more inland; and a colder still among the mountains, where not a few peaks are snow-clad for a great part of the year.
There can be little doubt that this absorption softened and enriched the Serbo-Croatian dialects, a process to which climatic conditions and intercourse with Italy also contributed, until Serbo-Croatian became one of the richest and most melodious of Slavonic languages.
To sum up, then, while the main structural features of Ireland were impressed upon her before the opening of the Mesozoic era, her present outline and superficial contours date from an epoch of climatic and geographical change which falls within the human period.
At the base are found vines and maize; on the lower slopes are green pastures, or wheat, barley and other kinds of corn; above are often forests of oak, ash, elm, &c.; and still higher the yew and the fir may be seen braving the climatic conditions.
The most important climatic differences are due to variations in the amount of rainfall.
This is especially the case in the lower and moister regions, such as the west coast, where malarial fever is very prevalent and deadly; the most unfavourable factors being humidity with absence of climatic variation (daily or seasonal).
In various regions, especially in France and Italy, great quantities of ice form in caves, which, in virtue of their depth below the earth's surface, their height above the sea-level, or their exposure to suitable winds, or to two or more of these conditions in combination, are unaffected by ordinary climatic changes, so that the mean annual temperature is sufficiently low to ensure the permanency of the ice.
Spain max be divided botanically into four provinces, corresponding to the four climatic zones.
In England also, some bee-keepers include queen-rearing as part of their business, while one large apiary on the south coast is exclusively devoted to the rearing of queen bees on the latest scientific system, and to breeding by selection from such races as are most suited to the exceptional climatic conditions of the country.
In the United Kingdom the prevailing conditions, climatic A, Flower, magnified twice.
Amid the different climatic conditions of so vast a continent as America, variation in size, and in the capacity of frames used, is in some measure accounted for.
The bee industry prospers greatly in America, where amid the vast stretches of mountain and canyon in California the bee-forage extends for U.S.A. miles without a break, and the climatic conditions are so generally favourable as to reduce to a minimum the chances of the honey crop failing through adverse weather.
This illustrates the extraordinary homogeneity of climatic conditions.
The proof that this is due mainly to climatic influences is furnished by the fact that Mitcham lavender transplanted to France produces an oil which year by year approximates more closely in respect of its contents of linalool acetate to the product of the French plant.
We may possibly go a step farther, and assume that the climatic conditions under which the Culm plants of the Arctic regions flourished were not very different from those which prevailed in Europe, Asia, Chile and South Australia.
World-wide floras, such as seem to characterize some of the older periods, have ceased to be, and plants are distributed more markedly according to geographical provinces and in climatic zones.
There is yet no clear evidence either of climatic zones or of the existence of geographical provinces during this period.
The Neocomian flora has been collected from an area extending over about 30° of latitude; but there is little evidence of any corresponding climatic change.
We cannot yet say, however, that the deposits are exactly contemporaneous, and the great climatic variations that have taken place in the northern hemisphere during the existence of our living flora should make us hesitate to correlate too minutely from the evidence of plants alone.
The succeeding Oligocene flora appears to be more characterized by a gradual replacement of the Eocene species by allied fcrms, than by any marked change in the assemblage or in the climatic conditions.
In consequence of this peculiarity, climatic or orographic changes in Europe tend to drive animals and plants into a cul de sac, from which there is no escape; but in America similar climatic waves merely cause the species alternately to retreat and advance.
A steady decrease of temperature marked the Pliocene period throughout Europe, and gradually brought the climatic con Pliocene.
It is evident, however, that if climatic alternations, such as those just described, are part of the normal routine that has gone on through all geological periods, and are not merely confined to the latest, then such changes must evidently have had great influence on the evolution and geographical distribution both of species and of floras.
Whether this was so is a question still to be decided, for in dealing with extinct floras it is difficult to decide, except in the most general way, to what climatic conditions they point.
We seem to find indications of long-period climatic oscillations in Tertiary times, but none of the sudden invasion of an Arctic flora, like that which occurred during more recent times.
From the difference between these Kant is led to conjecture that the climatic conditions of the side of the moon turned from us must be altogether unlike those of the face presented to us.
The site is very exposed and experiences a wide range of climatic vagaries from severe winter frosts to searing summer heat.
Other items include Climatic semi-automatic air conditioning, remote central locking with alarm, electric windows and mirrors and a radio/CD player.
Good climatic datasets like Global Historic Climate Network and the UEA gridded climatology are available but must be used with some caution.
convulsed by war, plague and climatic regression.
The fourteen lines that constitute the main body of the poem have none of the prerequisites of a sonnet including the climatic couplet.
expensive to install, maintain and run, and in context of climatic change, their emissions are not environmentally friendly.
facies association is now believed to be strictly related to a distinct climatic phase.
hatching of these eggs depends on climatic conditions, reaching a peak in midsummer.
karst landforms are the result of long term geomorphological processes typical of this temperate climatic zone.
All these karst landforms are the result of long term geomorphological processes typical of this temperate climatic zone.
Dr. Kirpotin told the magazine the situation was an " ecological landslide that is probably irreversible and is undoubtedly connected to climatic warming " .
loess soil fine silt evidence of climatic change; cold dry climate.
Indications are that farming practice was essentially pastoral except during climatic optima.
Each of the target countries has experienced unusually severe climatic conditions in recent years, often with life-changing consequences.
Water shortages and droughts will also become more common as global climatic changes leave us with wetter winters and drier summers.
Climate: Owing to the varied topography, the country has diverse climatic conditions.
Gockel (37) says that the results he obtained without the cover when divided by 3 are fairly comparable with those obtained under the usual conditions; but the appropriate divisor must vary to some extent with the climatic conditions.
During rainfall, or near clouds or dust layers, the magnitude of this current might well be enormously increased; its direction would naturally vary with climatic conditions.
In the vicinity of Buenos Aires the climatic conditions vary very little from those of the pampa region; the mean annual temperature is about 63Ã‚° (maximum 104Ã‚°; minimum 32Ã‚°), and the annual rainfall is 34 in.; snow is rarely seen.
53Ã‚° to 55Ã‚°), the climatic conditions are in strong contrast to those of the north.
In reality, however, it experiences fewer climatic variations than the other great continents, owing to its distance (28Ã‚°) from the Antarctic circle and (11Ã‚°) from the equator.
Practically the whole of the territory between the 145Ã‚° meridian and the Great Dividing Range, as well as extensive tracts in the south and west, are a natural sheep pasture with climatic conditions and indigenous vegetation pre - eminently adapted for the growth of wool of the highest quality.
Breakages and abrasions due to wind, snow, lightning, and other climatic agents.
Factors connected with altitude, aspect, and exposure to winds are also climatic: such are often spoken of as physiographi cat factors.
In one sense, the accumulation of humus and peat is a biological factor, as it is related to the work of organisms in the soil; but the occurrence or otherwise of these organisms in the soil is probably related to definite edaphic and climatic conditions.
It is a familiar observation that climatic and edaphic (nature of soil) conditions exert an influence upon the form and structure of plants (see PLANTS: Ecology of).
Climatic and edaphic conditions are not, however, the only ones to affect the structure and composition of the body or its parts; other conditions are of importance, particularly the relations of the plant to animals and to other plants.
On the other hand, adaptations, especially those evoked by climatic or edaphic conditions, may only, be shown by the seedling if grown under the appropriate external conditions; here what is hereditary is not the actual adaptation, but the capacity for responding in a particular way to a certain set of external conditions.
The simplest classification is perhaps that of Drude according to climatic zones, subdivided according to continents.
The southern and eastern coastlands, owing to different climatic conditions (see infra) are very fertile.
The Neocomian flora has been collected from an area extending over about 30Ã‚° of latitude; but there is little evidence of any corresponding climatic change.
The Porton ECN site is very exposed and experiences a wide range of climatic vagaries from severe winter frosts to searing summer heat.
Solar water heaters need to be fitted by a thermal engineer who can also give advice as to the best system to use, taking into account local climatic conditions.
Changing climatic conditions threaten water, air, food, and other supplies that are essential for the preservation of all life on the planet.
Given suitable climatic conditions, they are not difficult to cultivate, for they thrive in well-drained, loamy soil, to which a little peat or leaf-mould has been added.
The climatic conditions in the British Islands are such that it is not possible to maintain, in unfavourable weather, a higher standard than that named, which is the insulation obtained when all the insulators are in perfect condition and only the normal leakage, due to moisture, is present.
The types of vegetation (tropical forests, sclerophyllous forest, temperate forests, tundra, &c.) thus briefly outlined are groups of Schimpers climatic formations.
As Clement Reid remarked: World-wide floras, such as seem to characterize some of the older periods, have ceased to be, and plants are distributed more markedly according to geographical provinces and in climatic zones.
West and north of the Drakensberg the general level of the low veld is not much below that of the lowest altitudes of the middle veld, though the climatic 1 By the Boers the western and less elevated part of the plateau is known as the middle veld.
The flora of Venezuela covers a wide range because of the vertical climatic zones.
Given suitable climatic conditions, the type of tobacco produced is determined mainly by the soil, and particularly by its mechanical or physical condition.
under the same climatic conditions, quite different kinds of tobacco may be produced in direct relation to the character of the soil.
Tobacco being cultivated over such a large area of the world, under very varying climatic conditions, and by many different races of mankind, the methods employed in its production naturally differ very considerably.
Since 1846 Reichenhall has become one of the most fashionable spas and climatic health resorts in Germany, and it is now visited annually by about ten thousand patients, besides many thousand passing tourists.
Climatic agencies have smoothed and modified everything rugged or abrupt, until an impression of gentle undulation rather than of grandeur is suggested.
Its position affords the best illustration of the warm climatic influence of the north-eastward Atlantic drift, the mean annual temperature being 36° F.
above the city, lies the village of Loschwitz, where Schiller, in the summer of 1786, wrote the greater part of his Don Carlos: above it on the fringe of the Dresdner Heide, the climatic health resort Weisser-Hirsch; farther up the river towards Pirna the royal summer palace Pillnitz; to the south the Plauensche Grund, and still farther the Rabenauer Grund.
The climatic conditions are hence extremely diversified.
Towards the close of the 19th century William Hillebrand found 365 genera and 999 species, and of this number of species 653 were peculiar to this part of the Pacific. The number of species is greatest on the older islands, particularly Kauai and Oahu, and the total number for the group has been constantly increasing, some being introduced, others possibly being produced by the varying climatic conditions from those already existing.
It is also a climatic health resort of some reputation, and the visitors number about 850o annually.
The Falkland Islands correspond very nearly in latitude in the southern hemisphere with London in the northern, but the climatic influences are very different.
Even were certainty as to these alternatives attained, we could only guess at the average rate of accumulation, which experience shows to proceed very differently on different sites and under different social and climatic conditions.
Under normal conditions in warm climates many of the species are perennials, but, in the United States for example, climatic conditions necessitate the plants being renewed annually, and even in the tropics it is often found advisable to treat them as annuals to ensure the production of cotton of the best quality, to facilitate cultural operations, and to keep insect and fungoid pests in check.
Reports are constantly forwarded by Meteoroio~ telegraph to the central observatory in Tokyo, which issues daily statements of the climatic conditions during the previous twenty-four hours, as well as forecasts for the next twenty-four.
Its position affords the best illustration of the warm climatic influence of the north-eastward Atlantic drift, the mean annual temperature being 36Ã‚° F.
On a smaller scale are the local adaptive radiations which occur through segregation of habit and local isolation in the same general geographic region wherever physiographic and climatic differences are sufficient to produce local differences in food supply or other local factors of change.
along the parallel of 33Ã‚° N., and arrests the monsoon currents), is subject to much the same climatic influences as the eastern Himalaya.
A considerable number of species, European and exotic, seem to be endemic, but further research will no doubt show that most of them occur in other climatic regions similar to those in which they have hitherto alone been detected.
Egtfally great gaps, however, may exist between males and females, between climatic phases or summer and winter forms. The attempt to find a physiological criterion has similarly failed; many forms that have been universally accepted as true species produce fertile hybrids (see Hybridism).
Their course, owing to the complex orography of the state, is necessarily extremely irregular, and few climatic generalizations can be made.
As a matter of fact, he was personally in favour of insisting upon 54 40' as the boundary in Oregon, and threw upon Congress the responsibility for accepting 49Ã‚° as the boundary, and he approved the acquisition of California, Utah and New Mexico, territory from which slavery was excluded by geographical and climatic conditions.
Halesia Hispida - The best examples of the tree I know of are in the neighborhood of Cork and Queenstown, but mild climatic conditions such as they exist under there are not essential to their well-being.
There is such an enormous variety of heirloom tomatoes, you should be able to find a type that suits your needs no matter what climatic zone you live in or whether you are looking for slicing, novelty, cherry or paste tomatoes.
Terroir is a French that term refers to the soil and climatic conditions of the geographic regions in which the wine grapes are grown.
Given these climatic factors, the benchmark variety, Semillon, is made in a very particular method.
For residents of Atlanta, laser hair removal is more than a cosmetic nicety: it is a climatic necessity.
Lack of expression: School years are the climatic point of finding one's identity.
There are battles with the senate, battles in space, battles to retake the planet, and of course, a climatic battle in which Lucas expects the viewer to be able to divide their attention between four on-going conflicts simultaneously.
Climatic factors include all those relating to atmospheric temperature, rainfall, atmospheric humidity, and light and shade.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.