How to use Clerical in a sentence
Until I'm certified, I'll do clerical jobs and help out.
I charge him for the office space and clerical help but we operate independently.
Plotting was rife at Milan, as also at Bologna, where the memory of old liberties predisposed men to cast off clerical rule and led to the first rising on behalf of Italian liberty in the year 1794.
From the first the Crusade, however clerical in its conception, was largely secular in its conduct; and thus, somewhat paradoxically, a religious enterprise aided the growth of the secular motive, and contributed to the escape of the laity from that tendency towards a papal theocracy, which was evident in the pontificate of Gregory VII.
The church courts could not indeed decide cases of perjury; but, on the other hand, they tried all matters in which clerical property was concerned, and all cases of dispute between husband and wife.Advertisement
As a statesman he did something to uphold the traditional ideal of his office; as a primate he elevated the standards of clerical discipline and education.
In 1102 a national synod at Westminster under Anselm adopted canons against simony, clerical marriages and slavery.
A man of literary taste and culture, familiar with the classics, a facile writer of Latin verses' as well as of Ciceronian prose, he was as anxious that the Roman clergy should unite human science and literature with their theological studies as that the laity should be educated in the principles of religion; and to this end he established in Rome a kind of voluntary school board, with members both lay and clerical; and the rivalry of the schools thus founded ultimately obliged the state to include religious teaching in its curriculum.
In September 1784 Wesley ordained his clerical helper, Dr Coke, superintendent (or bishop), and instructed him to ordain Asbury as his colleague.
His friendship with Radicati, a man of liberal opinions, occasioned Frisi's removal by his clerical superiors to Novara, where he was compelled to do duty as a preacher.Advertisement
By the Clerical Subscription Act 1865 a declaration was substituted for the oath, and a new canon incorporating the alteration was ratified by the crown in 1866.
After filling clerical posts in Leipzig, he became Prediger (preacher) in Vienna in 1856.
The physically delicate boy was put into the ecclesiastical school of St Dizier, without any intention of a clerical career; but he decided for the priesthood, and in 1874 entered the Grand Seminaire of Chalons-sur-Marne.
The continued opposition of the clerical party, however, brought about his resignation on the 22nd of December 1894, when he was succeeded by Banffy.
He appears to have been a firm supporter of law and order, an enemy of clerical abuses and a careful administrator of his diocese.Advertisement
Princess Isabella was charitable in many ways, always ready to take her full share of the duties falling upon her as the future empress, and thoroughly realizing the responsibilities of her position; but she was greatly influenced by the clerical party and the priesthood, and she thereby incurred the hostility of the Progressives.
There were also other minor orders in the ancient church which have fallen into oblivion or lost their clerical character.
So firmly rooted in the land was this practice, that Coloman, much as he needed the assistance of the Holy See in his foreign policy, was only with the utmost difficulty induced, in 1106, to bring the Hungarian church into line with the rest of the Catholic world by enforcing clerical celibacy.
It was still, however, essentially an assembly of notables, lay and clerical, at which the gentry, though technically eligible, do not seem to have been directly represented.
The plan, concerted by Kossuth and Apponyi, with the approval of Baron Aehrenthal, was to carry on a modified coalition government with the aid of the Andrassy Liberals, the National party, the Clerical People's party 2 and the Independence party, on a basis of suffrage reform with plural franchise, the 2 The People's party first emerged during the elections of 1896, when it contested 98 seats.Advertisement
He was defeated by a combination of the Kossuthists, Andrássy Liberals and Clerical People's party, the 30 Croatian deputies, whose vote might have turned the election, abstaining on Dr Wekerle promising them to deliver Croatia from the oppressive rule of the ban, Baron Rauch.
Meanwhile the newly constituted " Party of Right," resting upon a narrow Catholic clerical basis, aimed at the reunion of Dalmatia with CroatiaSlavonia in the so-called Triune Kingdom, within whose bounds it affected to deny the very existence of Serbs.
The Trialist solution (which would have united the Yugoslav provinces of Austria-Hungary in a third state enjoying equality with the two existing partners) rapidly lost popularity, even among the clerical parties, which had been attracted by the prospect of Catholic predominance in such a State.
He was educated at Geneva, but, preferring an army career to a clerical one, went to Lisbon and enlisted.
He continued attached to the regiment till 1 754, when, disappointed at not obtaining a living, he abandoned the clerical profession and resolved to devote himself to literary pursuits.Advertisement
This change became gradually more apparent in his preaching and in his conferences with his clerical associates, and occasioned much controversy in the ecclesiastical courts where, however, he successfully defended his position.
In their new environment the Nestorians abandoned some of the rigour of Catholic asceticism, and at a synod held in 499 abolished clerical celibacy even for bishops and went so far as to permit repeated marriages, in striking contrast not only to orthodox custom but to the practice of Aphraates at Edessa who had advocated celibacy as a condition of baptism.
In 1762, at the age of eighteen, he went up to Konigsberg with the intention of studying medicine, but finding himself unequal to the operations of the dissecting-room, he abandoned this object, and, by the help of one or two friends and his own self-supporting labours, followed out his earlier idea of the clerical profession by joining the university.
Here he became acquainted with many of the savants of the capital, and was much interested in French clerical affairs.
Elected pope on the 29th of May 1724, he attempted to reform clerical morals; but neither the decrees of the Latin council (1725) nor his personal precepts had much effect.
There are an episcopal lyceum, a clerical seminary, a classical and a modern school, and numerous religious houses.
The grand-duke is a Protestant; under him the Evangelical Church is governed by a nominated council and a synod consisting of the " prelate," 48 elected, and 7 nominated lay and clerical members.
The Rassegna nazionale, conducted by the marchese Manfredo di Passano, a chief of the moderate clerical party, the Nuova rivista of Turin, the Fanfulla della Domenica, and the Gazzetta letteraria may also be mentioned.
This, however, he resigned in 1832, his thoughts having been turned towards a clerical career under Evangelical influences, which affected him deeply throughout life.
During the eight years of his life at Bayswater he was most active in all the duties of the priesthood, preaching, hearing confessions, and receiving converts; and he was notably zealous to promote in England all that was specially Roman and papal, thus giving offence to old-fashioned Catholics, both clerical and lay, many of whom were largely influenced by Gallican ideas, and had with difficulty accepted the restoration of the hierarchy in 1850.
He began life in the clerical career, which he left, at the age of twenty-three, when he had attained the rank of muderris.
The disciplinary question of clerical marriage is not of the same primary importance as the doctrinal questions involved in the restoration of the cup to the laity, or discussed in the subsequent article on the mass.
A clerical reaction followed against new progressive ideas and English methods of development.
Sir Lintorn Simmons was appointed envoy to the Holy See, to ascertain how far legislation might be pushed in the direction of civil marriage without justifying clerical agitation and obstruction in the council.
In 1371 a clerical ministry was driven from office, and replaced by laymen, who proved, however, less effective administrators than their predecessors.
Upon the bishop having satisfied himself of the sufficiency of the clerk, he proceeds to institute him to the spiritual office to which the benefice is annexed, but before such institution can take place, the clerk is required to make a declaration of assent to the Thirty-nine Articles of Religion and to the Book of Common Prayer according to a form prescribed in the Clerical Subscription Act 1865, to make a declaration against simony in accordance with that act, and to take and subscribe the oath of allegiance according to the form in the Promissory Oaths Act 1868.
In April 1850 he concluded a treaty with Austria sanctioning the continuation for an indefinite period of the Austrian occupation with 10,000 men; in September he dismissed parliament, and the following year established a concordat with the Church of a very clerical character.
Bavarian For clerical accounts of Charles's voyage to the Holy Land see the Chronicon (c. 968) of Benedict, a monk of St Andre, and Descriptio qualiter Karolus Magnus clavum et coronam Domini.
The educational establishments include two gymnasia, an episcopal clerical seminary, a seminary for boys and a school of church music. Among the chief manufactures are iron and steel wares, pottery, parquet flooring, tobacco, and lead pencils.
In 1408, however, the clergy of the city and archiepiscopal diocese of Prague laid before the archbishop a formal complaint against Huss, arising out of strong expressions with regard to clerical abuses of which he had made use in his public discourses; and the result was that, having been first deprived of his appointment as synodal preacher, he was, after a vain attempt to defend himself in writing, publicly forbidden the exercise of any priestly function throughout the diocese.
It was a dangerous triumph for Huss; for his popularity at court and in the general community had been secured only at the price of clerical antipathy everywhere and of much German ill-will.
The old marshal vainly endeavoured to keep his own, Progressists within bounds in the Cortes of 1854-1856, and in the great towns, but their excessive demands for reforms and liberties played into the hands of a clerical and reactionary court and of the equally retrograde governing classes.
Debarred from election to the second National Assembly (known as the Legislative) by the self-denying ordinance passed by the "constituents," Talleyrand, at the close of 1791, sought to enter the sphere of diplomacy for which his mental qualities and his clerical training furnished him with an admirable equipment.
About 1200 a collection of fables in Latin prose, based partly on Romulus, was made by the Cistercian monk Odo of Sherrington; they have a strong medieval and clerical tinge.
Next day, Carlstadt, who had laid aside his clerical robes, dispensed the Lord's Supper in the " evangelical fashion."
Almost all state employees are under civil service rules; the same is true of the city of Boston; and of the clerical, stenographic, prison, police, civil engineering, fire, labourforeman, inspection and bridge tender services of all cities; and under a law (1894) by which cities and towns may on petition enlarge the application of their civil service rules.
He showed great zeal in enforcing the Hildebrandine policy as to clerical celibacy, and was planning the expulsion of the Normans from Italy and the elevation of his brother to the imperial throne when he was seized by a severe illness.
As the standard of clerical education sank during the dark ages, the habit of using the sermons of others became almost universal.
Darboy (Paris, 1888), biographies written from the clerical standpoint, which have called forth a number of pamphlets in reply.
The teachers of these new opinions were men of high character and holy lives, who in spite of persecution wandered from place to place, and made many converts from those who were dissatisfied at the want of clerical discipline which followed upon the struggle for temporal supremacy into which the reforming projects of Gregory VII.
Clerical celibacy was their rule, but they admit that it created grave disorders.
In contrast to both of these, which in different ways express the principle of clerical or official authority, Congregationalism represents the principle of democracy in religion.
So viewed, Congregationalism is essentially a " high church" theory, as distinct from a high clerical one.
The central idea was the sanctity of the church-members as such, rather than of the ministry as a clerical order.
But the view was very soon adopted, and since has universally prevailed, that a minister in such cases still retains his clerical character.
This loss of clerical prestige has been due in no small degree to the increasing habit of dispensing with a form of installation, and of substituting for a permanent pastorate, instituted with the advice and consent of a council, an engagement to serve as a minister for a fixed term of one or more years.
Eugenius was the candidate of the nobles, and the clerical faction brought forward a competitor.
In 1895 a case of clerical interference in the internal affairs of Hungary by the nuncio Agliardi aroused a strong protest in the Hungarian parliament, and consequent differences between Banffy, the Hungarian minister, and the minister for foreign affairs led to Kaln6ky's resignation.
Political differences soon interfered with his work; as an adherent of Prussia and a Protestant, especially as a militant champion against the Ultramontanes, he was from the first an object of suspicion to the Clerical party.
In two pamphlets, by an analysis of the teaching of the Socialists and a survey of Clerical policy during the 19th century, he explained and justified his opinions.
Roman Catholics support about 150 clerical day schools attended by about 11,500 scholars.
They resembled the monks in so far as they lived in community and took religious vows; but their state of life remained essentially clerical, and as clerics their duty was to undertake the pastoral care and serve the parish churches in their patronage.
Failing to find clerical duties at that time (the period of the Terror), he entered civil life, and served in various capacities, until on the appointment of Napoleon Bonaparte to the command of the French "Army of Italy" he became a commissary attached to that army.
Thereafter, when the restoration of the Roman Catholic religion was in the mind of the First Consul, Fesch resumed his clerical vocation and took an active part in the complex negotiations which led to the signing of the Concordat with the Holy See on the 15th of July 1801.
The crime of "plurality," the holding by one cleric of two or more benefices, was especially attacked, as also clerical absenteeism and ignorance, and laxity in the monastic life.
Hence the attempts to train its growing manhood in clerically regulated boarding-schools and to keep it shut out from the external world in clerical seminaries, even in places where there are universities.
A strong anti-clerical prejudice is manifest in his historical work generally, and is doubtless the result of the change in his views on Church matters and his abandonment of the clerical profession.
He left none of the usual legacies for masses or other clerical purposes, and was not attended by any priest or confessor in his last moments.
As he loathed fish, so he loathed clerical fanaticism.
At twenty-one he decided on a clerical career and entered St Mary's Hall, Oxford, where he exercised a remarkable influence over his fellow-undergraduates.
With the growth of clerical sacerdotalism the higher standard was demanded also of the clergy, and the principle came to be generally recognized that they should live the monastic life so far as was consistent with their active duties in the world.
The chief manifestation of this was clerical celibacy, which had become widespread already in the 4th century.
In connexion with the sacraments grew up also the theory of clerical sacerdotalism.
The combination of this idea with that of clerical sacerdotalism completed the Catholic theory of the Church and the clergy.
The bishop alone possessed the right to ordain; through him alone could be derived the requisite clerical grace; and so the clergy like the laity were completely dependent upon him.
The endowments for church purposes, of which there are many, and which are destined to the support of foreign missions, clerical pensions, supply of books to the clergy, &c. are administered by the supreme council.
In Sweden they preside over local consistories composed of clerical and lay members.
At the diet of 151o the chancellor and primate, Adam Laski, proposed an income-tax of 50% at once, and 5% for subsequent years, payable by both the lay and clerical estates.
The Polish gentry's jealousy of the clerical estate, whose privileges even exceeded their own, was at the bottom of the whole matter.
This at once led to an explosion, and at the diet of Piotrkow, 1J52, the szlachta accepted a proposition of the king, by way of compromise, that the jurisdiction of the clerical courts should be suspended for twelve months, on condition that the gentry continued to pay tithes as heretofore.
Puttkammer was the chosen instrument of the Clerical Conservative policy initiated by Bismarck when the Socialist peril made it expedient to conciliate the Catholic Centre.
The strictly enforced episcopal constitution, the creation of a clerical order, and the formation of the New Testament canon accomplished the overthrow of the prophets.
Not only so, but, when greater strictness of rule and of enclosure seemed the most needful reforms in communities that had become too secular in tone, the proposal of Ignatius, to make it a first principle that the members of his institute should mix freely in the world and be as little marked off as possible externally from secular clerical life and usages, ran counter to all tradition and prejudice, save that Cara.ffa's then recent order of Theatines, which had some analogy with the proposed Society, had taken some steps in the same direction.
Subsequent legislation removed clerical influence from public instruction, made marriage a civil ceremony and closed all conventual establishments.
There were unsuccessful insurrections also in 1869 (clerical) and 1870 (republican), but an amnesty, passed on the 13th of October 1870, helped to restore peace; trouble again arose, however, at the 1871 election, at which the candidates were Juarez, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada and Diaz.
On the 10th of March 1575, an assembly of notables, lay and clerical, at John's request, pronounced a formal sentence of death upon him.
Much later than this, however, it was still an article of everyday clerical dress, and as such was prescribed by the German council convened by Carloman and presided over by St Bonif ace in 742.
He was educated at the famous cathedral school at Magdeburg, and at the age of twenty was attached to the clerical household of the emperor Otto III.
The hearing extended from 17th to 10th July; counsel were heard on both sides, evidence was given in support of the appeals by two of the clergy concerned and by several other witnesses, lay and clerical, and the whole matter was gone into with no little fulness.
During the rest of his rule, which lasted till his death in April 1865, he continued to act in concert with the Clerical party, and endeavoured to maintain friendly relations with the European governments.
Here he worked diligently at practical reforms, being specially anxious to raise the standard of clerical life and work.
Notwithstanding that Quebec was almost solidly Roman Catholic the Rouges sternly resisted clerical pressure; they appealed to the courts and had certain elections voided on the ground of undue clerical influence, and at length persuaded the pope to send out a delegate to Canada, through whose inquiry into the circumstances the abuses were checked and the zeal of the ultramontanes restrained.
Lingard wrote The Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church (1806), of which a third and greatly enlarged addition appeared in 1845 under the title The History and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church; containing an account of its origin, government, doctrines, worship, revenues, and clerical and monastic institutions; but the work with which his name is chiefly associated is A History of England, from the first invasion by the Romans to the commencement of the reign of William III., which appeared originally in 8 vols.
He is assisted by a permanent and a parliamentary undersecretary and a considerable clerical staff.
William of Tyre was once astonished to find him questioning, on a bed of sickness, the resurrection of the body; and his taxation of clerical goods gave umbrage to the clergy generally.
From dreams of clerical celibacy he was roused by making acquaintance with the family of John Colt of New Hall, in Essex.
The clerical opposition was led by the very popular the Papac apac to and influential Minorites who were at that time the y.
These aggressions of monarchy and the episcopate were rendered vain, outside the Habsburg dominions, by the revolution; and to the Habsburg dominions the clerical revolution of 1790 caused the loss of what is to-day Belgium.
As the catspaw of clerical reaction he had also to acquiesce in that " Roman campaign at home " that resulted in the Falloux Act of 1850, which in the name of liberty of education put the university in bondage lil.
Among the more stable governments of Europe reaction in favour of conservatism and religion after 1848 was used by clerical parties to obtain concordats more systematic and thoroughgoing than had been concluded even after 1814.
Torn from Austria by the clerical revolution of 1790, after many vicissitudes it was united in 1815 with Holland and placed under the rule of the Protestant William I., king of the United Netherlands.
Each judge has an auxiliary; to the tribunal are attached a promotor fiscalis, charged with the duty of securing the due application of the law, and an official charged with the defence of marriage and ordination; there is also a clerical staff (notaries, scribes) attached to the court.
At Salem he was a member of the congregation of Roger Williams, whom he resolutely defended in his trouble with the New England clerical hierarchy, and excited by Williams's teachings, cut the cross of St George from the English flag in token of his hatred of all symbols of Romanism.
He was bitterly disappointed that Becket, on whom he bestowed the primacy, left vacant by the death of Theobald (1162), at once became the champion of clerical privilege; he and the archbishop were no longer on speaking terms when the Constitutions of Clarendon came up for debate.
On the 3rd of May Lady Jane Gordon, who had become countess of Bothwell on the 22nd of February of the year preceding, obtained, on the ground of her husband's infidelities, a separation which, however, would not under the old laws of Catholic Scotland have left him free to marry again; on the 7th, accordingly, the necessary divorce was pronounced, after two days' session, by a clerical tribunal which ten days before had received from the queen a special commission to give judgment on a plea of somewhat apocryphal consanguinity alleged by Bothwell as the ground of an action for divorce against his wife.
The neighbouring duchy of Carinthia, the great temporal possessions of the archbishop of Salzburg, as well as a general tendency to independence on the part of both clerical and lay nobles, were additional forces of similar influence.
Maximilian himself was an "enlightened" prince of the 18th-century type, whose tolerant principles had already grievously offended his clerical subjects; Montgelas was a firm believer in drastic reform "from above," and, in 1803, had discussed with the rump of the old estates the question of reforms. But the revolutionary changes introduced by the constitution proclaimed on the 1st of May 1808 were due to the direct influence of Napoleon.
The collapse of this regime was due, not to popular agitation, but to the resentment of Louis at the clerical opposition to the influence of his mistress, Lola Montez.
Each van missioner has a clerical "adviser."
In case of refusal of one presentee, a lay patron may present another, and a clerical patron may do so after an unsuccessful appeal against the refusal.
Half his time was taken up in travelling from one end of the kingdom to the other, and doing purely clerical work for want of competent assistance.
The establishment under the auspices of the king in 1825 of the Philosophical College at Louvain, and the requirement that every priest before ordination should spend two years in study there, gave great offence to the clerical party, and some of the bishops were prosecuted for the violence of their denunciations at this intrusion of the secular arm into the religious domain.
With the view of terminating these differences the king in 1827 entered into a concordat with the pope, and an agreement was reached with regard to nominations to bishoprics, clerical education and other questions, which should have satisfied all reasonable men.
From 1884 up to the present time the clerical party have maintained their supremacy.
Under this law in all districts under clerical control the unsectarian schools were abolished.
It drives home the sense of clerical responsibility with extraordinary power.
It was not until the 4th of May 1877, when the peril from reactionary intrigues was notorious, and the clerical party had begun a campaign for the restoration of the temporal power of the pope, that he delivered his famous speech denouncing "clericalism" as "the enemy."
On the 16th of May Marshal MacMahon, in order to support the clerical reactionaries, perpetrated his parliamentary coup d'etat, and on the 15th of August Gambetta, in a speech at Lille, gave him the alternative se soumettre ou se demettre.
But canons regular were in virtue of their origin essentially clerics, and their common life, monastery, rule, and the rest, were something additional grafted on to their proper clerical state.
Lastly, in regard to the object aimed at there was an important difference, for the professed object of the friars was to be clerical helpers of the parochial clergy in meeting the specifically religious needs of the time.
His attempts to reform certain abuses of the Church, especially that of clerical nonresidence, awakened much ill-will, and of this the Jacobites took advantage, pursuing him to the end of his life with insult and reproach.
It must be distinguished from the Kolnische Volkszeitung, which is the organ of the Clerical party in the Prussian Rhine provinces.
He received no clerical promotion from Henry II., but Richard I.
The princes clerical and lay were fighting against each other, and the Bavarians were at war with the Hungarians, who gained a great victory in 1146.
In May 1165 Frederick held a diet at Wurzburg, where the princes lay and clerical swore to be faithful to Paschal and never to recognize Alexander.
On the 24th of February 1880 the pope, in a letter to the ex-archbishop of Cologne, said he was willing to allow clerical appointments to be notified if the government withdrew the obnoxious laws.
As the preservation of the smaller middle class seemed to be important as a bulwark against Socialism, they won the support of the Conservative and Clerical parties, and lawsinspiredby them were passed in Bavaria, Wurttemberg and Prussia.
These Clerical amendments aroused a strong feeling of indignation.
From 1820 to 1822 he was in the clerical seminary at Wittenberg.
This post he exchanged in 1828 for a professorship in the Wittenberg theological seminary, of which in 1832 he became also second director and ephorus, and hence in 1837 he removed to Heidelberg as professor and director of a new clerical seminary; in 1849 he accepted an invitation to Bonn as professor and university preacher, but in 1854 he returned to Heidelberg as professor of theology, and afterwards became member of the 'Oberkirchenrath, a position he held until his death on the 10th of August 1867.
The English church also formed a quasi-official clerical oligarchy, and the land reserved by the Constitutional Act for the support of "a protestant clergy" formed a fruitful source of bitterness.
His clerical character was now completely dropped.
In the rural districts the clergy had much influence; they were supported by the peasants, and the diets of Tirol and Vorarlberg, where there was a clerical majority, refused to carry out the school law.
He was not himself a party man; he had sat in a Liberal government; he had never assented to the principles of the Federalists, nor was he an adherent of the Clerical party.
Both the new Clerical Club and the remainder of the Conservatives were much affected by the reaction against the doctrines of economic Liberalism.
This " Los von Rom " movement, which was caused by the continued alliance of the Clerical party with the Slav parties, is more of the nature of a political demonstration than of a religious movement.
The Young Czechs could not take their place; their Radical and anti-clerical tendencies alarmed the Feudalists and Clericalists who formed so large a part of the Right; they attacked the alliance with Germany; they made public demonstration of their French sympathies; they entered into communication with other Slav races, especially the Serbs of Hungary and Bosnia; they demanded universal suffrage, and occasionally supported the German Radicals in their opposition to the Clerical parties, especially in educational matters; under their influence disorder increased in Bohemia, a secret society called the Umladina (an imitation of the Servian society of that name) was discovered, and stringent measures had to be taken to preserve order.
The next day, when the sitting began, one of the ministers, Count Falkenhayn, a Clerical who was very unpopular, moved " That any member who continued to disturb a sitting after being twice called to order could be suspended - for three days by the president, and for thirty days by the House."
Serious disorders took place in Vienna and in Graz; the German opposition had the support of the people, and Lueger warned the ministers that as burgomaster he would be unable to maintain order in Vienna; even the Clerical Germans showed signs of deserting the government.
Thus Germans were obliged to vote for Germans and Czechs for Czechs; and, though there might be victories of Clerical over Liberal Germans or of Czech Radicals over Young Czechs, there could be no victories of Czechs over Germans, Poles over Ruthenes, or Slovenes over Italians.
Serbs Slovene Liberals Italians Clerical Populists Liberals..
In the new parliament, as in the previous session, he opposed legislation restricting the hours of labour, and, as a Nonconformist, spoke against clerical control of national education.
Slight clerical errors there may have been, but the Koran of Othman contains none but genuine elements - though sometimes in very strange order.
Numerous Danes, lay as well as clerical, regularly frequented the university of Paris.
In the postal censorship, exclusive of clerical and post-office employees, a staff of 5,500 was employed comprising 3,451 women and persons with a knowledge of almost every foreign language.
As the result of negotiations and preparations extending over five years, 250 bishops, together with delegates, clerical and lay, from every diocese in the Anglican communion, met in London, the opening service of intercession being held in Westminster Abbey.
In the Roman Catholic Church the word is also applied to the renunciation of monastic vows (apostasis a monachatu), and to the abandonment of the clerical profession for the life of the world (apostasis a clericatu).
About this time Gloucester made another attempt to deprive Beaufort of his see, and it was argued in the council that as a cardinal he could not hold an English bishopric. The general council was not inclined to press the case against him; but the privy council, more clerical and more hostile, sealed writs of praemunire and attachment against him, and some of his jewels were seized.
He submitted to various eminent Parisian thinkers a manuscript copy of the Meditations, and defended its orthodoxy against numerous clerical critics.
On the support of the laity Henry relied to abolish papal jurisdiction and reduce clerical privilege and property in England; and by a close alliance with Francis I.
In March 1291 he ordered search to be made for documents bearing on his claims in the English clerical libraries, and summoned his northern feudal levies to meet him at Norham on Tweed, fully armed, in June.
He instantly arrested Murdoch, son of Albany, and Fleming of Cumbernauld, met parliament, dismissed it, retaining a committee (" the Lords of the Articles "), and took measures with landlords, who must display their charters; appointed an inquest into lay and clerical property; and imposed taxes to defray his ransom.
James (1536) was willing enough to meet Henry in England, but his council, especially the clerical members, were opposed to the tryst.
The Court of Session was also to be removed, and the burgesses, fearing loss of trade, laid down their arms. The leader of the clerical agitation, Mr Bruce, with a wild preacher named Balcanquhal, fled to England, and James returned in triumph to his capital on the 1st of January 1597.
By May the chief clerical leader, Henderson of Leuchars, was denouncing Royalists as " Amalekites," and by biblical precedent Amalekites receive no quarter.
The Remonstrants, clerical and military (Guthrie and Strachan), would not support Charles while he was not " under conviction," and Strachan was excommunicated by the Resolutioners.
The Remonstrants, that is, the clerical fanatics to whom toleration was more especially abominable, are reckoned (Hume Brown) as the majority of the preachers, but exact statistics cannot be obtained.
From 1860 to 1864 academical and clerical circles were agitated by the storm which followed the publication of Essays and Reviews, a volume to which two of his most valued friends, Benjamin Jowett and Frederick Temple, had been contributors.
In 1836 he published a Letter to the Bishop of London, advocating a relaxation of the terms of clerical subscription to the Thirty-nine Articles and the Prayer-book.
He altered the constitution in a more Liberal direction, and struck various blows at the Clerical party, among other things abolishing the concordat with Rome.
In 1817 he was appointed rector of the university of Rouen, but in 1822 was removed owing to clerical influence.
It was by his advice that Newman and his companions spent some time in Rome before undertaking clerical work in England.
The king had not yet, it is true, altogether committed himself to the clerical ultras, and on the occasion of the dispute about the bishops in Prussia in the same year had taken up a wise attitude of compromise.
This was due to the king's relations with the Spanish dancer Lola Montez, who appeared in Munich in October 1846, and soon succeeded by her beauty and wit in fascinating the king, who was always susceptible to feminine charms. The political importance of this lay in the fact that the royal mistress began to use her great influence against the clerical policy of the Abel ministry.
The position was still further embittered by the fact that, owing to an indiscretion, the memorandum became known to the public. Thereupon the king, irritated and outraged, replaced Abel's Clerical ministry by a more accommodating Liberal one under Zu Rhein under which Lola Montez without more difficulty became Countess Landsberg.
Suleiman's claims to renown as a legislator rest mainly on his organization of the Ulema, or clerical class, in its hierarchical order from the Sheikh-ul-Islam downwards.
He expressed himself as being as anxious for the reformation of the clergy as Simeon for the coming of the Messiah; but while he welcomed Wolsey's never-realized promises, he was too old to accomplish much himself in the way of remedying the clerical and especially the monastic depravity, licence and corruption he deplored.
His premiership was marked by heated debates on the clerical question, and it was a hostile vote on his Bill against the religious associations that caused the fall of his cabinet.
The modification of the terms of clerical subscription (1865), the new lectionary (1871), the Burials Act (1880) were largely owing to him; for all of them, and especially the last, he incurred much obloquy at the time.
His predecessors had been men of a type half military, half clerical - at once hard fighters and sound churchmen.
In 1892 he founded the clerical fraternity known as the Community of the Resurrection.
In 1840 he was Privatdozent of theology at Tubingen, in 1847 professor of theology at Bern, in 1849 professor of theology at Marburg, migrating soon afterwards to the faculty of philosophy as the result of disputes with the Clerical party.
The sturdy Protestantism of Taylor and his flock, who seem to have caused various commotions, marked him out for the special enmity of Mary's government; and he was one of the first to suffer when in January 1 555 parliament had once more given the clerical courts liberty of jurisdiction.
In 1831 the mission question led to a rising against the reactionary clerical rule of Governor Manuel Victoria.
But each craft at the same time formed a society for social, beneficial and religious purposes, and, as these were entirely in accordance with the wishes of the clerical authorities, the other powers could not in the long run be withheld, including that of forcing all followers of any craft to join the gild (Zunftzwang).
He was educated for the church, and began his clerical career at Halberstadt, where he attained to the dignity of provost.
At Dunkeld, Crinan, the grandfather of Malcolm Canmore, was a lay abbot, and tradition says that even the clerical members were married, though like the priests of the Eastern Church, they lived apart from their wives during their term of sacerdotal service.
Of all his singular opinions the best known is his advocacy of clerical monogamy, immortalized in the Vicar of Wakefield.
Under the short-lived Second Republic (1848-52) the position of the Church grew even stronger, for the introduction of universal suffrage brought to the polls great masses of new voters strongly clerical in sympathies.
That would bar out for ever all risk of a conflict of clerical wills.
An appreciable part of the Holy Roman Empire had been in the hands of clerical rulers.
In the following year was passed an Act of Supremacy, whereby all public officials, clerical and lay, were required to acknowledge the supremacy of the queen " as well in spiritual things or causes as temporal."
In summer he sometimes took clerical work, sometimes made tours on foot through various English counties, during which he was composing poems, which afterwards took their place in the Christian Year.
In 441 a synod of sixteen bishops was held at Orange under the presidency of St Hilary of Arles, which adopted thirty canons touching the reconciliation of penitents and heretics; the ecclesiastical right of asylum, diocesan prerogatives of bishops, spiritual privileges of the defective or demoniac, the deportment of catechumens at worship, and clerical celibacy (forbidding married men to be ordained as deacons, and digamists to be advanced beyond the sub-diaconate).
Mention must be made of the Rebecca riots in1843-1844in South Wales, wherein many toll gates were destroyed by mobs of countrymen dressed in female garb, " as the daughters of Rebecca about to possess the gates of their enemies "; and the Anti-Tithe agitation of1885-1886- largely traceable to the inflammatory language used concerning clerical tithe by certain organs of the vernacular press - which led to some disorderly scenes between distraining parties of police and crowds of excited peasants in the more remote rural districts.
Indeed it was freely admitted by the most learned men of the middle ages and Renaissance that celibacy had been no rule of the apostolic church; and, though writers of ability have attempted to maintain the contrary even in modern times, their contentions are unhesitatingly rejected by the latest Roman Catholic authority.3 The gradual growth of clerical celibacy, first as a custom and then as a rule of discipline, can be traced clearly enough even through the scanty records of the first few centuries.
In northern and southern Italy public clerical marriages were extremely frequent, whether with or without regular forms. 3 The see of Rouen was held for more than a century (942-1054) by three successive bishops who were family men and two of whom were openly married.
In other passages of his works St Bonaventura tells us plainly how little had as yet been gained by suppressing clerical marriages; and the evidence of orthodox and distinguished churchmen for the next three centuries is equally decisive.
There was also a shortlived attempt to declare that even a clerk in lower orders should lose his clerical privileges on his marriage; but Boniface VIII.
Mr Ellis points out, however, that "the clerical profession.
In his hatred of idleness, he ventured to suppress no less than seventeen fetes, and he had a project for lessening the number of those devoted to clerical and monastic life, by fixing the age for taking the vows some years later than was then customary.
His protest against Louis XIV.'s extended claim to regalian rights called forth the famous Declaration of Gallican Liberties by a subservient French synod under the lead of Bossuet (1682), which the pope met by refusing to confirm Louis's clerical appointments.
Gustavus, whose lively imagination was easily excited by religious ardour, enormously magnified clerical influence in Poland and frequently scented dangers where only difficulties existed.
The administration of President Santa Maria met with violent opposition from the Conservatives, who included the Clerical party in their ranks, and also from a certain section of the Liberals.
The Clerical influence was also thrown against him in consequence of his radical ideas in respect of Church matters.
At the opening of 1901 the country was chiefly interested in the forthcoming presidential election, for which the candidates were Don Pedro Montt (Conservative and Clerical) currency once more on an inconvertible paper money P P Y basis until 1902.
The Jansenist Church is, however, intensely conservative, and viewed with extreme disapproval the departures made by the German Old Catholics from Catholic tradition, notably in the matter of clerical celibacy.
The first attends to the clerical business, voluminous and incessant.
This deed provided for the appointment of an advisory council, consisting of the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of Bath and Wells and four other bishops, each with power to nominate one clerical and one lay member.
Of their descendants, Count Moxicz (1807-1890) of Dotis, Austrian ambassador in Rome until 1856, became in 1861 a member of the ministry formed by Anton Schmerling, and in 1865 joined the clerical cabinet of Richard Belcredi.
His official career closed in 1866, but he remained one of the leaders of the clerical party.
We will mention the clerical travellers of this description who are known to us by name.
He was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and was from his childhood destined for the clerical profession, in which through the great influence of his family he obtained rapid advancement, becoming bishop of Exeter in 1458.
Pombal liberated the monarchy from clerical domination, and thus unwittingly opened the door to those " French principles," or democratic ideas, which spread rapidly after his downfall in 1 777 .
So extreme a change was disliked by most of the powers and by many Portuguese, especially those of the clerical party.
The fanaticism of the clerical and absolutist parties in Portugal (collectively termed apostolicos) was enhanced by recrudescence of Sebastianism.
In June 1055 Victor met the emperor at Florence, and held a council, which anew condemned clerical marriages, simony and the alienation of the estates of the church.
Ecclesiastical benefices were the chief means by which, before the Reformation, the civil servants of the crown were paid for services which, being clerical, were also ecclesiastical, and for which the settled stipends were wholly inadequate.
All these clerical preferments Wykeham held when he was a simple clerk, who had no doubt undergone the "first tonsure," but was not even ordained an acolyte till the 5th of December of this golden year.
When parliament again met in 1371, the blame was laid on the clerical ministers, under the influence of Wycliffe.
He had been born in the same year as Wykeham, and like him had profited by papal provisions to prebends in 1361, but had since led an attack on papal and clerical abuses.
He was elected in 1789 by the clergy of the bailliage of Nancy to the states-general, where he soon became conspicuous in the group of clerical and lay deputies of Jansenist or Gallican sympathies who supported the Revolution.
To the clerical and ultra-royalist faction which was supreme in the Lower Chamber and in the circles of the court after the second Restoration, Gregoire, as a revolutionist and a schismatic bishop, was an object of double loathing.
Having made extensive concessions to the nobles both clerical and lay, he was crowned king by Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, on the 8th of December following, and in September 878 he took advantage of the presence of Pope John VIII.
The Easterns also resented the Roman enforcement of clerical celibacy, the limitation of the right of confirmation to the bishop and the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist.
These names are then submitted to the clerical members of the assembly, i.e.
Rabelais had indeed again made for himself protectors whom no clerical or Sorbonist jealousy could touch.
There are possible allusions to him in Shakespeare, and the current clerical notion of him is very unjustly adopted by Marston in the words "wicked Rabelais"; but Bacon described him better as the great jester of France, and a Scot, Sir Thomas Urquhart, translated the earlier books in 1653.
This very naturally resulted in a too frequent substitution of clerical concubinage for marriage; and the resultant evils form one of the commonest themes of complaint in church councils of the later middle ages.'
The freedom of his attacks on the vices, and especially the clerical vices, of his times excited hostility against him, and he was formally brought before the bishop on a charge consisting of thirteen articles.
His living was a comparatively rich one, his house was better than many bishops' palaces, and his position was that of a clerical magnate.
Donne, however, although he was at this time become deeply serious on religious matters, did not think himself fitted for the clerical life.
The reception of the tonsure in these churches is the initial ceremony which marks admission to orders and to the rights and privileges of clerical standing.
The tonsure at first was never given separately, and even children when so dedicated were appointed readers, as no one could belong to the clerical state without at least a minor order.
Unhappily there arose a suspicion that his views on maritime law were not favourable to the pretensions of Venice, and this suspicion, notwithstanding all his efforts to dissipate it, together with clerical intrigues, led to his expulsion from the state.
During the latter part of the 19th century a popular cult of the Maid of Orleans sprang up in France, being greatly stimulated by the clerical party, which desired to advertise, in the person of this national heroine, the intimate union between patriotism and the Catholic faith, and for this purpose ardently desired her enrolment among the Saints.
As an historical figure, it is impossible to dogmatize concerning the personality of Joan of Arc. The modern clerical view has to some extent provoked what appears, in Anatole France's learned account, ably presented as it is, to be a retaliation, in regarding her as a clerical tool in her own day.
As to her " supranormal " faculties, a matter concerning which belief largely depends on the point of view, it is to be remarked that Quicherat, a freethinker wholly devoid of clerical influences, admits them (Apercus nouveaux, 1850), saying that the evidence is as good as for any facts in her history.
Great stress is laid upon virginity (although there is not a sign of monasticism), upon fasting (especially for the bishop), upon the regular attendance of the whole clerical body and the " more perfect " of the laity at the hours of prayer.
This General Synod was to consist of two Houses - the House of Bishops and the House of Lay and Clerical Representatives.
No question was to be carried unless there were in its favour a majority of the clerical and lay representatives, voting either conjointly or by orders, and also a majority of the bishops, should they desire to vote.
The first was to be composed of the bishops; the second to consist of the " deans " and clerical representatives.
In 1789, a General Convention, consisting of clerical and lay deputies as well as of bishops, assumed for itself and provided for its successors supreme legislative power.
The concurrence of both " orders," clerical and lay, was required for the validity of any vote.
This rule was adopted in the West, and the strong prejudice against clerical monks having gradually broken down, eventually monks, almost without exception, took holy orders.
In defence of university studies he stood manfully forth in the chamber of peers in 1844, against the clerical party on the one hand and the levelling or Philistine party on the other.
He was a founder of monasteries and a builder of churches, advocated clerical celibacy and was a strict disciplinarian.
The typical faults of the dark ages, pluralism, simony, lax observation of the clerical rules, contented ignorance, worldliness in every aspect, were all too prevalent in England.
At the same time, however, he was not blind to the possibilities of papal interference in domestic matters, and of the danger of conflict between the crown and the recently-strengthened clerical order.
His chosen instrument, a clerical lawyer named Ranuif Flambard (q.v.), whom he presently made bishop of Durham, was shameless in his methods of twisting feudal or national law to the detriment of the taxpayer.
This was more than ever the case since Stephen had formally granted them jurisdiction over all suits concerning clerics and clerical property.
While chancellor he was the most zealous servant of the crown, and had seemed rather secular than clerical in his habits and his outlook on life.
The reason that Langton did not descend to details was that the king had already conceded the right of free canonical election and the other claims of the clerical order in a separate charter, so that there was no need to discuss them at length.
For two generations they seem to have absorbed into their ranks all the most active and energetic of those who felt a clerical vocation.
Edwards next move was against clerical encroachments.
Among the leaders of this agitation were the clerical ministers whom John of Gaunt had expelled from office in 1371, and chiefly William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, the late chancellor; they were helped by Edmund Mortimer, earl of March, a personal enemy of Lancaster, and could count on the assistance of the prince of Wales when he was well enough to take a part in politics.
The chief domestic event of the time was the attack of the clerical party on Wycliffe and his followers.
Wolsey was the last of the great clerical ministers of the middle ages, and by no means the worst.
The other was that the nation at this moment was chafing bitterly against a clerical minister, whom it (very unjustly) made responsible for the exorbitant taxation which it was enduring, in consequence of the kings useless and unsuccessful foreign wars.
All impediments to clerical marriage were Establish- removed, altars and organs were taken down, old ment of service books destroyed and painted windows broken; Protest- it was even proposed to explain away the kneeling at ansm.
Their place is taken by the city chronicle compiled by middle-class laymen, just as the Renaissance was not a revival of clerical learning, but the expression of new intellectual demands on the part of the laity.
When the conspiring forces of clerical venality and political prostitution had placed a putative Bonaparte in power attained by perjury after perjury, and supported by massacre after massacre, Victor Hugo, in common with all honourable men who had ever taken part in political or public life under the government superseded by force of treason and murder, was driven from his country into an exile of well-nigh twenty years.
While the Akils mingle frankly with the common people, and are remarkably free from clerical pretension, they are none the less careful to maintain their privileges.
About 348 a synod of Catholic bishops, who had met to record their gratitude for the effective official repression of the "Circumcelliones" (Donatist terrorists), declared against the rebaptism of any one who had been baptized in the name of the Trinity, and adopted twelve canons of clerical discipline.
It was followed by other clerical secessions, mostly of men who left the ministry, and Lindsey's hope of a Unitarian movement from the Anglican Church was disappointed.
Laying more stress upon independence than upon loyalty, Hugh appears to have acted in a haughty manner toward Lothair, and also towards his son and successor Louis V.; but neither king was strong enough to punish this powerful vassal, whose clerical supporters already harboured the thought of securing for him the Frankish crown.
As lay abbot of the abbeys of St Martin at Tours and of St Denis he was interested in clerical reform, was fond of participating in religious ceremonies, and had many friends among the clergy.
Huxley's agnosticism was a natural consequence of the intellectual and philosophical conditions of the 'sixties, when clerical intolerance was trying to excommunicate scientific discovery because it appeared to clash with the book of Genesis.
Rhenish Franconia gradually became a land of free towns and lesser nobles, and under the earlier Franconian emperors sections passed to the count palatine of the Rhine, the archbishop of Mainz, the bishops of Worms and Spires and other clerical and lay nobles; and the name Franconia, or Francia orientalis as it was then called, was confined to the eastern portion of the duchy.
Clerical authority was becoming predominant in this region.
Many of the nobles, like Lords Montacute and Salisbury, supported the poor preachers, took them as private chaplains, and protected them against clerical interference.
If so, parliament was told that temporal possessions ruin the church and drive out the Christian graces of faith, hope and charity; that the priesthood of the church in communion with Rome was not the priesthood Christ gave to his apostles; that the monk's vow of celibacy had for its consequence unnatural lust, and should not be imposed; that transubstantiation was a feigned miracle, and led people to idolatry; that prayers made over wine, bread, water, oil, salt, wax, incense, altars of stone, church walls, vestments, mitres, crosses, staves, were magical and should not be allowed; that kings should possess the jus episcopale, and bring good government into the church; that no special prayers should be made for the dead; that auricular confession made to the clergy, and declared to be necessary for salvation, was the root of clerical arrogance and the cause of indulgences and other abuses in pardoning sin; that all wars were against the principles of the New Testament, and were but murdering and plundering the poor to win glory for kings; that the vows of chastity laid upon nuns led to child murder; that many of the trades practised in the commonwealth, such as those of goldsmiths and armourers, were unnecessary and led to luxury and waste.
The subordination of clerical to laic jurisdiction, the reduction in ecclesiastical possessions, the insisting on a translation of the Bible which could be read by the "common" man were all inheritances bequeathed by the Lollards.
Noteworthy also are the old palace of the bishops, now a clerical seminary, the theological lyceum and the town-hall.
The Protestant Church is controlled (under the minister of religion and education) by a consistory and a synod - the former consisting of a president, 9 councillors and 6 general superintendents or " prelates " from six principal towns, and the latter of a representative council, including both lay and clerical members.
On the 27th he wrote to those clerical and noble deputies who still held out, urging submission.
Faults of manner, natural in a man whose life had been spent as an official and a judge, prevented him from keeping together the German Liberals as a strong and united party; he was opposed by a powerful faction at court, and by the Clerical leaders.
Its dean is appointed by the bishop, and, on the voidance of the see, summons the clerical and lay electors, at the instance of the primus, to choose a bishop, who is presented to the episcopal synod for confirmation and to the primus for consecration.
In 1792 the penal laws were repealed, but clerical disabilities were only finally removed in 1864.
These objects include opposition to the claims of Rome and to autocratic interference with the Church on the part of either political or ecclesiastical authorities, efforts to induce the laity to claim and exercise their privileges as members of the Church, the assertion of the right of the clergy, laity and both lay and clerical professors to search for and proclaim freely the truth in independence of the creeds and the letter of Scripture.
The Liberal Unionists, whose extinction had once been so confidently foretold, had increased from 46 to 71, and the Parnellites, in spite of the most violent clerical opposition, from 9 to 12.
Thus in October 1862, after Garibaldi's attack on Rome, the clerical coterie of the Tuileries triumphed.
This must be remembered in considering nearly all his writings, and also in estimating his position, both in relation to the ruling clerical party - the Jesuits - and also to the politics of the court of Piedmont after the accession of Charles Albert in 1831.
Del primato morale e civile degli Italiani and the Prolegomeni to the same, and soon afterwards his triumphant exposure of the Jesuits, Il Gesuita moderno, no doubt hastened - the transfer of rule from clerical to civil hands.
Navarre was much under clerical influence.
Charles himself in his government preferred to restore the ancient Empire by vigorous personal action, rather than to follow old imperial traditions; he introduced cohesion into his palace, and perfect centralization into his official administration, inspiring his followers and servants, clerical and lay, with a common and determined zeal.
He tried to make the clergy into an instrument of government by recalling the Jesuits, who had been driven away in 1594, partly from fear of their regicides, partly because they have always been the best teachers of servitude; and he gave theyouth of the nation into the hands of this cosmopolitan and ultramontane clerical order.
But the Conservatives preferred to support the late kings brother Don Carlos, and they had the active aid of the Basques, who feared for their local franchises, and of the mountaineers of Navarre, Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia, who were either quite clerical, or who had become attached, during the French invasion and the troubles of the reign of Ferdinand, to a life of guerrillero adventure.
The regent soon found that this was not enough to enable her to resist the active hostility of the Carlists and the intrigues of their clerical allies.
Though a sincere Catholic, he was no Clerical, Administraas was proved by his refusal to withdraw the don, 1907.
The opening of the October session of the Cortes was signalized by a furious attack by Seor Moret on Seores Maura and La Cierva, who were accused of having Fitliof sacrificed Ferrer to the resentment of their clerical Maura.
A violent clerical agitaticn, encouraged by the Vatican, was started, 72 Spanish archbishops and bishops presenting a joint protest to the government; Fuel was added to the fire by the introduction of a billknown as the Cadenas billforbidding the settlement of further congregations in Spain until the negotiations with the Vatican should have been completed.
He incurred much criticism during the struggle with the Roman Catholic Church, and in 1873 he was shot at and slightly wounded by a youth called Rullmann, who professed to be an adherent of the Clerical party.
He undertook without delay the reformation of morals and clerical discipline throughout his vast diocese.
Of royal exactions he was more impatient; and after the retirement of Archbishop Saint Edmund constituted himself the spokesman of the clerical estate in the Great Council.
In 1805 he was elected to succeed John Playfair in the chair of mathematics at Edinburgh, not, however, without violent though unsuccessful opposition on the part of a narrow-minded clerical party who accused him of heresy in something he had said as to the "unsophisticated notions of mankind" about the relation of cause and effect.
After the issue, 1839, of the hatt-i-sherif of Gal-khaneh, the tradesmen and artisans of the capital freed themselves from clerical control.
Under regulations, approved by the sultan in 1862, the patriarch remained the official representative of the community, but all real power passed into the hands of clerical and lay councils elected by a representative assembly of 140 members.
His concessions to the reactionary and clerical party of the emigres, headed by the comte d'Artois and the duchesse d'Angouleme, aroused suspicions of his loyalty to the constitution, the creation of his Maison militaire alienated the army, and the constant presence of Blacas made the formation of a united ministry impossible.
The two formed a high ideal of the tutorial office as clerical and pastoral rather than secular.
The clerical party were not slow to point to this circumstance as a judgment on the king for what they deemed his sacrilegious policy.
This clerical side of the parish bounds-beating was one of the religious functions prohibited by the Injunctions of Queen Elizabeth; but it was then ordered that the perambulation should continue to be performed as a quasi-secular function, so that evidence of the boundaries of parishes, &c. might be preserved (Gibson, Codex juris Ecclesiastici Anglicani (1761) pp. 213-214).
His Parisian constituents thought his policy too moderate on the clerical question, and he had to seek election in 1885 in the Cote d'Or, which in later years he represented in the Senate.
A ' manual worker ' is an employe whose duties are not mainly administrative, professional, technical or clerical.
Mrs Ann Bell arrived as a new clerical assistant.
The Archbishop endeavors from time to time to enforce clerical celibacy, which is apparently not observed by some of his suffragan bishops.
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Volunteers are wanted to work on this project - which at the moment will be purely clerical.
There is an emphasis on celebrating together rather than ' saying the Office ' as a private and exclusively clerical obligation.
I can only promote someone within the same category of staff - it won't let me do clerical to academic for example.
The one thing clergy of his day did not wear was a clerical collar.
Church Papists - paperback A study of clerical reaction to the sizeable number of Catholics who outwardly conformed to Protestantism in late 16c England.
These were no mechanical, clerical tasks; each element of Scott's work required considerable erudition.
But why does he stare at her so, this shy and lonely Oxford don in clerical garb?
The stakeholders included three general practitioners, a practice manager, two nurses, six clerical staff and the change agent.
In addition, there are administration and clerical members of staff and ward hostesses.
Crouch perceived an opportunity; he had a clerical kinsman, John Simons.
Back in London office's previous home of Tufton Street, the office was situated above a clerical outfitters.
Even if he makes an obvious clerical slip-up he is entitled to correct his mistake if he does so within a reasonable time.
The records of convocation in Chicheley's time are a curious mixture of persecutions for heresy, which largely consisted in attacks on clerical endowments, with negotiations with the ministers of the crown for the object of cutting down to the lowest level the clerical contributions to the public revenues in respect of their endowments.
Leon was identified with the interests of the democracy of Nicaragua, Granada with the clerical and aristocratic parties.
On the 6th of May 1448 he obtained licence in mortmain and on the 10th of August founded at Oxford "for the extirpation of heresies and errors, the increase of the clerical order and the adornment of holy mother church, a perpetual hall, called Seint Marie Maudeleyn Halle, for study in the sciences of sacred theology and philosophy," to consist of a president and 50 scholars.
He improved the incomes of poor livings by revenues derived from episcopal estates and the fines of delinquents.An important feature of his church government was the appointment on the 20th of March 1654 of the "Triers," thirty-eight clerical and lay commissioners, who decided upon the qualifications of candidates for livings, and without whose recommendation none could be appointed; while an ordinance of August 1654 provided for the removal of the unfit, the latter class including besides immoral persons those holding "popish" or blasphemous opinions, those publicly using the English Prayer Book, and the disaffected to the government.
Firstly, he doubted whether the allies were strong enough to attack the Quadrilateral, for he saw the defects of his own armys organization; secondly, he began to fear intervention by Prussia, whose attitude appeared menacing; thirdly, although really anxious to expel the Austrians from Italy, he did not wish to create a too powerful Italian state at the foot of the Alps, which, besides constituting a potential danger to France, might threaten the popes temporal power, and Napoleon believed that he could not stand without the clerical vote; fourthly, the war had been declared against the wishes of the great majority of Frenchmen and was even now far from popular.
Parliamentary pressure further obliged Bonghi, minister of public instruction, to compel clerical seminaries either to forgo the instruction of lay pupils or to conform to the laws of the state in regard to inspection and examination, an ordinance which gave rise to conflicts between ecclesiastical and lay authorities, and led to the forcible dissolution of the Mantua seminary and to the suppression of the Catholic university in Rome.
It was, however, expected that the chiefs of the Left, upon attaining office, would turn resolutely towards Prussia in search of a guarantee against the Clerical menace embodied in the rgime of Marshal Macmahon.
Both the British manager and the American manager, however, are supplied with a considerable number of daily, weekly and monthly reports, varying on different railways, which are not made public. The daily sheets usually include a summarized statement of the performance of every train on the line, covering the amount of business done, the destination of the loads, &c. For a number of years there has been a movement in Great Britain to require the inclusion of ton-mile statistics in the stated returns to the Board of Trade, but most railway managers have objected to the change on the ground that their own confidential information was already adequate for purposes of control, and that ton-mile statistics would require additional clerical force to a costly extent.
An elaborate organization is required to keep a complete check and record of all the goods entering and leaving the station, to ensure that they are loaded into the proper wagons according to their destination, that they are unloaded and sorted in such a way that they can be delivered to their consignees with the least possible delay, that they are not stolen or accidentally mislaid, &c.; and accommodation must be provided for a large clerical and supervisory staff to attend to these matters.
But it was an easier thing to consecrate the fighting instinct than to curb it; and the institution of chivalry represents such a clerical consecration, for ideal ends and noble purposes, of the martial impulses which the Church had hitherto endeavoured to check.