How to use Clement in a sentence
I'd lived so clement an existence that the sum total of my exposure to mayhem came from the soft cushioned sofa fronting a wide screen television.
Clement proclaimed a crusade in 1343, but nothing was accomplished beyond a naval attack on Smyrna (29th of October 1344).
No pope has been the subject of more diverse judgments than Clement XIV.
We know that James was clement; that the middle and lower classes stood by him; that he was a great amateur in the arts; that he was betrayed again and again by those of his own house, finally by his own son.
He was named as one of the counsellors to assist the queen, but, fearing to incur the king's displeasure and using his favourite phrase ira principis mors est, he gave her very little help; and he signed the letter to Clement VII.Advertisement
He became a notary and a person of some importance in the city, and was sent in 1343 on a public errand to Pope Clement VI.
Denouncing the temporal power of the pope he implored the emperor to deliver Italy, and especially Rome, from their oppressors; but, heedless of his invitations, Charles kept him in prison for more than a year in the fortress of Raudnitz, and then handed him over to Clement, who had been clamouring for his surrender.
When Henry, however, came into conflict with Robert of Naples, Clement supported Robert and threatened the emperor with ban and interdict.
These provisions were later strengthened by Clement VII.
His bull of the 1st of July 1519, which regulated the discipline of the Polish Church, was later transformed into a concordat by Clement VII.Advertisement
Civil war was raging in France, and Clement became an ardent partisan of the League; his mind appears to have become unhinged by religious fanaticism, and he talked of exterminating the heretics, and formed a plan to kill Henry III.
The attendants then withdrew, and while Henry was reading the letters Clement mortally wounded him with a dagger which had been concealed beneath his cloak.
Clement's body was afterwards quartered and burned.
The `EAXnvucwv OEpairEvruo lraen,uhTwv (De Curandis Graecorum Affectionibus) - written before 438 - is of an historical and apologetic character, very largely indebted to Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius; it aims at showing the advantages of Christianity as compared with " the moribund but still militant " Hellenism of the day, and deals with the assaults of pagan adversaries.
Pope Clement V.; and the procession of the Host in connexion with the festival was instituted, if the accounts we possess are trustworthy, by Pope John XXII.Advertisement
In the reign of this pope Francis was released from his prison in Madrid (1526), and Clement hoped that he might still be used in the Italian interest as a counterpoise to Charles.
As an immediate result of this catastrophe, Florence shook off the Medici, and established a republic. But Clement, having made peace with the emperor, turned the remnants of the army which had sacked Rome against his native city.
Charles then entered the port of Genoa, and on the 5th of November met Clement VII.
In the pontificate of Clement XIII they ruled the Vatican, and almost succeeded in embroiling the pope with the concerted Bourbon potentates of Europe.
The last elector and archbishop, Clement Wenceslaus (1768-1802), granted toleration to the Protestants in 1782, established his residence at Coblenz in 1786, and fled from the French in 1794.Advertisement
Passing from pride to humility he added "servant of the apostle," and "servant of Jesus Christ" to the imperial title, spent a fortnight in prayer in the grotto of St Clement and did penance in various Italian monasteries.
When, therefore, we remember that Aurelius knew little of the Christians, that the only mention of them in the Meditations is a contemptuous reference to certain fanatics of their number whom even Clement of Alexandria compares for their thirst for martyrdom to the Indian gymnosophists, and finally that the least worthy of them were doubtless the most prominent, we cannot doubt that Aurelius was acting unquestionably in the best interests of a perfectly intelligible ideal.
Scarcely a trace of the castle exists, although its site near St Clement's church is locally known as Tower Hill.
Clement continued the struggle of his predecessors with the emperor Louis the Bavarian, excommunicating him after protracted negotiations on the 13th of April 1346, and directing the election of Charles of Moravia, who received general recognition after the death of Louis in October 1347, and put an end to the schism which had long divided Germany.
In October 1533 he was entrusted with the unmannerly task of intimating to Clement VII., while he was the guest of Francis I.Advertisement
Next come the great Alexandrians, Clement, Origen, Dionysius; the Carthaginians, Tertullian and Cyprian; the Romans, Minucius Felix and Novatian; the last four laid the foundations of a Latin Christian literature.
The reader to whom the study is new will gain some idea of the bulk of the extant patristic literature, if we add that in Migne's collection ninety-six large volumes are occupied with the Greek fathers from Clement of Rome to John of Damascus, and seventysix with the Latin fathers from Tertullian to Gregory the Great.2 For a discussion of the more important fathers the student is referred to the articles which deal with them separately.
Finally, a band of loo marched from Basel to Avignon to the court of Pope Clement VI., who, in spite of the sympathy shown them by several of his cardinals, condemned the sect as constituting a menace to the priesthood.
On the 20th of October 1349 Clement published a bull commanding the bishops and inquisitors to stamp out the growing heresy, and in pursuance of the pope's orders numbers of the sectaries perished at the stake or in the cells of the inquisitors and the episcopal justices.
The eighteen cardinals who met to elect a successor to Clement IV.
He continued to work at his editions of the Apostolic Fathers, and in 1885 published an edition of the Epistles of Ignatius and Polycarp, collecting also a large store of valuable materials for a second edition of Clement of Rome, which was published after his death (1st ed., 1869).
During the disastrous plague of 1347-1348 Clement did all he could to alleviate the distress, and condemned the Flagellants and Jew-baiters.
To supply money for his many undertakings Clement revived the practice of selling reservations and expectancies, which had been abolished by his predecessor.
Oppressive taxation and unblushing nepotism were Clement's great faults.
He was now one of the most powerful sovereigns of Europe, for besides ruling over Provence and Anjou and the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, he was imperial vicar of Tuscany, lord of many cities of Lombardy and Piedmont, and as the pope's favourite practically arbiter of the papal states, especially during the interregnum between the death of Clement IV.
A portion of it, containing an elaborate survey of astronomy as known to the Arabs, was translated into Latin in 1342 at the request of Clement VI.
After an inconclusive campaign in Munster in January 1600, he returned in haste to Donegal, where he received supplies from Spain and a token of encouragement from Pope Clement VIII.
In 1567 he was elected a fellow of his college, and subsequently was chosen lecturer of St Clement's church, Cambridge, where he preached to admiring audiences for many years.
It was begun by the architect Antonio da San Gallo the younger in 1527 for Clement VII., who fled to Orvieto after the sack of Rome, and was finished by Simone Mosca under Paul III.
After his return to Paris, where from 1384 onwards he filled the position of master of the college of Navarre, and took part in a violent campaign against the chancellor of Notre-Dame, he was twice entrusted with a mission to Clement VII.
The control of the papacy by Charles V., moreover, made it impossible for Wolsey to succeed in his efforts to obtain from Clement VII.
It ran counter to the ideas suggested in 1527 on the captivity of Clement VII., that England and France should set up independent patriarchates; and its success depended upon the problematical destruction of Charles V.'s power in Italy.
He could not have been what he was unless two generations before him had laboured at the problem of finding an intellectual expression and a philosophic basis for Christianity (Justin, Tatian, Athenagoras, Pantaenus, Clement).
At a very early age, about the year 200, he listened to the lectures of Pantaenus and Clement in the catechetical school.
Origen thus solved, after his own fashion, a problem which his predecessor Clement had not even ventured to grapple with.
Jefferson Davis was a prisoner here for two years, from the 22nd of May 1865, and Clement Claiborne Clay (1819-1882), a prominent Confederate, from the same date until April 1866.
But his fame had reached the ears of the papal legate in England, Guy de Foulques, who in 1265 became pope as Clement IV.
We do not know what opinion Clement formed of them, but before his death he seems to have bestirred himself on Bacon's behalf, for in 1268 the latter was permitted to return to Oxford.
The works sent to Clement he regarded as preliminaries, laying down principles which were afterwards to be applied to the sciences.
He founds his argument mainly on passages in the Communia Naturalium, which indeed prove distinctly that it was sent to Clement, and cannot, therefore, form part of the Compendium, as Brewer seems to think.
At the instance of Pippin, Boniface secured Adalbert's condemnation at the synod of Soissons in 744; but he, and Clement, a Scottish missionary and a heretic on predestination, continued to find followers in spite of legate, council and pope, for three or four years more.
The title "To the Ephesians" is found in the Muratorian canon, in Irenaeus, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria, as well as in all the earliest MSS.
It purports to be by Paul, and was held to be his by Marcion and in the Muratorian canon, and by Irenaeus, Tertullian and Clement of Alexandria, all writing at the end of the 2nd century.
Some resemblances of expression in Clement of Rome and in Second Clement may have significance.
The Romanesque St Clement's has an ornate south portal, and the churches of St Drotten and St Lars, of the 12th century, are notable for their huge towers.
He was the only Scotsman who had been named to that high office by an undisputed right, Cardinal Wardlaw, bishop of Glasgow, having received his appointment from the anti-pope Clement VII.
All that remained was to obtain the abdication of Benedict XIII., the successor of the Avignon pope Clement VII., but the combined efforts of the council and the emperor were powerless to overcome the obstinacy of the Aragonese pope.
To the information which Clement here supplies subsequent writers add little.
It is conjectured that he went to his old pupil Alexander, who was at that time bishop of Flaviada in Cappadocia, and that when his pupil was raised to the see of Jerusalem Clement followed him there.
Eusebius and Jerome give us lists of the works which Clement left behind him.
Clement exhibits the absurdity and immorality of the stories told with regard to the pagan deities, the cruelties perpetrated in their worship, and the utter uselessness of bowing down before images made by hands.
In the first Clement discusses the necessity for and the true nature of the Paedagogus, and shows how Christ as the Logos acted as Paedagogus, and still acts.
Appended to the Paedagogue are two hymns, which are, in all probability, the production of Clement, though some have conjectured that they were portions of the church service of that time.
Sometimes Clement discusses chronology, sometimes philosophy, sometimes poetry, entering into the most minute critical and chronological details; but one object runs through all, and this is to show what the true Christian Gnostic is, and what is his relation to philosophy.
Here Clement argues that wealth, if rightly used, is not unchristian.
Notes in Latin on the first epistle of Peter, the epistle of Jude, and the first two of John have come down to us; but whether they are the translation of Cassiodorus, or indeed a translation of Clement's work at all, is a matter of dispute.
A fragment of Clement, quoted by Antonius Melissa, is most probably taken from the treatise on slander.
Mention is also made of a work by Clement on the Prophet Amos, and another on Definitions.
In addition to these Clement often speaks of his intention to write on certain subjects, but it may well be doubted whether in most cases, if not all, he intended to devote separate treatises to 1 Zahn thinks we have part of them in the Adumbrationes Clem.
The first, if it is the work of Clement, must be a book merely of excerpts, for it contains many opinions which Clement opposed.
Clement occupies a profoundly interesting position in the history of Christianity.
He also was well acquainted with Greek philosophy, and took a genial view of it; but he was not nearly so widely read as Clement.
In fact Clement regarded Christianity as a philosophy.
The difference between the two, in Clement's judgment, was that the Greek philosophers had only glimpses of the truth, that they attained only to fragments of the truth, while Christianity revealed in Christ the absolute and perfect truth.
Clement varies in his statement how Plato got his wisdom or his fragments of the Reason.
But the words of Clement are quite precise and their meaning indisputable.
Clement thus looks entirely at the enlightened moral elevation to which Christianity raises man.
And Clement conceived that this development took place not merely in this life, but in the future through successive grades.
But Clement always regards the articles of the Christian creed as the axioms of a new philosophy.
Clement professed to despite rhetoric, but was himself a rhetorician, and his style is turgid, involved and difficult.
All early writers speak of Clement in the highest terms of laudation, and he certainly ought to have been a saint in any Church that reveres saints.
William Little of Craigmillar, and his brother Clement Little, advocate, along with James Lawson, the colleague and successor of John Knox, may justly be regarded as true founders.
In 1580 Clement Little gave all his books, three hundred volumes, for the beginning of a library, and this was augmented by other valuable benefactions, one of the most interesting of which was the library of Drummond of Hawthornden.
Thus St Ignatius in writing to the Romans never refers to any presiding bishop, and somewhat earlier Clement of Rome in his epistles to the Corinthians uses the terms presbyter and episcopus interchangeably.
Notwithstanding the defection of his uncle Louis and other companions who returned to Germany, the threatenings of Pope Clement IV., and lack of funds, his cause seemed to prosper.
In 1604 he was sent to Rome as charge d'affaires de France; when Clement VIII.
Reference has already been made to a Danish settlement, and there seems some reason for placing it on the ground now occupied by the parishes of St Clement Danes and Aldwich.
Throughout the major part of his pontificate he had to reckon with the presence of the powerful antipope Clement III.
According to the Apocryph of Paul, cited by Clement, Hystaspes foretold the conflict of the Messiah with many kings and His advent.
Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria and Origen quote it as Scripture, though in Africa it was not held in such high consideration, as Tertullian speaks slightingly of it.
The book is said to have been written by Clement, Peter's disciple.
They turned the tables on the pope by engaging Hawkwood, and although the Bretons by order of Cardinal Robert of Geneva (afterwards the anti-pope Clement VII.) committed frightful atrocities in Romagna, their captains were bribed by the republic not to molest its territory.
In 1523 he was created pope as Clement VII.
In the latter year appeared his edition of Clement of Alexandria.
Clement also forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of "accommodating" their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to win converts.
On awaking he addressed kind words to the compassionate brother, and then prophesied that dire calamities would befall Florence during the reign of a pope named Clement.
He holds a high place in the history of humanism by the foundation of the College de France; he did not found an actual college, but after much hesitation instituted in 1530, at the instance of Guillaume Bude (Budaeus), Lecteurs royaux, who in spite of the opposition of the Sorbonne were granted full liberty to teach Hebrew, Greek, Latin, mathematics, &c. The humanists Bude, Jacques Colin and Pierre Duchatel were the king's intimates, and Clement Marot was his favourite poet.
Lebanon during the Frank period of Antioch and Palestine, the Maronites being inclined to take the part of the crusading princes against the Druses and Moslems; but they were still regarded as heretic Monothelites by Abulfaragius (Bar-Hebraeus) at the end of the 13th century; nor is their effectual reconciliation to Rome much older than 1736, the date of the mission sent by the pope Clement XII., which fixed the actual status of their church.
Driven to extremities, Clement consented to call a Consistory to consider the step, but on the very eve of the day set for its meeting he died (2nd of February 1769), not without suspicion of poison, of which, however, there appears to be no conclusive evidence.
A contemporary account of Clement was written by Augustin de Andres y Sobinas,.
According to Clement of Alexandria this was written prophetically to apply to the Carpocratians, an antinomian Gnostic sect of c. 150; but hyper-Paulinists had given occasion to similar complaints already in Rev. ii.
It was one of the cities of the Pentapolis under the exarchate of Ravenna, the other four being Fano, Pesaro, Senigallia and Rimini, and eventually became a semi-independent republic under the protection of the popes, until Gonzaga took possession of it for Clement Vii.
Nominated by Clement VII.
The next six years were partly employed in its composition, and he left a portion of it finished, with a dedication to Clement VII., when he died in 1527.
It is no exaggeration to say that, of the governors of Scotland under the Restoration, Claverhouse was the ablest, the most honourable, the least rapacious and even the most clement.
The Father in Clement's mind becomes the Absolute of the philosophers, that is to say, not the Father at all, but the Monad, a mere point devoid of all attributes.
In the spring of 1526 Machiavelli was employed by Clement VII.
It seemed that he was destined to be associated in the papal service with Clement's viceroy, and that a new period of diplomatic employment was opening for him.
She communicated on one occasion subsequently and attended Anglican service occasionally; but she received consecrated objects from Pope Clement VIII., continued to hear mass, and, according to Galluzzi, supported the schemes for the conversion of the prince of Wales and of England, and for the prince's marriage with a Roman Catholic princess, which collapsed on his death in 1612.
The rest of the patristic evidence from Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Victorinus, Eusebius and Jerome will be found in Swete's Apocalypse of St John 2, xcix.
It was her uncle, Pope Clement VII., who arranged the marriage with Francis I.
In spite of his conciliatory policy, Clement angered Henry VI.
It shows a fine combination of mildness with severity; the language is simple but powerful, and, while there is undoubtedly a lack of original ideas, the author shows remarkable skill in weaving together pregnant sentences and impressive warnings selected from the apostolic epistles and the first Epistle of Clement.
The idea that some extraneous substance is essential to the process is of ancient date; Clement of Alexandria (c. 3rd century A.D.) held that some "air" was necessary, and the same view was accepted during the middle ages, when it had been also found that the products of combustion weighed more than the original combustible, a fact which pointed to the conclusion that some substance had combined with the combustible during the process.
Among these the most important were Clement of Alexandria and Origen.
Clement, as a scholar and a theologian, proposed to unite the mysticism of NeoPlatonism with the practical spirit of Christianity.
The compatibility of Christian and later Neo-Platonic ideas is evidenced by the writings of Synesius, bishop of Ptolemais, and though Neo-Platonism eventually succumbed to Christianity, it had the effect, through the writings of Clement and Origen, of modifying the tyrannical fanaticism and ultradogmatism of the early Christian writers.
Undeniably Clement of Alexandria and Origen apply the language of the Greek mysteries to Christian gnosis and life.
It is not even safe, according to these two fathers, to commit too much to writing; and Clement undertakes not to reveal in writing many secrets known to the initiated among his readers; otherwise the indiscreet eye of the heathen may rest on them, and he will have cast his pearls before swine.
But because he uses the language of the Greek mysteries, Philo never imitated the thing itself; and he is ever ready to denounce it in the bitterest terms. Clement and Origen really meant no more than he.
He died on the 16th of September 1450, and was beatified by Pope Clement VII.
Clement sent one of his ablest Italian diplomatists, Campeggio, to negotiate with the diet which met at Spires in 1524.
In 1882 a critical reconstruction of this book was made by Adam Krawutzcky with marvellous accuracy, as was shown when in the very next year the Greek bishop and metropolitan, Philotheus Bryennius, published The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles from the same manuscript from which he had previously published the complete form of the Epistle of Clement.'
Besides The Didache and the Epistles of Clement it contains several spurious Ignatian epistles.
Clement of Alexandria or Origen would not call his speculations dogmas.
La Cote d'Ivoire by Michellet and Clement describes the administrative and land systems, &c. Another volume also called La Cote d'Ivoire (Paris, 1908) is an official monograph on the colony.
The Alexandrian Clement, Tertullian, Origen, Eusebius, Jerome and Augustine only tell of the Zebedean what is traceable to stories told by Papias of others, to passages of Revelation and the Gospel, or to the assured fact of the long-lived Asian presbyter.
Henri's son Clement Henri was the last of the family to hold the office.
Cotelier published at Paris the writings current under the names of Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Hermas, Ignatius and Polycarp. But the name itself is due to their next editor, Thomas Ittig (1643-1710), in his Bibliotheca Patrum Apostolicorum (1699), who, however, included under this title only Clement, Ignatius and Polycarp. Here already appears the doubt as to how many writers can claim the title, a doubt which has continued ever since, and makes the contents of the "Apostolic Fathers" differ so much from editor to editor.
But the convenience of the category "Apostolic Fathers" to express not only those who might possibly have had some sort of direct contact with apostles - such as "Barnabas," Clement, Ignatius, Papias, Polycarp - but also those who seemed specially to preserve the pure tradition of apostolic doctrine during the sub-apostolic age, has led to its general use in a wide and vague sense.
Or to put it more exactly, the "Apostolic Fathers" represent, chronologically in the main and still more from the religious and theological standpoint, the momentous process of 1 Cotelier included the Acts of Martyrdom of Clement, Ignatius and Polycarp; and those of Ignatius and Polycarp are still often printed by editors.
Clement's epistle, indeed, conforms more to the elaborate and treatise-like form of the Epistle to the Hebrews, on which it draws so largely; and the same is true of "Barnabas."
The latter is the case in Clement, Ignatius and Polycarp; perhaps also in "Barnabas."
Take for instance Clement.
Lightfoot, indeed, dwells on the all-round "comprehensiveness" with which Clement, as the mouthpiece of the early Roman Church, utters in succession phrases or ideas borrowed impartially from Peter and Paul and James and the Epistle to Hebrews.
It is not merely that "there is no dogmatic system in Clement" or in any other of the Apostolic Fathers; that may favour, not hinder, religious insight.
There is a want of depth in Christian experience, in the power of realizing relative spiritual values in the light of the master principle involved in the distinctively Christian consciousness, such as could raise Clement above a verbal eclecticism, rather than comprehensiveness, in the use of Apostolic language.
It is lack of this organic quality in the thought, not only of Clement but also of the Apostolic Fathers generally - with the possible exception of Ignatius, who seems to share the Apostolic experience more fully than any other, to which Reuss rightly directs attention.
Hence a new sort of legalism, known to recent writers as Moralism, underlies much of the piety of the Apostolic Fathers, though Ignatius is quite free from it, while Polycarp and "Barnabas" are less under its influence than are the Didache, Clement, the Homilist and Hermas.
The earliest expression of this genuinely official principle is found in Clement's Epistle to the Corinthians, ch.
By procuring the transference of the patriciate from the Roman people to himself Henry assured his influence over the appointment of the popes, and accordingly also nominated the successors of Clement II.
Latin poetry was cultivated with great success by Clement Janicki (1516-1543), but the earliest poet of repute who wrote in Polish is Rej of Naglowice (1505-1569).
His election to the papacy, on the 13th of October 1 534, to succeed Clement VII., was virtually without opposition.
Most nearly on the lines of the New Testament are the so-called Apostolic (really Sub-Apostolic) Fathers (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, Didache, Barnabas, the letters of Ignatius and the single letter of Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, the homily commonly known as the Second Epistle of Clement).
Barnabas and 2 Clement are more eccentric, but the writers must have been persons of some note.
Originally, the MS. contained the whole of the Old and New Testaments, including the Psalms of Solomon in the former and I and 2 Clement in the latter.
Horner's researches tend to show that the Greek text on which it was based was different from that represented by the Bohairic, and probably was akin to the " Western " text, perhaps of the type used by Clement of Alexandria.
In group 4 the situation is more complex; Clement used a text which has most in common with.
Moreover, Barnard's researches into the Biblical text of Clement of Alexandria show that there is reason to doubt whether even in Alexandria the Neutral text was used in the earliest times.
We have no evidence earlier than Clement, and the text of the New Testament which he quotes has more in common with the Old Latin or " geographically Western " text than with the Neutral, though it definitely agrees with no known type preserved in MSS.
The earliest is that which is represented by the quotations in Clement, and must have been in use in Alexandria at the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century.
It is also possible to argue, as WH did, on the same side, that the purest form of text was preserved in Alexandria, from which the oldest uncials are directly or indirectly derived, but this argument has been weakened if not finally disposed of by the evidence of Clement of Alexandria.
This has not yet been done, but enough has been accomplished to point to the probability that the result will be the establishment of at least three main types of texts, represented by the Old Syriac, the Old Latin and Clement's quotations, while it is doubtful how far Tatian's Diatessaron, the quotations in J ustin and a few other sources may be used to reconstruct the type of Greek text used in Rome in the 2nd century when Rome was still primarily a Greek church.
The traditional Western day for the Christmas festival, 25th December, goes back as far as Hippolytus, loc. cit.; the traditional Eastern day, 6th January, as far as the Basilidian Gnostics (but in their case only as a celebration of the Baptism), mentioned by Clement of Alexandria, loc. cit.
It was renewed by Pope Clement XIII.
Charles (Assumption of Moses, pp. 105 seq.), and it appears that the incident was familiar to Clement of Alexandria, Origen and other early writers.
But at this juncture Benedict XIV., the most learned and able pope of the period, was succeeded by a pope strongly in favour of the Jesuits, Clement XIII.
The Bourbon courts of Naples and Parma followed the example of France and Spain; Clement XIII.
Cardinal Lorenzo Ganganelli, a conventual Franciscan, was chosen to succeed him, and took the name of Clement XIV.
Very noteworthy references to Gnosticism are also to be found scattered up and down the Stromateis of Clement of Alexandria.
Especially important are the Excerpta ex Theodoto, the author of which is certainly Clement, which are verbally extracted from Gnostic writings, and have almost the value of original sources.
A part was also played in this movement by a free theology which arose within the Church, itself a kind of Gnosticism which aimed at holding fast whatever was good in the Gnostic movement, and obtaining its recognition within the limits of the Church (Clement of Alexandria, Origen).
The phrase " when ye shall be stripped and not be ashamed " contains an idea which has some affinity with two passages found respectively in the Gospel according to the Egyptians and the so-called Second Epistle of Clement.
The resemblance, however, is not sufficiently close to warrant the deduction that either the Gospel of the Egyptians or the Gospel from which the citation in 2 Clement is taken (if these two are distinct) is the source from which our fragment is derived.
There is no ground for identifying him with the Clement of Phil.
It does not contain Clement's name, but is addressed by "the Church of God which sojourneth in Rome to the Church of God which sojourneth in Corinth."
Nothing is known of the cause of the discontent; no moral offence is charged against the presbyters, and their dismissal is regarded by Clement as high-handed and unjustifiable, and as a revolt of the younger members of the community against the elder.
Clement is exceedingly discursive, and his letter reaches twice the length of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
Clement's familiarity with the Old Testament points to his being a Christian of long standing rather than a recent convert.
In 1548 appeared the Art poetique of Thomas Sibilet, who enunciated many of the ideas that Ronsard and his followers had at heart, though with essential differences in the point of view, since he held up as models Clement Marot and his disciples.
Bishops and deacons hold a subordinate place in this document; but the contemporary Epistle of Clement of Rome attests that these bishops " had offered the gifts without blame and holily."
The word " liturgy " is also used by Clement.
Clement of Alexandria (c. 180) regards the rite as an initiation in divine knowledge and immortality.
Their method and aim were entirely congenial to the rising Catholic Church, and one is not surprised to find from writers in the East (Theophilus of Antioch, Justin Martyr) and West (Irenaeus, Tertullian and the author of 2 Clement) that they were widely read and valued.
He held successively the suburban sees of Albano and Sabina, also the sees of Cadiz, Maillezais, Arras and Cremona, and was made archbishop of Ravenna, 1524, by Clement VII.
Cristofori (Storia dei Cardinali, 1888) and others have confused him with his nephew Benedetto (1497-1549), son of Michaele; who followed him in several of his preferments, was made cardinal, 1527, by Clement VII., and is known as a writer in behalf of papal claims and as a Latin poet.
That if the foreigners had not come, the native clement would long have filled the places the foreigners usurped, I entertain says General Walker not a doubt.
On the death of his father, James Stuart (whose affairs he had managed during the last five years of his life), Henry made persistent attempts to induce Pope Clement XIII.
After studying at Padua, he went to reside at Rome, and was received with great favour by Pope Clement VIII., who made him his private chamberlain.
Only a few fragments of his work, apparently en titled Commentaries on the Writings of Moses, are quoted by Clement, Eusebius and other theological writers, but they suffice to show its object.
This city was also the birthplace of Pope Clement XI., of several cardinals of the Alban family, and of Bernardino Baldi, Fabretti, and other able scholars.
She received Clement Marot and Calvin at her court, and finally embraced the reformed religion.
After attending the diet of Regensburg, he shared the captivity of Clement VII.
Clement himself, taking it for granted that an epistle to Hebrews must have beeen written in Hebrew, supposes that Luke translated it for the Greeks.
It was then that a clerk who saw that there was but an uncertain prospect of help from the pope of his time, conceived the shrewd idea of appealing to the popes of the past, so as to exhort the contemporary generation through the mouth of former popes, from Clement to Gregory.
At length the two parties grew weary of this state of revolution, and a regime of conciliation, the fruit of mutual concessions, was established under Clement III.
Inasmuch as Clement was compelled to make terms with this new power which had established itself against him in the very centre of his dominion, the victory may fairly be said to have rested with the commune.
Clement's motive for this reso- Settlement lution was his fear that the independence of the ecclesiastical government might be endangered among the frightful dissensions and party conflicts by which Italy was then convulsed; while at the same time he yielded to the pressure John 334.
He assumed the title of Clement VI.
In Rome there ensued, during the pontificate of Clement, the revolutions of the visionary Cola di Rienzo (q.v.) who restored the old republic, though not for long.
It was fortunate for the Church that Clement VI.
His possession of Ferrara involved Clement in a violent struggle with the republic of Venice, in which he was ultimately victorious.
Yet it should be borne in mind, that, when Clement VII.
The haughty victors found Clement on the side of their opponent, and he was forced into an alliance with the emperor (April 1, 1525).
On the 22nd of ' May 1526 Clement acceded to the League of Cognac, and joined the Italians in their struggle against the Spanish supremacy.
Clement was detained for seven months a prisoner in the castle of St Angelo.
The first noteworthy pontiff of the period was Clement VIII., who gained a vast advantage by allying the papacy with the rising power of France.
King James I., who had coquetted twenty years previously with Clement VIII., and then had avenged the Gunpowder Plot (1605) by the most stringent regulation of his Roman Catholic subjects, was now dazzled by the project of the Spanish marriage.
No better fared Clement's medieval rights to Parma; nor could the sagacious and popular Benedict XIV.
Thus Clement XI., at war with Austria in 1708, debased the currency; Clement (1730-1740) issued paper money and set up a government lottery, excommunicating all subjects who put their money into the lotteries of Genoa or Naples; Benedict XIV.
It is the result of the fusion of two previous commissions; that for the affairs of bishops, established by Gregory XIII., and that for the affairs of the regular clergy, founded by Sixtus V.; the fusion dates from Clement VIII.
In 1377 it was sacked by Cardinal Robert of Geneva (afterwards Clement VII., antipope).
Clement of Alexandria taught that justice is not merely retributive, that punishment is remedial, that probation continues after death till the final judgment, that Christ and the apostles preached the Gospel in Hades to those who lacked knowledge, but whose heart was right, that a spiritual body will be raised.
To these regions came St Louis and Raimon Lull, and one may in passing remember the strength of Christianity in Proconsular Africa in the days of Tertullian and Cyprian, and in Egypt under Clement of Alexandria, Origen and Athanasius.
He wandered over Europe in disguise, alienating the friends and crushing the hopes of his party; and in 1766, on returning to Rome at the death of his father, he was treated by Pope Clement XIII.
Translations took place in the 9th, 15th and 17th centuries, and the remains now rest beneath the altar in the chapel of Clement VIII.
But his public lessons were ill attended, and he soon fell back upon his old vocation of publisher under the patronage of a new pope, Clement VIII.
Matters came to a climax at the council of Vienne in 1311 under Pope Clement V., where the "sect of Beguines and Beghards" were accused of being the main instruments of the spread of heresy, and decrees were passed suppressing their organization and demanding their severe punishment.
Philip - or rather the compiler who made excerpts from him - says that he was at the head of an Alexandrian school (the catechetical), that he lived in the time of Hadrian and Antoninus, to whom he addressed his Apology, and that Clement of Alexandria was his pupil; but these statements are more than doubtful.
The election was ultimately determined by the diplomacy and the gold of Philip's agents, and the new pope, Clement V., was the weak-willed creature of the French king, to whom he owed the tiara.
He then wished to abdicate, and at length Benedetto Gaetano, destined to succeed him as Boniface VIII., removed all scruples against this unheard-of procedure by finding a precedent in the case of Clement I.
It is the seat of the bishop of Ostia, and has a statue of Pope Clement VIII.
It was built in 1778-1786 by Clement Wenceslaus the last elector of Trier, and contains among other curiosities some fine Gobelin tapestries.
In 1786 the elector of Trier, Clement Wenceslaus of Saxony, took up his residence in the town, and gave great assistance in its extension and improvement; a few years later it became, through the invitation of his minister, Ferdinand, Freiherr von Duminique, one of the principal rendezvous of the French emigres.
The Jesuits were suppressed by Pope Clement XIV.
It soon became clear, however, that the qualities which had made Clement an excellent second in command were not equal to the exigencies of supreme power at a time of peculiar peril and difficulty.
Though free from the grosser vices of his predecessors, a man of taste, and economical without being avaricious, Clement VII.
Clement's accession at once brought about a political change in favour of France; yet he was unable to take a strong line, and wavered between the emperor and Francis I., concluding a treaty of alliance with the French king, and then, when the crushing defeat of Pavia had shown him his mistake, making his peace with Charles (April 1, 1525), only to break it again by countenancing Girolamo Morone's League of Freedom, of which the aim was to assert the independence of Italy from foreign powers.
On the betrayal of this conspiracy Clement made a fresh submission to the emperor, only to follow this, a year later, by the Holy League of Cognac with Francis I.
On the 6th of December Clement escaped, before the day fixed for his liberation, to Orvieto, and at once set to work to establish peace.
After the signature of the treaty of Cambrai on the 3rd of August 1529 Charles met Clement at Bologna and received from him the imperial crown and the iron crown of Lombardy.
During this period Clement was mainly occupied in urging Charles to arrest the progress of the Reformation in Germany and in efforts to elude the emperor's demand for a general council, which Clement feared lest the question of the mode of his election and his legitimacy should be raised.
It was due to his dependence on Charles V., rather than to any conscientious scruples, that Clement evaded Henry VIII.'s demand for the nullification of his marriage with Catherine of Aragon, and so brought about the breach between England and Rome.
On the 9th of June 1531 an agreement was signed for the marriage of Henry of Orleans with Catherine de' Medici; but it was not till October 1533 that Clement met Francis at Marseilles, the wedding being celebrated on the 27th.
Before, however, the new political alliance, thus cemented, could take effect, Clement died, on the 25th of September 1534.
Hellwig, Die politischen Beziehungen Clement's VII.
A statue was erected in St Paul's in 1825, and there are commemorative tablets in Lichfield Cathedral, St Nicholas (Brighton), Uttoxeter, St Clement Danes (London), Gwaynynog and elsewhere.
The main objection to this date is based partly on general probability, partly on the language of Clement of Rome.
It is more probable on general grounds that the martyrdom of Peter took place during the persecution of Christians in 64, and it is urged that Clement's language refers to this period.
The weak point of this theory is that Clement and Ignatius bring Peter and Paul together in a way which seems to suggest that they perished, if not together, at least at about the same time.
Henry then carried the war into Italy; in 1084 he was crowned emperor in Rome by Wibert, archbishop of Ravenna, whom, as Clement III., he had set up as an anti-pope, and in 1085 Gregory died an exile from Rome.
Nothing more was needed to unite together all the emperors foes, including Pope Clement VI., who, like his predecessors, had rejected the advances of Louis; but in 1345, before the gathering storm broke, the emperor took possession of the counties of Holland, Zealand and Friesland, which had been left without a ruler by the death of his brother-in-law, Count William IV.
But while in all cases the suggestion of Clement's authorship came ultimately from his prestige as writer of the genuine Epistle of Clement (see Clement I.), both (3) and (4) were due to this idea as operative on Syrian soil; (5) is a secondary formation based on (3) as known to the West.
Thus their Syrian origin is manifest, the more so that in the Syriac, MS. they are appended to the New Testament, like the better-known epistles of Clement in the Codex Alexandrinus.
Probably these epistles did not originally bear Clement's name at all, but formed a single epistle addressed to ascetics among an actual circle of churches.
The framework of both is a narrative purporting to be written by Clement (of Rome) to St James, the Lord's brother, describing at the beginning his own conversion and the circumstances of his first acquaintance with St Peter, and then a long succession of incidents accompanying St Peter's discourses and disputations, leading up to a romantic recognition of Clement's father, mother and two brothers, from whom he had been separated since childhood.
This points to "Clement" as a brief title for the Clementine Periodoi, a title actually found in a Syriac MS. of A.D.
Even four centuries later, Photius, in referring to a collection of books called both Acts of Peter and the Recognition of Clement, does not make clear whether he means Homilies or Recognitions or either.
Here too we have the first sure trace of an expurgated recension, made with the idea of recovering the genuine form assumed, as earlier by Epiphanius, to lie behind an unorthodox recension of Clement's narrative.
It has been needful to cite so much of the evidence proving that our Homilies and Recognitions are both recensions of a common basis, at first known as the Circuits of Peter and later by titles connecting it rather with Clement, its ostensible author, because it affords data also for the historical problems touching (a) the contents and origin of the primary Clementine work, and (b) the conditions under which our extant recensions of it arose.
A second protagonist of error, this time of Gentile philosophic criticism directed against fundamental Judaism, is Apion, the notorious anti-Jewish Alexandrine grammarian of Peter's day; while the role of upholder of astrological fatalism (Genesis) is played by Faustus, father of Clement, with whom Peter and Clement debate at Laodicea.
In the following March accordingly were published, with papal approval, the Index librorum prohibitorum, which continued to be reprinted and brought down to date, and the "Ten Rules" which, supplemented and explained by Clement VIII., Sixtus V., Alexander VII., and finally by Benedict XIV.
On the death of Clement VI., the cardinals made a solemn agreement imposing obligations, mainly in favour of the college as a whole, on whichever of their number should be elected pope.
He cannot see, as Justin and Clement see, a striving after truth, a feeling after God, in the older religions, or even in the philosophies of Greece.
The great Christian School of Alexandria represented by Clement and Origen effected a durable alliance between Greek education and Christian doctrine.
His statements concerning Greek and Roman mythology are based respectively on the Protrepticus of Clement of Alexandria, and on Antistius Labeo, who belonged to the preceding generation and attempted to restore Neoplatonism.
At the request of the Roman people, which was supported by St Bridget of Sweden and by Petrarch, Clement VI.
The liberality which a generation later was recognized by Clement of Rome as a traditional virtue of the Corinthian Church owed its inception to Titus.
He never liked Protestantism, and he was prepared for peace with Rome on his own terms. Those terms were impossible of acceptance by a pope in Clement VII.'s position; but before Clement had made up his mind to reject them, Henry had discovered that the papacy was hardly worth conciliating.
The capture of William at Alnwick, in July 1174, permitted a Celtic revolt in Galloway, and necessitated the Treaty of Falaise, by which for fifteen years Scotland was absolutely a fief of England, though the clergy maintained their independence of the see of York, which was recognized by Pope Clement III.
The execution, or rather murder, of Generals Lecomte and Clement Thomas by the communists on 18th March, which he vainly tried to prevent, brought him into collision with the central committee sitting at the hotel de Tulle, and they ordered his arrest, but he escaped; he was accused, however, by various witnesses, at the subsequent trial of the murderers (November 29th), of not having intervened when he might have done, and though he was cleared of this charge it led to a duel, for his share in which he was prosecuted and sentenced to a fine and a fortnight's imprisonment.
Clement XI., by bull of the 3rd of October 1716, directed the observance of the feast by all Christendom.
He seems to have received the ordinary Christian scriptures; and Origen, who treats him as a notable exegete, has preserved fragments of a commentary by him on the fourth gospel (brought together by Grabe in the second volume of his Spicilegium), while Clement of Alexandria quotes from him what appears to be a passage from a commentary on Luke.
The conclave following the death of Clement XIII.
Clement realized the imperative necessity of conciliating the powers.
Clement looked abroad for help, but found none.
At last, convinced that the peace of the Church demanded the sacrifice, Clement signed the brief Dominus ac Redemptor, dissolving the order, on the 21st of July 1773.
Clement had formerly indignantly rejected the suggestion of such an exchange of favours.
On the one hand, the suppression is denounced as a base surrender to the forces of tyranny and irreligion, an act of treason to conscience, which reaped its just punishment of remorse; on the other hand, it is as ardently maintained that Clement acted in full accord with his conscience, and that the order merited its fate by its own mischievous activities which made it an offence to religion and authority alike.
Clement's was a deeply religious and poetical nature, animated by a lofty and refined spirit.
The middle of the 19th century saw quite a spirited controversy over Clement XIV.; St Priest, in his Hist.
After long negotiations with successive popes, Charles was finally induced by Clement IV.
With the help of some of the barons he drove Joanna and her second husband, Louis of Taranto, from the kingdom, and murdered Charles of Durazzo; but as Pope Clement refused to recognize his claims he went back to Hungary in 1348, and the fickle barons recalled Joanna, who returned and carried on desultory warfare with the partisans of Louis of Hungary.
The latter was crowned by the antipope Clement, while Urban regarded both him and his rival as usurpers.
He had no legitimate male heir, and in 1597 Ferrara was claimed as a vacant fief by Pope Clement VIII., as was also Comacchio.
Irenaeus regards as heretical the opinion that the souls of the departed pass immediately into glory; Tertullian, Cyprian, the Acts of St Perpetua, Clement of Alexandria, Cyril of Jerusalem, Basil, Gregory of Nyassa, Ambrose, Chrysostom and Jerome, all speak of prayer for the dead and seem to imply belief in a purgatory, but their view seems to have been affected by the pre-Christian doctrine of Hades or Sheol.
Under Clement's successor, Paul III., a new state of things began to dawn.
Led by his Jesuits, Louis wrung from the unwilling Clement XI.
Pressure was now put on Clement XIII.
He refused; but his successor, Clement XIV., was more pliable, and in 1773 the Jesuits ceased to be.
In 1521 Parma was added to his rule, and in 1523 he was appointed viceregent of Romagna by Clement VII.
In 1526 Clement gave him still higher rank as lieutenant-general of the papal army.
While holding this commission, he had the humiliation of witnessing from a distance the sack of Rome and the imprisonment of Clement, without being able to rouse the perfidious duke of Urbino into activity.
In 1527 he had been declared a rebel by the Signoria on account of his well-known Medicean prejudices; and in 1530, deputed by Clement to punish the citizens after their revolt, he revenged himself with a cruelty and an avarice that were long and bitterly remembered.
The Renaissance was virtually closed, so far as it concerned Italy, when Clement VII.
At Viterbo, where he spent most of his pontificate, Clement died on the 29th of November 1268, leaving a name unsullied by nepotism.
Numerous vies and eloges of Colbert have been published; but the most thorough student of his life and administration was Pierre Clement, member of the Institute, who in 1846 published his Vie de Colbert, and in 1861 the first of the 9 vols.
On the 20th of September they elected at Fondi the Cardinal Robert of Geneva, who called himself Clement VII.
Urban, on the other hand, remained at Rome, where he appointed twenty-six new cardinals and excommunicated Clement and his adherents.
Most of the literature of the sub-apostolic age is epistolary, and we have a particularly interesting form of epistle in the communications between churches (as distinct from individuals) known as the First Epistle of Clement (Rome to Corinth), the Martyrdom of Polycarp (Smyrna to Philomelium), and the Letters of the Churches of Vienne andLyons (to the congregations of Asia Minor and Phrygia) describing the Gallican martyrdoms of A.D.
Clement Marot, in the 16th century, first made the epistle popular in France, with his brief and spirited specimens.
The copies were not spread far, and were soon 1 It was approved by Clement VII.
They arise out of a primitive practice on the part of the bishop (local president), examples of which are found in the Didache (Teaching of the Apostles) and in the letters of Clement of Rome and Cyprian.
He led in person several armies into Italy, and proved as severe and pitiless towards his enemies as he was gentle and clement towards his subjects.
To evade the second claim, Clement gave way on the first.
Malachy was canonized by Clement III.
He gave and lent enormous sums to successive popes, and at the bidding of Clement XI.
The expulsion of the Jesuits involved Portugal in a dispute with Pope Clement XIII.; in June 1760 the papal nuncio was ordered to leave Lisbon, and diplomatic relations with the Vatican were only resumed after the condemnation of the Jesuits by Clement XIV., in July 1773.
In return for important service rendered by his father, he was in 1527 nominated by Clement VIII.
It lingered on as applied to the Seventy 2 - by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement and Origenand even to Clement of Rome, by Clem.
In a conclave which had lasted for months he was elected on the 17th of August 1740 the successor of Clement XII.
These suggestions were indignantly repelled by Rudolph, whose anger was greatly increased by a letter of Pope Clement VIII.
In 1524, the year of the publication of Tiraqueau's book above cited, his friend Geoffroy d'Estissac procured from Clement VII.
These doctrines, although in harmony with the prevailing feeling of the Roman Catholic Church of the period, and further recommended by their marked opposition to the teachings of Luther and Calvin,excited violent controversy in some quarters, especially on the part of the Dominicans, and at last rendered it necessary for the pope (Clement VIII.) to interfere.
At an assembly of the clergy held in Paris in 1398 it was resolved to refuse to recognize the authority of Benedict who succeeded Clement VII.
Clement died on the 22nd of July 1676.
Subsequently the three and Thomas Percy, who joined the conspiracy in May, met in a house behind St Clement's and, having taken an oath of secrecy together, heard Mass and received the Sacrament in an adjoining apartment from a priest stated by Fawkes to have been Father Gerard.
In the Epistle of Clement to James prefixed to the Homilies Peter is spoken of as the light of the West, and as having met with a violent death in Rome; and in Homilies i.
In the Clementines Simon by his magic imposes his own personal appearance upon Faustus, the father of Clement.
He was created cardinal in 1599 by Clement VIII., and two years later was made archbishop of Capua.
After withdrawing to Fondi to reconsider the election, the cardinals finally resolved to regard Urban as an intruder and the Holy See as still vacant, and an almost unanimous vote was given in favour of Robert of Geneva (loth of September 1378), who took the name of Clement VII.
To his high connexions and his adroitness, as well as to the gross mistakes of his rival, Clement owed the immediate support of Queen Joanna of Naples and of several of the Italian barons; and the king of France, Charles V., who seems to have been sounded beforehand on the choice of the Roman pontiff, soon became his warmest protector.
Clement eventually succeeded in winning to his cause Scotland, Castile, Aragon, Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, and Flanders.
By the bait of a kingdom to be carved expressly out of the States of the Church and to be called the kingdom of Adria, coupled with the expectation of succeeding to Queen Joanna, Clement incited Louis, duke of Anjou, the eldest of the brothers of Charles V., to take arms in his favour.
These tempting offers gave rise to a series of expeditions into Italy carried out almost exclusively at Clement's expense, in the first of which Louis lost his life.
After the death of Louis, Clement hoped to find equally brave and interested champions in Louis' son and namesake; in Louis of Orleans, the brother of Charles VI.; in Charles VI.
There came a time, however, when Clement and more particularly his following had to acknowledge the vanity of these illusive dreams; and before his death, which took place on the 16th of September 1394, he realized the impossibility of overcoming by brute force an opposition which was founded on the convictions of the greater part of Catholic Europe, and discerned among his adherents the germs of disaffection.
Were we to judge by the contacts with Hebrews, Clement of Rome and Hermas and the similarity of situation evidenced in the last-named, Rome would seem the most natural place of origin.
The connexions with the Pauline epistles are conclusive for a date later than the death of James; those with Clement and Hermas are perhaps sufficient to date it as prior to the former, and suggest Rome as the place of origin.
Between 1302 and 1305 he wrote treatises at Genoa, lectured at Paris, visited Lyons in the vain hope of enlisting the sympathies of Pope Clement V., crossed over to Bougie in Africa, preached the gospel, and was imprisoned there for six months.
The origin of Maronism has been much obscured by the efforts of learned Maronites like Yusuf as-Simani (Assemanus), Vatican librarian under Clement XII., Faustus Nairon, Gabriel Sionita and Abraham Ecchellensis to clear its history from all taint of heresy.
But it is evident that the local particularism of the Lebanon was adverse to this union, and that even Gregory XIII., who sent the gallium to the patriarch Michael, and Clement VII.
On the 23rd of December 1312 Clement appointed him cardinal-bishop of Porto, and it was while cardinal of Porto that he was elected pope, on the 7th of August 1316.
Clement had died in April 1314, but the cardinals assembled at Carpentras were unable to agree as to his successor.
In 1317, in execution of a bull of Clement V., the royal vicariate in Italy had been conferred by John on Robert of Anjou, and this appointment was renewed in 1322 and 1324, with threats of excommunication against any one who should seize the vicariate of Italy without the authorization of the pope.
Clement V., at the council of Vienne, had attempted to bring back the Spirituals to the common rule by concessions; John, on the other hand, in the bull Quorundam exigit (April 13, 1317), adopted an uncompromising and absolute attitude, and by the bull Gloriosam ecclesiam (January 23, 1318) condemned the protests which had been raised against the bull Quorundam by a group of seventy-four Spirituals and conveyed to Avignon by the monk Bernard Delicieux.
At least half of the canons are derived from earlier constitutions, and probably not many of them are the actual productions of the compiler, whose aim was to gloss over the real nature of the Constitutions, and secure their incorporation with the Epistles of Clement in the New Testament of his day.
In 1602 Garnet received briefs from Pope Clement VIII.
An attempt to procure another small bishopric in the following year also failed, Clement VIII.
In 1348 the city was sold by Joanna, countess of Provence, to Clement VI.
The name Docetae is first used by Theodoret (Ep. 82) as a general description, and by Clement of Alexandria as the designation of a distinct sect,' of which he says that Julius Cassianus was the founder.
Clement and Origen, at the head of the Alexandrian school, took a somewhat subtle view of the Incarnation, and Docetism pervades their controversies with the Monarchians.
By their title the Constitutions profess to have been drawn up by the apostles, and to have been transmitted to the Church by Clement of Rome; sometimes the alleged authors are represented as speaking jointly, sometimes singly.
The third section consists of the Apostolic Canons already referred to, the last and most significant of which places the Constitutions and the two epistles of Clement in the canon of Scripture, and omits the Apocalypse.
Moreover, the writer represents the Roman Clement as the channel of communication between the apostles and the Church.
This fact both supplies him with the name by which he is commonly known, Pseudo-Clement, and also furnishes corroboration of his Syrian birth; since the other spurious writings bearing the name of Clement, the Homilies and Recognitions, are likewise of Syrian origin.
To this rich collection the author, who assumes the name of Isidore, the saintly bishop of Seville, added a good number of apocryphal documents already existing, as well as a series of letters ascribed to the popes of the earliest centuries, from Clement to Silvester and Damasus inclusive, thus filling up the gap before the decretal of Siricius, which is the first genuine one in the collection.
It was prepared under the care of Clement V., and even promulgated by him in consistory in March 1314; The but, in consequence of the death of the pope, which " took place almost immediately after, the publication and despatch of the collec Lion to the universities was postponed till 1317, under John Xxii.
It' includes the constitutions of Clement V., and above all, the decrees of the council of Vienne of 1311, and is divided, like preceding collections, into books and titles; it is cited in the same way, with the additional indication Clem-(entina).
Baldus was the master of Pierre Roger de Beaufort, who became pope under the title of Gregory XI., and whose immediate successor, Urban VI., summoned Baldus to Rome to assist him by his consultations in 1380 against the anti-pope Clement VII.
The same rule already meets us in Clement of Alexandria before the year 200.
Urban died before the arrival of Charles, of Anjou, and was succeeded by Clement IV.
Wolsey deprecated this procedure, and application was made to Clement VII.
Clement was in a position to listen to Henrys prayer; and Campeggio was commissioned with Wolsey to hear the suit and grant the divorce.