Clay Sentence Examples
The clay was still hidden.
That was when she noticed the clay on her shirt.
But he saw the clay on her shirt.
He saw that stupid clay spot.
On the higher clay grounds cattle-rearing and horse-breeding are also practised, together with butter and cheese making.Advertisement
They are generally low, being composed of sand and clay, and lie from 5 to 20 m.
Kaolin, or porcelain clay, although capable of application to commercial purposes, has not as yet been utilized to any extent, although found in several places in New South Wales and in Western Australia.
The total value of all clay products in West Virginia was $3,261,736 in 1908.
The later beds of the island belong to the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary systems. At the western foot of the Ida massif calcareous beds with corals, brachiopods (Rhvnchonella inconstans, &c.) have been found, the fossils indicating the horizon of the Kimmeridge clay.
In 1834 James Smith of Deanston promulgated his system of thorough draining and deep ploughing, the adoption of which immeasurably improved the clay lands of the country.Advertisement
The clay soils of England, Agricul- the latent fertility of which was to be brought into 187 since Y g I sis.
A trench was dug in the soft upper mud until the stratum of stiff blue clay was reached.
The streets are wide and cross at right angles; the houses are generally low and built of clay.
The houses are built of clay with (generally) flat roofs impervious to fire.
The Valentine Museum is in a house on Eleventh and Clay Streets, in which Aaron Burr was entertained while he was on trial, and which with $50,000 and his collections was devised to a board of trustees in 1892.Advertisement
Vases of all kinds, carved in marble or other stones, cast or beaten in metals or fashioned in clay, the latter in enormous number and variety, richly ornamented with coloured schemes, and sometimes bearing moulded decoration.
I.-Lion-Guarded Goddess And Shrine, On A Clay Sealing From Cnossus.
The town and neighbourhood have been long noted for their lime and cement, and large quantities of potters', pipe, fire and other kinds of clay are sent to Staffordshire and to foreign countries.
Considerable trade was carried on with France and Spain, cloth, Purbeck stone and, later, clay being largely exported.
In the neighbourhood of Nottingham, and other places in the Midlands, barytes forms a cementing material in the Triassic sandstones; amber-coloured crystals of the same mineral are found in the fuller's earth at Nutfield in Surrey; and the septarian nodules in London Clay contain crystals of barytes as well as of calcite.Advertisement
In some cases, however, as for example in the ducal palace itself, if the clay appeared sufficiently firm, the piles were dispensed with and the foundations went up directly from the oak platform which rested immediately on the clay.
The famous Venetian pozzi, or wells for storing rain-water from the roofs and streets, consisted of a closed basin with a water-tight stratum of clay at the bottom, upon which a slab of stone was laid; a brick shaft of radiating bricks laid in a permeable jointing material of clay and sand was then built.
It is deeper and more fertile, however, in the basins of the Great Miami and Little Miami rivers, where there is a liberal mixture of decomposed limestone and where extensive areas with a clay subsoil are covered with alluvial deposits.
North of the lower course of the Maumee river is a belt of sand, but Ohio drift generally contains a large mixture of clay.
Other valuable minerals are clay suitable for making pottery, brick and tile (in 1908 the value of the clay working products was $26,622,490) and sand suitable for making glass.Advertisement
Clay products rank fifth in the state; they increased in value from $16,480,812 in 1900 to $25,686,870 in 1905.
The soil is composed of red ferruginous kankar, with a stratum of clay in the more elevated parts, covered by a thin layer of vegetable mould, or by recent alluvial deposits.
Clay and " bottom " lands produce a large, leafy plant, yielding less lint in proportion.
The delta soil is typically a heavy, black, alluvial clay, very fertile, but difficult to work; admixture of sand is beneficial, and the localities where this occurs yield the best cotton.
The surrounding country abounds in coal, iron ore, oil, clay, stone and timber, for which the city is a distributing centre.
In Canada, means of transport similar to those already described are employed, but the reservoirs for storage often consist of excavations in the soft Erie clay of the oil district, the sides of which are supported by planks.
Silver Spring and Blue Spring in Marion county, Blue Spring and Orange City Mineral Spring in Volusia county, Chipola Spring near Marianna in Jackson county, Espiritu Santo Spring near Tampa in Hillsboro county, Magnolia Springs in Clay county, Suwanee Springs in Suwanee county, White Sulphur Springs in Hamilton county, the Wekiva Springs in Orange county, and Wakulla Spring, Newport Sulphur Spring and Panacea Mineral Spring in Wakulla county are the most noteworthy.
The boulder clay or " hard pan " of which most of the surface lands are composed, forms a very indifferent support for vegetation, and consequently the state is not well adapted for the growing of crops.
Many of the springs have curative properties, one of them, the Green Cove Spring in Clay county, discharging about 3000 gallons of sulphuretted water per minute.
Florida is also the principal source in the United States for fuller's earth, a deposit of which, near Quincy, was first discovered in 1893 and clay (including kaolin) is also mined to some extent.
The natural division into dunes, geest grounds, and clay and low fen holds for South as well as for North Holland.
On the clay and low fen cattle-rearing and the making of the Gouda cheeses are the principal occupations.
Brazil's chief industrial importance is due to its situation in the heart of the "Brazil block" coal (so named because it naturally breaks into almost perfect rectangular blocks) and clay and shale region; among its manufactures are mining machinery and tools, boilers, paving and enamelled building bricks, hollow bricks, tiles, conduits, sewer-pipe and pottery.
Other exports are tin and copper, granite, serpentine, vegetables and china clay.
It is in the Vermilion coal region, and clay for brick and tile is abundant in its vicinity.
His great difficulty lay in managing his colleagues, who were, especially Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams, able men of strong wills and jarring tempers.
Other minerals found here are graphite, alum, potter's clay and roofing-slate, and, besides, famous silvermines were worked at Iglau during the middle ages.
In the plains the soil is generally of sand or alluvial clay, covered in the valleys with a rich vegetable mould.
Farther inland in the level districts and river bottoms it varies from a sandy to a clay loam containing much alluvium.
On the foothills and in the less rugged mountain districts there is a thin but rich clay soil derived from coral limestone.
Brick clay and limestone are abundant, and there are on the south coast a sand marl rich in phosphates and productive salt deposits.
On the 29th of January 1850 Henry Clay presented the famous resolution which constituted the basis of the ultimate compromise.
Finally, although Clay for his support of the compromises and Seward and Chase for their opposition have gained in reputation, Webster has been selected as the special target for hostile criticism.
The Sumerians cast the heads of their lions in copper, not always with successful results, and filled them with bitumen and clay (like the image in " Bel and the Dragon," which was " clay within and brass without ") to give them solidity.
A simple plan is as follows - draw an outline of the country of which a map is to be produced upon a board; mark all points the altitude of which is known or can be estimated by pins or wires clipped off so as to denote the heights; mark river-courses and suitable profiles by strips of vellum and finally finish your model with the aid of a good map, in clay or wax.
They can, however, hardly be described as maps, while in age they are surpassed by several cartographical clay tablets discovered in Babylonia.
A cadastral survey for purposes of taxation was already at work in Babylonia in the age of Sargon of Akkad, 3800 B.C. In the British Museum may be seen a series of clay tablets, circular in shape and dating back to 2300 or 2100 B.C., which contain surveys of lands.
The soil consists, for the most part, either of clay intermixed with sand or of calcareous earth, and is on the whole fruitful.
Coal, oil, natural gas, clay and iron are found in the vicinity, and among the city's manufactures are iron, steel, glass, furniture and pottery.
The soil is mostly sand, clay (brick-clay and potter's-clay are not uncommon), and peat-bogs,with a few patches of "black earth."
Their material is of pale yellow clay with shining black glaze, and they are decorated with skilfully drawn red figures.
Kaolin is found in the state; in 1907 the total value of all clay products was $928,579.
Deep residual clay soils derived from underlying limestones, and coloured red or black according to the predominance of oxides of iron or vegetable detritus, characterize the plains.
Elsewhere three types of soil are distinguished - a black soil, of decayed vegetable matter, where the land is under forest, a reddish clay, and a white soil occurring along the shores.
In those parts of the desert which have a hard level soil of clay, a few stunted mimosas, acacias and other shrubs are produced, together with rue, various bitter and aromatic plants, and occasionally tufts of grass.
Their houses are built of timber and thatch, or clay tiles, except in the Karst region, where stone is more plentiful than wood.
The neolithic station of Butmir, near Ilidze, was probably a lake-dwellers' colony, and has yielded numerous stone and horn implements, clay figures and pottery.
It is not a commercial town, and its only noteworthy manufacture is the " clay dumplings " which are eaten with potatoes by the inhabitants of the Bolivian uplands.
The silica, in the form of diatom or radiolarian skeletons, is eventually deposited on the ocean floor after the death of the organisms. Most of the fine colloidal clay is, however, deposited as river-sludges when the fresh water carrying it mixes with denser sea-water.
The native carbonate or cerussite (q.v.) occasionally occurs in the pure form, but more frequently in a state of intimate intermixture with clay ("lead earth," Bleierde), limestone, iron oxides, &c. (as in the ores of Nevada and Colorado), and some times also with coal ("black lead ore").
Terra-cotta ware of fine quality is also manufactured from a deposit of clay at Watcombe and at Hele.
In the roasting process, sulphuric acid is formed and acts on the clay to form aluminium sulphate, a similar condition of affairs being produced during weathering.
One of the Brazilian birds whose habits have attracted much interest is the Joao de Barro (Clay John) or oven bird (Furnarius rufus), which builds a house of reddish clay for its nest and attaches it to the branch of a tree, usually in a fork.
The next is the Schlier, a peculiar blue-grey clay, widely spread over southern Europe, and contains extensive deposits of salt and gypsum.
The alluvial extracted, which in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago carries from 5 to 60 lb of tinstone (or "black tin," as it is termed by Cornish miners) to the cubic yard of gravel, is washed in various simple sluicing appliances, by which the lighter clay, sand and stones are removed and tinstone is left behind comparatively pure, containing usually 65 to 75% of metallic tin (chemically pure tinstone contains 78.7%).
In the south and north-west the typical London clay is the principal formation.
In the north and west the clay is interspersed with patches of plateau gravel in the direction of Finchley (where boulder clay also appears), Enfield and Barnet; and of Bagshot sands on Hampstead Heath and Harrow Hill.
Coal, fireclay and blue and red brick clay are dug in the neighbourhood; and there are also market gardens.
The stirring is therefore discontinued and the clay cylinder is either left embedded in the glass, or by the exercise of considerable force it may be gradually withdrawn.
Dr Petrie surmounts the difficulty by saying that the process depicted is not glass-blowing, but some metallurgical process in which reeds were used tipped with lumps of clay.
The whole world is formed out of one clay, but the Potter hath fashioned it in various forms."
In the deepest part of the excavations, however, inscribed clay tablets and fragments of stone vases are still found, though the cuneiform characters upon them are of a very archaic type, and sometimes even retain their primitive pictorial forms.
The empire was bound together by roads, along which there was a regular postal service; and clay seals, which took the place of stamps, are now in the Louvre bearing the names of Sargon and his son.
The characters of the syllabary were all arranged and named, and elaborate lists of them were drawn up. The literature was for the most part inscribed with a metal stylus on tablets of clay, called laterculae coctiles by Pliny; the papyrus which seems to have been also employed has perished.
Merodach here takes the place of Ea, who appears as the creator in the older legends, and is said to have fashioned man out of the clay.
In Babylonia the abundance of clay and want of stone led to the employment of brick; the Babylonian temples are massive but shapeless structures of crude brick, supported by buttresses, the rain being carried off by drains, one of which at Ur was of lead.
Stone as well as clay and glass were employed in the manufacture of vases, and vases of hard stone have been disinterred at Tello similar to those of the early dynastic period of Egypt.
They painted their bodies; the pintaderas, baked clay objects like seals in shape, have been explained by Dr Verneau as having been used solely for painting the body in various colours.
In some parts of Mexico and Central America this separation is still effected by running the sugar into conical moulds, and placing on the top a layer of moist clay or earth which has been kneaded in a mill into a stiff paste.
The moisture from the clay, percolating through the mass of sugar, washes away the adhering molasses and leaves the crystals comparatively free and clear.
It may be noted that sugar that will not purge easily and freely with clay will not purge easily and freely in centrifugals.
An examination of the soil shows it to be composed of a vast number of small particles of sand, clay, chalk and humus, in which are generally imbedded larger or smaller stones.
The term clay is often used by chemists to denote hydrated silicate of alumina (Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2.2H 2 O), of which kaolin or china clay is a fairly pure form.
The peculiar character which clay possesses is probably due not to its chemical composition but to its physical state.
It is obvious, therefore, that soil composed entirely of clay is as useless as pure sand so far as the growth of crops upon it is concerned.
A perfect soil would be such a blend of sand, clay, chalk and humus as would contain sufficient clay and humus to prevent drought, enough sand to render it pervious to fresh air and prevent waterlogging, chalk enough to correct the tendency to acidity of the humus present, and would have within it various substances which would serve as food-materials to the crops.
Generally speaking, soils containing from 30 to 50% of clay and 50 to 60% of sand with an adequate amount of vegetable residues prove the most useful for ordinary farm and garden crops; such blends are known as " loams," those in which clay predominates being termed clay loalns, and those in which the sand predominates sandy roams. " Stiff clays " contain over 50% of clay; " light sands " have less than to %.
A lump of clay, which if dried would become hard and intractable, crumbles into pieces when dried after adding to it 2% of lime.
The lime causes the minute separate particles of clay to flocculate or group themselves together into larger compound grains between which air and water can percolate more freely.
Many soils of a light sandy or gravelly or peaty nature and liable to drought and looseness of texture can be improved by the addition of large amounts of clay of an ordinary character.
S i milarly soils can be improved by applying to them marl, a substance consisting of a mixture of clay with variable proportions of lime.
Some of the chalk marls, which are usually of a yellowish or dirty grey colour, contain clay and 50 to 80% of carbonate of lime with a certain proportion of phosphate of lime.
The amount and nature of the clay or marl to be added to the soil will depend largely upon the original composition of the latter, the lighter sands and gravel requiring more clay than those of firmer texture.
On some of the strongest land it was formerly the practice to add to and plough into it burnt clay, with the object of making the land work more easily.
The burnt clay moreover carried Cl ay with it potash and other materials in a state readily available to the crops.
Great care is necessary to prevent the heaps from becoming too hot, in which case the clay becomes baked into hard lumps of brick-like material which cannot be broken up. With careful management, however, the clay dries and bakes, becoming slowly converted into lumps which readily crumble into a fine powder, in which state it is spread over and worked into the land at the rate of 40 loads per acre.
Paring and burning improves the texture of clay lands, particularly if draining is carried out at the same time.
The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.
Permeability is practically identical with the speed at which percolation takes place; through clay it is slow, but increases in rapidity through marls, loams, limestones, chalks, coarse gravels and fine sands, reaching a maximum in soil saturated with moisture.
Greenhow in 1858 stated that diphtheria was especially prevalent on cold, wet soils, and Airy in 1881 described the localities affected as " for the most part cold, wet, clay lands."
The ratio of cases to population living in Dublin on loose porous gravel soil for the ten years1881-1891was I in 94, while that of those living on stiff clay soil was but 1 in 145.
The inhabitants grow hemp, Indian corn, coffee, sibucao, cacao, cocoanuts (for copra) and sugar, weave rough fabrics and manufacture tuba (a kind of wine used as a stimulant), clay pots and jars, salt and soap. There is some fishing here.
Speaking generally, clay soils retentive of moisture produce heavy-cropping tobaccos which cure to a dark brown or red colour.
Where the clay is exposed on the surface the heavy type of tobacco is produced, and bright tobacco where the clay is covered by from 12 to 20 in.
Second in importance is the carbonate, calamine (q.v.) or zinc spar, which at one time was the principal ore; it almost invariably contains the carbonates of cadmium, iron, manganese, magnesium and calcium, and may be contaminated with clay, oxides of iron, galena and calcite; "white calamine" owes its colour to much clay; "red calamine" to admixed iron and manganese oxides.
It is fused up in iron basins lined with clay, and cast out into the customary form of cakes.
Even a machine of simple type, like the ordinary drain-pipe machine, in which the retorts are made by forcing the plastic clay mixture through a die, may result in greater economy and uniformity than is possible when retorts are made by hand.
The soil of Zeeland consists of a fertile sea clay which especially favours the production of wheat; rye, barley (for malting), beans and peas, and flax are also cultivated.
It includes chalky limestones, siliceous earths, red clay, and, at the top, a layer of mudstone composed mainly of volcanic dust.
The limestones contain Globigerina and other Foraminifera, the siliceous beds are made of Radiolaria, sponge spicules and diatoms, while the red clay closely resembles the red clay of the deepest parts of the oceans.
The Eastern Andes is a magnificent range in the southern part of Peru, of Silurian formation, with talcose and clay slates, many quartz veins and eruptions of granitic rocks.
This glacial material is in the form of a till or boulder clay, but in the lowlands, and especially along Narragansett Bay, it is generally overlaid by stratified drift deposited by glacial streams. Within Narragansett Bay are the numerous islands characteristic of an area which has suffered comparatively recent depression, the largest being Rhode Island (or Aquidneck), Conanicut Island and Prudence Island.
The value of the clay products, lime and talc, decreased from $245,378 in 1907 to $112,815 in 1908.
The clay having been removed, another plate of the same metal is beaten in, and the same process is repeated.
The existence of porcelain clay in Hizen was not discovered for many years, and Shonzuis pieces being made entirely with kaolin imported from China, their manufacture ceased after his death, though knowledge of the processes learned by him survived and was used in the production of greatly inferior wares.
One of these men, Boku Heii, discovered (1603) clay fitted for the manufacture of white craqueli faience.
The type generally known to them is exceedingly light ware, for the most part made of light grey, unglazed clay, and having hand-modelled decoration in relief.
Even during the 300 years of its conspicuous prosperity as the administrative capital of the Tokugawa shoguns, it had no noted factories, doubtless owing to the absence of any suitable potters clay in the immediate vicinity.
He was succeeded by Tozawa Benshi, an old man of over seventy in 1909, who, using clay from Owari or Hizen, has turned out many porcelain statuettes of great beauty.
There are also salt-works, and some deposits of potter's clay.
In the time of the counts the wealth of Gouda was mainly derived from brewing and cloth-weaving; but at a later date the making of clay tobacco pipes became the staple trade, and, although this industry has somewhat declined, the churchwarden pipes of Gouda are still well known and largely manufactured.
The soil of the northern portion of the county is a rich brown loam, on a substratum of clay or gravel.
Its other mineral resources include graphite, copper, zinc, lead, salt, alum, potter's clay, marble and good mill and building stones.
His grandfather, Frederick Frelinghuysen (1753-1804), was an eminent lawyer, one of the framers of the first New Jersey constitution, a soldier in the War of Independence, and a member (1778-1779 and 1782-1783) of the Continental Congress from New Jersey, and in 1793-1796 of the United States senate; and his uncle, Theodore (1787-1862), was attorney-general of New Jersey from 1817 to 1829, was a United States senator from New Jersey in 1829-1835, was the Whig candidate for vice-president on the Clay ticket in 1844, and was chancellor of the university of New York in 1839-1850 and president of Rutgers College in 1850-1862.
Gray, a British officer who attempted to solve the Niger problem, visited Bondu in 1818 it had been removed to Bulibani, a small town, with about 3000 population, surrounded by a strong clay wall.
The "auld clay biggin" in which Robert Burns was born on the 25th of January 1759, has been completely repaired and is now the property of the Ayr Burns's Monument trustees.
The soil throughout the greater portion of Bastar consists of light clay, with an admixture of sand, suited for raising rice and wet crops.
As an industrial centre Corinth achieved pre-eminence in pottery, metal-work and decorative handicraft, and was the reputed "inventor" of painting and tiling; her bronze and her pottery, moulded from the soft white clay of Oneium, were widely exported over the Mediterranean.
The Maltese Islands consist largely of Tertiary Limestone, with somewhat variable beds of Crystalline Sandstone, Greensand and Marl or Blue Clay.
The Blue Clay forms, at the higher levels, a stratum impervious to water, and holds up the rainfall, which soaks through the spongy mass of the superimposed coralline formations.
Not merely were artistic sculptures and bas-reliefs found that demonstrated a high development of artistic genius, but great libraries were soon revealed, - books consisting of bricks of various sizes, or of cylinders of the same material, inscribed while in the state of clay with curious characters which became indelible when baking transformed the clay into brick.
In a small outlying mound de Sarzec discovered the archives of the temple, about 30,000 inscribed clay tablets, containing the business records, and revealing with extraordinary minuteness the administration of an ancient Babylonian temple, the character of its property, the method of farming its lands, herding its flocks, and its commercial and industrial dealings and enterprises; for an ancient Babylonian temple was a great industrial, commercial, agricultural and stock-raising establishment.
In 1906 the total mineral product was valued at $814,126, of which $237,768 represented clay products and $146,346 stone.
Captain Phipps in 1773 secured samples of soft blue clay in this manner from a depth of 683 fathoms, but as a rule when sounding in great depths the sample is washed off the tallow before it can be brought on board.
The most abundant of the terrigenous materials are the finest particles of clay and calcium carbonate as well as fragments derived from land vegetation, of which twigs, leaves, &c., may form a perceptible proportion as far as 200 m.
Still, according to Murray and Irvine, finely divided colloidal clay is to be found in all parts of the ocean however remote from land, though in very small amount, and there is less in tropical than in cooler waters.
As well as the finest of terrigenous clay there is present in sea-water far from land a different clay derived from the decomposition of volcanic material.
When those deposits of organic origin are wanting or have been removed, the red clay composed of the mineral constituents is found alone.
It is a remarkable geographical fact that on the rises and in the basins of moderate depth of the open ocean the organic oozes preponderate, but in the abysmal depressions below 2500 or 3000 fathoms, whether these lie in the middle or near the edges of the great ocean spaces, there is found only the red clay, with a minimum of calcium carbonate, though sometimes with a considerable admixture of the siliceous remains of radiolarians.
Thus red clay and radiolarian ooze are distinguished as abyssal deposits in contradistinction to the epilophic calcareous oozes.
Red clay was discovered and named by Sir Wyville Thomson on the " Challenger " in 1873 when sounding in depths of 2700 fathoms on the way from the Canary Islands to St Thomas.
Red clay is the deposit peculiar to the abysmal area; 70 carefully investigated samples collected by the " Challenger " came from an average depth of 2730 fathoms, 97 specimens collected by the " Tuscarora " came from an average depth of 2860 fathoms, and 26 samples obtained by the " Albatross " in the Central Pacific came from an average depth of 2620 fathoms. Red clay has not yet been found in depths less than 2200 fathoms. The main ingredient of the deposit is a stiff clay which is plastic when fresh, but dries to a stony hardness.
A very interesting feature is the small proportion of calcium carbonate, the amount present being usually less as the depth is greater; red clay from depths exceeding 3000 fathoms does not contain so much as 1% of calcareous matter.
Amongst the foreign material found embedded in the red clay are globules of meteoric iron, which are sometimes very abundant.
The manganese nodules afford the most ample proof of the prodigious period of time which has elapsed since the formation of the red clay began; the sharks' teeth and whales' ear-bones which serve as nuclei belong in some cases to extinct species or even to forms derived from those familiar in the fossils from the seas of the Tertiary period.
This fact, together with the extraordinarily rare occurrence of such remains and meteoric particles in globigerina ooze, although there is no reason to suppose that at any one time they are unequally distributed over the ocean floor, can only be explained on the assumption that the rate of formation of the epilophic deposits through the accumulation of pelagic shells falling from the surface is rapid enough to bury the slowgathering material which remains uncovered on the spaces where the red clay is forming at an almost infinitely slower rate.
Sir John Murray believes that no more than a few feet of red clay have accumulated in the deepest depressions since the close of the Tertiary period.
Radiolarian ooze was recognized as a distinct deposit and named by Sir ' John Murray on the " Challenger " expedition, but it may be viewed as red clay with an exceptionally large proportion of siliceous organic remains, especially those of the radiolarians which form part of the pelagic plankton.
Geologists are agreed that littoral and hemipelagic deposits similar to those now forming are to be found in all geological systems, but the existence in the rocks of eupelagic deposits and especially of the abysmal red clay, though viewed by some as probable, is totally denied by others.
This theory accords well with the enormous lapse of time required in the accumulation of the red clay.
Underneath is the true floor of the cave, a mass of homogeneous yellow clay, one metre in thickness.
Stuff containing a considerable amount of clay is found to be the best suited for the purpose of filling, as it consolidates readily under pressure.
The Coastal Plain has for the most part a light sandy soil, but there is a fertile alluvium in the river bottoms and good clay soils on some of the uplands.
The eastern part of the Prairie Plains is a belt known as the Black Prairie, and it has a rich black soil derived from Upper Cretaceous limestone; immediately west of this is another belt with a thinner soil derived from Lower Cretaceous rocks; a southern part of the same plains has a soil derived from granite; in a large area in the north-west the plains have a reddish clay soil derived from Permian rocks and a variety of soils - good black soils and inferior sandy and clay soils - derived from Carboniferous rocks.
The loess soil, chiefly a mixture of porous clay and carbonate of lime, forms the bluffs that border the bottom lands of the Missouri.
Gneiss, granite and quartz - the decomposed granite giving the red " African " clay - are the leading features in the formations of the Northern province, of Buganda, and of the Western province, with some sandstone in the littoral districts of Buganda and in Ankole, and eruptive rocks.
Geologically the region is made up of Carboniferous limestones, clay slates and sandstones, containing anthracite and coal; of Cretaceous marls, chalk, sandstone and greensands - chalk cliffs, in fact, accompany the Don for 200 m.; and of Miocene limestones and clays.
Second in value to the various stones were the clay products of the state, which were valued in 1906 at $2,172,733 (of which $1,415,864 was the value of common brick) and in 1908 at $1,647,362 (of which $950,921 was the value of common brick).
Art in clay was far from universal in the two Americas.
The only workers in clay west of the Rockies and north of the Pueblo country belonged to the Shoshonean family of the Interior Basin.
In each province they had found the best springs, beds of clay, paint, soapstone, flinty rock, friable stone for sculpture and hard, tenacious stone for tools, and used ashes for salt.
The materials on the coast were clay and gravel wrought into concrete, sun-dried bricks and pise, or rammed work, cut stalks of plants formed with clay a kind of staff, and lintels were made by burying stems of cana brava (Gynerium saccharoides) in blocks of pise.
The rocks in the Arakan range and its spurs are metamorphic, and comprise clay, slates, ironstone and indurated sandstone; towards the S., ironstone, trap and rocks of basaltic character are common; veins of steatite and white fibrous quartz are also found.
It is abundant, for example, in the plastic clay of the Brown Coal formation at Littmitz, near Carlsbad, in Bohemia, at which place it has been extensively mined for the manufacture of sulphur and ferrous sulphate.
The Romans cast their larger copper coins, in clay moulds carrying distinctive markings, not because they knew nothing of striking, but because it was not suitable for such large masses of metal.
Formerly bullion was melted in crucibles made of refractory clay, but they are liable to crack and require careful handling These were succeeded by iron crucibles, especially for melting silver, and these have now been generally replaced by graphite (plumbago) crucibles made of a mixture of clay and graphite.
In foreign mints the molten metal is generally transferred from the crucible to the moulds by dipping crucibles or iron ladles covered with clay.
The phosphate beds contain Eocene fossils derived from the underlying strata and many fragments of Pleistocene vertebrata such as mastodon, elephant, stag, horse, pig, &c. The phosphate occurs as lumps varying greatly in size, scattered through a sand or clay; they often contain phosphatized Eocene fossils (Mollusca, &c.).
In the larger valleys and along the shores of lakes considerable alluvium is mixed with this clay.
More than thirty mineral substances are obtained in commercial quantities from the mines, quarries and wells of New York, but of the total value of the mineral products in 1908 ($45,6 6 9, 861), nearly six-sevenths was' represented by clay products ($8,929,224), pig iron ($15,879,000), stone ($6,157,279), cement ($ 2, 2 54,759), salt ($2,136,738), petroleum ($2,071,533), and sand and gravel ($1,349,163).
The extensive deposits of clay in the Hudson Valley together with the easy water communications with New York City have made this valley the greatest brick-making region in the world; in 1906 the common bricks made here numbered 1,230,692,000.
There are also deposits of clay suitable for making bricks, terra-cotta and tiles in nearly every county outside of this valley, and there are some pottery clays in Albany and Onondaga counties.
Limestone and clay suitable for making Portland cement are also found in Ulster county and elsewhere, and the production of this increased from 65,000 Barrels in 1890 to 2,290,955 barrels in 1908.
The manufacture of paper and wood-pulp products ($37,750,605 in 1905) is an industry for which the state still furnishes much of the raw material, and other large industries of which the same is true are the manufacture of flour and grist-mill products, dairy products, canned fruits and vegetables, wines, clay products, and salt.
The minerals are unimportant, except amber, peat and clay.
In the valleys of rivers which have overflowed their banks and on level bench lands there is considerable silt and vegetable loam mixed with glacial clay; but on the hills and ridges of western Washington the soil is almost wholly a glacial deposit consisting principally of clay but usually containing some sand and gravel.
There are large deposits of glacial and residual clays and clay shales throughout the state.
Good building stone is obtained near Bloemfontein, Ladybrand and other places, and excellent pottery clay near Bloemfontein.
Fine porcelain clay occurs near Meissen, and coarser varieties elsewhere.
The neighbouring fields of clay, afford material for the manufacture of bricks and pottery; coarse cloth is woven in the town; and there is a considerable trade in farm produce.
The walls, which were supported by posts, or by piles of greater length, were formed of wattle-work, coated with clay.
The floors were of clay, and in each floor there was a hearth constructed of flat slabs' of stone.
The walls were formed of split tree-trunks set upright and plastered with clay; and the flooring of similar timbers bedded in clay.
Of clay and earthenware there were many varieties of domestic dishes, cups and pipkins, and crucibles or melting pots made of clay and horse dung and still retaining the drossy coating of the melted bronze.
Moulds for sickles, lance-heads and bracelets were found cut in stone or made in baked clay.
Certainly the priestly writer who produced the latter could not have said that God modelled the first man out of moistened clay, or have adopted the singular account of the formation of Eve in ii.
Around the whole tower was a pavement of inscribed baked bricks, resting on a layer of clay 2 ft.
West of the Missouri river the drift gives place to a fine soil of sand aid clay, with deposits of alluvium in the vicinity of streams. Though lacking in vegetable mould, these soils are generally capable of producing good crops where the water-supply is sufficient.
Corn grows throughout the western half of the state, and especially in the south-western parts, in Lincoln, Clay, Union, Yankton and Bonhommie counties, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Lincoln county, 3,914,840 bush., nearly one-eleventh of the state crop. Oats has a distribution similar to that of corn, the largest crop in 1899 being that of Minnehaha county, 1,666,110 bush., about one-nineteenth of the state crop. Barley grows principally in the eastern and southern parts of the state - Minnehaha, Moody, Lake and Brookings counties - the largest crop in 1899 being that of Minnehaha county, 932,860 bush., more than one-seventh of the state.
The city of Vermilion and Clay county and private persons have contributed largely to its support.
The marshes extend along the Swale to Whitstable, whence stretches a low line of clay and sandstone cliffs towards the Isle of Thanet, when they become lofty and grand, extending round the Foreland southward to Pegwell Bay, The coast from Sheppey round to the South Foreland is skirted by numerous flats and sands, the most extensive of which are the Goodwin Sands off Deal.
The London Clay occupies the tongue of land between the estuaries of the Thames and Medway, as well as Sheppey and a district about 8 m.
It reappears at Pegwell Bay, and in the neighbourhood of London it rises above the plastic clay into the elevation of Shooter's Hill, with a height of about 450 ft.
The plastic clay, which rests chiefly on chalk, occupies the remainder of the estuary of the Thames, but at several places it is broken through by outcrops of chalk, which in some instances run northwards to the banks of the river.
The middle series of the Lower Tertiaries, known as the Woolwich and Reading beds, rests either on the Thanet beds or on chalk, and consists chiefly of irregular alternations of clay and sand of very various colours, the former often containing estuarine and oyster shells and the latter flint pebbles.
The highest and most local series of the Lower Tertiaries is the Oldhaven and Blackheath beds lying between the London Clay and the Woolwich beds.
After dipping below the London Clay at Canterbury, it sends out an outcrop which forms the greater part of Thanet.
To the south of the Downs there is a narrow valley formed by the Gault, a fossiliferous blue clay.
This is succeeded by an outcrop of the Lower Greensand - including the Folkestone, Sandgate and Hythe beds with the thin Atherfield Clay at the base - which extends across the country from west to east with a breadth of from 2 to 7 m., and rises into the picturesque elevations of the Ragstone hills.
The London Clay is much used for bricks, coarse pottery and Roman cement.
Ironstone is found in the Wadhurst Clay, a subdivision of the Hastings beds, clays and calcareous ironstone in the Ashdown sand, but the industry has long been discontinued.
Upon the London Clay the land is generally heavy and stiff, but very fruitful when properly manured and cultivated.
On the ragstone the soil is occasionally thin and much mixed with small portions of sand and stone; but in some situations the ragstone has a thick covering of clay loam, which is most suitable for the production of hops and fruits.
In the district of the Weald marl prevails, with a substratum of clay.
The soil of Romney Marsh is a clay alluvium.
In Maine four peaks exceed 3000 ft., including Katandin (5200 ft.), Mount Washington, in the White Mountains (6279 ft.), Adams (5805), Jefferson (5725), Clay (5554), Monroe (5390), Madison (5380), Lafayette (5269); and a number of summits rise above 4000 ft.
In this region the soils of sand and clay are much finer than the drift, and are very productive where the water-supply is sufficient.
The total value of the mineral products (except stone) in 1909 was $738,818, of which $522,116 was the value of coal and $206,222 of clay products.
Coal, ironstone and clay are mined in close proximity, and every sort of iron and steel goods is produced.
These screes are however very flat and their lower edges generally reach all the way down to the central part of the basin, which is occupied by an expanse of yellow clay, perfectly flat and fairly hard, as well as dry and barren, often cracked into polygonal cakes and drawn out in the direction of the long axis of the valley....
Good pasture grounds are only found near the streams. The soil is dry gravel and clay, upon which bushes of Ephedra, Nitraria and Salsolaceae grow sparsely.
While the ruins of Calah were remarkably rich in monumental material, enamelled bricks, bronze and ivory objects and the like, they yielded few of the inscribed clay tablets found in such great numbers at Nineveh and various Babylonian sites.
The houses, which are built of clay, are low and flat-roofed; and the only buildings of importance are the chief mosque, which is surmounted by a tower 95 ft.
Potters' clay, kaolin and felspar, which have largely facilitated the development of the flourishing porcelain industry, are found in various parts of the country, which is also fortunate in possessing sand suitable for use in the manufacture of the glass for which Bohemia has long been famous.
It rests on a subsoil of clay and marl.
The chief spokesman of the new movement was Henry Clay, who remained throughout his life the constant advocate of this so-called " American system."
Its walls are lofty and supported by buttress bastions with loopholed turrets at intervals; the fortifications, however, are but of hard clay and are much out of repair.
The original material was a fine clay, sometimes with more or less of sand or ashy ingredients, occasionally with some lime; and the bedding may be indicated by alternating bands of different lithological character, crossing the cleavage faces of the slates, and often interrupting the cleavage, or rendering it imperfect.
On the East Shore to the north is a marly loam overlying a yellowish-red clay sub-soil, to the south is a soil quite stiff with light coloured clay, while here and there, especially in the middle and south, are considerable areas both of light sandy soils and tidal marsh loams. On the West Shore the soils range from a light sandy loam in the lower levels south from Baltimore to rather heavy loarns overlying a yellowish clay on the rolling uplands and on the terraces along the Potomac and Patuxent.
Crossing the state along the lower edge of the Fall Line is a belt heavy with clay, but so impervious to water as to be of little value for agricultural purposes.
For the most part they are considerably heavier with clay than are those of the Coastal Plain, and better adapted to general agricultural purposes.
In the east portion of the mountainous region the soil so well adapted to peach culture contains much clay, together with particles of Cambrian sandstone.
Brick, potter's and tile clays are obtained most largely along the west border of the Coastal Plain, and fire-clay from the coal region of West Maryland; in 1907 the value of clay products was $1,886,362.
Employers of workmen in a clay or coal mine, stone quarry, or on a steam or street railway are liable for damage in case of an injury to any of their workmen where such injury is caused by the negligence of the employer or of any servant or employee of the employer.
Over a large part of the central Pacific, far removed from any possible land-influences or deposits of ooze, the red-clay region is characterized by the occurrence of manganese, which gives the clay a chocolate colour, and manganese nodules are found in vast numbers, along with sharks' teeth and the ear-bones and other bones of whales.
Its manufactures include slaughtering and meat-packing products, cars and car repairing, linseed oil, bricks and tiles (made from excellent clay found in and near the city).
The soils of the Highland Rim Plateau as well as of the lowland west of the Tennessee river vary greatly, but the most common are a clay, containing more or less carbonate of lime, and a sandy loam.
On the escarpment around the Blue Grass Region the soils are for the most part either cherty or stiff with clay and of inferior quality.
The value of clay products was $2,406,350 in 1905 (when Kentucky was tenth among the states) and was $2,611,364 in 1907 (when Kentucky was eleventh among the states).
The old court party followed the lead of Henry Clay and John Quincy Adams in national politics, and became National Republicans and later Whigs.
The electoral vote of the state was cast for Jackson in 1828 and for Clay in 1832.
During the next thirty years Clay's conservative influence dominated the politics of the state.'
In 1860 the people of Kentucky were drawn toward the South by their interest in slavery and by their social relations, and toward the North by business ties and by a national sentiment which was fostered by the Clay traditions.
Papers published in 1776 were concerned with quartz, alum and clay and with the analysis of calculus vesicae from which for the first time he obtained uric acid.
Among other works of art may be mentioned the clay statue of the Madonna dell' Ulivo by Benedetto da Maiano.
The early methods of making cane sugar, clarified with clay and dried in conical moulds, are to be found all over Mexico, and the annual output of this brown or muscovado sugar (called "panela " by the natives) is still very large.
So man was made first of clay, but he was strengthless and senseless and melted in the water; then they made a race of wooden mannikins, but these were useless creatures without heart or mind, and they were destroyed by a great flood and pitch poured down on them from heaven, those who were left of them being turned into the apes still to be seen in the woods.
In the nearly unexplored central part of Nicaragua Dr Lehmann found fragments of painted polychrome clay pottery similar to objects known from the Ulloa Valley (Honduras) amongst other ceramic pieces which seem to have been left by the ancestors of the Sumo Indians, now extinct in that territory.
Of this total the only other large items were clay and clay products (valued at $371,640), and mineral waters ($259,520; of which $150,512 was the value of table waters) from nine springs, four in Rockingham, three in Hillsboro county and one each in Coos and Carrol counties-and other mineral waters were used in the manufacture of soft drinks.
Antimony, quicksilver, stone, marble, slate and potter's clay are also worked, and there are brine springs in the Hellweg and mineral springs at Lippspringe, Oynhausen, &c.
Pierce was not a great statesman, and his fame has been overshadowed by that of Benton, Calhoun, Clay and Webster.
Tens of thousands of clay tablets, systematically arranged on shelves, contained the classics of the Babylonian literature for which his scribes ransacked and copied the treasures of all then known centres of literary life.
He compares it also to the change of Moses' rod into a snake, of the Nile into blood, to the virtue inherent in Elijah's mantle or in the wood of the cross or in the clay mixt of dust and the Lord's spittle, or in Elisha's relics which raised a corpse to life, or in the burning bush.
Through the influence of Henry Clay an act of admission was finally passed, to come into operation as soon as the state legislature would pledge itself not to pass any legislation to enforce this clause.
Other important manufactures are bicycles, brick and other clay products, brooms, brushes, and cotton and woollen goods.
The feature referred to results from the occurrence here of a weak basal formation of clay overlaid by more resistant sandy strata; the clay belt has been stripped for a score or more of miles from its original inland overlap, and worn down in a longitudinal inner lowland, while the sandy belt retains a significant altitude of 200 or 300 ft.
The lakes were small at first, and each had its own outlet at the lowest depression in -the height of land to the south; but as the ice melted back, neighboring lakes became confluent at the level of the lowest outlet of the group; the outflowing streams grew in the same proportion and eroded a broad channel across the height of land and far down stream, while the lake waters built sand reefs or carved shore cliffs along their margin, and laid down sheets of clay on their floors.
A few of the large streams may, when in flood, spr.ead out in a temporary shallow sheet qn a dead level of clay, or playa, in a basin centre, but the sheet of water vanishes in the warm season and the stream shrinks far up its course, the absolutely barren clay floor of the playa, impassable when wet, becomes firm enough for crossing when dry.
In the coastal plain the Comanchean beds are generally not cemented, but consist of gravel, sand and clay, occupying the nearly horizontal position in which they were originally deposited.
Much plastic clay and sand are derived from them.
They consist, in most parts of the country, of unconsolidated sediments, consisting of gravel, sand, clay, &c., together with large quantities of tuff, volcanic agglomerate, &c. Some of the sedimentary formations are of marine, some of brackish water, and some of terrestrial origin.
As might be expected under these conditions, it ranges from fine sand to silt which approaches clay in texture.
Glass and other sands and gravel ($13,270,032), lime ($11,091,186), phosphate rock ($10,653,558), salt ($7,553,632), natural mineral waters ($7,287,269), sulphur ($6,668,215, almost wholly from Louisiana), slate ($6,316,8 I7), gypsum ($4,138,560), clay ($2,599,986), asphalt ($1,888,881), talc and soapstone ($1,401,222), borax ($975,000, all from California), and pyrite ($857,113) were the next most important products in 1908.
Of building-stone, clay, cement, lime, sand and salt, the countrys supply was estimated by the National Conservation Commission of 1908 to be ample.
While these ancient events shaped the topography in a broad way, its final development was comparatively recent, during the glacial period, when the loose materials were scoured from some regions and spread out as boulder clay, or piled up as moraines in others; and the original water-ways were blocked in many places.
In most parts the Laurentian hills are bare roches moutonnees scoured by the glaciers of the Ice Age, but a broad band of clay land extends across northern Quebec and Ontario just north of the divide.
Superimposed on these rocks are Pleistocene boulder clay, and clay and sand deposited in post-glacial lakes or an extension of the Gulf of St Lawrence.
The shores are sand, clay or loam throughout some 1300 m., with very rare rock ridges or rapids, and the banks rise low above ordinary water.
Many indications of ice action are found in these islands; striated surfaces are to be seen on the cliffs in Eday and Westray, in Kirkwall Bay and on Stennie Hill in Eday; boulder clay, with marine shells, and with many boulders of rocks foreign to the islands (chalk, oolitic limestone, flint, &c.), which must have been brought up from the region of Moray Firth, rests upon the old strata in many places.
The soil generally is a sandy loam or a strong but friable clay, and very fertile.
In 1875 sapphires were discovered in deposits of clay and sand in Battambang (Siam), where they have been worked on a considerable scale.
Bath brick, manufactured only here, and made of the mingled sand and clay deposited by every tide, is the staple article of commerce; iron-founding is also carried on.
Although it may be exceedingly fine-grained, there is usually very little clay in alluvium.
In the Piedmont Plateau and Appalachian Mountains Regions the surface soil is generally sandy, but in considerable areas the subsoil is a red clay derived largely from the decomposition of hornblende.
Zanesville is an important centre for tha manufacture of art and domestic pottery, plain and ornamental tile, building and paving bricks, and other clay products.
The surface soil is clay in which are embedded fragments of siliceous sandstone, used for millstones and constructional purposes; the subsoil is limestone.
Massillon is built among hills in a part of the state noted for its large production of coal and wheat and abounding in white sandstone, iron ore and potter's clay.
In the older valleys on the islands of Kauai, Oahu and Maui, as well as on the lowland plain of Molokai, the soil is deeper and usually, too, the moisture is retained by a heavy clay.
The walls were formed either of stout planks laid together vertically or horizontally, or else of posts at a short distance from one another, the interstices being filled up with wattlework daubed with clay.
The urns themselves are of clay, somewhat badly baked, and bear geometrical patterns applied with a punch.
The city is pleasantly situated in an agricultural region, and there are large deposits of cement and of fire-brick clay in the vicinity.
The whole was bedded, not in mortar, but in clay, which has mostly been washed out of the joints; originally the surface was probably protected with a coating of stucco.
Top of main wall, paved with clay, level with the inside.
H, Probable roof of the colonnade of wood, covered with beaten clay.
When the Holy Ghost (Michael) appeared in the shape of the dove, Jesus received power to break the covenant in the form of a clay tablet (heirographon) held by Satanail from Adam.
Most of the Pennsylvania shore of Lake Erie is lined with a wall of sand and clay 50-100 ft.
The north-west and north-east sections contain some glacial drift but the soil in these parts is not suitable for cultivation except in the larger valleys in the north-west where it is drained by glacial gravel or there is some sandy loam mixed with clay.
There is an extensive area in the south-east part of the state containing shale clay of a superior quality for making common brick.
In 1908 the state ranked first in the value of its output of brick and tile ($ 18, 9 81, 743), which was 14.74% of the entire product of the United States, and was second only to Ohio in the total value of its clay products ($14,842,982), which was 11.14% of that for the entire country.
The soil is a gravelly clay but moderately fertile, and cattle-raising is largely carried on.
A Republican in politics, and a firm believer in the doctrines of strict construction and state sovereignty which Thomas Jefferson had been principally instrumental in formulating, he opposed consistently the demand for internal improvements and increased tariff duties, and declined to follow Henry Clay in the proposed recognition of the independence of the Spanish colonies in South America and in the Missouri Compromise legislation.
In the controversy over the removal of the government deposits from the Bank of the United States he sided with the bank, and voted for Clay's resolution censuring Jackson for his course in the matter.
He stood, however, as it were, midway between the two great parties, without the leadership or support of either; Van Buren, whose influence in the practical working of politics was still great, refused to recognize him as a Democrat, and the Whigs repudiated him as a Whig; while with Clay leading the majority in Congress, harmony between that body and the executive was from the first impossible.
The various kinds of brown and yellow ochre are mixtures of limonite with clay and other impurities; whilst in umber much manganese oxide is present.
Argillaceous brown iron ore is often known in Germany as Thoneisenstein; but the corresponding term in English (clay iron stone) is applied to nodular forms of impure chalybite.
The valley is a part of the anthracite coal region of Pennsylvania, fire clay abounds in the vicinity, and .the borough's principal industries are the mining and shipping of coal, and the manufacture of shirts and foundry products.
Boone is an important coal centre; bricks and tiles are manufactured from the clay obtained near by; there is a packing plant for the manufacture of beef and pork products; and from the rich farming section by which the city is surrounded come large quantities of grain, some of which is milled here, and live-stock.
It was again described by Albert le Grand in the 13th century and by Raimon Lull, who prepared it by heating nitre and clay and called it "eau forte."
It should be free from dirt - that is to say, free from clay or soft mud, for instance, which prevents the cement adhering to its particles, or again from sewage matter or any substance which will chemically destroy the matrix.
But they are weak, and modern experience goes to show that a strong concrete is the best, and that probably materials like broken clamp bricks or burnt clay, which are porous and yet strong, are far better than cinders as a fireproof aggregate.
There are three natural divisions - foreshore and sand-dunes, inner dunes and the geest grounds, and low fens and clay lands.
This covering had been formed, during some twelve centuries, partly by clay swept down from the Cronion, partly by deposit from the overflowings of the Cladeus.
Until about 1860, indeed, the dimly lit lanes were paved with rough stone blocks, imbedded in the clay soil, which often subsided, so as to leave the surface undulating like a sea.
Kaolin or China clay is essentially a pure disilicate (Al 2 O 3.2SiO 2.2H 2 O), occurring in large beds almost throughout the world, and containing in its anhydrous state 2 4.4% of the metal, which, however, in common clays is more or less replaced by calcium, magnesium, and the alkalis, the proportion of silica sometimes reaching 70%.
Aluminium sulphate, known commercially as "concentrated alum" or "sulphate of alumina," is manufactured from kaolin or china clay, which, after roasting (in order to oxidize any iron present), is heated with sulphuric acid, the clear solution run off, and evaporated.
Natural soils consist of substances derived from the decomposition of various kinds of rocks, the bulk consisting of clay, silica and lime, in various proportions.
When the whole ground has been thus treated, a moderate liming will, in general, be useful, especially on heavy clay soils.
Argillaceous or clay soils are those which contain a large percentage (45-50) of clay, and a small percentage (5 or less) of lime.
Loamy soils contain a considerable quantity (30-45%) of clay, and smaller quantities of lime, humus and sand.
Such soils properly drained and prepared are very suitable for orchards, and when the proportion of clay is smaller (20-30%) they form excellent garden soils, in which the better sort of fruit trees luxuriate.
Manly soils are those which contain a considerable percentage (10-20) of lime, and are called clay marls, loamy marls and sandy marls, according as these several ingredients preponderate.
The clay marls are, like clay soils, too stiff for garden purposes until well worked and heavily manured; but loamy marls are fertile and well suited to fruit trees, and sandy marls are adapted for producing early crops.
Calcareous soils, which may also be heavy, intermediate or light, are those which contain more than 20% of lime, their fertility depending on the proportions of clay and sand which enter into their composition; they are generally cold and wet.
When the subsoil is too compact to be pervious to water, effectual drainage must be resorted to; when it is very loose, so that it drains away the fertile ingredients of the soil as well as those which are artificially supplied, the compactness of the stratum should be increased by the addition of clay, marl or loam.
The best of all subsoils is a dry bed of clay overlying sandstone.
It also improves the texture of clay soils.
Burnt clay has a very beneficial effect on clay land by improving its texture and rendering soluble the alkaline substances it contains.
The clay should be only slightly burnt, so as to make it crumble down readily; in fact, the fire should not be allowed to break through, but should be constantly repressed by the addition of material.
To do this deftly, the hands should be plunged from time to time in dry ashes, to prevent the clay from sticking to them.
Various kinds of grafting wax are now obtainable, and are a great improvement upon the clay process.
Its fertility was famous in ancient times, and still more the red pottery made of the local clay, with its imitation of chased silver.
A similar action probably explains the origin of pyrites and marcasite in coal and lignite, in clay and shales, and in limestone like chalk.
The western division consists of low fen or clay soil and presents a monotonous expanse of rich meadow-land, carefully drained in regular lines of canals bordered by stunted willows, and dotted over with windmills, the sails of canal craft and the clumps of elm and poplar which surround each isolated farm-house.
Layer upon layer of clay is deposited by the sea in front of the dikes, until new fringe has been added to the coast-line on which sea grasses begin to grow.
The prevalence of south-west winds during nine months of the year and of north-west during three (April - June) has a strong influence on the temperature and rainfall, tides, river mouths and outlets, and also, geologically, on dunes and sand drifts, and on fens and the accumulation of clay on the coast.
The chief products of cultivation on the heavy clay soil are oats, barley and wheat, and on the sand-grounds rye, buckwheat and potatoes.
Flax and beetroot are also cultivated on the clay lands.
The mineral resources of Holland give no encouragement to industrial activity, with the exception of the coal-mining in Limburg, the smelting of iron ore in a few furnaces in Overysel and Gelderland, the use of stone and gravel in the making of dikes and roads, and of clay in brickworks and potteries, the quarrying of stone at St Pietersberg, &c. Nevertheless the industry of the country has developed in a remarkable manner since the separation from Belgium.
Other branches of industry include carpet-weaving at Deventer, the distillation of brandy, gin and liqueurs at Schiedam, Rotterdam and Amsterdam, and beer-brewing in most of the principal towns; shoe-making and leather-tanning in the Langstraat district of North Brabant; paper-making at Apeldoorn, on the Zaan, and in Limburg; the manufacture of earthenware and faience at Maastricht, the Hague and Delft, as well as at Utrecht, Purmerend and Makkum; clay pipes and stearine candles at Gouda; margarine at Osch; chocolate at Weesp and on the Zaan; mat-plaiting and broom-making at Genemuiden and Blokzyl; diamondcutting and the manufacture of quinine at Amsterdam; and the making of cigars and snuff at Eindhoven, Amsterdam, Utrecht, Kampen, &c. Shipbuilding is of no small importance in Holland, not only in the greater, but also in the smaller towns along the rivers and canals.
The clayey siderite of the British coal measures is called " clay band," and that containing bituminous matter is called " black band."
On the other hand, the cost of iron ore is likely to rise much faster than that of the potential aluminium ores, clay and its derivatives, because of the vast extent and richness of the deposits of this latter class.
To put the iron contained in iron ore into a state in which it can be used as a metal requires essentially, first its deoxidation, and second its separation from the other mineral matter, such as clay, quartz, &c., with which it is found associated.
These are usually made of sand containing enough clay to give it the needed coherence, but of late promising attempts have been made to use permanent iron moulds.
These and kindred difficulties make each new shape or size a new problem, and in particular they require that for each and every individual casting a new sand or clay mould shall be made with care by a skilled workman.