103, owing to the silting up of the Claudian harbour, and the increase of trade, to construct another port further inland - a hexagonal basin enclosing an area of 97 acres with enormous warehouses - communicating with the harbour of Claudius and with the Tiber by means of the channel already constructed by Claudius, this channel being prolonged so as to give also direct access to the sea.
Claudius, the new emperor, restored the civic rights of the Alexandrian Jews and made Agrippa I.
Several milestones belonging to it have been discovered, including one of the time of Augustus and one of Claudius near Forum Traiani, and one of Nero near Turris Libisonis, though it was probably not completed right through until a later period (T.
Her beauty attracted the notice of the decemvir Appius Claudius, who instructed Marcus Claudius, one of his clients, to claim her as his slave.
269 the great battle in which Emperor Claudius destroyed the army of the Goths.
Caesar had projected remedial measures, but (as in so many cases) had never been able to carry them out, and it was not until the time of Claudius that the problem was approached.
This was connected with the Tiber by an artificial channel, and by this work Claudius, according to the inscriptions which he erected in A.D.
Mazaca, the residence of the kings of Cappadocia, later called Eusebea (perhaps after Ariarathes Eusebes), and named Caesarea probably by Claudius, stood on a low spur on the north side of Erjies Dagh (M.
With regard to the region north of the Rhine we first obtain information from the accounts of the campaigns of Nero, Claudius, Drusus and Tiberius.
69-70) under the influence of a great leader, known only by his Roman name Claudius Civilis, rose in revolt.
CLAUDIUS JAMES RICH (1787-1821), English traveller and scholar, was born near Dijon on the 28th of March 1787.
Claudius Quadrigarius (about 80 B.C.) wrote a history, in at least twenty-three books, which began with the conquest of Rome by the Gauls and went down to the death of Sulla or perhaps later.
50 in the reign of Claudius, but is not mentioned before the war of Civilis in 69 (Tacitus, Hist.
Claudius Ptolemaeus (c. A.D.
MARCUS CLAUDIUS TACITUS, Roman emperor from the 25th of September A.D.
We have at Athens the exact parallel to the state of things when Appius Claudius shrank from the thought of the consulship of Gaius Licinius; we have no exact parallel to the state of things when Quintus Metellus shrank from the thought of the consulship of Gaius Marius.
By her first husband she was the mother of Marcus Marcellus (q.v.), who died in 23 B.C. (2) Octavia, daughter of the emperor Claudius, was the wife of Nero, by whom she was put to death.
The chief record of the dialect or patois we owe to the goddess Angitia, whose chief temple and grove stood at the south-west corner of Lake Fucinus, near the inlet to the emissarius of Claudius (restored by Prince Torlonia), and the modern village of Luco.
In the baths were found a number of works of art, now in the Vatican, notably the mosaic pavement of the Sala della Rotonda, and the celebrated head of Zeus and the head of Claudius in the same room.
Claudius intended that Agrippa's young son should succeed to the kingdom; but he was overruled by his advisers, and Judaea was taken over once more by Roman procurators.
Assisted by the influential freedman Pallas, she induced her uncle the emperor Claudius to marry her after the death of Messalina, and adopt the future Nero as heir to the throne in place of Britannicus.
Soon afterwards she poisoned Claudius and secured the throne for her son, with the intention of practically ruling on his behalf.
41) Agrippa contributed much by his advice to maintain Claudius in possession of the imperial dignity, while he made a show of being in the interest of the senate.
After the Passover he went to Caesarea, where he had games performed in honour of Claudius, and the inhabitants of Tyre and Sidon waited on him to sue for peace.
270, when Aurelian succeeded Claudius as emperor, Wahab-allath was governing Egypt with the title of " king."
Under Tiberius the Druids were suppressed by a decree of the senate, but this had to be renewed by Claudius in A.D.
53 the emperor Claudius made a subvention of io million sesterces (I,087,50o).
The day of its dedication (August i) corresponded with the birthday of Claudius, which explains the frequent occurrence of Spes on the coins of that emperor.
143 by Tiberius Claudius Herodes Atticus, a wealthy Roman resident, whose benefactions to the city rivalled those of Hadrian.
- Claudius Clavus Swartha (1427).
Thus Claudius Clavus Swartha (Niger), who was at Rome in 1424, compiled a map of the world, extending westward as far as Greenland.
Having already served in Germany, in the years 43 and 44, in the reign of Claudius, he distinguished himself in command of the 2nd legion in Britain under Aulus Plautius.
In 70 a formidable rising in Gaul, headed by Claudius Civilis, was suppressed and the German frontier made secure; the Jewish War was brought to a close by Titus's capture of Jerusalem, and in the following year, after the joint triumph of Vespasian and Titus, memorable as the first occasion on which a father and his son were thus associated together, the temple of Janus was closed, and the Roman world had rest for the remaining nine years of Vespasian's reign.
Gibbon supposes that there were in the Roman world in the reign of Claudius at least as many slaves as free inhabitants.
The entire number of slaves in Italy would thus have been, in the reign of Claudius, 20,832,000.
Cato advised the agriculturist to sell his old oxen and his old slaves, as well as his sick ones; and sick slaves were exposed in the island of Aesculapius in the Tiber; by a decree of Claudius slaves so exposed, if they recovered, could not be reclaimed by their masters.
In the reign of the emperor Claudius also another kind was introduced and entitled Claudia.
Claudius Marcellus over the Celts (222).
By a reform of the censor Appius Claudius in 312 B.C. these non-assidui were admitted into the tribes, and the aerarii as such disappeared.
Tipasa was founded by the Phoenicians, was made a Roman military colony by the emperor Claudius, and afterwards became a municipium.
The emperor Claudius tentatively entrusted certain posts connected with these to the equites; in the time of Hadrian this became the regular custom.
ed., London, 1856); Claudius Rondeau, Diplomatic Dispatches from Russia (St Petersburg, 1889-1892).
Claudius Ptolemy (130) rectified this error, and in the so-called syntonous or intense diatonic scale reduced the proportions of his tetrachord to s, iii, f, -i.
Count Claudius Mercy (1666-1734), who was appointed governor of Temesvar in 1720, took numerous measures for the regeneration of the Banat.
Claudius Marcellus was then in command of the Roman army in Sicily, and he threatened the Syracusans with attack unless they would get rid of Epicydes and Hippocrates, the heads of the anti-Roman faction.
Bishop Stillingfleet held that London was of Roman foundation and not older than the time of Claudius (Origines Brit., 1685, p. 43); and Dr Guest affirmed that the notion of a British town having " preceded the Roman camp has no foundation to rest upon " (Archaeological Journal, xxiii.
61) if it had only been founded a few years before the conquest of Claudius.
In Upper Pannonia were Vindobona (Vienna), probably founded by Vespasian; Carnuntum (Petronell); Arrabona (Raab), a considerable military station; Brigetio; Savaria or Sabaria (Stein-am-Anger), founded by Claudius, a frequent residence of the later emperors, and capital of Pannonia prima; Poetovio (Pettau); Siscia, a place of great importance down to the end of the empire; Emona (Laibach), later assigned to Italy; Nauportus (Ober-Laibach).
This was recognized by Claudius, who granted the honorary title Claudiconium, and by Hadrian, who elevated the city to the rank of a Roman colony about A.D.
It was in this lofty rock-girt hollow that the gladiator Spartacus was besieged by the praetor Claudius Pulcher; he escaped by twisting ropes of vine branches and descending through unguarded fissures in the crater-rim.
In recollection of its former services, the emperor Claudius remitted the heavy tribute which had been imposed on it; but the last remnant of its independence was taken away by Vespasian, who, in answer to a remonstrance from Apollonius of Tyana, taunted the inhabitants with having "forgotten to be free."
From this disaster the inhabitants recovered so far as to be able to give an effectual check to an invasion of the Goths in the reign of Claudius II., and the fortifications were greatly strengthened during the civil wars which followed the abdication of Diocletian.
Claudius Marcellus defeated the Gauls and won the spolia opima; in 218 Hannibal took it and its stores of corn by treachery.
53 he was deprived of that kingdom by Claudius, who gave him other provinces instead of it.
A still nearer approach to literature was probably made in oratory, as we learn from Cicero that the famous speech delivered by Appius Claudius Caecus against concluding peace with Pyrrhus (280 B.C.) was extant in his time.
Claudius Marcellus in 222 over the Gauls in a play called Clastidium, he gave the first specimen of the fabula praetexta in his Alimonium Romuli et Remi, based on the most national of all Roman traditions.
Claudius Quadrigarius, Q.
The reign of Claudius was a time in which antiquarian learning, grammatical studies, and jurisprudence were cultivated, but no important additions were made to literature.
The first is Claudius Claudianus (c. 400), a native of Alexandria and the court poet of the emperor Honorius and his minister Stilicho.
Claudius Marcellus conquered the Insubres and the Comenses.
In 1654 Printz's successor, Johan Claudius Rising, who had arrived from Sweden with a large number of colonists, expelled the Dutch from Fort Casimir.
1640-1643 Johan Printz 1643-1653 Johan Papegoga (acting) 1653-1654 Johan Claudius Rising.
29), Roman empress, was originally the wife of Tiberius Claudius Nero, by whom she had two sons, Drusus and Tiberius (afterwards emperor).
BRITANNICUS, son of the Roman emperor Claudius by his third wife Messallina, was born probably A.D.
He was originally called Claudius Tiberius Germanicus, and received the name Britannicus from the senate on account of the conquest made in Britain about the time of his birth.
Till 48, the date of his mother's execution, he was looked upon as the heir presumptive; but Agrippina, the new wife of Claudius, soon persuaded the feeble emperor to adopt Lucius Domitius, known later as Nero, her son by a previous marriage.
PHAEDRUS, Roman fabulist, was by birth a Macedonian and lived in the reigns of Augustus, Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius.
The founder of the mathematical school was the celebrated Euclid (Eucleides); among its scholars were Archimedes; Apollonius of Perga, author of a treatise on Conic Sections; Eratosthenes, to whom we owe the first measurement of the earth; and Hipparchus, the founder of the epicyclical theory of the heavens, afterwards called the Ptolemaic system, from its most famous expositor, Claudius Ptolemaeus.
5, i) the emperor Claudius in A.D.
PUBLIUS POMPONIUS SECUNDUS, Roman general and tragic poet, lived during the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula and Claudius.
During his enforced retirement he composed tragedies, which were put on the stage during the reign of Claudius.
The construction of the harbour of Claudius at the mouth of the Tiber adversely affected Puteoli.
Claudius established here, as at Ostia, a cohort of vigiles as a fire-brigade.
Naval expeditions from Berenice and Myoshormus to the Arabian ports brought back the information on which Claudius Ptolemy constructed his map, which still surprises us by its wealth of geographical names.
Before 6 B.C. Augustus made it a colony, with the title Caesarea, and it became the centre of civil and military administration in south Galatia, the romanization of which was progressing rapidly in the time of Claudius, A.D.
A new road, the Via Claudia Augusta, was constructed by the emperor Claudius from Altinum to the Danube, a distance of 350 m., apparently by way of the Lake of Constance.
He was a freedman either of the emperor Claudius - according to which theory Josephus (Antiq.
7) calls him Claudius Felix - or more probably of the empress Antonia.
9; Suetonius, Claudius, 28; E.
Claudius Civilis >>
CLAUDIUS, the name of a famous Roman gens.
Appius Sabinus Inregillensis, Or Regillensis, Claudius, so called from Regillum (or Regilli) in Sabine territory, founder of the Claudian gens.
Claudius, Appius, surnamed Crassus, a Roman patrician, consul in 471 and 451 B.C., and in the same and following year one of the decemvirs.
Enamoured of the beautiful daughter of the plebeian centurion Virginius, Claudius attempted to seize her by an abuse of justice.
One of his clients, Marcus Claudius, swore that she was the child of a slave belonging to him, and had been stolen by the childless, wife of the centurion.
Nevertheless, judgment was given according to the evidence of Marcus, and Claudius commanded Virginia to be given up to him.
The decemvirs were finally compelled to resign and Appius Claudius died in prison, either by his own hand or by that of the executioner.
For a discussion of the character of Appius Claudius,.
He holds that Claudius was never the leader of the patrician party,.
The revolution which ruined Claudius was a return to the rule of the patricians represented by the Horatii and Valerii.
Claudius, Appius, surnamed Caecus, Roman patrician and author.
30; Suetonius, Claudius, 24).
Fabius Rullianus limited the landless and poorer freedmen to the four urban tribes, thus annulling the effect of Claudius's.
Appius Claudius transferred the charge of the public worship of Hercules in the Forum Boarium from the Potitian gens to a number of public slaves.
He was already blind and too feeble to walk, when Cineas, the minister of Pyrrhus, visited him, but so vigorously did he oppose every concession that all the eloquence of Cineas was in vain, and the Romans forgot past misfortunes in the inspiration of Claudius's.
Appius Claudius Caecus is also remarkable as the first writer mentioned in Roman literature.
Gerlach (1872), dealing especially with the censorship of Claudius.
Claudius, Publius, surnamed Pulcher, son of (3).
The disaster was commonly attributed to Claudius's treatment of the sacred chickens, which refused to eat before the battle.
Claudius Glicia, but the nomination was at once overruled.
Claudius himself was accused of high treason and heavily fined.
Claudius, Appius, surnamed Pulcher, Roman statesman and author.
Through the intervention of Pompey, he became reconciled to Cicero, who had been greatly offended because Claudius had indirectly opposed his return from exile.
In this and certain other transactions Claudius seems to have acted from avaricious motives, - a result of his early poverty.
Claudius resented the appointment of Cicero as his successor, avoided meeting him, and even issued orders after his arrival in the province.
On his return to Rome Claudius was impeached by P. Cornelius Dolabella on the ground of having violated the sovereign rights of the people.
Claudius was of a distinctly religious turn of mind, as is shown by the interest he took in sacred buildings (the temple at Eleusis, the sanctuary of Amphiaraus at Oropus).
Marcus Aurelius Claudius >>
55 he was sent by Claudius, who had become suspicious of his intimacy with Messallina, to Armenia with Domitius Corbulo.
20; Quartodecimans of Asia Minor, who observed the Christian Pascha on the " 14th," no matter on what day of the week it fell; Claudius Apollinaris, Clement of Alexandria, Hippolytus, all three quoted in the Paschal Chronicle; Irenaeus (apparently) Iv.
39-4 0; (iii.) ruler of the whole of Palestine (with Abilene), on the accession of Claudius at the beginning of A.D.
52, for Tacitus mentions Cumanus's recall under that year, Josephus immediately before the notice of the completion of Claudius's twelfth year [January, A.D.
53], Eusebius probably under Claudius 11, that is, between September 51 and September 52 (for the meaning of the regnal years in the Chronicle of Eusebius see the present writer's article in Journal of Theological Studies, January 1900, pp. 188-192).
But as two years only of Felix's rule (52-54) fell under Claudius, this procedure would be quite natural on Josephus's part if his recall were dated in 58 or 59, so that four or five years fell under Nero.
Pallas had been minister and favourite of Claudius, 1 Dr C. Erbes (Texte and Untersuchungen, new series, iv.
1) attempts to interpret the evidence of Eusebius in favour of the later date for Festus as follows: Eusebius's date for Festus is to be found in Nero 1, by striking a mean between the Armenian, Claudius 12, and the Latin, Nero 2; it is really to be understood as reckoned, not by years of Nero, but by years of Agrippa; and as Eusebius erroneously antedated Agrippa's reign by five years, commencing it with A.D.
I, 9, seem to prove - fall actually under Claudius.
His views were collected by Claudius (or Valerius) Pollio, who wrote 'Aro- µvr,uoveuµar a Movvwviov Tov GIcXo0640v, from which Stobaeus obtained his information.
Restored by Claudius in 41, he reigned until 72 as an ally of Rome against Parthia.
Twelve speeches of the kind (Pliny's included), eight of them by famous Gallic rhetoricians (Claudius Mamertinus, Eumenius, Nazarius, Drepanius Pacatus) and three of anonymous authorship, have been collected under the title of Panegyrici veteres latini (ed.
It was the birthplace of John Claudius London (1783-1843), the landscape gardener and writer on horticulture, whose Arboretum et Fruticetum Britannicum still ranks as an authority.
If we had no other information than can be derived from his work, we should only know that he was later than Claudius Ptolemy whom he often quotes.
of the Lacus Fucinus, before the time of Claudius.
Forca Caruso) - was, however, probably not made into a highroad until Claudius's reign: one of his milestones (Corp. Inscr.
- The conquest of Britain was undertaken by Claudius in A.D.
Caligula, the half-insane predecessor of Claudius, had made in respect to this event some blunder which we know only through a sensational exaggeration, but which doubtless had to be made good.
Here Claudius himself appeared - the one reigning emperor of the 1st century who crossed the waves of ocean, - and the army, crossing the Thames, moved forward through Essex and captured the native capital, Camulodunum, now Colchester.
It was founded by Claudius, early in the period of the Roman conquest, as a municipality with discharged Roman soldiers as citizens, to assist the Roman dominion and spread its civilization.
70, of a battle in which the Romans were defeated by Claudius Civilis, the valiant leader of the Batavians.
The Christian community at Rome, founded, apparently, in the time of the emperor Claudius (41-54),), at once assumed great importance, as is clearly attested by the Epistle to the Romans (58).
In that given by Claudius (A.D.
1 i i), and probably witnessed the triumph of Claudius over Britain (iii.
Under this hall is a chamber, which, as an inscription on its walls shows, served as a treasury in the 2nd century B.C. In front of this temple an obelisk was erected in the reign of Claudius, fragments of which still exist.
The moment had now come for the pushing forward of another line of communication, which had no doubt reached Tarracina in 3 2 9 B.C. but was now definitely constructed (munita) as a permanent military highway as far as Capua in 312 B.C. by Appius Claudius, after whom it was named.
The emperors Claudius, Nerva and Trajan turned their attention to the district, and under their example and exhortation the Roman aristocracy erected numerous villas within its boundaries, and used them at least for summer residences.
50 a Roman colony, Colonia, was planted by the emperor Claudius, at the request of his wife Agrippina, who was born in the place.
PALAEMON, QUINTUS REMMIUS, Roman grammarian, a native of Vicentia, lived in the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius.
52), but was acquitted by the emperor Claudius.
40, when the latter was put to death by Caligula, and shortly afterwards Claudius incorporated the kingdom into the Roman state as two provinces, viz.
A hastily collected force of 3000 men under C. Claudius Pulcher endeavoured to starve out the rebels, but the latter clambered down the precipices and put the Romans to flight.
The Roman prince Nero Claudius Drusus (q.v.) The gamin the year 12 B.C. annexed what is now the kingdom paigns oi of the Netherlands, and constructed a canal (Fossa other Drusiana) between the Rhine and the lake Flevo Ro1fl811 (Lacus Flevus), which partly corresponded to the ea CIS.
In the year 28 the Frisians revolted from the Romans, and though they submitted again in the year 47, Claudius immediately afterwards recalled the Roman troops to the left bank of the Rhine.
In 69 the Roman territory on the lower Rhine was disturbed by the serious revolt of Claudius Civilis, a prince of the Batavi who had served in the Roman army.
5, ~ 19 if.; Dio Cassius, passirn; Julius Capitolinus; Claudius Mamertinus; Ammianus Marcellinus, passim; Zosimus; Jordanes, De origine Getarum; Procopius, De bello Gothico; K.
The first board of decemvirs (apparently consisting wholly of patricians) was appointed to hold office during 451 B.C.; and the chief man among them was Appius Claudius.
succeeding reigns much trouble was caused by jealousies and quarrels between the Greeks and the Jews, to whom Augustus had granted privileges as valuable as those accorded to the Greeks, Aiming at the spice trade, Aelius Gallus, the second prefect of Egypt under Augustus, had made an unsuccessful expedition to conquer Arabia Felix; the valuable Indian trade, however, was secured by Claudius for Egypt at the expense of Arabia, and the Red Sea routes were improved.
Under Claudius Lycia was formally annexed to the Roman empire, and united with Pamphylia: Theodosius made it a separate province.
Towards the close of the reign of Claudius, Gallio was proconsul of the newly constituted senatorial province of Achaea, but seems to have been compelled by ill-health to resign the post within a few years.
These terms, which are said by Appian (De Rebus Samniticis, 10, II) to have included the freedom of the Greeks in Italy and the restoration to the Bruttians, Apulians and Samnites of all that had been taken from them, were rejected chiefly through the vehement and patriotic speech of the aged Appius Claudius Caecus the censor.
SCRIBONIUS LARGUS, court physician to the emperor Claudius.
Later on, the right of creating patricians came to be regarded as inherent in the principate, and was exercised by Claudius and Vespasian without any legal enactment, apparently in their capacity as censor (Tac. Ann.
270, not without a struggle, under the pretext of restoring it to Rome; and Wahab-allath governed Egypt in the reign of Claudius as joint ruler with the title of 13aacAEVs (king), while Zenobia herself was styled Oao-tA(Q6an (queen).
270 Wahab-allath is named along with Aurelian, but the title of Augustus is given only to the latter; a Greek inscription from Byblos, however, mentions Aurelian (or his predecessor Claudius) and Zenobia together as /03avrOs and ZE(3acrrl (i.e.
3 9) for adultery with the emperor's sisters, but recalled by Claudius (41).(41).
DOMITIUS AFER, a Roman orator and advocate, born at Nemausus (Nimes) in Gallia Narbonensis, flourished in the reigns of Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero.
Of one family, of the plebeian Claudian gens, only a single member, Gaius Claudius Cicero, tribune in 454 B.C., is known.
The early months of 50 were occupied by the administration of justice, chiefly at Laodicea, and by various attempts to alleviate the distress in the province caused by the exactions of his predecessor, Appius Claudius.
Claudius Marcellus (pro Marcello), to plead in the same year before Caesar for Quintus Ligarius, and in 45 on behalf of Deiotarus, tetrarch of Galatia, also before Caesar.
His prose style was attacked by Pollio as Asiatic, also by his son, Asinius Gallus, who was answered by the emperor Claudius (Suet.
We know of it in 188-168 B.C. as dependent on Rhodes, and, from 168 till the time when the emperor Claudius absorbed it in the provincial system, as an independent state under Roman protection.
Under the empire various special functions were assigned to certain praetors, such as the two treasury praetors (praetores aerarii),3 appointed by Augustus in 23; the spear praetor (praetor haslarius), who presided over the court of the Hundred Men, which dealt especially with cases of inheritance; the two trust praetors (praetores fideicommissarii), appointed by Claudius to look after cases of trust estates, but reduced by Titus to one; the ward praetor (praetor tutelaris), appointed by Marcus Aurelius to deal with the affairs of minors; and the liberation praetor (praetor de liberalibus causis), who tried cases turning on the liberation of slaves.'
At a much later epoch it was introduced into the Latin alphabet by the emperor Claudius to represent y, and the sound which was written as i or u in maximus, maxumus, &c.
VALERIA MESSALLINA, the third wife of the Roman emperor Claudius.
During the absence of Claudius from the city, Messallina forced a handsome youth named Gaius Silius to divorce his wife and go through a regular form of marriage with her.
The freedman Narcissus, warned by the fate of another freedman Polybius, who had been put to death by Messallina, informed Claudius of what had taken place, and persuaded him to consent to the removal of his wife.
By Claudius she was the mother of the unfortunate Britannicus, and of Octavia, wife of Nero.
331; Suetonius, Claudius; Merivale, Hist.
The emperor Claudius recalled Agrippina, who spent the next thirteen years in the determined struggle to win for Nero the throne which had been predicted for him.
Her first decisive success was gained in 48 by the disgrace and execution of Messallina (q.v.), wife of Claudius.
In 49 followed her own marriage with Claudius, and her recognition as his consort in the government.'
The Roman populace already looked with favour on Nero, as the grandson of Germanicus, but in 50 his claims obtained formal recognition from Claudius himself, who adopted him under the title of Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus.2 Agrippina's next step was to provide a suitable training for her son.
On the 15th of December 51 Nero completed his fourteenth year, and Agrippina, in view of Claudius's failing health, determined to delay no longer his adoption of the toga virilis.
He was introduced to the senate by Claudius himself.
Britannicus's leading partisans were banished or put to death, and the allimportant command of the praetorian guard was transferred to Afranius Burrus, a Gaul by birth, who had been the trusted agent first of Livia and then of Tiberius and Claudius.
The petitions addressed to the senate by the town of Bononia and by the communities of Rhodes and Ilium were gracefully supported by him in Latin and Greek speeches, and during Claudius's absence in 52 at the Latin festival it was Nero who, as praefect of the city, administered justice in the forum.
Claudius's daughter Octavia drew still closer the ties which connected him with the imperial house.
Agrippina determined to hasten the death of Claudius, and the absence, through illness, of the emperor's trusted freedman Narcissus, favoured her schemes.
On the 13th of October 54 Claudius died, poisoned, as all our authorities declare, by her orders, and Nero was presented to the soldiers on guard as their new sovereign.
He modestly declined the title of pater patriae; the memory of Claudius, and that of his own father Domitius were duly honoured.
43 Prasutagus, the king of the Iceni, had concluded a treaty with Claudius, by which no doubt he recognized the suzerainty of Rome and was himself enrolled among "the allies and friends of the Roman people."
The alliance was of value to Claudius, for the territory of the Iceni (Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridgeshire) lay immediately north of the new province and its capital town Colchester, and Prasutagus had loyally kept faith with Rome.
Kaiserzeit; Lehmann, Claudius and Nero; histories of Rome in general.
They first came into contact with the Romans during the reign of Claudius, when they were defeated by Publius Ostorius Scapula.
- Tacitus, Germania, cap. 44; Claudius Ptolemaeus, Geographica ii.
Thus the satires were published at different intervals, and for the most part composed between loo and 130, but the most powerful in feeling and vivid in conception among them deal with the experience and impressions of the reign of Domitian, occasionally recall the memories or traditions of the times of Nero and Claudius, and reproduce at least one startling page from the annals of Tiberius.
It is true that he finds the most typical examples of lust, cruelty, levity and weakness in the emperors and their wives - in Domitian, Otho, Nero, Claudius and Messalina.
37, when it was granted by Caligula to Agrippa I.; in 52 Claudius granted it to Agrippa II.
At an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the emperors Valerian, Claudius and Aurelian.
Tiberius Tiberius Claudius Nero >>
RUTILIUS CLAUDIUS NAMATIANUS, Roman poet, flourished at the beginning of the 5th century A.D.
Muller writes the poet's name as Claudius Rutilius Namatianus, instead of the usual Rutilius Claudius Na.matianus; but if the identification of the poet's father with the Claudius mentioned in the Theodosian Code (2, 4, 5) be correct, Muller is probably wrong.
GALEN (or [[Galenus), Claudius]], called Gallien by Chaucer and other writers of the middle ages, the most celebrated of ancient medical writers, was born at Pergamus, in Mysia, about A.D.
xi., 186 7, pp. 47 2 -4 88; and Ilberg, "Die Schriften des Claudius Galenos," Rheinisches Museum fur Philologie, 1889, 1892 and 1896.
34) and stimulated the historical zeal of the future emperor Claudius (Suet.
Claudius Quadrigarius, whose annals began at this point in the history.
On the other hand, for the history of Italy and western Europe he falls back on Roman annalists, especially, it seems, on Claudius Quadrigarius and Valerius Antias - a most unfortunate choice - and from them too he takes the annalistic mould into which his matter is cast.
Her temple at Rome, dedicated by Appius Claudius Caecus (296 B.C.) during a battle with the Samnites and Etruscans (Ovid, Fasti vi.
The name Germanicus, the only one by which he is known in history, he inherited from his father, Nero Claudius Drusus, the famous general, brother of Tiberius and stepson of Augustus.
TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS ATTICUS HERODES (c. A.D.
4538), performed such miracles by magic acts in Rome during the reign of Claudius, that he was regarded as a god and honoured with a statue " in the river Tiber, between the two bridges, having an inscription in Latin as follows: Simoni Deo SANCT0."
Accordingly we find him reverting to Simon and Menander in a later passage of the same Apology, where he repeats that in the royal city of Rome, in the time of Claudius Caesar, Simon so astonished " the holy Senate " and the Roman people that he was worshipped as a god and honoured with a statue (Apo'.
His magic, we are told, pro cured him the honour of a statue from the emperor Claudius.
264-340) follows Justin Martyr and Irenaeus, but he adds the statement, which is not derived from them, that Peter opposed Simon at Rome under the reign of Claudius.
His success at Rome was so great that the emperor Claudius erected a statue to him with the inscription Simoni Deo Sancto.
Attempts to drain the marshes were made by Appius Claudius in 3r 2 B.C., when he constructed the Via Appia through them (the road having previously followed a devious course at the foot of the Volscian mountains), and at various times during the Roman period.
to the reign of the emperor Claudius (Gothicus); that both died on the same day; and that both were buried on the Via Flaminia, but at different distances from Rome.
It became a municipium after the passing of the lex Julia; under the empire it is noticed as a colonia, but the time when it first obtained that rank is uncertain - possibly under Claudius.
The lives, which (with few exceptions) are arranged in chronological order, are distributed as follows: - To Spartianus: the biographies of Hadrian, Aelius Verus, Didius Julianus, Septimius Severus, Pescennius Niger, Caracallus, Geta (?); to Vulcacius Gallicanus: Avidius Cassius; to Capitolinus: Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Verus, Pertinax, Clodius Albinus, the two Maximins, the three Gordians, Maximus and Balbinus, Opilius Macrinus (?); to Lampridius: Commodus, Diadumenus, Elagabalus, Alexander Severus; to Pollio: the two Valerians, the Gallieni, the so-called Thirty Tyrants or Usurpers, Claudius (his lives of Philip, Decius, and Gallus being lost); to Vopiscus: Aurelian, Tacitus, Florian, Probus, the four tyrants (Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus), Carus, Numerian, Carinus.
The only imputation on the integrity of any of them lies against Trebellius Po]lio, who, addressing his work to a descendant of Claudius, the successor and probably the assassin of Gallienus, has dwelt upon the latter versatile sovereign's carelessness and extravagance without acknowledgment of the elastic though fitful energy he so frequently displayed in defence of the empire.
He was of Illyrian origin; a fictitious connexion with the family of Claudius Gothicus was attributed to him by Constantine.
iii., 1801, his important work Ober das Unternehmen des Kriticismus, die Vernunft zu Verstande zu bringen was first published), and with Matthias Claudius, the editor of the Wandsbecker Bote.
23), commonly called Drusus junior, to distinguish him from his uncle Nero Claudius Drusus, was the only son of the emperor Tiberius by his first wife Vipsania Agrippina.
Claudius Marcellus, the conqueror of Syracuse.
A graceful granite column, still erect on the slope above the head of the promontory, commemorated the victory of Claudius Gothicus over the Goths at Nissa, A.D.
It was carried off to Rome by Caligula, restored by Claudius, and again carried off by Nero.
Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes >>
"This court begins to have a great deal to say in the affairs of Europe," remarked the English minister, Sir Claudius Rondeau, a year later.
C.Grafen von Miinnich (Oldenburg, 1803); Claudius Rondeau,Diplomatic Despatches from Russia, 1728-1739 (St Petersburg, 1889-1892).
CLAUDIUS BUCHANAN (1766-1815), English divine, was born at Cambuslang, near Glasgow, and educated at the universities of Glasgow and Cambridge.
Under the empire, however, we hear of a regular collegium of sixty haruspices; and Claudius is said to have tried to restore the art and put it under the control of the pontifices.
in honour of the emperor Claudius II.
Claudius, who was a native of Lyons, extended the right of Roman citizenship to many of his fellow-townsmen, gave them access to the magistracy and to the senate, and supplemented the annexation of Gaul by that of Britain.
After the extinction of the family of Augustus in the 1st century Gaul had made many emperorsGalba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian and Domitian; and in the 2nd century she provided Gauls to rule the empireAntoninus (138161) came from Nfmes and Claudius from Lyons, as did also Caracalla later on (211217).
Domitius Corbulo in the year 47, but shortly afterwards the emperor Claudius ordered the withdrawal of all Roman troops to the left bank of the Rhine.
In 58 they attempted unsuccessfully to appropriate certain districts between the Rhine and the Yssel, and in 70 they took part in the campaign of Claudius Civilis.
With a brief survey of the contemporary Story of the Jews and Romans (down to the third year of Claudius).
On the death of the emperor Claudius II.
His first task was to continue the war which had been begun by Claudius against the Goths.
Tetricus, who had been proclaimed emperor in the west after the death of Gallienus, and left undisturbed by Claudius II., still ruled over Gaul, Spain and Britain.
69), having refused submission to Vitellius, their land was devastated by Alienus Caecina, and only the eloquent appeal of one of their leaders named Claudius Cossus saved them from annihilation.
Claudius Marcellus in 214 B.C. In Roman times it seems to have been of small importance.
Claudius restored the royal titles to the family; but, after the death of its last member, Nero made the district into a province, and the town into a municipium.
Claudius Paulinus Before becoming a Proconsul of one of the Gallic provinces and then imperial legate to another.
tribune of cohors XII, G. Gavius Silvanus, was decorated by Claudius for his part.
Even wicked uncle Claudius bore more than a slight resemblance to Alan Rickman crossed with Russell Crowe.
wicked uncle Claudius bore more than a slight resemblance to Alan Rickman crossed with Russell Crowe.
The squib of the philosopher Seneca on the memory of Claudius (d.
In 42, during the reign of Claudius, he put down a revolt in Mauretania, and was the first of the Romans to cross the Atlas range.
The only highroad of importance which left Rome and ran eastwards, the Via.Valeria, was not completed as far as the Adriatic before the time of Claudius; but on the north and northwest started the main highways which communicated with central and northern Italy, and with all that part of the Roman empire which was accessible by land.
Under Claudius he was governor of lower Germany (A.D.
VIA APPIA, a high-road leading from Rome to Campania and lower Italy, constructed in 312 B.C. by the censor Appius Claudius Caecus.
21 under Florus and Sacrovir, in 68 under Vindex, and in 70 under Classicus and Tutor (see CIvILIs, Claudius).
3, 9) and by the emperor Claudius in his extant Oratio (i.
All this we can now perceive to have no relation to history, but at the time it may have made the subjugation of the Roman less bitter to feel that he was not after all bowing down before a race of barbarian upstarts, but that his Amal sovereign was as firmly rooted in classical antiquity as any Julius or Claudius who ever wore the purple.
This arrangement continued (except for the year 45 B.C., when no quaestors were chosen) until 28 B.C., when Augustus transferred the aerarium to two praefecti aerarii, chosen annually by the senate from ex-praetors; in 23 these were replaced by two praetors (praetores aerarii or ad aerarium), selected by lot during their term of office; Claudius in A.D.
Another legend, alluded to in a speech by the emperor Claudius (fragments of which were discovered on a bronze tablet dug up at Lyons in 1524), represented him as an Etruscan soldier of fortune named Mastarna, who attached himself to Caeles Vibenna (Caelius Vivenna), the founder of an Etruscan city on the Caelian Hill (see also Tacitus, Annals, iv.
In 218, as a leader of the democratic opposition, Flaminius was one of the chief promoters of the measure brought in by the tribune Quintus Claudius, which prohibited senators and senators' sons from possessing sea-going vessels, except for the transport of the produce of their own estates, and generally debarred them from all commercial speculation (Livy xxi.
c. 20), states that there was a bridge over the Thames at the time of the invasion of Claudius (A.D.
Looking at the stage of culture which the Britons had probably reached, it would further be a natural inference that there was no such thing as a bridge anywhere in Britain before the Roman occupation; but, if Dion's statement is correct, it may be suggested as a possible explanation that the increased intercourse with Gaul during the hundred years that - elapsed between Julius Caesar's raids and Claudius Caesar's invasion may have led to the construction of a bridge of some kind across the Thames at this point, through the influence and under the guidance of Roman traders and engineers.
Accordingly it could make or unmake emperors in crises - at the accession of Claudius in A.D.
Josephus's Jewish Wars and Antiquities differ by one in the number of years they allot to his reign over the tetrarchies (the former work says three years, the latter four), but agree in the more important datum that he reigned three years more after the grant from Claudius, which would make the latest limit of his death the spring of A.D.
A peculiar burden laid on the quaestors, not as an official duty, but rather as a sort of fee exacted from all who entered on the political career, was the paving of the high roads, for which Claudius substitiited the exhibition of gladiatorial games.
Modern authorities regard him as a rhetorician who flourished during the reign of Claudius (A.D.
Asconius (p. 87), writing under Claudius, never quotes them, though, when discussing Cicero's projected defence of Catiline, he could hardly have failed to do so, if he had known them.
The first commentator upon Cicero was Asconius, a Roman senator living in the reign of Claudius, who wrote a commentary upon the speeches, in which he explains obscure historical points for the instruction of his sons (see Ascomus).
But of the praetorships with special jurisdiction (especially the ward praetorship and the liberation 1 [Until the time of Tiberius, when their election was transferred to the Senate.] [The age for the office was forty under the republic, thirty under the empire.] 3 [They took the place of the quaestors; this arrangement continued till the time of Claudius.] ' [The fiscal praetor (praetor fiscalis) was appointed by Nerva to hear claims preferred against the imperial fiscus.] Marquardt conjectures with much probability that when Caracalla extended the Roman franchise to the whole empire he at the same time abolished the foreign praetorship.
When her husband was implicated in the conspiracy of Scribonianus against the emperor Claudius (A.D.
The arm which reaches the sea at Fiumicino is a canal, dug by Claudius and improved by Trajan (see Portus), which partially silted up in the middle ages, and was reopened for navigation by Paul V.
In 1736, Claudius Aymand performed the first successful appendectomy on an eleven-year-old boy.
One tribune of cohors XII, G. Gavius Silvanus, was decorated by Claudius for his part.
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