How to use Classification in a sentence
A natural classification of the Hydroidea has yet to be put forward.
A statement may now be given of Gadow's classification of birds, in which the extinct forms have been intercalated so far as possible.
Within this classification of uniforms, there are several distinctions.
Their shape and size varies greatly and is often of use in classification.
The terms employed, especially for the subdivisions, cannot be easily translated into other languages, and the English equivalents in the following table are only put forward tentatively Richthofen'S Classification Of Mountains I.Advertisement
We have already seen that De Blainville, though fully persuaded of the great value of sternal features as a method of classification, had been compelled to fall back upon the old pedal characters so often employed before; but now the scholar had learnt to excel his teacher, and not only to form an at least provisional arrangement of the various members of the Class, based on sternal characters, but to describe these characters at some length, and so give a reason for the faith that was in him.
This will perhaps be the most convenient place to mention another kind of classification of birds, which, based on a principle wholly different from those that have just been explained, requires a few words, though it has not been productive, parte.
The situation of the lateral nervestems in the different genera with respect to the muscular layers lends definite support to the interpretation of their homologies here given and forms the basis of Burger's classification.
The like must be said even of the contribution to the problem made by August Pott,' though he has helped to define one condition of success - the classification of the strata in " Western " texts - and has taken some steps in the right direction, in connexion with the complex phenomena of one witness, the Harklean Syriac.
This classification is based partly upon special conditions of service, which make some articles more economical to carry than others (with particular reference to the question whether the goods are offered to the companies in car-loads or in small parcels), but chiefly with regard to the commercial value of the article, and its consequent ability to bear a high charge or a low one.Advertisement
The wings, which are not capable of being folded, are usually transparent, but occasionally pigmented and adorned with coloured spots, blotches or bands; the wing-membrane, though sometimes clothed with minute hairs, seldom bears scales; the wing-veins, which are of great importance in the classification of Diptera, are usually few in number and chiefly longitudinal, there being a marked paucity of cross-veins.
The antennae of Diptera, which are also extremely important in classification, are thread-like in the more primitive families, such as the Tipulidae (daddy-long-legs), where they consist of a considerable number of joints, all of which except the first two, and sometimes also the last two, are similar in shape; in the more specialized families, such as the Tabanidae (horse-flies), Syrphidae (hover-flies) or Muscidae (house-flies, blue-bottles and their allies), the number of antennal joints is greatly reduced by coalescence, so that the antennae appear to consist of only three joints.
Bristles are usually present on the legs, and in the case of many families on the body also; those on the head and thorax are of great importance in classification.
His classification was founded mainly on the nature of the wings, and five of his orders - the Hymenoptera (bees, ants, wasps, &c.), Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (two-winged flies), Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), and Hemiptera (bugs, cicads, &c.) - are recognized to-day with nearly the same limits as he laid down.
The great advance in modern zoology as regards the classification of the Hexapoda lies in the treatment of a heterogeneous assembly which formed Linnaeus's order Neuroptera.Advertisement
In the evolution of these laws Dr Cornay had most laudably studied, as his observations prove, a vast number of different types, and the upshot of his whole labours, though not very clearly stated, was such as to wholly subvert the classification at that time generally adopted by French ornithologists.
The same year which saw the promulgation of the crude scheme just described, as well as the publication of the final researches of Muller, witnessed also another attempt at the classification of birds, much more limited indeed in scope, but, so far as it went, regarded by most ornithologists of the time as almost final in its operation.
Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.
Its basis is the classification of Cuvier, the modifications of which by Des Murs will seldom commend themselves to systematists whose opinion is generally deemed worth having.
Few, if any, of the faults of that classification are removed, and the improvements suggested, if not established by his successors, those especially of other countries than France, are ignored, or, as is the case with some of those of L'Herminier, are only cited to be set aside.Advertisement
Meanwhile the English naturalist, John Ray, was studying the classification of animals; he published, in 1705, his Methodus insectorum, in which the nature of the metamorphosis received due weight.
Westwood (Modern Classification of Insects, 1839-1840) connects these older writers with their successors of to-day.
Considerable difficulty is encountered in attempting to draw up a botanical classification of the species of Gossypium.
In the second classification (2) is typical of the " cold " process, whilst (I), (3), (4) are effected by the, boiling " process.
For the development of this classification see Element.Advertisement
Haeckel's classification of 1866 was only a first attempt.
The classification of snakes has undergone many vicissitudes.
His contributions on the Mesozoic reptiles of Great Britain culminated in his complete rearrangement and classification of this group, one of his greatest services to palaeontology.
This classification is founded on the kinds of problems arising from the combinations.
This is the great difficulty of classification.Advertisement
Classification assumed a wholly different aspect.
Classification for the first time was something more than the expression of a fancy, not that it had not also its imaginative side.
More than this, he entered upon their geographical distribution, the facts of which important subject are here, almost for the first time, since the attempt of Blyth already mentioned, 4 brought to bear practically on classification.
More importance is to be attached to his Nosology or Classification of Diseases.
Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), a relatively new clinical classification, involves an ongoing pattern of antagonistic, defiant, and hostile behavior toward parents and other authority figures.Advertisement
This classification is often referred to as anxious-ambivalent because the child will demonstrate anger towards the caregiver at the same time they are expressing their need for comforting.
Its more precise classification is a result of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) system for characterizing and diagnosing mental and behavioral disorders.
This classification means that 20 percent of the body's skin surface has been affected or 10 percent of the skin area in addition to involvement of the eyes, hands, and body folds.
Knowing the classification can aid in understanding hair loss better and can help in finding a treatment for your problem.
The Trix hair product line has a classification system that categorizes its products by the firmness of their hold.Advertisement
The classification for stage 3 is moderate and is indicated with a score of 16 to 40 points.
The term itself isn't a scientific one, and it isn't recognized as a classification of foods amongst nutrition professionals.
The classification of mental illness has advanced significantly through the years, and what people considered as "mentally ill" back in the 1800s might not be considered as such today.
In addition to size, bright colors contribute to the overall "cute" classification.
The condition is classified as one of the five pervasive developmental disorders in the DSM IV, but there appears to be much more to the syndrome than mere classification.Advertisement
Like behavior, subtle and severe learning issues often defy classification making it difficult to locate learning environments that effectively engage autism patients.
The higher the classification, the higher your costs will be.
It's important to get your employee classification exactly right, or you'll end up spending more money than you need to for wrongly classified jobs.
This employee job classification system is maintained by National Council on Compensation Insurance an independent organization, also known as a "Rating Bureau" in the insurance industry.
Most states use this classification system with the exceptions of California, New York, Delaware and Pennsylvania which have their owns systems in place.Advertisement
Other states have their own classification systems.
Further, to avoid classification as a hobby, or be red-flagged as a tax loophole, a consistent effort to generate a profit needs to be shown.
The classification that comes with the similar titles for the same job is given to simply distinguish one business manager's specific function from the others.
The fees depend on the classification of the license obtained.
If you're considering a new or used compact executive car, it can help to understand a bit about this vehicle classification.
This pyramid varies slightly from the USDA food guide due to food groups being based on their protein and carbohydrate content instead of their food classification.
The term obese is not meant as a derogatory label, but is a classification of where a person's weight ranges based on BMI (Body Mass Index) and other factors such as waist measurement.
The rural classification comes into play with home and appliance warranties when the home is in a geographic area that is not necessarily easy to reach.
When a potential customer calls for a quote on appliance insurance the company will notify them if there is an issue related to the rural classification of their home.
They have standard rates that they charge for certain drivers, but there is another classification for people who are considered to be a higher risk for insurance purposes.
Most significantly, whenever the various rating firms disagreed on "vulnerable" classification for an insurer, Weiss typically went with "vulnerable."
The Public Protection Classification (PPC) service is used to provide a guideline of how quickly a local fire department service can respond to a call.
A person who wants to move from non-standard to a better classification can do so by keeping a clean driving record for at least a couple of years.
For this family, religion is not merely a label or a classification.
Techwitches are a relatively new classification, but are readily distinguishable by their metallic aural glow and their love of all things tech.
Let's face it; many works of art simply defy easy classification.
Requiring no further treatment, heat rash in this classification is not serious, and can be prevented simply by wearing loose fitting clothing and natural fibers during hot and humid conditions.
The size of this stripe varies based on the officer’s classification.
When settled they are mostly designated Sarts - a name which has reference more to manner of life than to anthropological classification, although a much stronger admixture of Iranian blood is evident in the Sarts, who also speak Persian at Khojent and Samarkand.
The small groups of recent plants forming the Psilotales and Ophioglossales are given independence in this scheme of classification owing to their exact affinities with the other phyla being at present doubtful.
Our knowledge of the extinct Equisetales, full as it is with respect to certain types, does not suffice for a strictly phylogenetic classification of the group. The usual subdivision is into Equisetaceae including Equisetum and Equisetites (with which Phyllotheca and Schizoneura may be provisionally associated), and Calamariaceae, including Calamites and Archaeocalamites.
A natural classification of such specialized plants can only be obtained when the extinct forms are more fully known.
The application of the important criteria which Bower has thus pointed out to the construction of a strictly phylogenetic classification of the Filicaceae cannot be made until the anatomy, the sexual generation and the palaeobotanical evidence have been further examined from this point of view.
Though on this account and because the subdivisions Simplices, Gradatae and Mixtae do not correspond to definite phylogenetic groups, they have not been used in classifying the Ferns above; they are of great importance as an advance towards a natural classification.
The classes presenting these distinct plans of head-structure cannot be closely associated in any scheme of classification professing to be natural.
It is on the whole desirable to recognize such affinities in our schemes of classification.
The classification of the different varieties of cultivated wheat has occupied the attention of many botanists and agriculturists.
The doctrine of the Pythagoreans that the essence of justice (conceived as equal retribution) was a square number, indicates a serious attempt to extend to the region of conduct their mathematical view of the universe; and the same may be said of their classification of good with unity, straightness and the like, and of evil with the opposite qualities.
As the graduation of these sanctions naturally became more minute, a correspondingly detailed classification of offences was rendered necessary, and thus a system of ecclesiastical jurisprudence was gradually produced, somewhat analogous to that of Judaism.
In the classification of particular virtues and vices we can distinguish very clearly the elements supplied by the different teachings which Aquinas has imbibed.
In the classification of sins the Christian element predominates; still we find the Aristotelian vices of excess and defect, along with the modern divisions into " sins against God, neighbour and self," " mortal and venial sins," and so forth.
We may conclude this brief characterization of astronomy with a statement and classification of the principal lines on which astronomical researches are now pursued.
Charles Messier (1730-1817) had catalogued in 1781 103 nebulae; Herschel discovered 2500, laid down the lines of their classification, divined the laws of their distribution, and assigned their place in a scheme of development.
There ensued a general classification of the stars by Secchi into four leading types, distinguished by diversities of spectral pattern; and the recognition by Huggins of a considerable number of terrestrial elements as present in stellar atmospheres.
This classification is based on the form, varying in different localities, of the pronoun ca, sto, or kaj, meaning "what."
Further evidence on this point will be given below in a classification of the principal mythic legends.
He also devised a method of great value in the quantitative analysis of organic substances for the estimation of nitrogen, while the classification, of organic compounds into homologous series was advanced as one consequence of his researches into the acids generated by the oxidation of the alcohols.
We now know that such adaptations are of comparatively small importance, and cannot be utilized for establishing groups higher than genera in a natural or phylogenetic classification.
These facts militate strongly against the importance which was once attached to the dentition in the classification of the tailless batrachians.
It is said that St Ambrose was the first to adapt the Platonic classification to Christian theology.
These arrangements of parts are of great importance in classification.
Some historians, in their zeal for rigid classification, have regarded the Fraticelli as a distinct sect, and have attempted to discover its dogmas and its founder.
This distinction will be made use of in the classification of the oils and fats.
The tables on the following pages contain chiefly the most important oils and fats together with their sources, yields and principal uses, arranged according to the above classification, and according to the magnitude of the iodine value.
On this value a scientific classification of all oils and fats can be based, as is shown by the above-given list of oils and fats.
It has not yet been found possible so closely to correlate the strata of Europe with those of America, where distance has allowed geographical differences in both fauna and flora to come into play; therefore, beyond the references to Lower or Upper Cretaceous, no classification of the American Cretaceous strata has here been given.
Wanting Danian Upper Chalk Senonian Middle Chalk Turonian Lower Chalk Cenomanian Upper Green-sand Gault Albian Aptian Lower Green-sand Valenginian Urgonian Wealden Neocomian In the continental classification the deposits from the Gault downwards are grouped as Lower Cretaceous; but in Great Britain there is a strong break below the Gault and 'none above; and the Gault is therefore classed as Upper Cretaceous.
For a long time it was not recognized that changes in the marine fauna, on which our geological classification mainly depends, correspond scarcely at all with changes in the land plants.
Modern scholars, however, for the most part, deny that there is sufficient basis to justify this elaborate classification, and think that its advocates have confused the catechumenate with the system of penance.
In the earliest forms of this order, the Stegocephalia, we meet with considerable variety in the constitution of the vertebrae, and these modifications have been used for their classification.
The classification of substances having pharmacological actions presents so many difficulties that no satisfactory or universally adopted method has yet been proposed.
The close alliance between pharmacology, therapeutics and clinical medicine has induced many authors to treat the subject from a clinical point of view, while its relationships to chemistry and physiology have been utilized to elaborate a chemical and physiological classification respectively as the basis for systematic description.
The objection to a strictly chemical classification is, that while many substances closely allied chemically have a somewhat similar action in certain respects, yet in others they differ very widely - a striking example of which is given in the case of sodium and potassium.
A physiological classification according to an action on the brain, heart, kidney or other important organ becomes still more bewildering, as many substances produce the same effects by different agencies, as, for instance, the kidneys may be acted upon directly or through the circulation, while the heart may be affected either through its muscular substance or its nervous apparatus.
A clinical or therapeutical classification into such divisions as anaesthetics, expectorants, bitters, and so on, according to their practical applications, also leads to difficulties, as many drugs are employed for numerous purposes.
It may be useful to give here a general explanation of the common names used in the therapeutic classification of drugs.
It would be necessary, also, in any such expanded treatment, to bring out clearly the Kantian classification of the philosophical sciences, and to indicate the relation between the critical or transcendental investigation of the several faculties and the more developed sciences to which that investigation serves as introduction.
For this reference to logic he has been severely blamed, but the precise nature of the debt due to the commonly accepted logical classification is very generally misconceived.
Another classification may be based upon the nature of the heating agent, according as it is coal (or some similar combustible) oil, gas or electricity.
Queens ' uses the Bliss classification scheme and subjects are ordered alphabetically according to class mark.
Every licensed aerodrome will be required to complete a classification study within 12 months, which will be used to develop the index.
A clustering algorithm is then used for unsupervised classification.
The idea behind this classification is to help the spiritual aspirant intensify his relationship with God according to his own inner nature.
We have also shown that the eigenvalue classification scheme of  cannot be used to directly classify the codimension-two bifurcations.
Their classification can also be structured in a hierarchy (biotopes, biotope complexes, broad habitats ), reflecting degrees of similarity.
There is a disparate bunch of songs on my hard drive that defy classification.
The equivalent German classification lists 17 human and 42 suspected human carcinogens.
He was also senior film censor at the British Board of Film Classification.
The American Society for Reproductive Medicine revised the classification in 1997 to take account of the latest observations.
First, we were interested in deriving a classification of single-malt whiskies to characterize the various groups of Scotches.
Then, this matrix must be fed into a clustering algorithm to obtain a hierarchical classification.
They also provide data on the number of people employed according to their socio-economic classification.
In polymorphism, the taxonomic classification of species does not always match up with a tight genetic definition.
A controlled virus taxonomical and functional classification has been used for all the proteins and protein families in the database.
Colors in brackets, "  ", are assumed from the spectral classification.
Grading criteria attached to each honors degree classification are appended.
My degree classification may be affected by my choice of options.
We also present the results of the phoneme classification experiments conducted on the TIMIT corpus of continuous speech.
The framework can be easily used for quantitative comparison of texture classification algorithms.
Species and habitat classification provides a language through which data can be communicated at a national and international level.
The code need only be observed if the additional material will raise the classification category of the work beyond previously classified versions.
These use a range of different parameters for classification, so that they are not strictly comparable.
Surgery in patients with liver dysfunction The Child-Pugh classification is a useful method of staging the progress of liver decompensation.
Others are less complimentary of the benefits of classification using dentition.
The use of standard classification schemes will improve resource discovery  .
Classification kept as a machine-gun emplacement, June 7 1941.
Bacterial exotoxins [IRP] Classification of bacterial exotoxins based on their mode of action at the cellular level.
Classification of fluorescent soft rot Pseudomonas bacteria, including P. marginalis strains, using whole cell fatty acid analysis.
Muybridge (1899) is the oldest known source on the classification of quadrupedal gaits in general, including elephant gaits.
Owners of vacant property may wish to avoid liability by bringing their hereditament under the classification of ' relevant industrial hereditament ' .
The HOST classification makes use of the fact that the physical properties of soils have a major influence on catchment hydrology.
It is the third criterion that is often called into question by Shaffer's classification of stochasticity primarily because of formalization indeterminacy.
Cross- classification of these inflection markers encodes natural classes of inflection markers encodes natural classes of inflection.
Advantages of using classification schemes include improved subject browsing facilities, potential multi-lingual access and improved interoperability with other services.
Before the classification procedure, cloud -cover reduced composites of the Canadian landmass, each spanning 10 day periods are created.
Now we can examine a situation illustrating the pitfalls of classification tree.
Chapter 1 also offers a classification of semantic types of situational plurality.
He was immensely proud of his " A " classification accorded by the " New Domesday scribe " .
The requirements in relation to the classification of long-term liabilities should be made more rigorous.
Under the ' Analysis ' menu, choose ' Classification ' which allows you to classify the entries contained within a defined scope.
More shellfish harvesting classification Thursday 20 April 2006 Classification of shellfish harvesting areas in Scottish waters.
The opening chapters effortlessly of this book guide the reader through the dangerous shoals of classification theory.
The final three books are on solid geometry, and conclude with the construction and classification of the five Platonic solids.
Flexeril contraindications 1 buying online soma what classification of drug is in.
Classification of colic spasmodic colic is the most common type of colic.
Books are arranged on the shelves using a classification scheme, which groups books on a particular subject together with the same number.
Classification of wine By vinification methods Wines may be classified by vinification methods Wines may be classified by vinification methods.
These writers both follow the classification of Haliday, who divided the order into two groups or sub-orders.
It will be sufficient to say here that the classification generally adopted by text-writers is based upon the relations of equity to the common law, of which some explanation is given above.
Medical science further owes to him the classification of new growths on a natural histological basis, the elucidation of leucaemia, glioma and lardaceous tumours, and detailed investigations into many diseases - tuberculosis, pyaemia, diphtheria, leprosy, typhus, &c. Among the books he published on pathological and medical subjects may be mentioned Vorlesungen fiber Pathologic, the first volume of which was the Cellular-pathologic (1858), and the remaining three Die Krankhaften Geschwiilste (1863-67); Handbuch der speziellen Pathologic and Therapie (3 vols., 1854-62), in collaboration with other German surgeons; Gesammelte Abhandlungen zur wissenschaftlichen Medizin (1856); Vier Reden fiber Leben and Kranksein (1862); Untersuchungen fiber die Entwicklung des Schlidelgrundes (1857); Lehre von den Trichinen (1865); Ueber den Hunger-typhus (1868); and Gesammelte Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der afentlichen Medizin and der Seuchenlehre (1879).
It may be further defined as the science that treats of the analysis, classification, preparation, composition and delivery of sermons.
If a less arbitrary classification be followed the principal manufacturing industries would be stone manufacture and textiles.
Some clue to this enigma may perhaps be found in the second principle of classification proposed by the present writer at the Congresso Internationale di Scienze Storiche at Rome (Atti del Con gresso, ii) in 1903.
This method of classification, though formally accurate, has slight value in the exact sciences, partly because at every step one of the two groups is merely negatively characterized and therefore incapable of real subdivision; it is useful, however, in setting forth clearly the gradual descent from the most inclusive genus (summum genus) through species to the lowest class (infima species), which is divisible only into individual persons or things.
In classifying methods of generation it is usual to make use of the sexual or non-sexual nature of the reproduction as a primary difference, but a more scientific classification is afforded by the distinction between tissue-cells After Allman, Gymnoblastic Hydroids, by permission of the Council of the Ray Society.
While such a classification may serve its purpose as a sort of index, it must be confessed that the limits of its usefulness are soon reached.
Notwithstanding the form of this classification, Kant himself treats mathematical geography as preliminary to, and therefore not dependent on, physical geography.
The usual classification of islands is into continental and oceanic. The former class includes all those which rise from the continental.
The simple classification employed by Professor James Geikie 3 into mountains of accumulation, mountains of elevation and mountains of circumdenudation, is not considered sufficiently thorough by German geographers, who, following Richthofen, generally adopt a classification dependent on six primary divisions, each of which is subdivided.
The simplest classification is perhaps that of Drude according to climatic zones, subdivided according to continents.
The development of culture is to a certain extent a question of race, and although forming one species, the varieties of mandiffer in almost imperceptible gradations with a complexity defying classification (see Anthropology).
For the history of the classification of birds see the article Ornithology, where also the more important ornithological works are mentioned.
Classification Of Birds Fiirbringer's great work, published in the year 1888 by the Natura Artis Magistra Society of Amsterdam, enabled Gadow not only to continue for the next five years the same lines of morphological research, but also further to investigate those questions which were still left in abeyance or seemed to require renewed study.
The Meteoritic Hypothesis (1890) propounds a comprehensive scheme of cosmical evolution, which has evoked more dissent than approval, while the Sun's Place in Nature (1897) lays down the lines of a classification of the stars, depending upon their supposed temperature-relations.
Ether and alcohol he regarded as substances analogous to and built up on the same type as water, and he further introduced the water-type as a widely applicable basis for the classification of chemical compounds.
The several attempts at system-making by Kaup, from his Allgemeine Zoologie in 1829 to his fiber Classification der Vogel in 1849, were equally arbitrary and abortive; but his Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte in 1829 must be here named, as it is so often quoted on account of the number of new genera which the peculiar views he had embraced compelled him to invent.
Then we have Selby's Illustrations of British Ornithology, two folio volumes of coloured plates engraved by himself, between 1821 and 1833, with letterpress also in two volumes (8vo, 1825-1833), a second edition of the first volume being also issued (1833), for the author, having yielded to the pressure of the " Quinarian " doctrines then in vogue, thought it necessary to adjust his classification accordingly, and it must be admitted that for information the 6 Copies are said to exist bearing the date 1814.
It was only when, after a close examination of the sternal apparatus of one hundred and thirty species, which he carefully described, that he arrived (pp. 177-183) at the conclusion - astonishing to us who know of L'Herminier's previous results - that the sternum of birds cannot be used as a help to their classification on account of the egregious anomalies that would follow the proceeding - such anomalies, for instance, as the separation of Cypselus from Hirundo and its alliance with Trochilus, and the grouping of Hirundo and Fringilla together.
It is plain that Blyth saw, and perhaps he was the first to see it, that geographical distribution was not unimportant in suggesting the affinities and differences of natural groups (pp. 258, 259); and, undeterred by the precepts and practice of the hitherto dominant English school of Ornithologists, he declared that " anatomy, when aided by every character which the manner of propagation, the progressive changes, and other physiological data supply, is the only sure basis of classification."
On the other hand Oken (Isis, 1842, pp. 39 1 -394), though giving a summary of Nitzsch's results and classification, was more sparing of his praise, and prefaced his remarks by asserting that he could not refrain from laughter when he looked at the plates in Nitzsch's work, since they reminded him of the plucked fowls hanging in a poulterer's shop, and goes on to say that, as the author always had the luck to engage in researches of which nobody thought, so had he the luck to print them where nobody sought them.
The Revue Zoologique for 1847 (pp. 360-369) contained the whole, and enabled naturalists to consider the merits of the author's project, which was to found a new classification of birds on the form of the anterior palatal bones, which he declared to be subjected more evidently than any other to certain fixed laws.
After several minor notices that appeared in journals at various times, Des Murs in 1860 brought out at Paris his ambitious Traite general d'oologie ornithologique au point de vue de la classification, which contains (pp. 529-538) a " Systema Oologicum " as the final result of his labours.
Huxley, to the delight of an appreciative audience, delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England a course of lectures on birds, and a few weeks after presented an abstract of his researches to the Zoological Society, in whose Proceedings for the same year it will be found printed (pp. 415-472) as a paper " On the Classification of Birds, and on the taxonomic value of the modifications of certain of the cranial bones observable in that Class."
We restrict the origin of the Ratitae to that great branch of still primitive Carinatae which, after separation of the Ratitae, has further developed into the legion of the Alectoromorphae, notably Tinamiand Galliformes, together with still low Gruiformes (see BIRD, Classification).
We have seen how his classification of substances into elements and compounds, and the definitions which he assigned to these species, have similarly been retained; and how Lavoisier established the law of the "conservation of mass," overthrew the prevailing phlogistic theory, and became the founder of modern chemistry by the overwhelming importance which he gave to the use of the balance.
General Principles The substances with which the chemist has to deal admit of classification into elements and compounds.
Scandium possesses great historical interest, for Cleve showed that it was one of the elements predicted by Mendeleeff about ten years previously from considerations based on his periodic classification of the elements (see Element).
Dulong and Petit's law thus points to the value 114, which is also supported by the position occupied by this element in the periodic classification.
It will be more appropriate here, without giving what would be a needless repetition of considerations, both historical and theoretical, which appear in other articles, to confine ourselves to two general questions, (I) the history of the various schemes of classification, or Morphography, and (2) the consideration of the main tendencies iii the study of zoology since Darwin.
According to its position in the periodic classification of the elements one would expect its atomic weight to be less than that of iodine, instead of approximately equal, and on this account many efforts have been made to isolate another element from tellurium compounds, but none have as yet been successful.
In its chemical relationships tantalum is associated with vanadium, columbium and didymium in a sub-group of the periodic classification.
It is impossible to offer any exhaustive classification of those who, while they rejected the teachings of the old Church, refused at the same time to conform to the particular types of Protestantism which had found favour in the eyes of the princes and been imposed by them on their subjects.
A system of classification for the Phanerogams, or, as they are frequently now called, Spermatophyta (seed-plants), which has been much used in Great Britain and in America, is that of Bentham and Hooker, whose Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) is a descriptive account of all the genera of flowering plants, based on their careful examination.
Altogether, eight orders are recognized in the classification adopted here, the first five of these belonging to the sub-class Exopterygota and the last three to the Endopterygota (see Hexapoda).
In modern practice (see Zoological Nomenclature) systematists no longer regard species as more than as an artificial rank in classification, to be applied chiefly for reasons of convenience, so that the word is reverting to its older logical significance.
A classification of this flora necessitates La Plata, 1900, and " Beitrge zur Kenntnis der Juraund Kreideformation der Cordillere," Palaeontographica, vol.
In his researches, Roscoe showed that the atomic weight of the metal as determined by Berzelius and the formulae given to the oxides were incorrect, and pointed out that the element falls into its natural place in group V of the periodic classification along with phosphorus and arsenic, and not in the chromium group where it had originally been placed.
About this time Buchheim, professor of materia medica in Dorpat from 1846 to 1879, founded the first pharmacological laboratory on modern lines in Europe, and he introduced a more rational classification of drugs than had hitherto been in use, arranging them in groups according to their pharmacological actions.
Existing ' rotation invariant ' texture classification schemes can fail when the 3D textures are rotated.
More Shellfish harvesting classification Thursday 20 April 2006 Classification of shellfish harvesting areas in Scottish waters.
Clinical staging of gastric carcinoma by the TNM classification was found to reflect accurately the prognosis of these patients.
Classification The star ratings shown are based on the latest official inspection correct at October 2004.
The database is searchable by gene name, or by kinase classification at the group, family or subfamily level.
This data is used in a variety of surface texture classification schemes.
They recognize that there is a great variety of living things and understand the importance of classification.
Classification of wine By vinification methods Wines may be classified by vinification methods.
When people think about non pedigree kittens for sale, they think of either kittens that are a mixture of breeds or a specific breed without the paperwork to back up their breed classification.
This clear neutral spirit has no real classification system and may be differentiated by price and alcohol content.
Students also learn the classification of all life including members of the plant kingdom, animal kingdom, and the ecological system in which we all live.
Not much - it's normally just a classification within the school.
Here it will be convenient to adhere to the old classification, which places Pears under Pyrus, Apples under Malus, Beams under Aria, and Mountain Ashes and Service Trees under Sorbus.
In every branch of human effort the mania for hairsplitting and classification is harmful and even impossible, as in the attempt to distinguish between practice and science!
Further classification specifies organic ingredients and labeling guidelines.
Although many people tend to lump these people all into one classification, their defining decade was very different.
The truth of the matter is that criteria and classification for UV protection is not mandatory.
The Australian Office of Film and Literature Classification, which is responsible for video game ratings in that country, has taken away the GTA 3's classification altogether.
The game, published by Electronic Arts, seems to transcend conventional genre classification.
I get the question all the time about the classification levels that are listed on bottles of Cognac and other brandies.
To determine the condition of a tool, most collectors refer to the The Fine Tool Journal Classification System.
A copy of the classification system is provided by Tool Timer in the article A Beginners Guide to Collecting Antique Tools.
The classification criteria are approximately half way down the page.
This rating system is provided just below the Fine Tool Journal Classification System.
The most widely used classification scheme for the vasculitides was first proposed at an international conference in 1994.
Further research in the 1990s led to classification of mitochondrial disorders.
Classification of EDS types was revised in 1997.
This new classification is simpler than the previous classification system and is primarily based on descriptions of the actual symptoms.
About 30 percent of identical twins have this classification, and each twin has its own chorion, amnion, and placenta.
Approximately 68 percent of identical twins are in this classification, and they have a mortality rate of 25 percent.
Only 2 percent of identical twins are in this classification, and they have a mortality rate of greater than 50 percent.
Approximately 60 to 80 percent of all diagnosed cases are in this classification, which usually occurs in children aged five to ten years.
The American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) has developed another widely accepted diagnostic classification system for mental retardation.
The AAMR classification system focuses on the capabilities of the retarded individual rather than on the limitations.
Developmentally, peer neglect is not a very stable classification, and many neglected children develop more confidence as they move into classrooms with more familiar or more compatible peers.
Some psychiatrists are critical of the psychiatric classification of gender identity disorder, saying it is more a social stigma.
A number of different classification (staging) systems are used to establish the severity of retinoblastoma and aid in choosing an appropriate treatment plan.
Carbohydrate intolerance is the inability of the small intestine to completely process the nutrient carbohydrate (a classification that includes sugars and starches) into a source of energy for the body.
The terms antibody and immunoglobulin are often used interchangeably, although immunoglobulin refers to the larger classification system for antibodies.
Red blood cell (RBC) indices are calculations derived from the complete blood count that aid in the diagnosis and classification of anemia.
Prisons.The prisons of France, some of them attached to the ministry of the interior, are complex in their classification.
The different kinds of motive power used to actuate cranes - manual, steam, hydraulic, electric - give a further classification.
As in the Gymnoblastea, the difficulty of uniting the hydroid and medusan systems into one scheme of classification is very great in the present state of our knowledge.
Radlkofer (1883) was the first to call attention to the great importance of this method in systematic botany, as providing fresh characters on which to base a natural classification.
Huxley, in 1868, divided the carinate birds into Dromaeo-, Schizo-, Desmo-, and Aegithognathae, an arrangement which for many years had a considerable influence upon classification.
We should be able to construct the pedigree of every group, in other words, the gigantic natural system, but there would be no classification.
The families are those which are enumerated in Garow's classification.
Thus the whole classification becomes a rounded-off phylogenetic system, which, at least in its broad outlines, seems to approach the natural system, the ideal goal of the scientific ornithologist.
The number of described species can now hardly be less than 10o,000, but there is little agreement as to the main principles of a natural classification.
Macleay's classification (1825), which rested principally on the characters of the larvae, is almost forgotten nowadays, but it is certain that in any systematic arrangement which claims to be natural the early stages in the life-history must receive due attention.
Lameere (1900) has suggested three sub-orders, the Cantharidif ormia (including the Phytophaga, the Heteromera, the Rhynchophora and most of the Polymorpha of Sharp's classification), the Staphyliniformia (including the rove-beetles, carrion-beetles and a few allied' amilies of Sharp's Polymorpha), and the Carabidiformia (Adephaga).
Lameere's classification is founded on the number of abdominal sterna, the nervuration of the wings, the number of malpighian tubules (whether four or six) and other structural characters.
Students of the Coleoptera have failed to agree not only on a system of classification, but on the relative specialization of some of the groups which'.
In the classification adopted in this article, the attempt has been made to combine the best points in old and recent schemes, and to avoid the inconvenience of a large heterogeneous group including the vast majority of the families.
Besides the system of charges thus prescribed in the classification and rate-sheet, each tariff provides for a certain number of special rates or charges made for particular lines of trade in certain localities, independently of their relation to the general system.
A classification may also be made, according to the work for which engines are designed, into passenger engines, goods engines, and shunting or switching engines.
Diptera are divided into some sixty families, the exact classification of which has not yet been finally settled.
This classification has been very generally received, and most later schemes have been modifications of it.
Considerable progress has been made in the classification of the various races which occupy the continent to the west of the great Mongolian region.
It is evident that no permanent classification is possible of what is or is not of economic significance.
Again, the classification of an economic bibliography at once shows how varied has been the character of economic investigation, ranging from the most abstract speculation on the one hand to almost technical studies of particular trades on the other.
The former classification into Holochlamyda, Pneumochlamyda and Siphonochlamyda has been abandoned, as it was founded on adaptive characters not always indicative of true affinities.
As an extreme contrast to this After Westwood, c am odeif orm type, we take the maggot Modern Classification.
Nevertheless, the constant increase of our knowledge of insect forms renders classification increasingly difficult, for gaps in the series become filled, and while the number of genera and families increases, the distinctions between these groups become dependent on characters that must seem trivial to the naturalist who is not a specialist.
Brauer in his arrangement of these orders laid special stress on the nature of the metamorphosis, and was the first to draw attention to the number of Malpighian tubes as of importance in classification.
The classification here adopted is based on Sharp's scheme, with the addition of suggestions from some of the most recent authors - especially Bdrner and Enderlein.
Geological History The classification just given has been drawn up with reference to existing insects, but the great majority of the extinct forms that have been discovered can be referred with some confidence to the same orders, and in many cases to recent families.
The first is entitled Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis Tabulae, &c. while the second, which is the most valuable, is merely appended to the Lectiones Gabrielis Fallopii de partibus similaribus humani corporis, &c., and thus, the scope of each work being regarded as medical, the author's labours were wholly overlooked by the mere naturalhistorians who followed, though Coiter introduced a table, " De differentiis Auium," furnishing a key to a rough classification of such birds as were known to him, and this as nearly the first attempt of the kind deserves notice here.
In his classification of birds Linnaeus for the most part followed Ray, and where he departed from his model he seldom improved upon it.
His attempt at classification was certainly better than that of Linnaeus; and it is rather curious that the researches of the latest ornithologists point to results in some degree comparable with Brisson's systematic arrangement, for they refuse to keep the birds-of-prey at the head of the Class A y es, and they require the establishment of a much larger number of " Orders " than for a long while was thought advisable.
The classification was modified, chiefly on the old lines of Willughby and Ray, and certainly for the better; but no scientific nomenclature was adopted, which, as the author subsequently found, was a change for the worse.
He took many liberties with the details of Linnaeus's work, but left the classification, at least of the birds, as it was - a few new genera excepted.'
In the work just mentioned few details are given; but even the more elaborate classification of birds contained in his Lecons d'anatomie comparee of 1805 is based wholly on external characters, such as had been used by nearly all his predecessors; and the Regne Animal of 1817, when he 1 This was reprinted in 5882 by the Willughby Society.
Unfortunately for him, as will appear in the sequel, it seems not to have occurred to him to use any of the results he obtained as the basis of a classification.
The more important monographs will usually be found cited in the separate articles on birds contained in this work, though some, by reason of changed views of classification, have for practical purposes to be regarded now as general works.
These need not detain us for long, since, however well some of them may have been executed, regard being had to their epoch, and whatever repute some of them may have achieved, they are, so far as general information and especially classification is concerned, wholly obsolete, and most of them almost useless except as matters of antiquarian interest.
The classification was quite new, and made a step distinctly in advance of anything.
In 1816 Vieillot published at Paris an Analyse d'une nouvelle ornithologie elementaire, containing a method of classification which he had tried in vain to get printed before, both in Turin and in London.
The views of neither of these systematizers pleased Temminck, who in 1817 replied rather sharply to Vieillot in some Observations sur la classification methodique des oiseaux, a pamphlet published at Amsterdam, and prefixed to the second edition m i nd.
However, Nitzsch had not as yet seen his way to proposing any methodical arrangement of the various groups of birds, and it was not until some eighteen months later that a scheme of classification in the main anatomical was attempted.
This is a very disappointing performance, since the author observes that, notwithstanding his new classification of birds is based on a study of the form of the sternal apparatus, yet, because that lies wholly within the body, he is compelled to have recourse to such outward characters as are afforded by the 1 From carin g, a keel.
Two years later Nitzsch, who was indefatigable in his endeavour to discover the natural families of birds and had been pursuing a series of researches into their vascular system, published the result, at Halle in Saxony, in his Observationes de avium arteria carotide communi, in which is included a classification drawn up in accordance with the variation of structure which that important vessel presented in the several groups that he had opportunities of examining.
But it must be observed that the classification of Nitzsch, just given, rests much more on characters furnished by the general structure than on those furnished by the carotid artery only.
For the rest his classification demands no particular remark; but that in a work of this kind he had the courage to recognize, for instance, such a fact as the essential difference between swallows and swifts lifts him considerably above the crowd of other ornithological writers of his time.
His scheme of classification, being as before stated partial, need not be given in detail.
In the same year (1839) another slight advance was made in the classification of the true Passerines.
While furnishing - almost unconsciously, however - additional evidence for overthrowing that classification, there is, nevertheless, no attempt made to construct a better one; and the elaborate tables of dimensions, both absolute and proportional, suggestive as is the whole tendency of the author's observations, seem not to lead to any very practical result, though the systematist's need to look beneath the integument, even in parts that are so comparatively little hidden as birds' feet, is once more made beyond all question apparent.
Indeed he was so much prepossessed in favour of a classification based on the structure of the digestive organs that he could not bring himself to consider vocal muscles to be of much taxonomic use, and it was reserved to Johannes Muller to point out that the contrary was the fact.
Carrying on the work from the anatomical point at which he had left it, correcting his errors, and utilizing to the fullest extent the observations of Keyserling and Blasius, to which reference has already been made, Muller, though hampered by mistaken notions of which he seems to have been unable to rid himself, propounded a scheme for the classification of this group, the general truth of which has been admitted by all his successors, based, as the title of his treatise expressed, on the hitherto unknown different types of the vocal organs in the Passerines.
Here we must mention the intimate connexion between classification and geographical distribution as revealed by the palaeontological researches of Alphonse Milne-Edwards, whose magnificent Oiseaux Fossiles de la France a.
Hence it became manifest that a very respectable classification can be found in which characters drawn from these bones play a rather important part.
Unfortunately none of these, however, can be compared for singularity with Archaeopteryx or with some American fossil forms next to be noticed, for their particular It is true that from the time of Buffon, though he scorned any regular classification, geographical distribution had been occasionally held to have something to do with systematic arrangement; but the way in which the two were related was never clearly put forth, though people who could read between the lines might have guessed the secret from Darwin's Journal of Researches, as well as from his introduction to the Zoology of the " Beagle" Voyage.
The former efforts at classification made by Sundevall have already several times been mentioned, and a return to their con sideration was promised.
Hence his efforts, praiseworthy as they were from several points of view, and particularly so in regard to some details, failed to satisfy the philosophic taxonomer when generalizations and deeper principles were concerned, and in his practice in respect of certain technicalities of classification he was, in the eyes of the orthodox, a transgressor.
Sclater published in the Ibis a classification which was mainly a revision of the system of Huxley, modified by the investigations of Garrod and Forbes and by his own large acquaintance with museum specimens.
Reichenow in Die Vogel der zoologischen Garten published a classification of birds with a phylogenetic tree.
Apart from its intrinsic merits as a learned and valuable addition to classification, this work is interesting in the history of ornithology because of the wholesale changes of nomenclature it introduced as the result of much diligence and zeal in the application of the strict rule of priority to the names of birds.
The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived.
His name is best known for the share he had in the periodic classification of the elements.
For the morphology and classification of snails, see Gastropoda.
Consequently we are justified in retaining "Ratitae" in our classification, although they are a heterogeneous, not strictly monophyletic, assembly.
To the physicist matter is presented in three leading forms - solids, liquids and gases; and although further subdivisions have been rendered necessary with the growth of knowledge the same principle is retained, namely, a classification based on properties having no relation to composition.
The fundamental chemical classification of matter, on the other hand, recognizes two groups of substances, namely, elements, which are substances not admitting of analysis into other substances, and compounds, which do admit of analysis into simpler substances and also of synthesis from simpler substances.
Carbon was joined with silicon, zirconium and titanium, while boron, being trivalent, was relegated to another group. A general classification of elements, however, was not realized by Frankland, nor even by Odling, who had also investigated the question from the valency standpoint.
It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.
The clarification and spirit of research so clearly emphasized by Robert Boyle in the middle of the 17th century is reflected in the classification of substances expounded by Nicolas Lemery, in 1675, in his Cours de chymie.
Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
At the same time, however, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was only when identical compounds were obtained from both vegetable and animal sources that this subdivision was discarded, and the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry.
This description, although not absolutely comprehensive, serves as a convenient starting-point for a preliminary classification, since a great number of substances, including the most important, are directly referable to hydrocarbons, being formed by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms by other atoms or groups.
From these nuclei an immense number of derivatives may be obtained, for the hydrogen atoms may be substituted by any of the radicals discussed in the preceding section on the classification of organic compounds.
The development of the theory of crystal structure, and the fundamental principles on which is based the classification of crystal forms, are treated in the article Crystallography; in the same place will be found an account of the doctrine of isomorphism, polymorphism and morphotropy.
Isomorphism is most clearly discerned between elements of analogous chemical properties; and from the wide generality of such observations attempts have been made to form a classification of elements based on isomorphous replacements.
All these varieties were represented at the annual show of the Kennel Club in the autumn of 1905, and at the representative exhibition of America held under the management of the Westminster Kennel Club in the following spring the classification was substantially the same, additional breeds, however, being Boston terriers - practically unknown in England, - Chesapeake Bay dogs, Chihuahuas, Papillons and Roseneath terriers.
The latter were only recently introduced into the United States, though well known in Great Britain as the West Highland or Poltalloch terrier; an application which was made (1900) by some of their admirers for separate classification was refused by the Kennel Club, but afterwards it was granted, the breed being classified as the West Highland white terrier.
Considerable difference of opinion exists with regard to the best classification of the family, some authorities including most of the species in the typical genus Rhinoceros, while others recognize quite a number of sub-families and still more genera.
A complete classification of mathematical sciences, as they at present exist, is to be found in the International Catalogue of Scientific Literature promoted by the Royal Society.
The classification in question was drawn up by an international committee of eminent mathematicians, and thus has the highest authority.
The practical object of the enterprise required that the proportionate quantity of yearly output in the various branches, and that the liability of various topics as a matter of fact to occur in connexion with each other, should modify the classification.
His mode of viewing Christianity does not fit into any classification.
One classification makes three divisions for the epoch, characterized respectively by the existence of the cavebear, the mammoth and reindeer; another, two, marked by the prevalence of the mammoth and reindeer respectively.
The following scheme of classification is based on Beecher's and Schubert's.
As a member of the state Senate he supported the War of 1812 and drew up a classification act for the enrolment of volunteers.
This fact renders their association with the Crustacea impossible, if classification is to be the expression of genetic affinity inferred from structural coincidence.
We have now to offer a classification of the Arachnida and to pass in review the larger groups, with a brief statement of their structural characteristics.
The greater or less evolution and specialization of the metasomatic carapace appears to be the most important basis for classification - but this has not been made use of in the latest attempts at drawing up a system of the Trilobites.
Pocock, assistant in the Natural History departments of the British Museum, for valuable assistance in the preparation of this article and for the classification and definition of the groups of Eu-arachnida here given.
It is hardly possible to form any classification which is not open to some objection.
In any case the classification must be to some extent provisional, since scholars are still divided as to the original language, date and place of composition of some of the books which must come under our classification.'
The interesting problem of the future is - are we to regard this classification as fixed or as merely transitory?
More 1 Brongniart's Essai d'une classification naturelle des reptiles was not published in full till 1803.
Latreille 6 published a new classification of the Vertebrata, which are primarily divided into Haematherma, containing the three classes of Maminifera, Monotremata and A y es; and Haemacryma, also containing three classes - Reptilia, Amphibia and Pisces.
In most cases these subsidiary algebras, as they may be called, are inseparable from the applications in which they are used; but in any attempt at a natural classification of algebra (at present a hopeless task), they would have to be taken into account.
Rating, in maritime vocabulary, is the classification of men according to rank, and was formerly employed to class ships of a navy according to strength.
The classification of ships into six rates, and into rated and non-rated ships, continued during the existence of the old sailing fleets, with modifications in detail.
Systems Of Classification Morphography includes the systematic exploration and tabulation of the facts involved in the recognition of all the recent and extinct kinds of animals and their distribution in space and time.