Class Sentence Examples
Now tell me what kind of class you're attending.
He sounded like a first class jerk from the beginning.
He skipped the class on good nom de plumes.
These look like something a college anatomy class used—last week.
She faced the class.Advertisement
I went from the office to class and then from class to the plane.
Dean questioned Janet's scholastic ability to himself and cynically wondered if today's class was Vacuuming For Beginners or Dusting 101.
Kutuzov had received the Order of St. George of the First Class and the Emperor showed him the highest honors, but everyone knew of the imperial dissatisfaction with him.
Their recruits came from the elite class, while the regular army came from the poor.
So the historians of this class, by mutually destroying one another's positions, destroy the understanding of the force which produces events, and furnish no reply to history's essential question.Advertisement
Sometimes we are inclined to class those who are once-and-a-half-witted with the half-witted, because we appreciate only a third part of their wit.
This class of guests and members sat in certain habitual places and met in certain habitual groups.
An institution upholding honor, the source of emulation, is one similar to the Legion d'honneur of the great Emperor Napoleon, not harmful but helpful to the success of the service, but not a class or court privilege.
Betsy and I claimed world class ability while Quinn just rolled his eyes.
When he returned to the main room, Harrigan had left to talk to a class of grade-school children, a job at which he excelled, much to the pleasure of the others who shunned playing Officer Friendly.Advertisement
Even though her ten year class reunion was scheduled for Saturday afternoon, Alex chose that morning to start her training.
When I first met Howie in class I thought he was just this lonely guy but he seemed nice and we had coffee a time of two.
Jonathan hurried off to bible class and it was Carmen's turn to help out with the infants, so she took Destiny with her.
Now your 'contents' are something extra special so regardless of the packaging, you're still first class to me.
Unlike the regular military, the political elite's security private forces were made up of children from the upper class to prevent the elite class from becoming polluted by the poor.Advertisement
Those under their care formed a class.
I thought I might just as well describe my pet in order to know it--order, vertebrate; division, quadruped; class, mammalia; genus, felinus; species, cat; individual, Tabby.
The luxury of one class is counterbalanced by the indigence of another.
He'd urged her to hide herself away when she wasn't at work with him, telling her tales of how bad the upper class was.
All belonged to the same totem or totemic class, and might be scattered throughout the tribe, though subject to the same marriage laws.Advertisement
They form a natural transition to the second class.
She knew the manual labor class worked with their hands, but she didn't realize they used them to do more than serve the elite.
He won the Ireland scholarship in 1848 and obtained a first class in both the classical and the mathematical schools in 1849.
The canons respecting the clergy exhibit the clergy as already a special class with peculiar privileges, a more exacting moral standard, heavier penalties for delinquency.
The device of hereditary coat-armour, a growth of the 12th century, did much to define and mark out the noble class throughout Europe.
The set viewed as a class has many orders.
It certainly is fair to look at that class by whose labor the works which distinguish this generation are accomplished.
A third class of historians--the so-called historians of culture-- following the path laid down by the universal historians who sometimes accept writers and ladies as forces producing events--again take that force to be something quite different.
The famous engine " Charles Dickens " was one of this class.
Three years later that railway did away with second-class compartments and improved the third class to their level.
On the continent of Europe there are occasionally four classes, but though the local fares are often appreciably lower than in Great Britain, only first and second class, sometimes only first class, passengers are admitted to the fastest trains, for which in addition a considerable extra fare is often required.
In the United States there is in most cases nominally only one class, denominated first class, and the average fare obtained by the railways is about id.
But the extra charges levied for the use of parlour, sleeping and other special cars, of which some of the best trains are exclusively composed, in practice constitute a differentiation of class, besides making the real cost of travelling higher than the figures just given.
The maximum 1st, 2nd and 3rd class passenger fares are, per kilometre, 067 f.
If, however, we turn to Australia, where sacrifice is unknown, we find more than ' one class of rites in which we can trace an idea akin to some forms of sacrifice.
The latter class is formed by waters that fall on the barren mountain-sides and rush down in torrents, forming in the valleys shallow bodies of water yellow with the mud held in suspension.
He graduated second (salutatorian) in his class in 1878, and began to study law in Cincinnati College, where he graduated in 1880, dividing the first prize for scholarship. He was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1880.
He graduated from Harvard in 1880 (in the class with Theodore Roosevelt), and the following year entered the banking house of Lee, Higginson & Co., in Boston.
After the second crusade the German Jews fell into the class of servi camerae, which at first only implied that they enjoyed the immunity of imperial servants, but afterwards made of them slaves and pariahs.
A grotesque feature of the time in Germany and Austria was the class of court Jews, such as the Oppenheims, the personal favourites of rulers and mostly their victims when their usefulness had ended.
Even more important was another privileged class - that of the Schutz-Jude (protected Jew).
A special class of Roman prelatures exist at Rome, endowed as a kind of ecclesiastical majority to which those members of certain families who are destined for the clerical life naturally succeed.
Below these came the Eiki or chiefs, and next to them the class called Matapule.
An extraordinary perfection was at this time attained in many branches of art, notably in the painted pottery, often with polychrome decoration, of a class known as " Kamares " from its first discovery in a cave of that name on' Mount Ida.
During the Third Middle Minoan period, the lower limits of which approach 1600 B.C., this pictographic script finally gives way to a still more developed linear system - which is itself divided into an earlier and a later class.
The earlier class (A) is already found in the temple repositories of Cnossus belonging to the age immediately preceding the great remodelling of the Earlier picto= graphic script.
The later class (B) of the linear script is that used on the great bulk of the clay tablets of the Cnossian palace, amounting in number to nearly 2000.
Although images of the divinities were certainly known, the principal objects of cult in the Minoan age were of the aniconic class; in many cases these were natural objects, such as rocks and mountain peaks, with their cave sanctuaries, like those of Ida or of Dicte.
Clay tablets were here found belonging to the earlier type of the linear script (Class A), together with a great number of clay sealings with religious and other devices and incised countermarks.
A tall funnel-shaped vase of this class, of which a considerable part has been preserved, is divided into zones showing bull-hunting scenes, wrestlers and pugilists in gladiatorial costume, the whole executed in a most masterly manner.
When Leland Stanford, Jr., University was opened in 1891 he entered with the first class and specialized in geology and engineering, supporting himself by working at various jobs in free hours.
The most significant canons are those directly affecting the clergy, wherein the clergy appear as a privileged class, far above the laity, but with sharply differentiated and carefully graded orders within itself.
The -fact that the name of the ant has come down in English from a thousand years ago shows that this class of insects impressed the old inhabitants of England as they impressed the Hebrews and Greeks.
There is yet a vast field open in Asia for this class of surveys.
They were absolute monarchies, but the power of the king was tempered by the extraordinary influence possessed by the hereditary sacerdotal class or Brahmans.
Another son, Thomas Ewing (1829-1896), studied at Brown University in1852-1854(in 1894, by a special vote, he was placed on the list of graduates in the class of 1856); he was a lawyer and a freestate politician in Kansas in 1857-1861, and was the first chiefjustice of the Kansas supreme court (1861-1862).
The distinctive characters of the class Chaetopoda as a whole are partly embodied in the name.
Of the former class the most conspicuous was the Holy Roman Empire; but in Europe all monarchies were, within certain limits, originally elective; and, after the introduction of Christianity, the essential condition of the assumption of sovereign power was not so much kinship with the reigning family as the "sacring" by the divine authority of the Church.
This last class trades with the other three and despatches caravans to Illorin and other places, where the Kano goods, the "potash" and other merchandise are exchanged for kolas and European goods.
The Fula form the aristocratic class.
The emir on his installation takes an oath of allegiance to the British Crown, and accepts the position of a chief of the first class under British rule.
Strictly, it is confined to the upper class from whom Sivaji's generals were mostly drawn, and who sometimes claim a Rajput origin.
Here he apparently did not especially distinguish himself, belonging to the class of bons ordinaires.
After tracing the origin of commerce, Turgot develops Quesnay's theory that the land is the only source of wealth, and divides society into three classes, the productive or agricultural, the salaried (stipendiee) or artisan class, and the land-owning class (classe disponible).
He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.
This task Bentham undertook, and he brought to it a mind absolutely free from professional or class feeling, or any other species of prejudice.
The class to which he belonged was the only one which could afford to initiate improvements.
The figure denoting the general average yield per acre of any class of crop needs readjustment after every successive harvest.
In 1 In the absence of experiments it is assumed that wheat is digested like other foods of the same class.
An important step in this direction was taken in 1896, when the senior class for steers, viz.
The only exception was in the case of the slowly-maturing Cheviot and mountain breeds, for which the second class was for wether sheep of any age above twelve months.
The standard of life of the ordinary well-to-do middle class in England, for example, includes not only food, clothing and shelter of a kind different in many respects from that of a similar class in other countries and of other classes in England, but a highly complicated mechanism, both public and private, for ministering to these primary needs, habits of social intercourse, educational and sanitary organization, recreative arrangements and many other elements.
Many influences operating for a long period of time on the character and the environment of a class go to determine its standard of life.
It implies the existence of a well-trained class engaged in the work of collecting information, and much organization both by the state and private bodies.
Economics, therefore, under modern conditions, is not only a subject which may usefully occupy the attention of a leisured class of scientific men.
His father belonged to the class of Dihkans (the old native country families and landed proprietors of Persia, who had preserved their influence and status under the A ab rule), and possessed an estate in the neighbourhood of Cus (in Khorasan).
This circlet of gill-lamellae led Cuvier to class the limpets as Cyclobranchiata, and, by erroneous identification of them with the series of metamerically repeated ctenidia of Chiton, to associate the latter mollusc with the former.
The division of the foot into lobes is a simple case of that much greater elaboration or breaking up into processes and regions which it undergoes in the class Cephalopoda.
The class was to contain fifteen orders, but only three were dealt with in any detail.
Herein he divided the class A y es into two subclasses, to which he applied the names of Insessores and Grallatores (hitherto used by their inventors Vigors and Illiger in a different sense), in the latter work relying chiefly for this division on characters which had not before been used by any systematist, namely that in the former group monogamy generally prevailed and the helpless nestlings were fed by their parents, while the latter group were mostly polygamous, and the chicks at birth were active and capable of feeding themselves.
Yet this distinguished zoologist selects the sternum as furnishing the key to his primary groups or " Orders " of the class, adopting, as Merrem had done long before, the same two divisions Cartnatae and Ratitae, naming, however, the former Tropidosternii and the latter Homalosternii.
In this scheme birds are arranged according to what the author considered to be their natural method and sequence; but the result exhibits some unions as ill-assorted as can well be met with in the whole range of tentative arrangements of the class, together with some very unjustifiable divorces.
On this ground it is stated that the Passeres should be placed highest in the class.
But that these three oldest-known forms of birds should differ so greatly from each other unmistakably points to a great antiquity for the class.
The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived.
Besides the distinctions of human and nonhuman, hostile and friendly, the demons in which the lower races believe are classified by them according to function, each class with a distinctive name, with extraordinary minuteness, the list in the case of the Malays running to several score.
Another class of nocturnal demons are the incubi and succubi, who are said to consort with human beings in their sleep; in the Antilles these were the ghosts of the dead; in New Zealand likewise ancestral deities formed liaisons with females; in the Samoan Islands the inferior gods were regarded as the fathers of children otherwise unaccounted for; the Hindus have rites prescribed by which a companion nymph may be secured.
The assignment of genii to buildings and gates is connected with an important class of sacrifices; in order to provide a tutelary spirit, or to appease chthonic deities, it was often the custom to sacrifice a human being or an animal at the foundation of a building; sometimes we find a similar guardian provided for the frontier of a country or of a tribe.
Benjamin Franklin, who was born and spent his boyhood in Boston, left boo() to the city in his will; it amounted in 1905 to $403,000, and constituted a fund to be used for the good of the labouring class of the city.
Prices were low, foreign commerce was already large, business thriving; wealth gave social status; the official British class lent a lustre to society; and Boston " town " was drawing society from the " country."
Spiders, in short, must be regarded as the most highly organized and the most successful members of the class Arachnida.
The exact extent, however, to which each particular class of enemy has affected the protective habits and attributes of spiders is by no means always evident; and it is impossible to discuss the question in detail within the limits of a short article.
The stronger current of modern authority is in favour of the landlords and not in favour of restricting the meaning of covenants of this class.
The amount and quality of the repairs necessary to fulfil the covenant are always relative to the age, class and condition of the premises at the time of the lease.
The science of insects began with Aristotle, who included in a class "Entoma" the true insects, the arachnids and the myriapods, the Crustacea forming another class ("Malacostraca") of the "Anaema" or "bloodless animals."
The citrates are a numerous class of salts, the most soluble of which are those of the alkaline metals; the citrates of the alkaline earth metals are insoluble.
In other words, the Druids constituted the learned and the priestly class, and they were in addition the chief expounders and guardians of the law.
We are, however, informed by Diodorus and Strabo that this class was composed of Druids, bards and soothsayers.
In 1885 St Joseph became a city of the second class.
The independent position of the burgesses, who thus assumed a position of equality by the side of the feudal class, is one of the peculiarities of the kingdom of Jerusalem.
The commercial motive, again, had been one of the great motives of the crusade; and the class which was impelled by that motive would be both large and, in view of the quality of the Eastern goods in which it dealt, exceptionally prosperous.
Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four kinds - the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly, in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather a scientific historian than a chronicler.
The first class includes the isabelline bear, badger, pole-cat, ermine, roe and fallow deer, wild ass, Syrian squirrel, pouched marmoset, gerbill and leopard.
The second class will be found under Palestine; and it includes a sub-class which is not found outside Palestine at all.
To this last class belong the Ismailites (Assassins), q.v., Metawali, Nosairis, Ansarieh, and especially the Druses.
On Aelius Caesar, see Class.
Florida, the richest class, which require drainage to fit them for cultivation.
As the number of farms increased faster than the cultivated area from 1850 to 1900, the average size of farms declined from 444 acres in 1860 to 140 in 1880 and to 106.9 in 190o, the largest class of farms being those with an acreage varying from 20 to 50 acres.
He joined a Methodist class, threw his house open for love-feasts and prayer-meetings, and did a great deal of itinerant evangelization among the cottages of the countryside.
The meeting was held and ten months later Bourne was expelled by the Burslem Quarterly Meeting, ostensibly for non-attendance at class (he had been away from home, evangelizing), really, as the Wesleyan superintendent told him "because you have a tendency to set up other than the ordinary worship" which was precisely the reason why, fifty years earlier, the Anglican Church had declined to sanction the methods of John Wesley.
The societies which Bourne formed were for a time allowed to go under (Wesleyan) Methodist protection, but the crisis came in 1810, when the Stanley class of ten members declined to wash their hands of the Camp-Meeting Methodists, and so were refused admission.
This, when cast into forms and allowed to harden and dry slowly, comes out as transparent soap. A class of transparent soap may also be made by the cold process, with the use of coco-nut oil, castor oil and sugar.
A high class soap, which after framing contains about 30% of water, is brought down to a water content of 11-14% by drying in chambers through which warm air is circulated.
These orders are of very ancient date, owing their establishment to the ancient Hindu rule, followed by the Buddhists, that each "twice-born" man should lead in the woods the life of an ascetic. The second class of Fakirs are simply disreputable beggars who wander round extorting, under the guise of religion, alms from the charitable and practising on the superstitions of the villagers.
He joined the Methodists, was soon employed as a class leader and local preacher, and continued to preach till a few months before his death.
When the monarchy was supplanted in the usual Greek fashion by a hereditary nobility - a process accomplished, according to tradition, between about l000 and 683 B.C. - all power was appropriated by a privileged class of Eupatridae; the Geomori and Demiurgi, who formed the bulk of the community, enjoyed no political rights.
But the triumph of the navy in 480 and the great expansion of commerce and industry had definitely shifted the political centre of gravity from the yeoman class of moderate democrats to the more radical party usually stigmatized as the " sailor rabble."
Milchhofer, Untersuchungen fiber die Demenordnung des Kleisthenes (in transactions of Berlin Academy, Berlin, 1892); Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopddie der class.
He took a first class in moderations in 1862 and in Literae humaniores in 1863, and was Pusey and Ellerton scholar in 1861.
The literary and artistic value of many of the Robin Hood ballads cannot be pronounced considerable, but eight of them attain the high-water mark of their class.
On his return to Russia he was created a boyar of the first class and entrusted with the direction of the foreign office, with the title of "Guardian of the great Tsarish Seal and Director of the great Imperial Offices."
Gold, the most perfect metal, had the symbol of the Sun, 0; silver, the semiperfect metal, had the symbol of the Moon, 0j; copper, iron and antimony, the imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus Mars and the Earth tin and lead, the imperfect metals of the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 94, and Saturn h; while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver class, had the symbol of the planet,.
Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
There also exists an extensive class of compounds termed the " heterocyclic series " - these compounds are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic series than to the aliphatic.
It will be seen that each type depends upon a specific radical or atom, and the copulation of this character with any hydrocarbon radical (open or cyclic) gives origin to a compound of the same class.
An important class of compounds, termed amines (q.v.), results from the condensation of alcohols with ammonia, water being eliminated between the alcoholic hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom of the ammonia.
In general, the aliphatic residues in such mixed compounds retain the characters of their class, while the aromatic residues retain the properties of benzene.
Systems which are generally unsaturated compounds, often of considerable stability, and behave as nuclei; these compounds constitute a well-individualized class exhibiting closer affinities to benzenoid substances than to the open-chain series.
The first class includes those substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, nitroso-, azo-, diazoand amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, derivatives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds.
The Thompson family had been settled in New England since the middle of the previous century, and belonged to the class of moderately wealthy farmers.
The other class of mercenaries were Gauls, and from the time of the Gallic invasion of Asia Minor in 279 Gauls or Galatians were a regular constituent in all armies.
Not only the workmen and the large class of idlers attracted to Paris by the system, but rentiers and government officials, whose incomes were paid in assignats on a scale arbitrarily fixed by the government, saw themselves threatened with actual starvation.
The greyhound and all its varieties belong to this class.
To this class belong most of the useful dogs, such as the spaniel, the setter, the pointer and the sheepdog.
Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.
The movement, which is no longer exclusively under the control of Friends, is rapidly becoming one of the chief means of bringing about a religious fellowship among a class which the organized churches have largely failed to reach.
Lancaster was incorporated as a village in 1831 and twenty years later became a city of the third class.
Educated at several schools in London, he went to Edinburgh University in 1792, where he attended Dugald Stewart's moral philosophy class.
He was also engaged in preparing an abstract of his lectures as a handbook for his class.
Of these the first-fruit was his Clave Historial, a work of the same class as the French Art de verifier les dates, and preceding it by several years.
In modern slavery, on the other hand, where the occupations of both parties were industrial, the existence of a servile class only guaranteed for some of them the possibility of self-indulgent ease, whilst it imposed on others the necessity of indigent idleness.
The sons of the family were familiarized with vice, and the general tone of the younger generation was lowered by their intimate association with a despised and degraded class.
Slaves who had rendered eminent services to the public, as those who fought at Arginusae and at Chaeronea, were at once admitted to the status of citizens in the class of (so-called) Plataeans.
But, whilst condemning harshness towards them, he encourages the feeling of contempt for them as a class.
The sentiments it created were not only favourable to the humane treatment of the class in the of present, but were the germs out of which its entire libera- of was destined, at a later period, in part to arise.
The latter would, indeed, be gradually affected; and accordingly we have observed a change in the policy of the law, indicating a change in sentiment with respect to the slave class, which does not appear to have been at all due to Christian teaching.
The third or theological class of writings consists mainly of commentaries, or of works which, if not commentaries in name, are so in fact.
A large class of examples run to 10 in., others to 8 in., while the smaller sizes range from 4 to 6 in.
Each class of flowerless or cryptogamic plants requires special treatment for the herbarium.
That the Kenites, too, were a race of metal-workers is quite uncertain, although even at the present day the smiths in Arabia form a distinct nomadic class.
He graduated in 1877, with a first class in classics, having won the Hertford, Craven, Eldon and Derby scholarships, and was elected to a fellowship of New College.
The class of sages to whom we owe the Wisdom Books did not arise till a change had come over the national fortunes and life.
These last came to form a separate class, though without formal organization.
Of this class are Pontchartrain, Borgne, Maurepas and Sabine.
These are simply parts of the sea which have escaped the filling-in process carried on by the great river and the lesser streams. A second class, called " ox-bow" lakes, large in numbers but small in area, includes ordinary cut-off meanders along the Mississippi and Red rivers.
A third class, those upon the Red river and its branches, are caused mainly by the partial stoppage of the water above Shreveport by the " raft," a mass of drift such as frequently gathers in western rivers, which for a distance of 45 m.
Lakes of this class are sometimes formed by the choking of the mouth of feeble tributaries by silt deposited by the Red river where the currents meet.
In comparison with other French officials, they are well paid (the salary nowadays ranges from 39,000 to 18,000 francs according to the class).
For his conspicuous services he was given the Kaisar-i-Hind medal of the first class, made an honorary major in the Indian army, a G.C.I.E., a K.C.S.I., and A.D.C. to the prince of Wales.
His mission as organizer and emancipator of the working class lasted only two years and a half.
Two classes between which a one-one relation exists have the same cardinal number and are called cardinally similar; and the cardinal number of the class a is a certain class whose members are themselves classes - namely, it is the class composed of all those classes for which a one-one correlation with a exists.
Thus the cardinal number of a is itself a class, and furthermore a is a member of it.
Thus the cardinal number one is the class of unit classes, the cardinal number two is the class of doublets, and so on.
Also a unit class is any class with the property that it possesses a member x such that, if y is any member of the class, then x and y are identical.
A doublet is any class which possesses a member x such that the modified class formed by all the other members except x is a unit class.
The cardinal number zero is the class of classes with no members; but there is only one such class, namely - the null class.
Cardinal numbers form a class.
The "field" of the relation R is the class of things ranged in order by it.
The relation-number of a relation is the class whose members are all those relations which are ordinally similar to it.
This class will include the original relation itself.
The relation-number of a relation should be compared with the cardinal number of a class.
Now if n be any finite cardinal number, it can be proved that the class of those serial relations, which have a field whose cardinal number is n, is a relation-number.
The ordinal number is the class whose sole member is the null relation - that is, the relation which never holds between any pair of entities.
But the definition of the cardinal number of a class applies when the class is not finite, and it can be proved that there are different infinite cardinal numbers, and that there is a least infinite cardinal, now usually denoted by o where to is the Hebrew letter aleph.
Similarly, a class of serial relations, called well-ordered serial relations, can be defined, such that their corresponding relation-numbers include the ordinary finite ordinals, but also include relation-numbers which have many properties like those of the finite ordinals, though the fields of the relations belonging to them are not finite.
A real number is a class (a, say) of rational numbers which satisfies the condition that it is the same as the class of those rationals each of which precedes at least one member of a.
Accordingly this class is a real number; it will be called the real number 2 R .
Note that the class of rationals less than or equal tò 2r is not a real number.
For 2r is not a predecessor of some member of the class.
For example, the class of rationals whose squares are less than 2r satisfies the definition of a real number; it is the real number A I 2.
Call this class w; then to say that x is a w is equivalent to saying that x is not an x.
Note that classes are here required in extension, so that the class of human beings and the class of rational featherless bipeds are identical; similarly for relations, which are to be determined by the entities related.
Thus, to say that a pen is an entity and the class of pens is an entity is merely a play upon the word "entity"; the second sense of "entity" (if any) is indeed derived from the first, but has a more complex signification.
Thus the class of rational numbers whose squares are less than 2 has no upper limit among the rational numbers.
A group is a class of relations possessing a special property.
But while Struve, and to a less degree Plekhanov, were induced by this admission to seek an affiance with Liberal intellectuals in their struggle against Tsarism, Lenin (as he had taken to calling himself), together with Martov, Axelrod and other fiery spirits, forsook the Liberal platform and strove for a violent outbreak of a downright class war.
Lenin regarded such strivings as a betrayal of the claims of the labouring class.
This class is distributed in very weak cadres in time of peace.
In time of war, it is completed by all troops not serving with the nizam, the redif class I.
As the organization proceeded, and stronger cadres were formed, the redif class II.
There are 96 infantry battalions of redif class I.; each regiment composed of 4 battalions - total 384 battalions.
Now and then it has been dealt with piecemeal, when some particular class of creditors has become too pressing, but it is more than probable that the piece got rid of has been more or less rapidly replaced by fresh liabilities occasioned by budgetary deficits, or by the mere accumulation of interest on debts allowed to run on.
The first class contains such revenues as the emlak verghi-si (duty on realty), `ashar (tithes), temettu (professional tax), &c. In all such cases the taxable values are fixed by a commission of experts, sometimes chosen by the tax-payers themselves, sometimes by the official authorities; in all cases both tax-payers and authorities are represented on the commissions, whose decisions may be appealed against, in last resort, to the council of state at Constantinople, whose decision is final.
Besides these members of the secretarial class, such as nishanjis and defterdars, as well as regular army officers, and occasionally members of the ecclesiastical class, or ulema, rose to the rank of vizier.
The highest dignitaries of the ecclesiastical class were at first the kazaskers, or military judges, of Europe and Asia; later the office of Sheikh-ul-Islam was created as the supreme authority in matters relating to the Church and the sacred law.
They were men of great culture, and many historians, poets and writers belong to this class.
Preserved merely as taxpayers necessary to supply the funds for the maintenance of the dominant and military class, according to a foreign observer in 1571, they had been so degraded and oppressed that they dared not look a Turk in the face.
The characteristic, but by no means attractive, street dress of the Moslem women of the better class comprises a black horse-hair visor completely covering the face and projecting like an enormous beak, the nether extremities being encased in yellow boots reaching to the knee and fully displayed by the method of draping the garments in front.
About half a mile from the town is the Albert Memorial Middle Class College, opened in 1865, and capable of accommodating 300 boys.
These castes, as well as the mandarins, who form a class by themselves, are exempt from tax or forced service.
The king is advised by a council of five ministers, the superior members of the class of mandarins; and the kingdom is divided into about fifty provinces administered by members of that body.
The National Convention was therefore the first French assembly elected by universal suffrage, without distinctions of class.
Very few authors of so high a class have been so consistent, or have made their conduct so close a reflection of their philosophy.
Being a port of the first class, Callao is an important distributing centre for the coasting trade, in which a large number of small vessels are engaged.
On this account the animal was subsequently placed by Gegenbaur in a special class of Vermes, the Enteropneusta.
On account of the presence and mode of origin (from the gut-wall) of this organ Bateson introduced the term hemichorda as a phyletic name for the class Enteropneusta.
He took a first class in the final mathematical school in 1854, and the following year was appointed mathematical lecturer at Christ Church, a post he continued to fill till 1881.
This list is not exhaustive; other products are given in Gustav Mann, Chemistry of the Proteids (1906), to which reference should be made for a complete account of this class of compounds.
Histones are a class of albumins soluble in water and acids, but essentially basic in character; hence they are precipitated by alkalies.
The protamines are a wellcharacterized class of albumins found in the ripe spermatozoa of fishes.
They generally form what may be called the back streets, and they are bordered by warehouses, cellars and the lower class of dwelling-houses.
Of these, however, only three are of any great extent, and one, where the largest class of ocean-going steamers and of war vessels for the German navy are built, employs about 5000 persons.
In the vegetable kingdom glucose occurs, always in admixture with fructose, in many fruits, especially grapes, cherries, bananas, &c.; and in combination, generally with phenols and aldehydes belonging to the aromatic series, it forms an extensive class of compounds termed glucosides.
On the 8th of August representatives from every class in the capital urged the necessity of a vigorous resistance; and the citizens of Copenhagen, headed by the great burgomaster Hans Nansen, protested their unshakable loyalty to the king, and their determination to defend Copenhagen to the uttermost.
He was educated at Harvard in the class of 1808.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
It was also performed as the fulfilment of a vow, or by command of the goddess herself, and the privilege was limited to no sex nor class.
To the first class, with the optic axial plane perpendicular to the plane of symmetry, belong muscovite, lepidolite, paragonite, and a rare variety of biotite called anomite; the second class includes zinnwaldite, phlogopite, lepidomelane and most biotites.
I t may, however, be pointed out that Brachiopods seem to belong to that class of animal which commences life as a larva with three segments, and that tri-segmented larvae have been found now in several of the larger groups.
Another class of subjects was now to engage his attention.
Such advice could not be grateful to the philosophers themselves - then a definite professional class, not unlike the "spiritual directors" of a later Rome, who earned their bread by smoothing away the doubts of the scrupulous on all matters intellectual and moral.
From its use in the sense of regulated order comes the application of the term to a class in a school (" sixth form," " fifth form," &c.); this sense has been explained without sufficient ground as due to the idea of all children in the same class sitting on a single form (bench).
Practically the metals iron, nickel and cobalt, and some of their alloys and compounds constitute a class by themselves and are called ferromagnetic substances.
An excellent instrument of the class is Ewing's permeability bridge.
Until the reform of the comitia centuriata (probabl' during the censorship of Gaius Flaminius in 220 B.C.; *see Comitia),` the equites had voted first, but after that time this privilege was transferred to tine cenfury selected by lot from the centuries of ' the equites and the first class.
The equites then voted with the first class, the distinction between the sex suffrakia and the other centuries being abolished.
In these circumstances there grew up in Rome a class of wealthy ' men, whose sole occupation it was to amass large fortunes by speculation,' and who found a most lucrative field of enterprise ' in state contracts and the farming of the public revenues.
Lamarck at the same time founded the class Crustacea for the lobsters, crabs and water-fleas, also until then included in the order Aptera of Linnaeus.
Lamarck included the Thysanura and the Myriapoda in his class Arachnida.
The Arachnida form a distinct class or line of descent in the grade Euarthropoda, diverging (perhaps in common at the start with the Crustacea) from primitive Euarthropods, which gave rise also to the separate lines of descent known as the classes Diplopoda, Crustacea, Chilopoda and Hexapoda.
This arrangement has not hitherto been detected in any other class than the Arachnida, and if it should ultimately prove to be peculiar to that group, would have considerable weight as a proof of the close genetic affinity of Limulus and Scorpio.
Their appearance in the air-breathing Arachnids does not separate those forms from the water-breathing Arachnids which are devoid of them, any more than does their appearance in certain Amphipoda separate those Crustaceans from the other members of the class.
The great Arthropod class, the Crustacea, presents to the zoologist at the present day an immense range of forms,.
This class, who desired to own their own land, were believed to have been won over and pacified by the expropriation of the owners of the large estates.
The Jareja Rajputs form a particular class, being the aristocracy of the country; and all are more or less connected with the family of the rao or prince.
Boundary cases and cases of indemnity for losses sustained by non-combatants in time of war, of which several instances have already been mentioned, belong to this class.
Latreille,2 rightly estimating the value of these differences, though he was not an original worker in the field of vertebrate zoology, proposed to separate Brongniart's Batrachia from the class of Reptilia proper, as a group of equal value, for which he retained the Linnaean name of Amphibia.
In 1816, de Blainville, 4 adopting Latreille's view, divided the Linnaean Amphibia into Squamiferes and Nudipelliferes, or Amphibiens; though he offered an alternative arrangement, in which the class Reptiles is preserved and divided into two subclasses, the Ornithoides and the Ichthyoides.
This division of the Vertebrata into hot and cold blooded is a curiously retrograde step, only intelligible when we reflect that the excellent entomologist had no real comprehension of vertebrate morphology; but he makes some atonement for the blunder by steadily upholding the class distinctness of the Amphibia.
Gray; but Dumeril and Bibron in their great work,' and Dr Gunther in his Catalogue, in substance, adopted Brongniart's arrangement, the Batrachia being simply one of the four orders of the class Reptilia.
Huxley adopted Latreille's view of the distinctness of the Amphibia, as a class of the Vertebrata, co-ordinate with the Mammalia, A y es, Reptilia and Pisces; and the same arrangement was accepted by Gegenbaur and Haeckel.
Towards the close of the 2nd century the cult had begun to spread rapidly through the army, the mercantile class, slaves and actual propagandists, all of which classes were largely composed of Asiatics.
Of the seven degrees, those mystics not yet beyond the third, Miles, were not in full communion, and were called inrnpETOUVTES (servants); while the fourth degree, Leo, admitted them into the class of the fully initiate, the (participants).
The two largest lakes of this class are on the coast of Rio Grande do Sul and are known as the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim.
Of the exports of 1905, 36% were of this class, while those of the pastoral and mining industries combined were not quite 61%.
The older class of more conservative Brazilians, who had formerly taken part in the administration under the emperor, withdrew altogether from public life.
The president gradually drew to him some members of the better conservative class to assist in his administration, and felt confident that he had the support of public opinion.
Adjoining is the village of Gilmerton (pop. 1482), which used to supply Edinburgh with yellow sand, when sanded floors were a feature in the humbler class of houses.
The government offices and the houses of the better class are all outside the walls.
Exasperated by the tyranny of the Salimbeni and other patrician families allied to the Ghibellines, it decreed in 127 7 the exclusion of all nobles from the supreme magistracy (consisting since 1270 of thirty-six instead of twenty-four members), and insisted that this council should be formed solely of Guelf traders and men of the middle class.
But meanwhile the exclusiveness of the single class of citizens from whose ranks the chief magistrates were drawn had converted the government into a close oligarchy and excited the hatred of every other class.
The nobles were worsted, being driven from the city as well as from power; but the absolute rule of the twelve was brought to an end, and right of participation in the government was extended to another class of citizens.
Among the wool-carders - men of the lowest class, dwelling in the precipitous lanes about the Porta Ovile - there was an association styling itself the "company of the worm."
The gathering exasperation of the Sienese, and notably of the middle class, against their rulers was brought to a climax by this cruel disappointment.
Thus began a new order or monte del popolo, composed of families of the same class as the riformatori, but having had no part in the government during the latter's rule.
Nor do Scottish presbyterians now recognize any special class of doctors, unless we suppose that these are represented by professors of theology.
The Panorama had a large circulation and influence, and Herculano's biographical sketches of great men and his articles of literary and historical criticism did much to educate the middle class by acquainting them with the story of their nation, and with the progress of knowledge and the state of letters in foreign countries.
Plan of ' Main Entrance II Impluvium Bath IV Principal Hall 'V birth to the Christian kingdoms of the Peninsula, while the Monge de Cister, published in 1848, describes the time of King John I., when the middle class and the municipalities first asserted their power and elected a king in opposition to the nobility.
But now, and until 1728, he created an entirely new class of humorous literature under the pseudonym of Hans Mikkelsen.
Scotus extends the number of theological doctrines which are not, according to him, susceptible of philosophical proof, including in this class the creation of the world out of nothing, the immortality of the human soul, and even the existence of an almighty divine cause of the universe (though he admits the possibility of proving an ultimate cause superior to all else).
The Realists, he considers, have greatly sinned against this maxim in their theory of a real universal or common element in all the individuals of a class.
The clergy, the only other educated class, supplied the king with his lawyers, secretaries and ambassadors.
Unfortunately the fruits of his diligence and foresight were dissipated by the follies of his two immediate successors, Emerich (1196-1204) and Andrew II., who weakened the Ar royal power in attempting to win support by lavish grants of the crown domains on the already over-influential magnates, a policy from which dates the supremacy of the semi-savage Magyar oligarchs, that insolent and self-seeking class which would obey no superior and trampled ruthlessly on every inferior.
On the other hand the great nobles were the only class who won for themselves a recognized political position.
The national assembly (Orszaggyiiles) was still summoned occasionally, but at very irregular intervals, the real business of the state being transacted in the royal council, where able men of the middle class, principally Italians, held confidential positions.
Charles, moreover, was a born financier, and his reform of the currency and of the whole fiscal system greatly contributed to enrich both the merchant class and the treasury.
The clergy, the chief official class, were naturally less ignorant than the gentry.
The peasant class suffered most of all.
Society itself must take the initiative by breaking down the barriers of class exclusiveness and reviving a healthy public spirit.
Of a more general character, and combining the merits of the above schools, are the works of the authors who constituted the socalled "Debreczen Class," which boasts the names of the naturalist and philologist John Foldi, compiler of a considerable part of the Debreczeni magyar grammatica; Michael Fazekas, author of Ludas Matyi (Vienna, 1817), an epic poem, in 4 cantos; and Joseph Kovacs.
The second class of Hungarian modern novelists is led by the well-known Koloman Mikszath, a poet endowed with originality, a charming naiveté, and a freshness of observation from life.
The third class of Magyar novelists comprises those cosmopolitan writers who take their method of work, their inspiration and even many of their subjects from foreign authors, chiefly French, German, Russian and also Norwegian.
A people with an intense national sentiment, such as the Hungarians, do not as a rule incline towards permanent admiration of foreign-born or imported literary styles; and accordingly the work of this class of novelists has frequently met with very severe criticism on the part of various Magyar critics.
In the fourth class may be grouped such of the latest Hungarian novelists as have tried, and on the whole succeeded, in clothing their ideas and characters in a style peculiar to themselves.
In the first class come equations in a single unknown; here the function which is equated to zero is the Y whose values for different values of X are traced, and the solution of the equation is the determination of the points where the ordinates of the graph are zero.
The second class of cases comprises equations involving two unknowns; here we have to deal with two graphs, and the solution of the equation is the determination of their common ordinates.
The algebras discussed up to this point may be considered as independent in the sense that each of them deals with a class of symbols of quantity more or less homogeneous, and a set of operations applying to them all.
In the body of the work he displays considerable ingenuity in reducing his problems to simple equations, which admit either of direct solution, or fall into the class known as indeterminate equations.
The discontent of the rural labourers and of the poorer class of craftsmen in the towns, caused by the economic distress that followed the Black Death and the enactment of the Statute of Labourers in 1351, was brought to a head by the imposition of a poll tax in 1379 and again in 1381, and at the end of May in the latter year riots broke out at Brentwood in Essex; on the 4th of June similar violence occurred at Dartford; and on the 6th a mob several thousands strong seized the castle of Rochester and marched up the Medway to Maidstone.
He refused to follow the financial policy of his party in 1862, and delivered a notable speech against the passage of the Legal Tender Act, which made a certain class of treasury notes receivable for all public and private debts.
Rating, in maritime vocabulary, is the classification of men according to rank, and was formerly employed to class ships of a navy according to strength.
He upset (1830) Cuvier's retention of the Cirripedes among Mollusca, and his subsequent treatment of them as an isolated class, by showing that they begin life as free-swimming Crustacea identical with the young forms of other Crustacea.
Pre-Darwinian zoologists had been aware of the class of facts thus interpreted by Fritz Muller, but the authoritative view on the subject had been that there is a parallelism between (a) the series of forms which occur in individual development, (b) the series of existing forms from lower to higher, and (c) the series of forms which succeed 'one another in the strata of the earth's crust, whilst an explanation of this parallelism was either not attempted, or was illusively offered in the shape of a doctrine of harmony of plan in creation.
Scarcely perceptible variations of the innate class are regularly and invariably present in every new generation of every species of living thing.
Descending series of the semi-convergent class, available for numerical calculation when u is moderately large, can be obtained from (12) by writing x=uy, and expanding the denominator in powers of y.
He soon made himself cordially detested by Russians of every class.
The Senate, which exercises the greater part of the executive power, is composed of eighteen members, one half of whom must have studied law or finance, while at least seven of the remainder must belong to the class of merchants.
They are elected for a period of six years, but as half of each class retire at the end of three years, new elections for one half the number take place at the end of that time.
Herodotus mentions the existence of this class, called Enarees, and says that they suffer from a sacred disease owing to the wrath of the goddess of Ascalon whose shrine they had plundered.
Hippocrates says that this only applies to the ruling class, not to the slaves, but gives as the reason the want of exercise among the former.
Tombs to which the name Scythic is generally applied form a welldefined class.
The finest of the class were opened about the bend of the Dnieper, where we should put the land Gerrhus.
But this system is practicable only by the voice and instruments of the violin class.
Thus, for example, the numerous psalms in which the poets, though speaking perhaps, not as individuals but as members of a class, describe themselves as poor and afflicted at the hands of certain ungodly men, who appear to be Jews, can hardly have been originally collected by the Temple choirs.
In the latter class Kimhi stands pre-eminent; to the editions of his commentary on the Psalms enumerated in the article Kimhi must now be added the admirable edition of Dr Schiller-Szinessy (Cambridge, 1883), containing, unfortunately, only the first book of his longer commentary.
They may be of Cretaceous age or even later, and in any case belong to the same class as those of Kimberley.
His parents belonged to the labouring class.
These two oracles agree in the elaborateness of their description of the fearful fate of the enemies of Yahweh (Babylon and Edom are merely representatives of a class), and also in their view of the deliverance and restoration of Israel as an epoch for the whole human race.
For the former class the generic name is Xgtwv, a word of Semitic origin, which denotes the Eastern origin of the garment; for the latter we find in Homer and early poetry irbrXos, in later times ij tnnov.
The mandarinate or official class is recruited from all ranks of the people by competitive examination.
A consequence of this change of circumstances was that comedy was no longer national in character and sentiment, but had become imitative and artistic. The life which Terence represents is that of the well-to-do citizen class whose interests are commonplace, but whose modes of thought and speech are refined, humane and intelligent.
The manufactures of this class include aerated waters, beer,.
He was an eloquent preacher, but his reputation rests chiefly on his expository works, which are said to have had a larger circulation both in Europe and America than any others of their class.
Among the most dangerous of the last class (the pneumokonioses) is perhaps that in which the dust particles take the form of finely divided freestone, as in stone-dressing and the dry-polishing on the grindstone of steel.
Little is known regarding this class of pigment.
Exudates are poured out under inflammatory conditions, while none of the truly dropsical effusions are of inflammatory origin; and hence the class of exudates, as above defined, may be rejected from the category of liquids we are at present considering.
Heidenhain recognizes two classes, first, such substances as peptone, leech extract and crayfish extract; and, secondly, crystalloids such as sugar, salt, &c. Starling sees no reason to believe that members of either class act otherwise than by increasing the pressure in the capillaries or by injuring the endothelial wall.
Among the first of these were Antonio Maria Valsalva (1666-1723), still better known as an anatomist; Giovanni Maria Lancisi (1654-1720), also an anatomist, the author of a classical work on the diseases of the heart and aneurisms; and Ippolito Francisco Albertini (1662-1738), whose researches on the same class of diseases were no less important.
It is on clinical grounds that beriberi, scarlet fever, measles, &c., are recognized as belonging to the same class, and evolving in phases which differ not in intimate nature but in the more superficial and inessential characters of time, rate and polymorphism; and the impression is gaining strength that acute rheumatism belongs to the group of the infections, certain sore throats, chorea and other apparently distinct maladies being terms of this series.
A new taste for philosophy had developed among members of the governing class during the youth of Lucretius, and eminent Greek teachers of the Epicurean sect settled at Rome at the same time, and lived on terms of intimacy with them.
The family appear to have always belonged to the yeoman-tradesman class; their special home was the town of Saint-Loup. Voltaire was the fifth child of his parents - twin boys (of whom one survived), a girl, Marguerite Catherine, and another boy who died young, having preceded him.
Poor quarters lie adjacent to the river over the whole distance from Battersea to Greenwich, merging southward into residential districts of better class.
Four small boats of the mine-laying class were also dispatched, of which three (UC 14, UC 13, UC15) made their way to Constantinople, carrying important technical stores, in the summer months after an intermediate base had been established at Orak near Budrun.
In the Beatitudes Christ's own disciples are addressed, who were blessed though poor, whereas the rich as a class were opposed or indifferent to the kingdom of God.
Though by birth belonging to the middle class in a country of hide-bound aristocracy, he lived to move on equal terms in the society of princes and statesmen; which would never have been the case had he been notoriously "bought and sold."
In the Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however, the criminal law is practically the same as the law in force in Upper Burma, and the ngwegunhmus, or petty chiefs, have been appointed magistrates of the second class.
Hence, supposing the crystals immediately after their formation to be in absolute contact with one another all round, then, in the case of Class II., such contact will be maintained on cooling, while in the case of Class I.
The crystalline structure which exists on both sides becomes visible only in the metals of the first class, and only there manifests itself as brittleness.
Metallic chlorides, as a class, are readily soluble in water.
Soon after the Joyeuse Entrée a serious feud began between the citizens and the patrician class, and eventually the duke threw in his lot with the latter.
He was one of the earliest composers for stringed instruments, and Kircher has given one specimen of this class of his works in the Musurgia.
There was little in Assyrian literature that was .original, and education, which was general in Babylonia, was in the northern kingdom confined for the most part to a single class.
Under the second Assyrian empire, when Nineveh had become a great centre of trade, Aramaic - the language of commerce and diplomacy - was added to the number of subjects which the educated class was required to learn.
The scribes, on the other hand, formed a more important class in Assyria than in Babylonia.
Certain classes of names being explained in this way, legitimate and fairly reliable conclusions can be drawn for many others belonging to the same class or group. The proper names of the numerous business documents of the Khammurabi period, when phonetic writing was the fashion, have been of special value in resolving doubts as to the correct reading of names written ideographically.