Class sentence example

class
  • Now tell me what kind of class you're attending.
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  • He skipped the class on good nom de plumes.
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  • He sounded like a first class jerk from the beginning.
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  • These look like something a college anatomy class used—last week.
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  • I went from the office to class and then from class to the plane.
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  • Kutuzov had received the Order of St. George of the First Class and the Emperor showed him the highest honors, but everyone knew of the imperial dissatisfaction with him.
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  • Dean questioned Janet's scholastic ability to himself and cynically wondered if today's class was Vacuuming For Beginners or Dusting 101.
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  • "We're all a bit upset about this business," Groucho said, as nervous as a speech class drop out.
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  • Their recruits came from the elite class, while the regular army came from the poor.
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  • So the historians of this class, by mutually destroying one another's positions, destroy the understanding of the force which produces events, and furnish no reply to history's essential question.
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  • When I first met Howie in class I thought he was just this lonely guy but he seemed nice and we had coffee a time of two.
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  • She faced the class.
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  • When he returned to the main room, Harrigan had left to talk to a class of grade-school children, a job at which he excelled, much to the pleasure of the others who shunned playing Officer Friendly.
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  • Even though her ten year class reunion was scheduled for Saturday afternoon, Alex chose that morning to start her training.
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  • Sometimes we are inclined to class those who are once-and-a-half-witted with the half-witted, because we appreciate only a third part of their wit.
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  • This class of guests and members sat in certain habitual places and met in certain habitual groups.
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  • An institution upholding honor, the source of emulation, is one similar to the Legion d'honneur of the great Emperor Napoleon, not harmful but helpful to the success of the service, but not a class or court privilege.
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  • Betsy and I claimed world class ability while Quinn just rolled his eyes.
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  • Jonathan hurried off to bible class and it was Carmen's turn to help out with the infants, so she took Destiny with her.
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  • Now your 'contents' are something extra special so regardless of the packaging, you're still first class to me.
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  • Unlike the regular military, the political elite's security private forces were made up of children from the upper class to prevent the elite class from becoming polluted by the poor.
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  • He'd urged her to hide herself away when she wasn't at work with him, telling her tales of how bad the upper class was.
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  • She knew the manual labor class worked with their hands, but she didn't realize they used them to do more than serve the elite.
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  • The set viewed as a class has many orders.
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  • I thought I might just as well describe my pet in order to know it--order, vertebrate; division, quadruped; class, mammalia; genus, felinus; species, cat; individual, Tabby.
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  • The luxury of one class is counterbalanced by the indigence of another.
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  • It certainly is fair to look at that class by whose labor the works which distinguish this generation are accomplished.
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  • A third class of historians--the so-called historians of culture-- following the path laid down by the universal historians who sometimes accept writers and ladies as forces producing events--again take that force to be something quite different.
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  • Class loyalties run deep, and he called me up about twenty years ago and said he was calling in a favor my dad owed him.
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  • It was a Tuesday so I was at class and Randy at baseball practice—otherwise we remembered nothing.
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  • Jen, the valedictorian of her class, was to attend Ryder College in New Jersey and major in English Literature.
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  • Randy, a science buff, was in the top third of the grad­uates and was also his class president.
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  • All belonged to the same totem or totemic class, and might be scattered throughout the tribe, though subject to the same marriage laws.
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  • He won the Ireland scholarship in 1848 and obtained a first class in both the classical and the mathematical schools in 1849.
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  • The canons respecting the clergy exhibit the clergy as already a special class with peculiar privileges, a more exacting moral standard, heavier penalties for delinquency.
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  • He was educated at Winchester and University College, Oxford, where he took a first class in classics and a second in mathematics, besides taking a leading part in the Union debates.
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  • Thus, if x= horned and y = sheep, then the successive acts of election represented by x and y, if performed on unity, give the whole of the class horned sheep. Boole showed that elective symbols of this kind obey the same primary laws of combination as algebraical symbols, whence it followed that they could be added, subtracted, multiplied and even divided, almost exactly in the same manner as numbers.
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  • The position of this class, which has remained till the present day, is connected with the institution of caste, a division of the population into groups founded partly on racial distinctions.
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  • The class of coloni appears to have been composed partly of tenants by contract who had incurred large arrears of rent and were detained on the estates as debtors (obaerati), partly of foreign captives or immigrants who were settled in this condition on the land, and partly of small proprietors and other poor men who voluntarily adopted the status as an improvement in their position.
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  • Thus, whilst the members of the class were personally free, their condition had some incidents of a semi-servile character.
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  • But the point which is important is that there was a certain approximation between the condition of the colonus and the slave which tended towards the fusion of both in a single class.
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  • In the 18th century we find the distinction between the three classes named above effaced and all of them merged in the class of serfs, who were the property either of the landed proprietors or of the state.
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  • Those under their care formed a class.
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  • The first class comprises works on grammar, one on natural phenomena, and two on chronology and the calendar.
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  • They form a natural transition to the second class.
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  • The group of instincts which we class as imitative (and they afford only the foundations on which intelligent imitation is based) are of biological value chiefly, if not solely, in those species which form larger or smaller communities.
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  • I could not make notes in class or write exercises; but I wrote all my compositions and translations at home on my typewriter.
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  • Amongst the elements of our thought there are some which we can make and unmake at our pleasure; there are others which come and go without our wish; there is also a third class which is of the very essence of our thinking, and which dominates our conceptions.
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  • There are a number of methods available for adoption in the heating of buildings, but it is a matter of considerable difficulty to suit the method of warming to the class of building to be warmed.
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  • The Ku Klux movement in its wider aspects was the effort of the first class to destroy the control of the second class.
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  • Another river of this class is the Carcaranal, about 300 m.
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  • The results of these first experiments were not encouraging, owing mainly to the poor class of animals, but the exporters persevered, and the business steadily grew in value and importance, until in 1898 the number of live cattle shipped was 359,296, which then decreased to 119,189 in 1901, because of the foot-and-mouth disease.
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  • The Roman priests are drawn from the seminaries, established by the church for the education of young men intending to join its ranks, and divided into lower and higher seminaries (grands et petits sminaires), the latter giving the same class of instruction as the tyces.
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  • Those of the first class, which comprise rather less than half the entire system, have a minimum depth of 64 ft., with locks 126 ft.
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  • Dispensations, and also the one-year voluntariat, which had become a short cut for the so-called intellectual class to employment in the civil service rather than a means of training reserve officers, were abolished.
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  • The net gain in the 1906 class is not far short of 5o,00o, and the proportion of the new contingent to the old is practically 5:4.
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  • The Laws of 1882 and 1886 laicized the schools of this class, the former suppressing religious instruction, the latter providing that only laymen should be eligible for masterships.
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  • The most important free institution in this class is the cole des Sciences Politiques, which prepares pupils for the civil services and teaches a great number of political subjects, connected with France and foreign countries, not included in the state programmes.
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  • The colonies are divisible into two classes, (I) those possessing considerable powers of local self-government, (2) those in which the local government is autocratic. To this second class may be added the protectorates (and some colonies) where the native form of government is maintained under the supervision of French officials.
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  • Class (I) includes the American colonies, Reunion, French India, Senegal.
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  • In the second class of colonies the governor, sometimes assisted by a privy council, on which non-official members find seats, sometimes simply by a council of administration, is responsible only to the minister of the colonies.
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  • Even in casual amours these class laws were invariably observed, and the young man or woman who defied them was punished, he with death, she with spearing or beating.
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  • At the death of a man, his widows passed to his brother of the same totem class.
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  • Other authorities suggest that it is going much too far to deny the existence of religion altogether, and instance as proof of the divinity of the supra-normal anthropomorphic beings of the Baiame class, the fact that the Yuin and cognate tribes dance around the image of Daramulun (their equivalent of Baiame) and the medicine men " invocate his name."
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  • There arose a class of king's thegns, corresponding to the earlier thegns, and a larger class of inferior thegns, some of them the thegns of bishops or of other thegns.
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  • After the Norman Conquest the thegns appear to have been merged in the class of knights.
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  • Anemometers may be divided into two classes, (1) those that measure the velocity, (2) those that measure the pressure of the wind, but inasmuch as there is a close connexion between the pressure and the velocity, a suitable anemometer of either class will give information about both these quantities.
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  • Lind's anemometer, which consists simply of a U tube containing liquid with one end bent into a horizontal direction to face the wind, is perhaps the original form from which the tube class of instrument has sprung.
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  • Although several species belonging to the second class occasionally enter the bodies of water snails and other animals before reaching their definitive host, they undergo no alteration of form in this intermediate host; the case is different, however, in Filaria medinensis and other forms, in which a free larval is followed by a parasitic existence in two distinct hosts, all the changes being accompanied by a metamorphosis.
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  • (I) In the former class the eggs are extruded with the faeces, and the young become fully formed within the egg, and when accidentally swallowed by their host are liberated by the solvent action of the gastric juice and complete their development.
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  • (2) The life-history of 011ulanus tricuspis is an example of the second class.
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  • In the second class there are, in addition to the lifting motion, two horizontal movements at right angles to one another.
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  • The type of this class is the overhead traveller.
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  • For overhead travellers in workshops, and for most of the cranes which fall into our second class, electricity as a motive power has already displaced nearly every other method.
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  • 13 shows an electric crane of this class.
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  • There are numerous and important variations of these two types, but the above contain the elements out of which most cranes of the class are built.
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  • A transporter of the first class is shown in fig.
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  • In the other class of transporter the load is not usually moved; FIG.
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  • To this class belonged the king and court, the higher officials, the professions and craftsmen.
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  • The Code deals with a class of persons devoted to the service .of a god, as vestals or hierodules.
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  • The oldest of the class (i) is that generically known as a coherer, the construction of which we have already described.
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  • The next class of wave or oscillation detector is the magnetic detector depending upon the power of electric oscillations to affect the magnetic state of iron.
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  • A third class of electric wave detector depends upon the power of electric oscillations to annul the electrolytic polarization of electrodes of small surface immersed in an electrolyte.
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  • A fourth class of electric wave detector comprises the thermal detectors which operate in virtue of the fact that electric oscillations create heat in a fine wire through which they pass.
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  • When electric oscillations are set up in these two classes of electric radiators, the first class send out a highly damped wave train and the second a feeble damped wave train provided that they have sufficient capacity or energy storage and low resistance.
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  • A radiator of this last class can be constructed by connecting inductively or directly FIG.
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  • The introduction of electric tramways caused an enormous increase in disturbances of this class.
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  • He came from the upper middle class, his father, named Pietro Bernardone, being one of the larger merchants of the city.
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  • The site was platted in 1880, and the city was first incorporated in 1882 and again, as a city of the second class, in 1889.
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  • The lakes of Central Italy, which are comparatively of trifling dimensions, belong to a wholly different class.
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  • The fares (in slow trains, with the addition of 10 ~/ for expenses) are: 1st class, I ~85d.; 2nd, I3d.; 3rd, o725d.
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  • The increase is partly covered by contravvenzioni, but almost every class of penal offence shows a rise except homicide, and even in that the diminution is slow, 5418 in 1880, 3966 in 1887, 4408 in 1892, 4005 in 1897, 3202 in 1902; and Italy remains, owing to the frequent use of the knife, the European country lit which it is most frequent.
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  • The four modern shipsthe Vittorio Emanuele class, laid down in 1897have a tonnage of 12,625, two 12-in, and twelve 8-in.
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  • The former apply principally to successions, stamps, registrations, mortgages, &c.; the latter to distilleries, breweries, explosives, native sugar and matches, though the customs revenue and octrois upon articles of general consumption, such as corn, wine, spirits, meat, flour, petroleum butter, tea, coffee and sugar, may be considered as belonging to thu class.
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  • Thus, that of 1907-1908 was devoted mainly to raising the salaries of government officials and university professors; even then the maximum for both (in the former class, for an under-secretary of state) was only 500 per annum.
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  • Thus the titular king of Italy found himself simultaneously at war with those great vassals who had chosen him from their own class, with the turbulent factions of the Roman aristocracy, with unruly bishops in the growing cities and with the multitude of minor counts and barons who occupied the open lands, and who changed sides according to the interests of the moment.
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  • The popolo was the governing or upper class.
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  • They were accepted by a population eager for repose, who had merged old class distinctions in the conflicts of preceding centuries.
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  • Among the principal writers of this class who succeeded Cato, the following may be mentioned.
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  • He was the first of his class who endeavoured to trace the causes of events, instead of contenting himself with a bare statement of facts.
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  • As a theologian it is difficult to class him.
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  • It is, then, to one or other of those three collections of sacred texts and the respective class of priests, that the existing Brahmanas attach themselves.
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  • The Udgatri's duties being mainly confined to the chanting of hymns made up of detached groups of verses of the Rigveda, as collected in the Samaveda-samhita, the more important Brahmanas of this sacerdotal class deal chiefly with the various modes of chanting, and the modifications which the verses have to undergo in their musical setting.
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  • The setting up, by a householder, of a set of three sacrificial fires of his own constitutes the first ceremony of the former class, the Agny-adhana (or (?) Agny-adheya).
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  • The principal other ceremonies of this class are the new and full moon offerings, the oblations made at the commencement of the three seasons, the offering of first-fruits, the animal sacrifice, and the Agnihotra, or daily morning and evening oblation of milk, which, however, is also included amongst the grihya, or domestic rites, as having to be performed daily on the domestic fire by the householder who keeps no regular set of sacrificial fires.
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  • Of a far more complicated nature than these offerings are the Soma-sacrifices, which, besides the simpler ceremonies of this class, such as the Agnishtoma or "Praise of Agni," also include great state functions, such as the Rajasuya or consecration of a king, and the Asvamedha or horse-sacrifice, which, in addition to the sacrificial rites, have a considerable amount of extraneous, often highly interesting, ceremonial connected with them, which makes them seem to partake largely of the nature of public festivals.
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  • This had already been to some extent the practice when this class of cases was heard; it was now made the rule.
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  • The principle of judgment by one's peers is asserted, and is obviously the privilege of every class of freemen, not of the greater lords alone.
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  • One class g g of polyps, the dactylozoids of branching in the Plumularia-type; (dz), lose their mouth and compare with fig.
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  • With the later 9th century we enter upon a new epoch, and by the time of Gregory VII., in the 11th century, the tribunals have fallen into the hands of a regular class of canonists who are in fact professional church-lawyers in orders.
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  • The wealth of the burghers during this period was equalled by their turbulent spirit of independence; feuds were frequent, - against the rival city of Bruges, against the counts, or, within the city itself, between the plebeian crafts and the patrician governing class.
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  • The assistants employed at these dispensaries after a time appear to have gone into business on their own account, and in this way the dispensing chemists, as a class, appear to have originated.
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  • The ANGIOSFERMS, which are much the larger class, derive their name from the fact that the carpel or carpels form a closed chamber, the ovary, in which the ovules are developedassociated with this is the development of a receptive or stigmatic surface on which the pollen grain is deposited.
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  • The surface-layer of the body in the massive Fungi differs in character according, to its function, which is not constant throughout the class, as in the Algae, because of the very various conditions of life to which different Fungi are exposed.
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  • Mention may be made here of a class of epidermal organ, the hydaihodea, the wide distribution and variety of which have been revealed by recent research.
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  • The formation of secondary tissues is characteristic of most woody plants, to whatever class they belong.
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  • Oxidases.Another class of enzymes has been discovered in both animals and plants, but they do not apparently take any part in digestion.
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  • Spotted Leaves, &c.Discoloured spots or patches on leaves and other herbaceous parts are common symptoms of disease, and often furnish clues to identification of causes, though it must be remembered that no sharp line divides this class of symptoms from the preceding.
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  • Such are the cork-warts on elms, maples, &c., and the class of outgrowths known as Intumescences.
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  • This class may be subdivided as follows:
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  • The scope of the anatomical part of the following article is a general account of the structure of birds (A y es) in so far as they, as a class, differ from other vertebrates, notably reptiles and mammals, whilst features especially characteristic, peculiar or unique, have been dwelt upon at greater length so far as space permitted.
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  • Thus it has come to pass that the muscles of the hind limbs are, like their framework, more easily compared with those of reptiles and mammals than are the wings, whilst within the class of birds they show an enormous amount of variation in direct correlation with their manifold requirements.
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  • E Here, as over so large a portion of the Australian region, we find birds constituting the supreme class - the scarcity of mammals being accounted for in some measure as a normal effect of insularity.
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  • The few characters assigned to the various groups are sufficiently diagnostic when taken together, although they are not always those upon which the classification has been established: - Class Aves I.
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  • They assembled in their counties, and by the time Dozsa had drilled them into some sort of discipline and self-confidence, they began to air the grievances of their class.
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  • These considerations may help towards the understanding of a second class of cases, namely forms of implicit address shading off into unaddressed formulas.
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  • Partly on account of his inability to share in the amusements of his fellows by reason of a deformity due to vaccine poisoning before he was five (the poison permanently arresting the growth and development of his legs), he was an eager student, and in 1814 he graduated at the College of South Carolina with the highest rank in his class and with a reputation throughout the state for scholarship and eloquence.
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  • Boonville, named in honour of Daniel Boone, was settled in 1810, was laid out in 1817, incorporated as a village in 1839, and chartered as a city of the third class in 1896.
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  • When Count Roger at last found himself lord of the whole island, he found himself lord of men of various creeds and tongues, of whom his own Norman followers were but one class out of several.
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  • In one place the Christians were in utter bondage, in another they were simply tributary; still, everywhere the Mussulman Saracen formed the ruling class, the Christian Greek formed the subject class.
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  • There is a distinction between Christians and Saracens; among Christians there seems to be again a distinction between Greeks and Latins, though perhaps without any distinct use of the Latin name; there is again a further distinction between "Lombardi" and "Franci"; but Normans, as a separate class, do not appear.
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  • No doubt there was a class that knew only English; there may have been a much smaller class that knew only French; any man who pretended to high cultivation would speak all as a matter of course; Bishop Gilbert Foliot, for instance, was eloquent in all three.
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  • In addition to this there is compulsory service in the National Guard (a) in the first class, consisting of men between seventeen and thirty years of age, liable for service with the standing army, and numbering some 15,000; (b) in the second class, for departmental service only, except in so far as it may be drawn upon to make up losses in the more active units in time of war, consisting of men from thirty to forty-five years of age, and (c) in the third class, for local garrison duty, consisting of men between forty-five and sixty years old.
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  • The name expresses the most universal character of the class, the importance of which was first noticed by John Ray, namely, the presence of a pair of seed-leaves or cotyledons, in the plantlet or embryo contained in the seed.
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  • A characteristic of the class is afforded by the complicated network formed by the leaf -veins, - well seen in a skeleton leaf, from which the soft parts have been removed by maceration.
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  • They have differed widely in the origin of the noble class and in the amount of privilege implied in membership of it; but they all agree in the transmission of some privilege or other to all the descendants, or to all the male descendants, of the first noble.
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  • There were very wide distinctions within the French noblesse, but they all formed one privileged class as distinguished from the rolurier.
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  • If there is no such class in England, it is simply because the class which answers to it has never been able to keep any universally acknowledged privileges.
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  • When we are first entitled to speak with any kind of certainty, the non-privileged class possess a certain share in the election of magistrates and the making of laws.
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  • But the privileged class alone are eligible to the greatest offices of the state; they have in their hands the exclusive control of the national religion; they have the exclusive enjoyment of the common land of the state - in Teutonic phrase, the folkland.
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  • But their position as a nobility or privileged class arose solely because a class with inferior rights to their own grew up around them.
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  • They were not a nobility or a privileged class as long as there was no less privileged class to distinguish them from.
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  • Yet practically the new nobility was a privileged class; it felt itself to be so, and it was felt to be so by others.
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  • The Great Council of Venice, the curiae of Rome, were each of them the assembly of a privileged class, an assembly in which every member of that class had a right to a place, an assembly which might be called popular as far as the privileged class was concerned, though rigidly oligarchic as regarded the excluded classes.
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  • In a monarchy, despotic or constitutional, there cannot in strictness be an aristocracy, because the whole political power cannot be vested in the noble Venice class.
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  • All political power was vested in the noble class; the prince sank to a magistrate, keeping only some of the outward forms of sovereignty; the mass of the people were shut out altogether.
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  • A nobility of this kind often gave way to a democracy which either proved as turbulent as itself, or else grew into an oligarchy ruling under democratic forms. Thus at Florence the old nobles became the opposite to a privileged class.
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  • In short, the shutting out of the old nobility was, if not the formation of a new nobility, at least the formation of a Civic new privileged class.
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  • For a certain class of citizens to be condemned, by virtue of their birth, to political disfranchisement is as flatly against every principle of democracy as for a certain class of citizens to enjoy exclusive rights by reason of birth.
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  • It is in these only that we can see nobility in its purest form - nobility to which no man can rise and from which no man can come down except by the will of the noble class itself.
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  • The other point of difference is that, whatever we take for the origin and the definition of nobility, in most countries it became something that could be given from outside, without the need of any consent on the part of the noble class itself.
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  • The kingly house, where there is one, is not a distinct class; it is simply the noblest of the noble.
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  • The device of hereditary coat-armour, a growth of the 12th century, did much to define and mark out the noble class throughout Europe.
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  • Those who possessed the right of coatarmour by immemorial use, or by grant in regular form, formed the class of nobility or gentry, words which, it must again be remembered, are strictly of the same meaning.
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  • Those who would elsewhere have been counted as the nobility, the bearers of coat-armour bygood right, were hindered from forming a class holding any substantial privilege.
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  • There can be no doubt that the class in England which answers to the noblesse of other lands is the class that bears coat-armour, the gentry strictly so called.'
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  • In short, there is no real nobility in England; for the class which answers to foreign nobility has so long ceased to have any practical privileges that it has long ceased to be looked on as a nobility, and the word nobility has been transferred to another class which has nothing answering to it out of the three British kingdoms. 2 This last ' This statement is mainly interesting as expressing the late Professor Freeman's view; it is, however, open to serious criticism.
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  • The chief power of the state was placed neither in the prince nor in the nation at large; it was held by a noble class.
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  • The Balinese language belongs to the same group of the Malayan class as the Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, &c., but is as distinct from each of these as French is from Italian.
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  • The nervous system is remarkably concentrated in some beetles, the abdominal ganglia showing a tendency to become shifted forward and crowded together, and in certain chafers all the thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused into a single nervecentre situated in the thorax, - a degree of specialization only matched in the insectan class among the Hemiptera and some muscid flies.
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  • He was educated at Pembroke College, Oxford, of which college (after taking a first class in mathematics in 1840 and gaining the university mathematical scholarship in 1842) he becalm fellow in 1844 and tutor and mathematical lecturer in 1845.
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  • Lastly, there was a class of men who were discontented with the Solonian constitution: some had lost by his Seisachtheia, others had vainly hoped for a general redistribution.
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  • Towards the end of the reign of Alexander II., the government, in order to preserve order in the country districts, also created a special class of mounted rural policemen (uryadniki, from uriad, order), who, armed with power to arrest all suspects on the spot, rapidly became the terror of the countryside.
    0
    0
  • 4 Until the ukaz of October 18, 1906, the peasant class was stereotyped under the electoral law.
    0
    0
  • The judges were not so by profession; they were merely members of the official class (chinovniks), the prejudices and vices of which they shared.
    0
    0
  • The peasants, as already stated, form a class apart, untouched by the influence of Western civilization, the principles of which they are quite incapable of understanding or appreci.
    0
    0
  • The second-class fortresses are Kronstadt and Sveaborg in the Gulf of Finland, Ivangorod in Poland, Libau on the Baltic Sea, Kerch on the Black Sea and Vladivostok on the Pacific. In the third class are Viborg in Finland, Ossovets and Ust Dvinsk (or Dunamunde) in Lithuania, Sevastopol and Ochakov on the Black Sea, and Kars and Batum in Caucasia.
    0
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  • In the Baltic provinces they constitute the ennobled landlord class, and are the tradesmen and artisans in the towns.
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    0
  • Those of them who lived on the outskirts of the pacified territory adopted a mode of life similar to that of their hereditary opponents, and constituted a peculiar class known as Cossacks, living more by flocks and The h e rds and by marauding expeditions than by a ri y g p ?'
    0
    0
  • This change was, of course, popular among the lower and middle ranks of the landlord class, but was very displeasing to the great nobles.
    0
    0
  • At one moment the idea of emancipating all the serfs was entertained, but the project was speedily abandoned, because it would have alienated the nobles - the only class on which Catherine could rely for support.
    0
    0
  • In France the Revolution had been the work of the middle classes; in Russia an indigenous middle class has, comparatively speaking, no existence, the peasants forming the overwhelming majority of the population.'
    0
    0
  • Of the middle class, moreover, a large proportion were Jews and Germans.
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    0
  • The most far-reaching of these reforms, carried in the first session of the third Duma, was the partial abolition of the communal and family ownership of land, which involved the establishment of a class of true peasant-proprietors.
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    0
  • In 1893 an act was passed by parliament giving the Board power to interfere if or when representations are made to them by or on behalf of any servant or class of servants of a railway company that the hours of work are unduly long, or do not provide sufficient intervals of uninterrupted rest between the periods of duty, or sufficient relief in respect of Sunday duty.
    0
    0
  • Accidents to passengers other than those caused by collisions or derailments of trains are very largely due to causes which it is fair to class either as unavoidable or as due mainly to the fault or carelessness of the victim himself.
    0
    0
  • Collisions, on the other hand, are preventable, and derailments nearly so, and the records of deaths and injuries in this class in successive years are therefore justly taken as an index to the efficiency with which the railways are managed.
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    0
  • Apart from collisions and derailments, a large proportion of all accidents is found to be due primarily to want of care on the part of the victims. Accidents to workmen in marshalling, shunting, distributing and running trains, engines and cars, may be taken as the most important class, after train accidents, because this work is necessary and important and yet involves considerable hazard.
    0
    0
  • The totals of passengers killed and injured in train accidents are not separated from those killed and injured from other causes, but ratios are given showing that for four years no passengers were killed in this class.
    0
    0
  • A few experimental results are set forth in Table XX., from which it will be seen that with a relatively low rate of combustion, a rate which denotes very light service, namely lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, the efficiency of the boiler is %, which is as good a result as can be obtained with the best class of stationary boiler or marine boiler even when using economizers.
    0
    0
  • The first engines of this class were provided with high-pressure cylinders, i i in.
    0
    0
  • It has been extensively introduced, both in Great Britain and the continent of Europe, for passenger traffic, and is now the most numerous and popular class.
    0
    0
  • Engines of this class, with 78-inch driving wheels and the leading axle fitted with Webb's radial axle-box, for many years did excellent work on the London & North-Western railway.
    0
    0
  • The famous engine " Charles Dickens " was one of this class.
    0
    0
  • Three years later that railway did away with second-class compartments and improved the third class to their level.
    0
    0
  • On the continent of Europe there are occasionally four classes, but though the local fares are often appreciably lower than in Great Britain, only first and second class, sometimes only first class, passengers are admitted to the fastest trains, for which in addition a considerable extra fare is often required.
    0
    0
  • In the United States there is in most cases nominally only one class, denominated first class, and the average fare obtained by the railways is about id.
    0
    0
  • But the extra charges levied for the use of parlour, sleeping and other special cars, of which some of the best trains are exclusively composed, in practice constitute a differentiation of class, besides making the real cost of travelling higher than the figures just given.
    0
    0
  • The maximum 1st, 2nd and 3rd class passenger fares are, per kilometre, 067 f.
    0
    0
  • If, however, we turn to Australia, where sacrifice is unknown, we find more than ' one class of rites in which we can trace an idea akin to some forms of sacrifice.
    0
    0
  • (a) The division into periodical and occasional is important in Hindu and other higher religions, and the sutras constantly draw the distinction; the former class is obligatory, the latter facultative.
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  • (i.) The most conspicuous example of the first class is the scapegoat.
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  • (ii.) As an example of the second class may be taken the sacrifice of the bull to Rudra.
    0
    0
  • The latter class is formed by waters that fall on the barren mountain-sides and rush down in torrents, forming in the valleys shallow bodies of water yellow with the mud held in suspension.
    0
    0
  • He graduated second (salutatorian) in his class in 1878, and began to study law in Cincinnati College, where he graduated in 1880, dividing the first prize for scholarship. He was admitted to the Ohio bar in 1880.
    0
    0
  • He graduated from Harvard in 1880 (in the class with Theodore Roosevelt), and the following year entered the banking house of Lee, Higginson & Co., in Boston.
    0
    0
  • His young son Jehoiachin surrendered after a three months' reign, with his mother and the court; they were taken away to Babylonia, together with a number of the artisan class (596).
    0
    0
  • After the second crusade the German Jews fell into the class of servi camerae, which at first only implied that they enjoyed the immunity of imperial servants, but afterwards made of them slaves and pariahs.
    0
    0
  • A grotesque feature of the time in Germany and Austria was the class of court Jews, such as the Oppenheims, the personal favourites of rulers and mostly their victims when their usefulness had ended.
    0
    0
  • Even more important was another privileged class - that of the Schutz-Jude (protected Jew).
    0
    0
  • A special class of Roman prelatures exist at Rome, endowed as a kind of ecclesiastical majority to which those members of certain families who are destined for the clerical life naturally succeed.
    0
    0
  • Below these came the Eiki or chiefs, and next to them the class called Matapule.
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    0
  • An extraordinary perfection was at this time attained in many branches of art, notably in the painted pottery, often with polychrome decoration, of a class known as " Kamares " from its first discovery in a cave of that name on' Mount Ida.
    0
    0
  • During the Third Middle Minoan period, the lower limits of which approach 1600 B.C., this pictographic script finally gives way to a still more developed linear system - which is itself divided into an earlier and a later class.
    0
    0
  • The earlier class (A) is already found in the temple repositories of Cnossus belonging to the age immediately preceding the great remodelling of the Earlier picto= graphic script.
    0
    0
  • The later class (B) of the linear script is that used on the great bulk of the clay tablets of the Cnossian palace, amounting in number to nearly 2000.
    0
    0
  • Although images of the divinities were certainly known, the principal objects of cult in the Minoan age were of the aniconic class; in many cases these were natural objects, such as rocks and mountain peaks, with their cave sanctuaries, like those of Ida or of Dicte.
    0
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  • Clay tablets were here found belonging to the earlier type of the linear script (Class A), together with a great number of clay sealings with religious and other devices and incised countermarks.
    0
    0
  • A tall funnel-shaped vase of this class, of which a considerable part has been preserved, is divided into zones showing bull-hunting scenes, wrestlers and pugilists in gladiatorial costume, the whole executed in a most masterly manner.
    0
    0
  • When Leland Stanford, Jr., University was opened in 1891 he entered with the first class and specialized in geology and engineering, supporting himself by working at various jobs in free hours.
    0
    0
  • The most significant canons are those directly affecting the clergy, wherein the clergy appear as a privileged class, far above the laity, but with sharply differentiated and carefully graded orders within itself.
    0
    0
  • The -fact that the name of the ant has come down in English from a thousand years ago shows that this class of insects impressed the old inhabitants of England as they impressed the Hebrews and Greeks.
    0
    0
  • There is yet a vast field open in Asia for this class of surveys.
    0
    0
  • They were absolute monarchies, but the power of the king was tempered by the extraordinary influence possessed by the hereditary sacerdotal class or Brahmans.
    0
    0
  • Another son, Thomas Ewing (1829-1896), studied at Brown University in1852-1854(in 1894, by a special vote, he was placed on the list of graduates in the class of 1856); he was a lawyer and a freestate politician in Kansas in 1857-1861, and was the first chiefjustice of the Kansas supreme court (1861-1862).
    0
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  • The distinctive characters of the class Chaetopoda as a whole are partly embodied in the name.
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    0
  • Of the former class the most conspicuous was the Holy Roman Empire; but in Europe all monarchies were, within certain limits, originally elective; and, after the introduction of Christianity, the essential condition of the assumption of sovereign power was not so much kinship with the reigning family as the "sacring" by the divine authority of the Church.
    0
    0
  • This last class trades with the other three and despatches caravans to Illorin and other places, where the Kano goods, the "potash" and other merchandise are exchanged for kolas and European goods.
    0
    0
  • The Fula form the aristocratic class.
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    0
  • The emir on his installation takes an oath of allegiance to the British Crown, and accepts the position of a chief of the first class under British rule.
    0
    0
  • Strictly, it is confined to the upper class from whom Sivaji's generals were mostly drawn, and who sometimes claim a Rajput origin.
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    0
  • Here he apparently did not especially distinguish himself, belonging to the class of bons ordinaires.
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  • After tracing the origin of commerce, Turgot develops Quesnay's theory that the land is the only source of wealth, and divides society into three classes, the productive or agricultural, the salaried (stipendiee) or artisan class, and the land-owning class (classe disponible).
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  • He also contemplated a thorough-going reform of the ferme generale, but contented himself, as a beginning, with imposing certain conditions on the leases as they were renewed - such as a more efficient personnel, and the abolition for the future of the abuse of the croupes (the name given to a class of pensions), a reform which Terray had shirked on finding how many persons in high places were interested in them, and annulling certain leases, such as those of the manufacture of gunpowder and the administration of the messageries, the former of which was handed over to a company with the scientist Lavoisier as one of its advisers, and the latter superseded by a quicker and more comfortable service of diligences which were nicknamed" turgotines."He also prepared a regular budget.
    0
    0
  • This task Bentham undertook, and he brought to it a mind absolutely free from professional or class feeling, or any other species of prejudice.
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    0
  • " Villeins," instead of free-holders, formed the most numerous class of the population.
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  • The class to which he belonged was the only one which could afford to initiate improvements.
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    0
  • The figure denoting the general average yield per acre of any class of crop needs readjustment after every successive harvest.
    0
    0
  • In 1 In the absence of experiments it is assumed that wheat is digested like other foods of the same class.
    0
    0
  • An important step in this direction was taken in 1896, when the senior class for steers, viz.
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  • The only exception was in the case of the slowly-maturing Cheviot and mountain breeds, for which the second class was for wether sheep of any age above twelve months.
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  • The standard of life of the ordinary well-to-do middle class in England, for example, includes not only food, clothing and shelter of a kind different in many respects from that of a similar class in other countries and of other classes in England, but a highly complicated mechanism, both public and private, for ministering to these primary needs, habits of social intercourse, educational and sanitary organization, recreative arrangements and many other elements.
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  • Many influences operating for a long period of time on the character and the environment of a class go to determine its standard of life.
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    0
  • It implies the existence of a well-trained class engaged in the work of collecting information, and much organization both by the state and private bodies.
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    0
  • Economics, therefore, under modern conditions, is not only a subject which may usefully occupy the attention of a leisured class of scientific men.
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  • His father belonged to the class of Dihkans (the old native country families and landed proprietors of Persia, who had preserved their influence and status under the A ab rule), and possessed an estate in the neighbourhood of Cus (in Khorasan).
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  • - The class Gastropoda is subdivided as follows: Sub-class I.
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  • This circlet of gill-lamellae led Cuvier to class the limpets as Cyclobranchiata, and, by erroneous identification of them with the series of metamerically repeated ctenidia of Chiton, to associate the latter mollusc with the former.
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  • The division of the foot into lobes is a simple case of that much greater elaboration or breaking up into processes and regions which it undergoes in the class Cephalopoda.
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    0
  • There are so few representations of armed men that it seems doubtful if there can have been any professional military class.
    0
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  • The life of the ruling class was comfortable and even luxurious from early times.
    0
    0
  • Motril itself is a port of the second class, but the anchorage at Calahonda, 4z m.
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  • At the same time a class of men arose interested in these forms for their own sake, professional lawyers Bence, but also "poisons, nay destroys, the divinest feeling in man, the sense of truth," and the belief in sacraments such as the Lord's Supper, a piece of religious materialism of which "the necessary consequences are superstition and immorality."
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  • Green's teaching was, directly and indirectly, the most potent philosophical influence in England during the last quarter of the 19th century, while his enthusiasm for a common citizenship, and his personal example in practical municipal life, inspired much of the effort made, in the years succeeding his death, to bring the universities more into touch with the people, and to break down the rigour of class distinctions.
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  • Linnaeus in his Systema naturae (1735) grouped under the class Insecta all segmented animals with firm exoskeleton and jointed limbs - that is to say, the insects, centipedes, millipedes, crustaceans, spiders, scorpions and their allies.
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  • A true insect, or member of the class Hexapoda, may be known by the grouping of its body-segments in three distinct regions - a head, a thorax and an abdomen - each of which consists of a definite number of segments.
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  • The compound eyes of insects resemble so closely the similar organs in Crustaceans that there can hardly be reasonable doubt of their homology, and the primitively appendicular nature of the eyes in the latter class suggests that in the Hexapoda also they represent the appendages of an anterior (protocerebral) segment.
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  • From these three pairs of thoracic legs comes the name - Hexapoda - which distinguishes the class.
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  • Specially characteristic of the class, however, is the presence of a complex system of air-tubes (tracheae) for respiration, usually opening to the exterior by a series of paired spiracles on certain of the body segments.
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  • But in general we find that elaboration of imaginal structure is associated with degradation in the nature of the larva, cruciform and vermiform larvae being characteristic of the highest orders of the Hexapoda, so that unlikeness between parent and offspring has increased with the evolution of the class.
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  • Consequently the modern order Aptera comprises only a very small proportion of Linnaeus's " Aptera " - the spring-tails and bristle-tails, wingless Hexapoda that stand evidently at a lower grade of development than the bulk of the class.
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  • Such excessive multiplication of the larger taxonomic divisions shows an imperfect sense of proportion, for if the term " class " be allowed its usual zoological value, no student can fail to recognize that the Hexapoda form a single welldefined class, from which few entomologists would wish to exclude even the Apterygogenea.
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  • The Hexapoda, being aerial, terrestrial and fresh-water animals, are but occasionally preserved in stratified rocks, and our knowledge of extinct members of the class is therefore fragmentary, while the description, as insects, of various obscure fossils, which are perhaps not even Arthropods, has not tended to the advancement of this branch of zoology.
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  • Fragmentary as the records are, they show that the Exopterygota preceded the Endopterygota in the evolution of the class, and that among the Endopterygota those orders in which the greatest difference exists between imago and larva - the Lepidoptera, Diptera and Hymenoptera - were the latest to take their rise.
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  • Geographical Distribution The class Hexapoda has a world-wide range, and so have most of its component orders.
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  • Relationships And Phylogeny The Hexapoda form a very clearly defined class of the Arthropoda, and many recent writers have suggested that they must have arisen independently of other Arthropods from annelid worms, and that the Arthropoda must, therefore, be regarded as an " unnatural," polyphyletic assemblage.
    0
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  • On either view it may be believed that the Hexapoda arose with the allied classes from a primitive arthropod stock, while the relationships of the class are with the Crustacea, the Chilopoda and the Diplopoda, rather than with the Arachnida.
    0
    0
  • Brauer, that the Thysanura represent more nearly than any other existing insects the ancestors of the class, has been accepted by the great majority of students.
    0
    0
  • These organs, thus acquired during the lifetime of the individual, must have been in some way acquired during the evolution of the class.
    0
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  • On the other hand, it has been argued that the presence of wings in a vast majority of the Hexapoda suggests their presence in the ancestors of the whole class.
    0
    0
  • Insect wings are specialized outgrowths of certain thoracic segments, and are quite unrepresented in any other class of Arthropods.
    0
    0
  • The fascinating difficulties presented to the student by the metamorphosis of the Hexapoda are to some extent explained, as he ponders over the evolution of the class.
    0
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  • His attempt at classification was certainly better than that of Linnaeus; and it is rather curious that the researches of the latest ornithologists point to results in some degree comparable with Brisson's systematic arrangement, for they refuse to keep the birds-of-prey at the head of the Class A y es, and they require the establishment of a much larger number of " Orders " than for a long while was thought advisable.
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  • Confining our attention here to ornithology, Cuvier's arrangement of the class Aver is now seen to be not very much better than any which it superseded.
    0
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  • Nevertheless a scientific character was so adroitly assumed that scientific men - some of them even ornithologists - have thence been led to believe the text had a scientific value, and that of a high class.
    0
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  • The last seven of its fourteen volumes include the Class A y es, and the first part of them appeared in 1809, but, the original author dying in 1815, when only two volumes of birds were published, the remainder was brought to an end in 1826 by his successor, who afterwards became well known as an entomologist.
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  • It is, however, only noticed here on account of the numerous references made to it by succeeding writers, for neither in this nor in the author's second volume (not published until 1814) did he propound any systematic arrangement of the Class.
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  • The most novel feature, and one the importance of which most ornithologists of the present day are fully prepared to admit, is the separation of the class A y es into two great divisions, which from one of the most obvious distinctions they present were called by its author Carinatae' and Ratitae, 2 according as the sternum possesses a keel (crista in the phraseology of many anatomists) or not.
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  • We have already seen that De Blainville, though fully persuaded of the great value of sternal features as a method of classification, had been compelled to fall back upon the old pedal characters so often employed before; but now the scholar had learnt to excel his teacher, and not only to form an at least provisional arrangement of the various members of the Class, based on sternal characters, but to describe these characters at some length, and so give a reason for the faith that was in him.
    0
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  • He also admitted among his characteristics a physiological consideration (apparently derived from Oken 1) dividing the class A y es into two sections Altrices and Praecoces, according as the young were fed by their parents or, from the first, fed themselves.
    0
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  • Yet it was regarded " as being the one which facilitates the expression of the leading anatomical differences which obtain in the class of birds, and which therefore may be considered as the most natural."
    0
    0
  • Its great merit is that it proved the necessity of combining another and hitherto much-neglected factor in any natural arrangement, though vitiated as so many other schemes have been by being based wholly on one class of characters.
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  • It is obvious that both these investigators had the genius for recognizing and interpreting the value of characters; but their labours do not seem to have met with much encouragement; and a general arrangement of the class laid by Blyth before the Zoological Society at this time 1 does not appear in its publications.
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  • The class was to contain fifteen orders, but only three were dealt with in any detail.
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  • Herein he divided the class A y es into two subclasses, to which he applied the names of Insessores and Grallatores (hitherto used by their inventors Vigors and Illiger in a different sense), in the latter work relying chiefly for this division on characters which had not before been used by any systematist, namely that in the former group monogamy generally prevailed and the helpless nestlings were fed by their parents, while the latter group were mostly polygamous, and the chicks at birth were active and capable of feeding themselves.
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  • Yet this distinguished zoologist selects the sternum as furnishing the key to his primary groups or " Orders " of the class, adopting, as Merrem had done long before, the same two divisions Cartnatae and Ratitae, naming, however, the former Tropidosternii and the latter Homalosternii.
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  • In this scheme birds are arranged according to what the author considered to be their natural method and sequence; but the result exhibits some unions as ill-assorted as can well be met with in the whole range of tentative arrangements of the class, together with some very unjustifiable divorces.
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    0
  • The upshot, however, admits of no, uncertainty: the class A y es is held to be composed of three " Orders" - I.
    0
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  • On this ground it is stated that the Passeres should be placed highest in the class.
    0
    0
  • But that these three oldest-known forms of birds should differ so greatly from each other unmistakably points to a great antiquity for the class.
    0
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  • The system of classification adopted in time became so elaborate that many municipalities became isolated, each in a separate class, and the evils of special legislation were revived.
    0
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  • Besides the distinctions of human and nonhuman, hostile and friendly, the demons in which the lower races believe are classified by them according to function, each class with a distinctive name, with extraordinary minuteness, the list in the case of the Malays running to several score.
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  • Another class of nocturnal demons are the incubi and succubi, who are said to consort with human beings in their sleep; in the Antilles these were the ghosts of the dead; in New Zealand likewise ancestral deities formed liaisons with females; in the Samoan Islands the inferior gods were regarded as the fathers of children otherwise unaccounted for; the Hindus have rites prescribed by which a companion nymph may be secured.
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  • The assignment of genii to buildings and gates is connected with an important class of sacrifices; in order to provide a tutelary spirit, or to appease chthonic deities, it was often the custom to sacrifice a human being or an animal at the foundation of a building; sometimes we find a similar guardian provided for the frontier of a country or of a tribe.
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  • Benjamin Franklin, who was born and spent his boyhood in Boston, left boo() to the city in his will; it amounted in 1905 to $403,000, and constituted a fund to be used for the good of the labouring class of the city.
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  • Prices were low, foreign commerce was already large, business thriving; wealth gave social status; the official British class lent a lustre to society; and Boston " town " was drawing society from the " country."
    0
    0
  • Spiders, in short, must be regarded as the most highly organized and the most successful members of the class Arachnida.
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    0
  • The exact extent, however, to which each particular class of enemy has affected the protective habits and attributes of spiders is by no means always evident; and it is impossible to discuss the question in detail within the limits of a short article.
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  • The stronger current of modern authority is in favour of the landlords and not in favour of restricting the meaning of covenants of this class.
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    0
  • The amount and quality of the repairs necessary to fulfil the covenant are always relative to the age, class and condition of the premises at the time of the lease.
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  • The science of insects began with Aristotle, who included in a class "Entoma" the true insects, the arachnids and the myriapods, the Crustacea forming another class ("Malacostraca") of the "Anaema" or "bloodless animals."
    0
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  • The following diagram, modified from one by Grimshaw, in accordance with the results obtained by the better class of modern mills, gives an interesting resume of the products obtained from a ton of cotton seed: - Products from a Ton of Cotton Seed.
    0
    0
  • The citrates are a numerous class of salts, the most soluble of which are those of the alkaline metals; the citrates of the alkaline earth metals are insoluble.
    0
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  • In other words, the Druids constituted the learned and the priestly class, and they were in addition the chief expounders and guardians of the law.
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    0
  • We are, however, informed by Diodorus and Strabo that this class was composed of Druids, bards and soothsayers.
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  • In 1885 St Joseph became a city of the second class.
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  • (1) The high court was the supreme source of justice for the military class; and in its composition and procedure the same limitation of the crown, which appears in regard to military service, is again evident.
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  • The independent position of the burgesses, who thus assumed a position of equality by the side of the feudal class, is one of the peculiarities of the kingdom of Jerusalem.
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  • The commercial motive, again, had been one of the great motives of the crusade; and the class which was impelled by that motive would be both large and, in view of the quality of the Eastern goods in which it dealt, exceptionally prosperous.
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  • Taking the Western authorities for the First Crusade separately, one may divide them, in the light of von Sybel's work, into four kinds - the accounts of eye-witnesses; later compilations based on these accounts; semi-legendary and legendary narratives; and lastly, in a class by itself, the "History" of William of Tyre, who is rather a scientific historian than a chronicler.
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  • The first class includes the isabelline bear, badger, pole-cat, ermine, roe and fallow deer, wild ass, Syrian squirrel, pouched marmoset, gerbill and leopard.
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  • The second class will be found under Palestine; and it includes a sub-class which is not found outside Palestine at all.
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  • To this last class belong the Ismailites (Assassins), q.v., Metawali, Nosairis, Ansarieh, and especially the Druses.
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  • - Another large class of ammeters depend for their action upon the fact that an electric current create; an electric field round its conductor, which varies in strength from point to point, but is otherwise proportional to the current.
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  • - Instruments of the third class depend for their action on the fact discovered by Ampere, that mechanical forces exist between conductors carrying electric currents when those conductors occupy certain relative positions.
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  • On Aelius Caesar, see Class.
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  • Florida, the richest class, which require drainage to fit them for cultivation.
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  • As the number of farms increased faster than the cultivated area from 1850 to 1900, the average size of farms declined from 444 acres in 1860 to 140 in 1880 and to 106.9 in 190o, the largest class of farms being those with an acreage varying from 20 to 50 acres.
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  • He joined a Methodist class, threw his house open for love-feasts and prayer-meetings, and did a great deal of itinerant evangelization among the cottages of the countryside.
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  • The meeting was held and ten months later Bourne was expelled by the Burslem Quarterly Meeting, ostensibly for non-attendance at class (he had been away from home, evangelizing), really, as the Wesleyan superintendent told him "because you have a tendency to set up other than the ordinary worship" which was precisely the reason why, fifty years earlier, the Anglican Church had declined to sanction the methods of John Wesley.
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  • The societies which Bourne formed were for a time allowed to go under (Wesleyan) Methodist protection, but the crisis came in 1810, when the Stanley class of ten members declined to wash their hands of the Camp-Meeting Methodists, and so were refused admission.
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  • Malay Language And Literature The Malay language is a member of the Malayan section of the Malayo-Polynesian class of languages, but it is by no means a representative type of the section which has taken its name from it.
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  • This, when cast into forms and allowed to harden and dry slowly, comes out as transparent soap. A class of transparent soap may also be made by the cold process, with the use of coco-nut oil, castor oil and sugar.
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  • A high class soap, which after framing contains about 30% of water, is brought down to a water content of 11-14% by drying in chambers through which warm air is circulated.
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  • These orders are of very ancient date, owing their establishment to the ancient Hindu rule, followed by the Buddhists, that each "twice-born" man should lead in the woods the life of an ascetic. The second class of Fakirs are simply disreputable beggars who wander round extorting, under the guise of religion, alms from the charitable and practising on the superstitions of the villagers.
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  • He joined the Methodists, was soon employed as a class leader and local preacher, and continued to preach till a few months before his death.
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  • When the monarchy was supplanted in the usual Greek fashion by a hereditary nobility - a process accomplished, according to tradition, between about l000 and 683 B.C. - all power was appropriated by a privileged class of Eupatridae; the Geomori and Demiurgi, who formed the bulk of the community, enjoyed no political rights.
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  • But the triumph of the navy in 480 and the great expansion of commerce and industry had definitely shifted the political centre of gravity from the yeoman class of moderate democrats to the more radical party usually stigmatized as the " sailor rabble."
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  • Milchhofer, Untersuchungen fiber die Demenordnung des Kleisthenes (in transactions of Berlin Academy, Berlin, 1892); Pauly-Wissowa, Realencyclopddie der class.
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  • He took a first class in moderations in 1862 and in Literae humaniores in 1863, and was Pusey and Ellerton scholar in 1861.
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  • The literary and artistic value of many of the Robin Hood ballads cannot be pronounced considerable, but eight of them attain the high-water mark of their class.
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  • On his return to Russia he was created a boyar of the first class and entrusted with the direction of the foreign office, with the title of "Guardian of the great Tsarish Seal and Director of the great Imperial Offices."
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  • (1) particles derived by limiting mechanical subdivision, the modern molecule, and (2) particles derived from the first class by chemical subdivision, i.e.
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  • Gold, the most perfect metal, had the symbol of the Sun, 0; silver, the semiperfect metal, had the symbol of the Moon, 0j; copper, iron and antimony, the imperfect metals of the gold class, had the symbols of Venus Mars and the Earth tin and lead, the imperfect metals of the silver class, had the symbols of Jupiter 94, and Saturn h; while mercury, the imperfect metal of both the gold and silver class, had the symbol of the planet,.
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  • Notwithstanding the inconsistency of his allocation of substances to the different groups (for instance, acetic acid was placed in the vegetable class, while the acetates and the products of their dry distillation, acetone, &c., were placed in the mineral class), this classification came into favour.
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  • The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.
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  • There also exists an extensive class of compounds termed the " heterocyclic series " - these compounds are derived from ring systems containing atoms other than carbon; this class is more generally allied to the aromatic series than to the aliphatic.
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  • It will be seen that each type depends upon a specific radical or atom, and the copulation of this character with any hydrocarbon radical (open or cyclic) gives origin to a compound of the same class.
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  • Organic acids also condense with alcohols to form similar compounds: the fats, waxes, and essential oils are naturally occurring substances of this class.
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  • An important class of compounds, termed amines (q.v.), results from the condensation of alcohols with ammonia, water being eliminated between the alcoholic hydroxyl group and a hydrogen atom of the ammonia.
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  • In general, the aliphatic residues in such mixed compounds retain the characters of their class, while the aromatic residues retain the properties of benzene.
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  • Systems which are generally unsaturated compounds, often of considerable stability, and behave as nuclei; these compounds constitute a well-individualized class exhibiting closer affinities to benzenoid substances than to the open-chain series.
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  • The first class includes those substances which require no preliminary treatment, and comprises the amides and ammonium compounds, pyridines, quinolines, alkaloids, albumens and related bodies; the second class requires preliminary treatment and comprises, with few exceptions, the nitro-, nitroso-, azo-, diazoand amidoazo-compounds, hydrazines, derivatives of nitric and nitrous acids, and probably cyanogen compounds.
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  • The Thompson family had been settled in New England since the middle of the previous century, and belonged to the class of moderately wealthy farmers.
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  • The other class of mercenaries were Gauls, and from the time of the Gallic invasion of Asia Minor in 279 Gauls or Galatians were a regular constituent in all armies.
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  • Not only the workmen and the large class of idlers attracted to Paris by the system, but rentiers and government officials, whose incomes were paid in assignats on a scale arbitrarily fixed by the government, saw themselves threatened with actual starvation.
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  • The greyhound and all its varieties belong to this class.
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  • To this class belong most of the useful dogs, such as the spaniel, the setter, the pointer and the sheepdog.
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  • Vespasian could be liberal to impoverished senators and knights, to cities and towns desolated by natural calamity, and especially to men of letters and of the professor class, several of whom he pensioned with salaries of as much as £boo a year.
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  • The movement, which is no longer exclusively under the control of Friends, is rapidly becoming one of the chief means of bringing about a religious fellowship among a class which the organized churches have largely failed to reach.
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  • Lancaster was incorporated as a village in 1831 and twenty years later became a city of the third class.
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  • Educated at several schools in London, he went to Edinburgh University in 1792, where he attended Dugald Stewart's moral philosophy class.
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  • He was also engaged in preparing an abstract of his lectures as a handbook for his class.
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  • Of these the first-fruit was his Clave Historial, a work of the same class as the French Art de verifier les dates, and preceding it by several years.
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  • The members of the lowest class were not in a state of individual subjection: the entire caste to which they belonged was collectively subject.
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  • In modern slavery, on the other hand, where the occupations of both parties were industrial, the existence of a servile class only guaranteed for some of them the possibility of self-indulgent ease, whilst it imposed on others the necessity of indigent idleness.
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  • The sons of the family were familiarized with vice, and the general tone of the younger generation was lowered by their intimate association with a despised and degraded class.
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  • Slaves who had rendered eminent services to the public, as those who fought at Arginusae and at Chaeronea, were at once admitted to the status of citizens in the class of (so-called) Plataeans.
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  • But, whilst condemning harshness towards them, he encourages the feeling of contempt for them as a class.
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  • The sentiments it created were not only favourable to the humane treatment of the class in the of present, but were the germs out of which its