The part played by Ito in these negotiations aroused the animosity of the more reactionary of his fellow-clansmen, who made repeated attempts to assassinate him.
Some were born in this condition, some clansmen were depressed into it by crime, consequences of war or other misfortune; and strangers of a low class coming into the territory found their level in it.
Fosterage, the custom of sending children to be reared and educated in the families of fellow-clansmen, was so prevalent, especially among the wealthy classes, and the laws governing it are so elaborate and occupied such a large space, that some mention of it here is inevitable.
This event created a deep impression in Ireland, where O'Neill's submission to the English king, and his acceptance of an English title, were resented by his clansmen and dependents.
The town was once famous for its pistols and sporrans (as the purses worn with the kilt are called), which were in great request by the clansmen of the Highlands.
Following the general elections in April for the Ottoman Chamber, in which the Committee of Union and Progress had exhausted every method of corruption and violence to secure the return of their candidates, 30,000 Albanian clansmen, exasperated by "Turkification" and repression, mustered in organized rebellion.
On the 6th of April, after bribing the Albanian clansmen to neutrality, he passed the defile of Makrynoros, which the Greeks had left undefended, and on the 7th of May opened the second siege of Missolonghi.
Great-grandson of Karachar Nevian (minister of Jagatai, son of Jenghiz Khan, and commander-in-chief of his forces), and distinguished among his fellow-clansmen as the first convert to Islamism, Teragai might have assumed the high military rank which fell to him by right of inheritance; but like his father Burkul he preferred a life of retirement and study.
Without money, and without anything like an adequate regular force, he called out the clansmen of Atholl, Perth and other nobles, and quartered " the Highland host " on the disturbed districts.
After six weeks the plundering clansmen were withdrawn, and in the spring of 1678, also of 1679, Hamilton with his allies carried their complaints to Charles.
But the hereditable jurisdictions and feudal powers, as of calling out tenants by the fiery cross and punishing the peaceful by burning their cottages, had never been abolished; the chief's will was law, and if the chiefs headed a rising, their clansmen would follow them, willingly or " forced out."
The reward which many of the clansmen of the Peninsula and Waterloo received may be appreciated by those who read the introduction to Scott's Legend of Montrose.
In the troubled years that followed, Mehemet Ali, leader of a compact body of Albanian clansmen, was in the best position to draw advantage from the struggle for power between the Mamelukes and the representatives of the Porte.
Towards the northern extremity of the range occur a group of peaks, which together form an oblong block or " massif °' amongst the neighbouring ridges known as " Kaisargarh " amongst the Sherani clansmen who occupy it; and as the " Takht-i-Suliman " (Solomon's throne), generally, on the frontier, from the fact of a celebrated shrine of that name existing near its southern abutment.
The attempt to throw off the British yoke was confined to a few disaffected ex-rulers and their heirs, with their numerous clansmen and hangers-on, besides the badmashes and highwaymen who saw their way to profit by the removal of the British administration under which their peculiar talents found no safe outlet.
For the purpose of conveying some idea, one theory may be taken, according to which the fine was made up of seventeen clansmen, with their families, viz.
The area of arable land available for the common use of the clansmen was gradually diminished by these encroachments, but was still always substantial.
Neither were the unfenced and unappropriated common lands - waste, bog, forest and mountain - which all clansmen were free to use promiscuously at will.
Flaiths and other persons holding large areas let to clansmen, who then became Ceiles, not land, but the privilege of feeding upon land a number of cattle specified by agreement.