He went to study the civilization of the Arab world.
This area was homeland to a civilization dating back to the time of Christ.
Will every civilization in the world perish?
The day after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, civilization had to be defended.
Anyone who loves civilization necessarily appreciates the role of government in protecting liberties.
The progress of civilization has resulted in a vast change in the method of punishment.
The great story of the catastrophe that destroyed an ancient peaceful civilization had been handed down from father to son.
Gradually, civilization seems to be learning this.
The ability of a few people to do a massive amount of damage rises as civilization becomes more complex and destructive power increases.
The state of civilization to which they have attained is very low.
It was almost twenty-four hours before Shipton and Donnie got back to civilization, with the kid's body.
As civilization advances, we are becoming better people, and unquestionably more empathic.
As civilization and technology advance, people begin to create more than they consume.
The outcome for the absolute dating of Minoan civilization thus remains uncertain.
Fortunately he recovered from this great blow to become Prime Minister in 1940 and save Western civilization!
I want to spend some time talking about civilization, but first I want to recount the progress that we have made through civilization.
This period coincides roughly with the peak of the Mayan civilization.
We live at a defining moment for humanity, as the compounding effects of technology and civilization reach an inflection point.
This information connects them between the two Mayan civilization dates.
These documents, products themselves of civilization, try to provide legal protections for the most elemental features of civilization.
The war was the genesis and caused the collapse of the third millenium north Mesopotamian civilization.
So the whole business about Shipton lugging a dead body back to civilization was a total fabrication.
Jeremiah then becomes the reluctant leader of these young adults as they attempt to rebuild civilization.
Even the most basic elements of 1400 years of Islamic civilization are absent from the curricula in most of the world's schools.
The first is a restructuring of the global economy so that it can sustain civilization.
But maybe as a civilization, we have to talk out loud to figure out where we stand, to make progress.
Shortly speaking, the ideals for the new Ukraine are the ideals shared by the Western civilization.
The chapter on civilization describes humanity's progress through the years and the importance of it.
Think of how a few thousand years of human civilization got us to a certain amount of computational power.
That they had created modern civilization for Europe availed them nothing.
Civilization and the division of labor have gotten ever better at creating and adding value, thereby making things we love.
The above summary gives, indeed, a very imperfect idea of the extent to which the remains of the great Minoan civilization are spread throughout the island.
The contents of a series of tombs at Mochlos throw an entirely new light on the civilization of the Early Minoan age.
No matter your view of history and cosmology, civilization is very young.
With a little more wit we might use these materials so as to become richer than the richest now are, and make our civilization a blessing.
The leading characteristics of this mainland civilization are thus indistinguishable from the Minoan.
It has been the cradle of civilization, and to it is due the majority of cultivated plants.
The peasants, as already stated, form a class apart, untouched by the influence of Western civilization, the principles of which they are quite incapable of understanding or appreci.
Wealth and society encourage civilization, which is advantageous to everyone.
Civilization, like technology, also compounds over time, as do its benefits.
They made civilization in times of adversity and want, not in the relative luxury and stability we enjoy today.
As one of the pioneers of civilization, he was supposed to have taught mankind the arts of medicine, writing and agriculture.
Well, here we are, not quite halfway through our list of ways the Internet, technology, and civilization will come together to end war.
In spite of the massive benefits civilization offers to every person in every station of life, a crazy few will always see it very differently.
Avoiding the artificial restraints of civilization, they were prone to fall back into animalism pure and simple.
In general, the Gauls of these provinces accepted Roman civilization more or less rapidly, and in due course became hardly distinguishable from the Italian.
I just want to get back to civilization.
State of Civilization.
With every second, they were getting farther from the safety of civilization.
But the theatres found in almost every town, some of them of very large size, are sufficient to attest the pervading influence of Greek civilization; and this is confirmed by the sculptures, which are for the most part wholly Greek.
The next year a Jesuit mission from Tahiti reached the island and succeeded in the task of civilization.
But a great deal of what was formerly assigned to Phoenician influence in the Aegean at an early period - pottery, ornaments and local myths - must be accounted for by the vigorous civilization of ancient Crete.
But though he was hailed, especially in lb h France, as the pioneer of European civilization in (ii.) raim, the East, the unsound foundations of his authority d.
If civilization were more advanced, I would abolish this slavery, if it cost me my head."
Lamech's family are the originators of various advances in civilization; he himself is the first to marry more than one wife, 'Adah ("ornament," perhaps specially "dawn") and Zillah ("shadow").
Along the Croatian and Dalmatian coast there existed a well-developed Latin civilization, which was sustained by constant intercourse with Italy; and, under its influence, the Serbo-Croatian immigrants were converted to the Roman Catholic Church.
P. In the former he is a descendant of Cain, and through his sons the author of primitive civilization; in the latter he is the father of Noah.
His idea of studying man as one of the animals, and of collecting facts about savage tribes to throw light on the problems of civilization, bring him into contact with the one, and his intimate knowledge of Greek philosophy with the other.
Taking a detached view of Turkish civilization, even of the faith of Islam itself, for the two are inseparable - the Committee saw much wanting, much existing that was cumbersome and useless, much that provided a fatal handicap to the progress of the Ottoman State.
The Capella Palatina, at Palermo, the most wonderful of Roger's churches, with Norman doors, Saracenic arches, Byzantine dome, and roof adorned with Arabic scripts, is perhaps the most striking product of the brilliant and mixed civilization over which the grandson of the Norman Trancred ruled.
Whatever truth may lie behind the romantic tales of Christian and Mahommedan, we know that Alphonso represented in a remarkable way the two great influences then shaping the character and civilization of Spain.
Externally, a Slavonic reaction came, and dealt heavy blows to the eastward advance of German civilization.
Three of these four had made important progress toward civilization.
C. History of Aegean Civilization.
The Phrygian kingdom and art therefore took the place of an older civilization.
By this time, however, the great Celtic movement towards the south-east had probably begun, so that the Teutonic peoples were now cut off from direct communication with the centres of southern civilization.
From this time onwards it was from the west mainly that Roman civilization made its way into Germany; but in earlier ages, as we have already noticed, there are more abundant traces of civilization in the basin of the Elbe than in the districts farther to the west.
In the tract defined, physical changes unconnected with civilization have been slight as compared with those in Babylonia; the two great rivers, having cut themselves deep channels, could not shift their courses far.
Mesopotamia certainly felt the Sumero-Babylonian civilization early.
For the geography and civilization of Canaan about 1400 B.C. we have valuable evidence in the Egyptian papyrus Anastasi I., which mentions Kepuna (Gubna, Gebal-Byblus) the holy city, and continues: " Come then to Berytus, to Sidon, to Sarepta.
It was a time of disorder and conflict due to the immigration of new races into the ancient seats of civilization, and it synchronized with the weakening of the power of Egypt in the countries which bordered on the eastern Mediterranean.
This narrative clearly intends to account for the origin of these various arts as they existed in the narrator's time; it is not likely that he thought of these discoveries as separated from his own age by a universal flood; nor does the tone of the narrative suggest that the primitive tradition thought of these pioneers of civilization as members of an accursed family.
Finally, with a sigh of resignation, he began the fifteen-minute walk back to the awaiting problems of civilization.
We are told that we can see " the law at work underneath the more superficial agencies on which attention fixes itself "; it " undergoes temporary suspension," which may last indefinitely; and " there is another agency, in habitual antagonism " to it, namely, " the progress of civilization," which may include every kind of human improvement.
But the Arsacid kingdom never was a truly national state; with the Scythian and Parthian elements were united some elements of Greek civilization.
- The leading features of Aegean civilization, as deduced from the evidence, must be stated very briefly.
Origin, Nature and History of Aegean Civilization.
This may, however, be due to the fact that their contact with civilization was so short; the Yue-Chi and Turks had had some commerce with more advanced races before they played any part in political history, but the Ephthalites appear as raw barbarians, and were annihilated as a nation in little more than a hundred years.
Owing to the different circumstances which have attended their migrations, the Thai peoples have attained to varying degrees of civilization.
He goes on to attribute the world's science and civilization to pagan inventors; but it is not clear whether in this he is alluding specially to the culture of his own city.
In the south of Arabia, where an advanced civilization existed for centuries before the Christian era, the ruins of castles and city-walls are still in existence, and have been mentioned, though not examined carefully, by several travellers.
The Romans entered into the heritage of the Carthaginians and the vassal kings of Numidia, and Punic speech and civilization The gave way to Latin, a change which from the time Province of of Caesar was helped on by Italian colonization; to "Africa."
It was not that the Hellenistic element failed, whilst the native elements in the civilization prospered; the culture of Islam has, as a whole (from whatever causes), sunk ever lower during the centuries that have witnessed the marvellous expansion of Europe.
Sketches of Hellenistic civilization generally are found in J.
The debt of civilization to Egypt as a pioneer must be considerable, above all perhaps in religious thought.
For ancient Egyptian life and civilization in all departments, the principal work is Ad.
Introductory.Copious as are the sources of information from which our knowledge of the Egyptian religion is drawn, there is nevertheless no aspect of the ancient civilization of Egypt that we really so little understand.
The era of peace thus inaugurated brought with it a rapid progress in all branches of civilization; and there soon emerged not only a national art and a condition of material prosperity shared by the entire land in common, but also a state religion, which gathered up the ancient tribal cults and floating cosmical conceptions, and combining them as best it could, imposed them on the people as a whole.
god Vitli the advance of civilization and the transfOrmation of the chit al gods into national divinities, the beliefs held about them the ft have become less crude.
In proportion as the prosperity of the land increased, and the advance of civilization afforded the technical means, so did these primitive burials give place to a more lavish funereal equipment.
(C) Drawing is found from the earliest civilization, done in white slip on red vases.
In the second prehistoric civilization barrelshaped vases became usual; and to the former materials were added slate, grey limestone and breccia.
The Prehistoric Age.One of the most striking features of recent Egyptology is the way in which the earliest ages of the civilization, before the conventional Egyptian style was formed, have been illustrated by the results of excavation.
Until 1895 there seemed little hope of reaching the records of those remote times, although it was plain that the civilization had developed in the Nile valley for many centuries before the IVth Dynasty, beyond which the earliest known monuments scarcely reached.
The advent of the dynasties, however, produced a quickening rather than a dislocation in the development of civilization.
Maspero, Histoire ancienne des peuples de lorient (6th ed., 1904), The Dawn of Civilization, The Struggle of the Nations, The Passing of the Empires (London, 1904, &c.); P. E.
No change could be made in any law applicable to Europeans without the unanimous consent of fifteen foreign powersa state of affairs wholly incompatible with the condition of Egypt in the 20th centui1y, an oriental country which has assimilated a very considerable portion of European civilization and which is mainly governed by European methods.
Montelius, The Civilization of Sweden in Heathen Times (London, 1888), and Der Orient and Europa (Stockholm, 1899); E.
Greek Mainland.-Exploration of 'the Mycenaean sites of the Greek mainland have shown that beneath the characteristic painted pottery which is so plainly derived from the late Minoan wares, there is no unbroken sequence of development such as is found at Cnossos and elsewhere in Crete: that is to say, the Mycenaean civilization was not native to Greece proper, but was imposed there in a mature form upon a more backward culture.
These monuments, which are found in Lydia, Phrygia, Cappadocia and Lycaonia, as well as in north and central Syria, point to the existence of a homogeneous civilization over those countries; they show a singularly marked style of art, and are frequently inscribed with a peculiar kind of hieroglyphics, engraved boustrophedon; and they originated probably from a great Hittite kingdom, whose kings ruled the countries from Lydia to the borders of Egypt.
HENRY THOMAS BUCKLE (1821-1862), English historian, author of the History of Civilization, the son of Thomas Henry Buckle, a wealthy London merchant, was born at Lee, in Kent, on the 24th of November 1821.
Steady progress was made in the development of the country and the increase of well-being and civilization among the natives in the five years preceding the World War.
In politics these races have been less successful in modern times, but the Semitic states of Babylonia and Assyria were once the principal centres for the development and distribution of civilization.
It is generally agreed that this civilization can be traced back to an earlier race, the Sumero-Akkadians, whose language seems allied to the agglutinative idioms of central Asia.
If this ancient civilized race was really allied to the ancestors of the Turks and Huns, it is a remarkable instance of how civilization thrives best by being transplanted at a certain period of growth.
Whether they expanded at the expense of weak aboriginal tribes or were conquered by more robust invaders, Chinese civilization prevailed and assimilated alike the conquered and the conquerors.
Authentic history does not begin till about the 6th century A.D., when Chinese civilization and Buddhism were introduced.
It appears to have arisen on the ruins of an older civilization, whose existence is revealed to us only by the few monuments which it has left.
Even more than Buddhism Islam has carried with it a special style of art and civilization.
After the Aramaeans had absorbed what remained of the earlier population, they themselves were very powerfully influenced by Graeco-Roman civilization, but as a people they still retained their Aramaean speech.
The earliest Cretan settlements in Greece belong to the end of the third Middle Minoan period, about 1800 s.c. Pre-Mycenaean civilization in Greece varied in different localities.
Scotland was relatively peaceful, prosperous, and, in the south, anglicized, and was now in the general movement of western civilization.
The circumstances which render necessary the habitual pursuit of wild animals, either as a means of subsistence or for self-defence, generally accompany a phase of human progress distinctly inferior to the pastoral and agricultural stages; resorted to as a recreation, however, the practice of the chase in most cases indicates a considerable degree of civilization, and sometimes ultimately becomes the almost distinctive employment of the classes which are possessed of most leisure and wealth.
On the other hand, it is an indigenous element, not only in the creeds of Asia, but in those of the ancient seats of civilization on the Mediterranean.
The curtain-wall and towers of the Mycenaean citadel, its gate with heraldic lions, and the great "Treasury of Atreus" had borne silent witness for ages before Schliemann's time; but they were supposed only to speak to the Homeric, or at farthest a rude Heroic beginning of purely Hellenic, civilization.
Any general statement as to the debt owed by early European civilizations to western Asia would at present be premature, for though important discoveries have been made in Crete and Babylonia the best authorities are chary of positive conclusions as to the relations of Cretan civilization to Egypt and Babylonia.
Some authorities hold that Egyptian civilization came from Babylonia, and that the so-called Hamitic languages are older and less specialized members of the Semitic family.
Some authorities hold that Peruvian civilization had no connexion with the north and was an entirely indigenous product, but Kechua is in structure not unlike the agglutinative languages of central and northern Asia.
It was no longer possible to write as if the whole civilization of the Western world would sit down contentedly under the shadow of East Gothic dominion and Amal sovereignty.
The cult of the supreme god spread throughout Egypt and was carried by the Egyptian conquerors into other lands, Syria, Ethiopia and Libya, and was accepted by the natives both in Ethiopia and in the Libyan cases, where civilization was low and Egyptian influence permanent.
Under these officials peace was gradually established between various tribes, trade routes opened and progress made in civilization.
The traveller in Egypt thus views, side by side with the activities of the present day, where occident and orient meet and clash, memorials of every race and civilization which has flourished in the valley of the Nile.
The Cave report showed that Egypt suffered from the ignorance, dishonesty, waste and extravagance of the East and from the vast expense caused by hasty and inconsiderate endeavours to adopt the civilization of the West.
Exploration and Research.Owing to its early development of a high civilization with written records, its wealth, and its preservative climate, Egypt is the country which most amply repays archaeological research.
The principal changes that have occurred are due to the grip which civilization has taken upon the land in the course of thousands of years, often weakening but now firmer than.
most departments of civilization, until the more warlike empires of Assyria and Persia overwhelmed them and the keener intellects of the Greeks outshone them in almost every department.
These great rock chambers were covered with paintings, which show a large range of the daily life and civilization.
Korea received its civilization and religion from China, but differs in language, and to some extent in customs. An alphabet derived from Indian sources is in use as well as Chinese writing.
The most recent authorities are of opinion that the Kolarians and Dravidians represent a single physical type; but, whatever the historical explanation may be, they certainly have different languages and show different stages of civilization.
The Mala y a dynasty maintained Hindu civilization in the 6th century, and from 606 to 646 Harsha established a brief but brilliant empire in the north with its capital at Kanauj.
In the neighbourhood of the Moslem capitals, Islam spread rapidly, but in such districts as Rajputana and specially Vijayanagar (Mysore) Hindu civilization and religion maintained themselves.
With the rise of Mahommedanism occurred a sudden effervescence of the Arabs, who during some centuries threatened to impose not only their political authority but their civilization and new religion on the whole known world.
The Arab rule in Spain, which once threatened to overwhelm Europe and was turned back near Tours by Charles Martel, was distinguished by its tolerance and civilization, and lingered on till the 15th century.
Cochin China was once the seat of a kingdom called Champa, which appears to have had a hinduized Malay civilization and to have been subsequently absorbed by Annam.
In the second, Hindu civilization reached the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and other islands.
Such civilization as the Mongols possess is a mixture of Chinese and Indian, the latter derived chiefly through Tibet, but their alphabet is a curious instance of transplantation.
The Syrians and the, Keftiu, the latter now identified with the Cretans and other representatives of the Aegean civilization, are the only peoples who by their elaborate clothing and artistic products reveal themselves upon the ancient Egyptian monuments as the equals in culture of the Egyptian nation.
The Polynesians were by no means a savage people when they entered the Pacific. Indeed their elaborate historical legends show that they possessed a considerable amount of civilization.
Napoleon, moreover, he regarded not as the scourge of Europe, but as the defender of civilization against the barbarism of the Slays; and in the famous interview between the two men at Erfurt the poet's admiration was reciprocated by the French conqueror.
The reclaiming of the wild district of Hauran for civilization and Hellenistic life was due in the first instance to the house of Herod (Scharer, Gesch.
The imperial rule was highly favourable to the spread of Hellenistic civilization, which under the Greek kings had affected only a few of the great cities, leaving the mass of the country purely Phrygian.
Never had there been such an attempt to make conquest the servant of civilization.
This seems to indicate the arrival, in ships, of strangers of a higher grade of civilization.
But more than this, Great Britain had gained a reputation for patient and persevering efforts to promote the spread of civilization in these regions, a prestige which yielded profit during the difficult years of the World War, and was not without its effect in India.
It was, in his judgment, quite in accordance with the genius of the Catholic Church that she should continuously assimilate all that is worthy in the civilization around.
At first he contemplated a history of the middle ages, but by 1851 he had decided in favour of a history of civilization.
Buckle's fame, which must rest wholly on his History of Civilization in England, is no longer what it was in the decade following his death.
Unfortunately Buckle either could not define, or cared not to define, the general conceptions with which he worked, such as those denoted by the terms "civilization," "history," "science," "law," "scepticism," and "protective spirit"; the consequence is that his arguments are often fallacies.
Brought up on the borderland between civilization and barbarism, constantly trekking, fighting and hunting, his education was necessarily of the most primitive character.
Thus they are mainly responsible for the introduction of Islam with its Arabic or Persian civilization into India and Europe, and in earlier times their movements facilitated the infiltration of Graeco-Bactrian civilization into India, besides maintaining communication between China and the West.
AEGEAN CIVILIZATION, the general term for the prehistoric civilization, previously called "Mycenaean" because its existence was first brought to popular notice by Heinrich Schliemann's excavations at Mycenae in 1876.
- Mycenae and Tiryns are the two principal sites on which evidence of a prehistoric civilization was remarked long ago by the classical Greeks.
in the XVIIIth Dynasty tomb of Rekhmara at Egyptian Thebes as bearing vases of peculiar forms, were of some Mediterranean race, neither their precise habitat nor the degree of their civilization could be determined while so few actual prehistoric remains were known in the Mediterranean lands.
A relation between objects of art described by Homer and the Mycenaean treasure was generally allowed, and a correct opinion prevailed that, while certainly posterior, the civilization of the Iliad was reminiscent of the Mycenaean.
Crete, so much so that, for the present we must regard it as the fountain-head of Aegean civilization, and probably for long its political and social centre.
He obtained enough to enable him to forecast the discovery of written characters, till then not suspected in Aegean civilization.
(3) Traces of customs, creeds, rituals, &c., in the Aegean area at a later time, discordant with the civilization in which they were practised and indicating survival from earlier systems. There are also possible linguistic and even physical survivals to be considered.
General Features of Aegean Civilization.
- The fact that Aegean civilization is distinguished from all others, prior or contemporary, not only by its geographical area, but by leading organic characteristics, has never been in doubt, since its remains came to be studied seriously and impartially.
Briefly, we now know that the Aegean civilization developed these distinctive features.
- With the immense expansion of the evidence, due to the Cretan excavations, a question has arisen how far the Aegean civilization, whose total duration covers at least three thousand years, can be regarded as one and continuous.
Thanks to the exploration of Cnossus, we now know that Aegean civilization had its roots in a primitive Neolithic period, of uncertain but very long duration, represented by a stratum which (on that site in particular) is in places nearly 20 ft.
This fact, by itself, would go far to prove that the civilization continued fundamentally and essentially the same throughout.
We may take it then (and the fact is not disputed even by those who, like Dorpfeld, believe in one thorough racial change, at least, during the Bronze Age) that the Aegean civilization was indigenous, firmly rooted and strong enough to persist essentially unchanged and dominant in its own geographical area throughout the Neolithic and Bronze Ages.
This conclusion can hardly entail less than a belief that, at any rate, the mass of those who possessed this civilization continued racially the same.
There are, however, in certain respects at certain periods, evidences of such changes as might be due to the intrusion of small conquering castes, which adopted the superior civilization of the conquered people and became assimilated to the latter.
These and other less well marked changes, say some critics, are signs of a racial convulsion not long after 2000 B.C. An old race was conquered by a new, even if, in matters of civilization, the former capta victorem cepit.
Nevertheless, the Roman functionaries, the army and the colonists from Italy soon brought the Latin element into Africa, where it flourished with such vigour that, in the 3rd century, Carthage became the centre of a Romano-African civilization of extraordinary literary brilliancy, which numbered among its leaders such men as Apuleius, Tertullian, Arnobius, Cyprian, Augustine and many others.
The lateness of its arrival in the West was due to the fact that its centres of influence were not in immediate contact with Greek and Roman civilization.
between the Bolivian and Venezuelan llanos, and thus far civilization has made only a very slight 'impression upon it.
The inevitable consequence of this rupture was the Teutonizing of the western branch of the great Slav family, which, no longer able to stand alone, and cut off from both Rome and Constantinople, was forced, in self-defence, to take Christianity, and civilization along with it, from Germany.
(1342-1382), to rebuild the Hungarian state, and lead the Magyars back to civilization.
Rakoczy also did much for education and civilization generally, and their era has justly been called the golden era of Transylvania.
But a nation that for a thousand years had maintained its individuality in the midst of hostile and rival races could not be expected to allow itself without a struggle to be sacrificed to the force of mere numbers, and the less so if it were justified in its claim that it stood for a higher ideal of culture and civilization.
History There is something almost pathetic in the childish wonder and delight with which mankind in its earlier phases of civilization gathered up and treasured stories of strange animals from distant lands or deep seas, such as are recorded in the Physiologus, in Albertus Magnus, and even at the present day in the popular treatises of Japan and China.
The impetus to the purification of the old Semite religion to which the Hebrews for a long time clung in common with their fellows - the various branches of nomadic Arabs - was largely furnished by the remarkable civilization unfolded in the Euphrates valley and in many of the traditions, myths and legends embodied in the Old Testament; traces of direct borrowing from Babylonia may be discerned, while the indirect influences in the domain of the prophetical books, as also in the Psalms and in the so-called "Wisdom Literature," are even more noteworthy.
The international position of the Ottoman empire was strengthened by the able, if Machiavellian, statecraft of the sultan; while the danger of disruption from within was lessened by the more effective central control made possible by railways, telegraphs, and the other mechanical improvements borrowed from western civilization.
The Eastern Question thus developed, in the latter years of the 19th century, from that of the problems raised by the impending break-up of a moribund empire, into the even more complex question of how to deal with an empire which showed vigorous evidence of life, but of a type of life which, though on all sides in close touch with modern European civilization, was incapable of being brought into harmony with it.
But the Wendish pirates were more mischievous because less amenable to civilization than the Vikings.
The question arises whether we have to do with the various tribes of one race in different stages of civilization, or with a mixed population called by foreigners after the ruling tribe.
It may be used to denote ancient Greek culture in all its phases, and even those elements in modern civilization which are Greek in origin or in spirit; but, while Matthew Arnold made the term popular in the latter connexion as the antithesis of " Hebraism," the German historian 1 For the microscopical characters and for figures of transverse sections of the rhizome, see Lanessan, Hist.
In fact, whereas the site of Hissarlik, the ancient Troy, is not in Greece proper, but in Asia Minor, and can thus not furnish the most direct evidence for the earliest Hellenic civilization as such; and whereas Tiryns, Mycenae, and the city of Argos, each represent only one definite period in the successive stages of civilization, the Argive Heraeum, holding the central site of early civilization in Greece proper, not only retained its importance during the three periods marked by the supremacy of Tiryns, Mycenae and the city of Argos, but in all probability antedated them as a centre of civilized Argive life.
The result of this, however, has not so far established more than the fact that the Aegean races, as a whole, belonged to the dark, long-headed Homo Mediterraneus, whose probable origin lay in mid-eastern Africa - a fact only valuable in the present connexion in so far as it tends to discredit an Asiatic source for Aegean civilization.
If we fix its introduction to about loon B.C. and make it coincident with the incursion of northern tribes, remembered by the classical Greeks as the Dorian Invasion, we must allow that this incursion did not altogether stamp out Aegean civilization, at least in the southern part of its area.
But it finally destroyed the Cnossian palace and initiated the "Geometric" Age, with which, for convenience at any rate, we may close the history of Aegean civilization proper.
Africa, was settled in the Aegean area from a remote Neolithic antiquity, but, except in Crete, where insular security was combined with great natural fertility, remained in a savage and unproductive condition until far into the 4th millennium B.C. In Crete, however, it had long been developing a certain civilization, and at a period more or less contemporary with Dynasties XI.
The Civilization of Roman Britain.
It is not impossible to combine these views, and place the seat of power still in Crete, but ascribe the Renascence there to an influx of new blood from the north, large enough to instil fresh vigour, but too small to change the civilization in its essential character.
They crushed a civilization already hard hit; and it took two or three centuries for the artistic spirit, instinct in the Aegean area, and probably preserved in suspended animation by the survival of Aegean racial elements, to blossom anew.
Hall, The Oldest Civilization of Greece (1901); A.
For a recent view of the place of Aegean civilization in the history of Hellenic culture see Die Hellenische Kultur by F.
In two works of this period, Pierre Bayle (1838) and Philosophie and Christentum (1839), which deal largely with theology, he held that he had proved "that Christianity has in fact long vanished not only from the reason but from the life of mankind, that it is nothing more than a fixed idea" in flagrant contradiction to the distinctive features of contemporary civilization.
Its characteristic civilization grew out of a mixture of various elements, Arabic, Aramaic, Greek and Roman.
The East was then agitated by the advance of the Parthian Empire under the Sassanidae, and the Palmyrenes, in spite of their Roman honours and their Roman civilization, which did not really go much below the surface, were by no means prepared to commit themselves altogether to the Roman side.'
But, with advancing civilization and the consequent increase in the number of the conditions to be imposed on both parties, leases became mutual contracts, bilateral in form.
The penitentiary system, according to which the priest enforced a code of moral law in the confessional by the sanction of penance - penance which must be performed as a condition of admission to the sacrament of the Eucharist - had been from early times a great instrument in the civilization of the raw Germanic races.
They protected Europe from the new revival of Mahommedanism under the Turks; they gave it a time of rest in which the Western civilization of the middle ages developed.
But it is important to bear in mind the continuity of the Crusades - the constant flow of new forces eastward and back again westward; for this alone explains why the Crusades formed a great epoch in civilization, familiarizing, as they did, the West with the East.
He depreciates unduly the Western civilization of the early middle ages, and exalts the civilization of the Arabs; and starting from these two premises, he concludes that modern civilization is the offspring of the Crusades, which first brought East and West together.
When we turn from the sphere of politics to the history of civilization and culture, we find the effects of the Crusades as deeply impressed, if not so definitely marked.
In part they had provided a field in which the layman could prove that he too was a priest; in part they had brought the West into a living and continuous contact with a new faith and a new civilization.
It is not so much that the West came into contact with a particular civilization in the East, or borrowed from that civilization; it is simply that the West came into contact with something unlike itself, yet in many ways as high as, if not higher than, itself.
Rey's Les Colonies franques en Syrie contains many interesting details; and Prutz's Kulturgeschichte der Kreuzziige contains both an account of the Latin East and an attempt to sketch the effects of the Crusades on the progress of civilization.
Syria happens to lie on the line of least resistance for communication between the early subtropic seats of civilization in the Nile and Euphrates valleys and the civilizations of Europe.
Consequently south Palestine has been continuously " Arabized "; and indeed the whole of Syria has been characterized by racial and religious fusions, and by civilization of a singularly syncretic and derived kind, of which the ancient Phoenician is a sufficient example.
The high degree of civilization then prevailing in the country is proved by its architectural remains dating from the early Christian centuries; the investigations of De Vogue, Butler and others, have shown that from the 1st to the 7th century there prevailed in north Syria and the Hauran a special style of architecture - partly, no doubt, following Graeco-Roman models, but also showing a great deal of originality in details.
The aborigines, who seemed to have reached a stage of civilization somewhat similar to that of the Aztecs, were conquered and exterminated or absorbed by Creeks about the middle of the 18th century.
B.C.), of which the latter immediately preceded the Etruscan civilization (c. 600-400 B.C.).
It has been remarked that there is evidence that the Malays had attained to a certain stage of civilization before ever they set foot in Malaya.
treats of the influence of civilization upon man; book ii.
Gallatin tried to earn a living by teaching French in Harvard College, apparently not without success, but the cold and rigid civilization of New England repelled him, and he made his way to the South.
- After the Turkish conquest Athens disappeared from the eyes of Western civilization.
Many of the tribes that had least intercourse with the Chinese show a considerable amount of skill in the arts of civilization.
About 200 years after Sangram Sah's time, Bakht Buland, the Gond chieftain of a principality seated at Deogarh in Chhindwara, having visited Delhi, set about introducing the civilization he had there admired.
He endeavoured to spread among his people the refinements of Greek civilization, and invited to his court, which he removed from Aegae to Pella, many celebrated men, amongst them Zeuxis, Timotheus, Euripides and Agathon.
Elliot Smith has shown 7 the existence of the two racial stocks in Egypt, the predynastic Nilotic and the invading "Armenoid " from Asia, the man of higher cranial capacity to whom the blossoming of the Egyptian civilization and art out of primitive African barbarism is to be ascribed.
Syria in fact is beginning to take shape in our minds as perhaps the most ancient seat of civilization in the world, the common source from which Babylonia and Egypt derived those items of culture in which, in the early period, they resemble one another.
The peculiar characteristics of Syro-Hittite art, and its relation to that of Assyria, are matters of great interest to the student of the civilization and art of the Nearer East.
31 Continued work at Samaria should reveal some trace of the civilization of Israel, which we know was considerable, unless the devastation of the Assyrian sieges has destroyed it all.
In Mesopotamia more than any other country literary results have been regarded as archaeology, owing to the enormous mass of the written material recovered, which has caused the study of the art and general civilization of different periods to be neglected in comparison with the same subjects in Egypt.
Anc. Hist.; (27) " The Influence of Ancient Egyptian Civilization in the East and in America," Bull.
It is not improbable that all dogs sprang from one common source, but climate, food and cross-breeding caused variations of form which suggested particular uses, and these being either designedly or accidentally perpetuated, the various breeds of dogs arose, and became numerous in proportion to the progress of civilization.
This ancient civilization is supposed to have been swept away by Mahommedan conquerors; before that event the people, in the opinion of several travellers, professed a degraded form of Christianity, which they had acquired from their Abyssinian neighbours.
It was hoped at the time that that place would become the centre from which the civilization of Africa would proceed; but this expectation was not fulfilled.
Slavery had disappeared; the blacks were employed as hired servants, receiving for their remuneration the third part of the crops they raised; and the population was rapidly rising in civilization and comfort.
It was for some time thought that from Sierra Leone as a centre industry and civilization might be diffused amongst the nations of the continent; and in 1822 the colony (which in 1847 became the independent republic) of Liberia had been founded by Americans with a similar object; but in neither case have these expectations been adequately fulfilled.
Ethically, too, the new doctrine stands on a higher plane, and represents, in its moral laws, a superior civilization.
The list of Cain's descendants reflects the old view of the beginnings of civilization; it is thrown into the form of a genealogy and is parallel to Gen.
Having referred to his share in the war, he added: "What I should prefer to be remembered by is a tremendous effort subsequent to the war not only to repair the ravages of that calamity but to re-start the colonies on a higher plane of civilization than they have ever previously attained."
Rodriguez-Ferrer, Naturaleza y civilization de.
For at the outset Metternich was not alone in maintaining that the war should be allowed to burn itself out " beyond the pale of civilization."
The position of Melos, between Greece and Crete, and its possession of obsidian, made it an important centre of early Aegean civilization.
In early days the home of the Aymaras by Lake Titicaca was a "holy land" for the Incas themselves, whose national legends attributed the origin of all Quichua (Inca) civilization to that region.
Inscriptions and coins show that its civilization consisted of a layer of Roman ideas and customs superimposed on Celtic tribal characteristics.
The Roman civilization and the Latin language disappeared from the countries which they occupied; indeed it seems that the actual boundaries of the German and French languages nearly coincide with those of their dominion.
European civilization made them familiar with all its worst sides and with none of its best.
Prior to the building of the trans-Siberian railway a fairly active trade was carried on between China and the Amur region; but since the opening of that railway (in 1902-1905) the Amur region has seriously and rapidly declined in all that concerns trade, industry, general prosperity and civilization.
On the whole, their civilization stood much higher than that of their more recent successors.
This Turkish empire of the Khagases must have lasted until the 13th century, when the Mongols, under Jenghiz Khan, subdued them and destroyed their civilization.
The chief was a man of great intelligence, eager to study western civilization, and an ardent agriculturist.
we would do wrong to despair either of our civilization or of the Church."
There is no indication of an abrupt change from the use of stone to the use of metal such as might have occurred had the knowledge of copper and bronze, and the methods of working them, been introduced through the conquest of the original inhabitants by an alien race of superior culture and civilization.
ii.), the first man and the founder of civilization to the Iranians, though not like the Yama of the Vedas.
Such doubtless were most of the towns of Roman Britain - thoroughly Romanized, peopled with Romanspeaking citizens, furnished with Roman appurtenances, living in Roman ways, but not very large, not very rich, a humble witness to the assimilating power of the Roman civilization in Britain.
(c) Government, Social Organization and State of Civilization.
The Punic wars transferred the supreme power from Carthage to Rome, and Latin civilization was established firmly when, in 27 B.C., Andalusia became the Roman province of Baetica - so called after its great waterway, the Baetis (Guadalquivir).
developed a civilization unsurpassed at the time in Europe.
It was situated where the Marsyas leaves the hills to join the Maeander, and it became a seat of Seleucid power, and a centre of Graeco-Roman and Graeco-Hebrew civilization and commerce.
By this means he introduced a new epoch in the history of the papacy and of civilization: Rome, the centre of ecclesiastical life, was now to become the centre of literature and art.
His indefatigable activity on behalf of Western civilization, now threatened with extinction by the Ottomans, excites admiration and adds an undying lustre to his memory.
It was a centre of Greek civilization, devoted especially to the worship of Artemis, and producing famous teachers, of whom Stephen the Byzantine mentions Ariston, Kerykos and Plato.
It was in the reign of Straton that Tyre fell into the hands of Evagoras, king of Salamis, who had already supplanted Phoenician with Greek civilization in Cyprus (Isocr.
In its own age, chivalry rested practically, like the highest civilization of ancient Greece and Rome, on slave labour; 9 and if many of its 8 Dallaway's Heraldry, p. 303.
most brilliant outward attractions have now faded for ever, this is only because modern civilization tends so strongly to remove social barriers.
It may have existed in the world too long: it did not come into existence too early; and with all its shortcomings it exercised a great and wholesome influence in raising the medieval world from barbarism to civilization" (p. 27).
The Banyoro (as its people call themselves) had a certain degree of civilization and were skilled in iron-work, pottery and wood-work.
Unyoro has played rather an important role in the past (unwritten) history of Equatorial Africa as being the region from which the ancient Gala (Hamitic) aristocracy, coming from Nileland, penetrated the forests of Bantu Africa, bringing with them the Neolithic civilization, the use of metals, and the keeping of cattle.
This great increase in the per capita consumption of iron by the human race is of course but part of the general advance in wealth and civilization.
Furthermore, the fact that the Syriac Sen'ar = Shinar was later used to denote the region about Bagdad (northern Babylonia) does not necessarily prove that Shinar-Shumer meant only northern Babylonia, because, when the term Sen'ar was applied to the Bagdad district the great southern Babylonian civilization had long been forgotten and " Babylonia " really meant only what we now know as northern Babylonia.
The German conquerors of the Rhenish districts were singularly little affected by the culture of the provincials they subdued, and all traces of Roman civilization were submerged in a new flood of paganism.
to History of Civilization in England, vol.
Civilization has not made much progress, and the habits of the people are more primitive than those in the more advanced neighbouring republics.
It was up its valley that first Greek, then Latin civilization penetrated from the Mediterranean to Lyons, as well as in the 10th century the Saracen bandits from their settlement at La Garde Freinet, near the coast of Provence.
Its habitat made it familiar to all the races among whom human civilization took its origin.
His principal works are his edition of the Sachsenspiegel (in 3 vols., 1827, 3rd ed., 1861, containing also some other important sources of Saxon or Low German law), which is still unsurpassed in accuracy and sagacity of research, and his book on Die Hausand Hofmarken (1870), in which he has given a history of the use of trade-marks among all the Teutonic nations of Europe, and which is full of important elucidations of the history of law and also contains valuable contributions to the history of art and civilization.
These were mostly military foundations, and served the purpose of securing civilization against the inroads of the natives, who were not in a condition to be used as material for town-life as in Gaul and Spain, but were under the immediate government of the procurators, retaining their own clan organization.
Tingitana has as yet yielded but scanty evidence of Roman civilization.
After the fall of Numantia, and still more after the death of Sertorius (72 B.C.), the Celtiberians became gradually romanized, and town life grew up among their valleys; Clunia, for instance, became a Roman municipality, and ruins of its walls, gates and theatre testify to its civilization; while Bilbilis (Bambola), another municipality, was the birthplace of the eminently Roman poet Martial.
Demophon was burnt to death, and Demeter, to console his parents, took upon herself the care of Triptolemus, instructed him in everything connected with agriculture, and presented him with a wonderful chariot, in which he travelled all over the world, spreading the knowledge of the precious art and the blessings of civilization.
The gap in our knowledge of the development of Palaeolithic into Neolithic civilization has recently been partially filled in by discoveries in north Germany and France of objects showing rather more developed forms than those of the former period, but still unaccompanied by earthenware.
It -is a disputed point whether the introduction of Neolithic civilization is due to a new ethnological element.
The bronze civilization of the Aegean seems to have had direct influence along the basins of the Danube and Elbe, while the culture of the western parts of central Germany was transmitted through Italy and France.
It is interesting to note how the Celts absorb Roman and still more Greek culture, even imitating foreign coins, and pass on their new arts to their Teutonic neighbors; but in spite of the strong foreign influence the Celtic civilization can in some sort be termed national.
Good schools are numerous, and the return of emigrants and their children who have been educated in the United States, tends to raise the standard of civilization.
The soil is fertile, and there are many remains of ancient wealth and civilization scattered over its surface.
At all events during the last centuries of the third millennium B.C., remarkable for the high state of civilization in Babylonia, Egypt and Crete, Palestine shares in the active life and intercourse of the age; and while its fertile fields are visited by Egypt, Babylonia (under Gimil-Sin, Gudea and Sargon) claims some supremacy over the west as far as the Mediterranean.
Biblical history itself recognizes in the times of Artaxerxes, Nehemiah and Ezra the commencement of a new era, and although only too much remains obscure we have in these centuries a series of vicissitudes which separate the old Palestine of Egyptian, Hittite, Babylonian and Assyrian supremacy from the land which was about to enter the circle of Greek and Roman civilization.
There is a certain poverty and decadence of art, a certain simplicity of civilization and a decline in the shape and decoration of pottery which seems to exhibit signs of derivation from skin prototypes elsewhere associated with desert peoples.
2 These have influenced all subsequent civilization, and it was impossible that ancient Palestine could have been isolated from contemporary thought and history.
pp. 85 sqq., also the Arab historian Ibn Khaldun on the effects of civilization upon Arab tribes (see e.g.
Secure of his position, Herod began to build temples and palaces and whole cities up and down Palestine as visible embodiments of the Greek civilization which was to distinguish the Roman Empire from barbarian lands.
Herod the Great enlarged his borders and fostered the Greek civilization of the cities under his sway.
Weeden, Indian Money as a Factor in New England Civilization (Baltimore, 1884); E.
As to its chronological relation to the Cretan sites - Cnossus, Phaestus, &c., and the "Minoan" civilization as determined by Dr A.Evans, see the discussion under Crete.
In and about the centre of civilization at Kabul, instances of Ghazism are comparatively rare.
We have analogous stories in the literature of almost all nations that derive their religion or their civilization from a foreign source.
The second region, or the great river plains in the north, formed the theatre of the ancient race-movements which shaped the civilization and the political destinies of the whole Indian peninsula.
old, the Dutch stopped short of no acts of cruelty towards their rivals in commerce; but, unlike the Phoenicians, they failed to introduce a respect for their own higher civilization among the natives with whom they came in contact.
Repeated annexations, the spread of education, the appearance of the steam engine and the telegraph wire, all alike revealed a consistent determination to substitute an English for an Indian civilization.
There is no doubt too that the adoption of Western civilization by the Japanese and their victorious war with Russia set in motion a current through all the peoples of the East.
Their only object was to set down, in plain and simple language, all that seemed worthy of note in reference to the legends, history, constitution, religion and civilization of Attica.
We have, then, as evidence for the earliest period, the simple pylon-tombs, which belong to the pre-Hellenic age; how far back in this stage the Nabataean settlement goes we do no.t know, but not farther than the 6th century B.C. A period follows in which the dominant civilization combines Greek, Egyptian and Syrian elements, clearly pointing to the age of the Ptolemies.
Traces of the ancient Eritrean civilization are scarce.
The Axumites belonged originally to the Hamitic race, but the immigration of the Himyaritic tribes of southern Arabia speedily imposed a new language and civilization.
Compared with the results of English or Dutch colonization the conversion and civilization of the Filipinos is a most remarkable achievement s Notwithstanding the undeniable vices, follies and absurd illiberalities of the Spanish colonial regime, the Philippines were the only group in the East Indies that improved in civilization in the three centuries following their discovery.
As these began to develop in civilization, they substituted, at least so far as their shrine was concerned, buildings of mud-brick for reed huts.
The earliest age of civilization, which we may designate as the clay age, is marked by rude, hand-made pottery and thumb-marked bricks, flat on one side, concave on the other, gradually developing through several fairly marked stages.
There is evidence of the succession on this site of different peoples, varying somewhat in their degrees of civilization.
The excavations at Nippur were the first to reveal to us the extreme antiquity of Babylonian civilization, and, as already stated, they give us the best consecutive record of the development of that civilization, with a continuous occupancy from a period of unknown antiquity, long ante-dating 5000 B.C., onward to the middle ages.
Only the Arabic religion, the Arabic language and the Arabic civilization maintain themselves, and spread more and more over the whole empire.
By Octavian they were employed in strengthening his hold on the West, and his claim to be regarded as the one possible saviour of Rome and Roman civilization.
ANGKOR, an assemblage of ruins in Cambodia, the relic of the ancient Khmer civilization.
His plays include Miss Civilization; The Dictator; The Galloper; The Orator of Zapata City and The Zone Police.
They are completely pagan, live in scattered hamlets, and have come very little in contact with any civilization.
Sir Bartle Frere, who became high commissioner of South Africa in March 1877, found evidence which convinced him that the Kaffir revolt of that year on the eastern border of Cape Colony was part of a design or desire "for a general and simultaneous rising of Kaffirdom against white civilization"; and the Kaffirs undoubtedly looked to Cetywayo and the Zulus as the most redoubtable of their champions.
Modern scholarship has superseded most of the details in the Voyage, but the author himself did not imagine his book to be a register of accurately ascertained facts; he rather intended to afford to his countrymen, in an interesting form, some knowledge of Greek civilization.
The making and the observance of treaties is necessarily a very early phenomenon in the history of civilization, and the theory of treaties was one of the first departments of international law to attract attention.
In France Mehemet Ali had become a popular hero; under him French civilization had gained a foothold in Egypt; he was regarded as invincible; and it was hoped that in alliance with him French influence in the Mediterranean would be supreme.
More properly perhaps we might consider the Greek and Roman civilization as the permanent element - so that the relationship to it was not different from the relationship to Judaism - in part it was denied, in part it was of purpose accepted, in still larger part unconsciously the Greek-Roman converts took over with them the presuppositions of their older world view - and thus formed the moulds into which the Christian truth was run.
The peoples of Borneo belong to a considerable variety of races, of different origin and degrees of civilization.
Serious disturbances among the Chinese are now in Borneo matters of ancient history, and to-day the Chinaman forms perhaps the most valuable element in the civilization and development of the island, just as does his fellow in the mining states of the Malayan Peninsula.
Dusuns and Muruts alike are in a very low state of civilization, and both indulge inordinately in the use of intoxicating liquors of their own manufacture.
The most densely peopled region and the focus of civilization is the lacustrine depression and the surrounding uplands.
For a general account of this ancient civilization and of the Indian tribes see Central America and Mexico: Archaeology.
The founding and the growth of such communities furnish matter for an interesting chapter in the history as well of ancient as of modern civilization; and the regulation of the relations between the parent state and its dependencies abroad gives rise to important problems alike in national policy and in international economics.
The Roman colonies were thus not merely valuable as propugnacula of the state, as permanent supports to Roman garrisons and armies, but they proved a most effective means of extending over wide bounds the language and the laws of Rome, and of inoculating the inhabitants of the provinces with more than the rudiments of Roman civilization.
He also wrote many poems, and several dramas and romances, and translated into German various English works, including the Letters of Junius and Buckle's History of Civilization.
In Crete, at least, the excavations show that the old civilization must have ended in a social and political cataclysm.
As everywhere in the Peloponnese, except at Argos, there seems to have been a sudden break with the earlier civilization, which can have been occasioned only by the semi-barbarous Dorian tribes, so the same result seems to have followed from the same cause in Thera.
The men of Falerii, however, regularly took the side of the Etruscans in wars with Rome, and it is clear that the civilization of the old Falerii, destroyed for its rebellion in 241 B.C., was Etruscan and not Roman in character.
It is certain from the symbols which they develop or drop that the people of Campania and Samnium borrowed their alphabet from the Etruscans, who held dominion in Campania from the 8th to the 5th century B.C. Previous to the Punic wars Campania had reached a higher stage of civilization than Rome.
Unfortunately, the remains of that civilization are very scanty, and our knowledge of the official alphabet outside Capua, and at a later period Pompeii, is practically confined to two important inscriptions, the tabula Agnonensis, now in the British Museum, and the Cippus Abellanus, which is now kept in the Episcopal Seminary at Nola.
From these disasters the country never recovered, and the last traces of Western civilization disappeared with the enforced use of the Turkish language and the wholesale conversions to Islam under the earliest Osmanli sultans.
It was the centre of Chibcha civilization before the Spanish conquest and sustained a large population.
It was made the capital of the viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, and soon became one of the centres of Spanish colonial power and civilization on the South American continent.
The relics recovered show unmistakably that the occupation must be dated within the Iron Age, but probably pre-Roman, as no evidence of contact with Roman civilization has been discovered.
The stage of civilization indicated is nevertheless not a low one.
In Ireland, Sir William Wilde has assigned their range approximately to the period between the 9th and 16th centuries; while Dr Munro holds that the vast majority of them, both in Ireland and in Scotland, were not only inhabited, but constructed during the Iron Age, and that their period of greatest development was as far posterior to Roman civilization as that of the Swiss Pfahlbauten was anterior to it.
There was much retrogression with the intrusion of new barbarian races; but from their absorption by the 10th century until the 10th there is not a century in which some notable gain was not made towards the attainments of modern civilization.
The correct perspective places between the summits of modern and ancient times, not a long level stretch of a thousand years, with mankind stationary, spell-bound under the authority of the Church, absorbed in war or monastic dreams, but a downward and then a long upward slope, on both of which the forces which make for civilization may be seen at work.
A hurried outline of each of these vital branches of our civilization will at once reveal the falseness of the usual periodizing.
It had been long preparing in the economic and administrative decline of the Empire, and in the steady influx of Germanic peoples into Roman territory for over two centuries; but the power of the old civilization to absorb the new races was exhausted by the 5th century, and the political history of Europe was turned into a different path.
The new synthesis reveals a universal decline from the 5th to the 10th centuries, while the Germanic races were learning the rudiments of culture, a decline that was deepened by each succeeding wave of migration, each tribal war of Franks or Saxons, and reached its climax in the disorders of the 9th and 10th centuries when the half-formed civilization of Christendom was forced to face the migration of the Northmen by sea, the raids of the Saracen upon the south and the onslaught of Hungarians and Sla y s upon the east.
The importance of Boeotia for Greek civilization is further shown by the ancient worship of the Muses on Mount Helicon, and the fact that the oldest poet whose birthplace was known was the Boeotian Hesiod.
The eastern shores of the Aegean, which the earliest historical records represent to us as the seat of a brilliant civilization, giving way before the advance of the great military empires (Lydia and afterwards Persia), are almost a blank in Homer's map. The line of settlements can be traced in the Catalogue from Crete to Rhodes, and embraces the neighbouring islands of Cos and Calymnos.
races and countries with which the Greeks came into contact, as well as to their own rapid advance in wealth and civilization.
The social organism of the Aryan tribe did not probably differ essentially from that of most communities at that primitive stage of civilization; whilst the body of the people - the Vis (or aggregate of Vaisyas) - would be mainly occupied with agricultural and pastoral pursuits, two professional classes - those of the warrior and the priest - had already made good their claim to social distinction.
The land being appropriated by the conquerors, husbandry, as the most respectable industrial occupation, became the legitimate calling of the Aryan settler, the Vaisya; whilst handicrafts, gradually multiplying with advancing civilization and menial service, were assigned to the subject race.
In regard to the division of these into male and female, the first point to be noted is that, in all communities of western civilization, more boys are born than girls.
Herbert Spencer, again, before the decline in question set in, put forward the hypothesis that "the ability to maintain individual life and the ability to multiply vary inversely"; in other words, the strain upon the nervous system involved in the struggle for life under the conditions of modern civilization, by reacting on the reproductive powers, tends towards comparative sterility.
She has not grown, she cannot grow so weak and old that she may not maintain what she has produced - Christian civilization."
Frederick's ideal of civilization was derived in a large measure from Provence, where a beautiful culture had prematurely bloomed, filling southern Europe with the perfume of poetry and gentle living.
The Renaissance, far from being the re-birth of antiquity with its civilization confined to the Mediterranean, with its Hercules' Pillars beyond which lay Cimmerian darkness, was thus effectively the entrance upon a quite incalculably wider stage of life, on which mankind at large has since enacted one great drama.
Beginning with the older castles of Touraine, and passing onward to the Tuileries, we trace the passage from the medieval fortress to the modern pleasure-house, and note how architecture obeyed the special demands of that new phenomenon of Renaissance civilization, the court.
In ancient times the cultivation of the vine indicated a relatively settled and stable form of civilization, inasmuch as the vine requires a considerable maturation period.
She studied the remains of Indian civilization in the Ohio and Mississippi valleys, became a member of the Archaeological Institute of America in 1879, and worked and lived with the Omahas as a representative of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University.
In 1883 she was appointed special agent to allot lands to the Omaha tribes, in 1884 prepared and sent to the New Orleans Exposition an exhibit showing the progress of civilization among the Indians of North America in the quarter-century previous, in 1886 visited the natives of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands on a mission from the commissioner of education, and in 1887 was United States special agent in the distribution of lands among the Winnebagoes and Nez Perces.
In 1888 she published Indian Education and Civilization, a special report of the Bureau of Education.
After the final conquest of the country by the Swedes, they spread among the Finlanders their civilization, gave them laws, accorded them the same civil rights as belonged to themselves, and introduced agriculture and other beneficial arts.
Originally nomads (hunters and fishers), all the Finnic people except the Lapps and Ostyaks have long yielded to the influence of civilization, and now everywhere lead settled lives as herdsmen, agriculturists, traders, &c. Physically the Finns (here to be distinguished from the Swedish-speaking population, who retain their Scandinavian qualities) are a strong, hardy race, of low stature, with almost round head, low forehead, flat features, prominent cheek bones, eyes mostly grey and oblique (inclining inwards), short and flat nose, protruding mouth, thick lips, neck very full and strong, so that the occiput seems flat and almost in a straight line with the nape; beard weak and sparse, hair no doubt originally black, but, owing to mixture with other races, now brown, red and even fair; complexion also somewhat brown.
They produced a brilliant succession of eminent scholars and scientists who transmitted to the Moslems the results of Babylonian civilization and Greek learning, and their influence at the court of Baghdad secured more or less toleration for Sabianism, although in the reign of Harlan al-Rashid the Harranians had already found it necessary to establish a fund by means of which the conscientious scruples of Moslem officials might be overcome.
Nevertheless these non-moral taboos or restraints may have played a part in building up in us that faculty of preferring the larger good to the impulse of the moment which is the note of real civilization.
The widening sphere of state activity, so marked a characteristic of modern civilization, involves outlay for what may be best described as " developmental " services.
" Morality," he says, " consists in conscientious shrinking from the violation of moral rules; and the basis of this conscientious sentiment is the social feelings of mankind; the desire to be in unity with our fellow-creatures, which is already a powerful principle in human nature, and happily one of those which tend to become stronger from the influences of advancing civilization."
Lee), " reaches back to the very earliest periods of civilization, and it was most extensively and variously applied in the lake-dwellings, even in those of the stone period.
Iron, which occurs rarely, and almost exclusively for ornaments, in a few tombs at Enkomi, suddenly superseded bronze for tools and weapons, and its introduction was accompanied, as in the Aegean, by economic, and probably by political changes, which broke up the high civilization of the Mycenaean colonies, and reduced them to poverty, 1 Myres, Journ.
The conditions that we describe by the comprehensive term " civilization " occasion a specification and corresponding differentiation of the life of societies; whence there result competing types of culture, each instinct with the spirit of propagandism and, one might almost say, of empire.
The inwardness of primitive religion is, however, non-existent for those who observe it as uninitiated strangers; whilst, again, it evaporates as soon as native custom breaks down under pressure of civilization, when only fragments of meaningless superstition survive: wherefore do travesties of primitive religion abound.
As a matter of fact, the earlier and more democratic types of primitive society, uncontaminated by our civilization, do not present many features to which the modern conscience can take exception, but display rather the edifying spectacle of religious brotherhoods encouraging themselves by mystical communion to common effort.
This had the obvious advantage of lifting two great families into prominence, the Semitic and the IndoGermanic. The Semitic peoples were closely bound together by common types of thought and civilization, and produced three of the leading religions of the world, Judaism, Christianity and Islam.
Maspero, Dawn of Civilization, p. 204; Wiedemann, Religion of the Ancient Egyptians, p. 227; Budge, Gods of Egypt, i.
- Fustel de Coulanges, La Cite antique (Paris, 1864); Lubbock, Origin of Civilization (1870); Whitney, Oriental and Linguistic Studies (New York, 1872 and 18 74); Brinton, The Religious Sentiment (1876); Myths of the New World' (New York, 1876); Essays of an Americanist (1890); Religions of Primitive Peoples (1897); Keary, Outlines of Primitive Belief (London, 1882); Leblois, Les Bibles et les initiateurs de l'humanite (4 vols.
On the question of early Arabian civilization see YEMEN.
In later times the story of a Phoenician immigrant of that name became current, to whom was ascribed the introduction of the alphabet, the invention of agriculture and working in bronze and of civilization generally.
The name may mean "order," and be used to characterize one who introduces order and civilization.
Their manners, customs, religion and language were, and for a long time continued to be, different from those of the Hindus; but they found themselves compelled to respect the superior civilization of this race, and slowly adopted its customs and language.
The oldest city, the oldest cultus (that of Zeus Lycaeus), and the first civilization of Arcadia are attributed to Lycaon.
The Dacians had attained a considerable degree of civilization when they first became known to the Romans.
Many Utopias, such as the Fable of the Bees and Erewhon, are designed to satirize existing social conditions as well as to depict a more perfect civilization.
A small part of these Indians live in settled communities and include some very successful stock-raisers, but the greater part live apart from civilization.
The land was originally inhabited by tribes of Indians, who, though not mere savages, were far below the level of civilization distinguishing the races of Mexico and Peru.
34° 10' S.), and, though their control of the country was slight, the Peruvian influence led to the introduction of a higher civilization, and, by weakening the power of the tribes, paved the way for the' invasion of the Spaniards.
Least of all does the historical evidence at our disposal justify the inference that the civilization of north Galatia, during the 1st century A.D., was Romano-Gallic rather than Hellenic; for, as the coins and inscriptions indicate, the Anatolian culture which predominated throughout the province did not exclude the infusion either of Greek religious conceptions or of the Greek language.
Civilization and Religion of the Iranians.In the period when the ancestors of Indian and Iranian alike still formed a single nationthat of the Aryansthey developed A
In these traits are engrained the general conditions of history and culture, under which the Iranians lived: on the one hand, the contrast between Iranian and Turanian; on the other, the dominating position of Babylon, which influenced most strongly the civilization and religion of Iran.
Consequently, it is at once a product of, and a main factor in civilization; and is thereby sharply differentiated from the Israelite religion, with whose moral precepts it otherwise coincides so frequently.
The gorgeous cult of the gods of civilization (especially of Babylon), with their host of temples, images and festivals, exercised a corresponding influence on the mother-country.
Thus the great empire was reduced to immobility and stagnationa process which was assisted by the deteriorating influences of civilization and world-dominion upon the character Internal of the ruling race.
We can see that :the victory of Greek civilization had long been prepared on every side.
To conquer the whole world for Hellenic civilization by the aid of Macedonian spears, and to reduce the whole earth to unity, was the task that this heir of Heracles and Achilles saw before him.
Shortly afterwards he handed over the provinces east of the Euphrates to his son Antiochus, who, in the following years, till 282, exercised in the East a very energetic and beneficial activity, which continued the work of his father and gave the new empire and the Oriental Hellenistic civilization their form.
Thus the cities became the main factors in the diffusion of Hellenism, the Greek language and the Greek civilization over all Asia as far as the Indus.
66) in high terms of the Iranians (Ariani), ranking them (as well as the Indians, Romans and Carthaginians) on a level with the Greeks, as regards their capacity for adopting city civilization.
Moreover, the promotion of Greek civilization and city life had created numerous local centres, with separate interests and centrifugal tendencies, struggling to attain complete independence, and perpetually forcing new concessions from the empire.
It was sprung from a predatory nomad tribe (the Parnian Dahae, Scythians) which had established itself in Khorasan (Parthia), on the borders of civilization, and thence gradually annexed further districts as the political situation or the weakness of its neighbors allowed.
for Western civilization.
(Literature, History and Civilization, 1896 sqq.); G.
As an attribute the word may be applied to a cultured man of the world, who has travelled widely and is at home in many forms of civilization, to such races as the Jewish, scattered through the civilized world, yet keeping beneath their cosmopolitanism the racial type pure, and also to mark a profound line of cleavage in economic and political thought.
C. Glyn as History of Civilization in the Fifth Century (London, 1868); Documents inedits pour servir d l'histoire de l'Italie depuis le VIIIeme siècle jusqu'au XIPme (Paris, 1850); Les pontes franciscains Italie au XIIIeme siècle (Paris, 1852).
In short, its aim was to bring about the best conditions for an ideal civilization, reducing to a minimum the labour necessary for mere existence, and by this and by the simplicity of its social machinery saving the !maximum of time for mental and spiritual education and development.
Among the leading agents in spreading civilization were the missionaries sent out from 1804 onwards by the Church Missionary Society.
This was simply the old Roman jurisprudence embodied in the legislation of Justinian, modified by custom and legislative decrees during the course of the centuries which witnessed the growth of civilization in Europe; and it is to all intents and purposes the jurisprudence which was the foundation of the Code Napoleon.
The Cape of Good Hope subsequently " became not a colony of the Republic of the United Provinces, but a dependency of the ` Netherlands Chartered General East India Company ' for mercantile purposes; and to this fact principally can be traced the slow progress, in all but extension of territory, of a country which was settled by Europeans within thirty years of the time when the Pilgrim Fathers, the founders of a mighty empire, landed at Plymouth to plant democratic institutions and European civilization in the West."
A large population grew up, first at Kimberley, afterwards at Barberton, and finally at Johannesburg - a population modern in its ideas, energetic, educated, cosmopolitan, appreciating all the resources that modern civilization had to offer them, and with a strong partiality for the life of the town or the camp rather than that of the farm and the veld.
They could not keep back the waves of the new civilization, they feared being swamped, and they sought vainly to maintain intact their old organization while reaping the financial benefit resulting from the working of the gold mines.
Milner's own object in assenting to the introduction of the Chinese was - besides aiding to put the gold mining industry on a more stable basis - to obtain revenue for the great task he had on hand, " the restarting of the colonies on a higher plane of civilization than they had ever previously attained "; and in respect of the working of the mines and consequently in providing revenue the introduction of the Chinese proved eminently successful; but in February 1906 the Campbell-Bannerman administration felt it incumbent to announce that no ordinance imposing " servile conditions " would be sanctioned.
Till 1813 it was in the hands of Major de Bosset, a Swiss in the British service, who displayed an industry and energy in the repression of injustice and development of civilization only outdone by the despotic vigour of Sir Charles Napier, who held the same office for the nine years from 1818 to 1827.
The most conspicuous of his earlier works were: - A History of Civilization in the First Five Centuries of Christianity, Recollections of Italy, Life of Lord Byron, The History of the Republican Movement in Europe, The Redemption of Slaves, The Religious Revolution, Historical Essays on the Middle Ages, The Eastern Question, Fra Filippo Lippi, History of the Discovery of America, and some historical novels.
By the help of these discoveries we are able to reconstruct a fairly detailed picture of English civilization in the age preceding the invasion of Britain.
As the first founder was of Phoenician descent, so he drew most of his adherents from the countries which were the seat of Hellenistic (as distinct from Hellenic) civilization; nor did Stoicism achieve its crowning triumph until it was brought to Rome, where the grave earnestness of the national character could appreciate its doctrine, and where for two centuries or more it was the creed, if not the philosophy, of all the best of the Romans.
The Romans, whose supremacy was not seriously threatened for some six centuries after the Punic Wars, gave to Portugal its language and the foundation of its civilization; there is, however, no evidence that they seriously modified the physical type or character of its people.
J.) History Throughout the centuries which witnessed the destruction of Carthaginian power by Rome, the establishment and decline of Latin civilization, the invasion by Alani, Suevi and other barbarian races, the resettlement under Visigothic rule and the overthrow of the Visigoths by Arab and Berber tribes from Africa, Portugal remained an undifferentiated part of Hispania, without sign of national consciousness.
Its territories, far from the centres of European civilization and consisting largely of mountain, moorland and forest, were bounded on the north by the Minho, on the south by the Mondego.
Its inhabitants, surrounded by Moorish or Spanish enemies and distracted by civil war, derived such rudiments of civilization as they possessed from Arabic or Leonese sources.
It has several islands, the largest of which bears the same name and contains highly interesting archaeological monuments of a prehistoric civilization usually attributed to the Incas.
The former, which are chiefly Aymaras south of the latitude of Lake Titicaca, attained a considerable degree of civilization before the discovery of America and have been in closer contact with Europeans than the other tribes of Bolivia.
They are of a superior physical and mental type, and have made noteworthy progress toward civilization.
As the powers and duties of consuls vary with the particular commercial interests they have to protect, and the civilization of the state in whose territory they reside, instead of abstract definition, we summarize the provisions on this subject of the British Merchant Shipping Acts.
From his age to the decay of Roman civilization there were never altogether wanting men devoted to the study of their nation's past; but none ever pursued the task with the advantages of Varro's comprehensive learning, his indefatigable industry and his reverent yet discriminating regard for the men and the institutions of the earlier ages.
Geographical conditions and a hard struggle against nature fixed the character of this " aridian " culture, and determined its migrations; the onslaughts of nomad Indians determined the sedentary civilization of the cliff dwellers.
It is represented to-day by the still undeserted habitats of Zuni (in New Mexico) and Tusayan; the Moquis, after the Zunis, are in customs and traditions the best survival of the ancient civilization.
It resisted Caesar longer than most of Gaul; when once vanquished it adopted Roman civilization readily.
Starting from Path, he penetrated to the banks of the Tocantins, making numerous converts to Christianity and civilization among the most savage tribes; but after two years of unceasing labour, during which every difficulty was placed in his way by the colonial authorities, he saw that the Indians must be withdrawn from the jurisdiction of the governors, to prevent their exploitation, and placed under the control of the members of a single religious society.
Thus nature itself condemned Brittany to remain for a long time shut out from civilization.
Roman civilization was then established for several centuries in Brittany.
Under French influence civilization made notable progress.
The former was afterwards identified with the mythical first Buddhist missionary, who is supposed to have introduced civilization into Tibet about two hundred and fifty years after the death of the Buddha.
The Langobards, German in their faults and in their strength, but coarser, at least at first, than the Germans whom the Italians had known, the Goths of Theodoric and Totila, found themselves continually in the presence of a subject population very different from anything which the other Teutonic conquerors met with among the provincials - like them, exhausted, dispirited, unwarlike, but with the remains and memory of a great civilization round them, intelligent, subtle, sensitive, feeling themselves infinitely superior in experience and knowledge to the rough barbarians whom they could not fight, and capable of hatred such as only cultivated races can nourish.
But such rude legislation could not provide for all questions arising even in the decayed state of Roman civilization.'
The upper classes are Fula, and there are some Hausa and Kanuri (Bornuese), but the bulk of the people are pagan tribes in a very low state of civilization.
His saying is worth recording, as an example of the effect which Roman civilization had on the Teutonic mind.
The Bosporan kingdom is interesting as the first Hellenistic state, the first, that is to say, in which a mixed population adopted the Greek language and civilization.
The term has no absolute chronological value, but marks a period of civilization through which it is believed that most races passed at one time or another.
How then are we to explain on the one hand the apparent stride made by primitive man when from a Stone Age civilization he passed to a comparatively advanced metallurgical skill?
On the other, how account for a comparatively synchronous commencement of bronze civilization when one at least of the metals needed for the alloy would have been naturally difficult of access, if not unknown to many races?
The Bronze Age in Europe is characterized by weapons, utensils and implements, distinct in design and size from those in use in the preceding or succeeding stage of man's civilization.
The Greek consciousness of the sin of murder, only dimly awakened in the Homeric period, and only sensitive at first when a kinsman or a suppliant was slain, gradually expands till the sanctity of all human life becomes recognized by the higher morality of the people: and the names of ZEUs M€tXL tos, the dread deity of the ghost-world whom the sinner must make " placable," of ZEUs `I ho-tos and IIpoorpora70s, to whom the conscience-striken outcast may turn for mercy and pardon, play a guiding-part in this momentous evolution.9 Even this summary reveals the deep indebtedness of early Greek civilization to this cult, which engendered ideas of importance for the higher religious thought of the race, and which might have developed into a monotheistic religion, had a prophet-philosopher arisen powerful enough to combat the polytheistic proclivities of Hellas.
Their civilization is lower.
(b) In a more restricted sense to designate Mahommedan Turkish-speaking tribes, especially in Russia, who never formed part of the Seljuk or Ottoman Empire, but made independent settlements and remained more or less cut off from the politics and civilization of the rest of the Mahommedan world.
scel) to the record or object connected with the transaction of the moment, can be traced back among the nations of the old world when advanced only a comparatively short way on the path of civilization.
It seems extremely probable that these Chaldaean Semites were so strongly influenced by the foreign civilization as to adopt it eventually as their own.
Though the latter took the first rank in relation to man's eternal welfare, the former was necessary for the perfection of his intellect and the civilization of his manners.
Buckle, in his History of, Civilization in England (1857), was the first to work out the influences of the material world upon history, developing through a wealth of illustration the importance of food, soil and the general aspect of nature upon the formation of society.
He distinctly stated that "the advance of European civilization is characterized by a diminishing influence of physical laws and an increasing influence of mental laws," and "the measure of civilization is the triumph of mind over external agents."