Civil sentence example

civil
  • The last civil war set us back fifty years.
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  • Alex was civil to Señor Medena, if not friendly.
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  • Someone told me that it was built by Union soldiers hiding from the rebels during the Civil War.
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  • In other words, civil government steps in to take over roles traditionally provided by private charity only when charities no longer provide the service.
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  • There were likely some nasty security features on the other side of the Mississippi left over from the East-West Civil War.
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  • And, the government chose to pursue the PMF rather than risk another civil war by going after people with a lot of influence and money.
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  • Equity here is defined to mean "any body of rules existing by the side of the original civil law, founded on distinct principles, and claiming incidentally to supersede the civil law in virtue of a superior sanctity inherent in those principles."
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  • He was educated partly privately and partly at a board school, and in 1886 entered the Civil Service.
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  • Whether or not Josh was civil to him wouldn't make or break his day.
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  • When, however, the Civil War began, he volunteered into the navy, was rated acting master's mate, and became a midshipman in October 1861, and a lieutenant in July 1862, serving in the North Atlantic blockading squadron.
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  • I am not merely civil to him but obey him like a corporal, though I am his senior.
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  • But the Civil War interrupted development.
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  • If anything, the strikes look like something that would've occurred during the East-West Civil War.
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  • Reminiscent of the Civil War fifty years ago, only the PMF is being blamed.
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  • Now all these men were replaced by Speranski on the civil side, and Arakcheev on the military.
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  • The people credited the PMF with saving them from the elite's Civil War while the elites tried hard to stamp out the PMF's existence.
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  • Like other ecclesiastical lawyers and civil servants of the day, he was paid with ecclesiastical preferments.
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  • He organized the national guard, applied the civil constitution of the clergy, and regulated the finances of the city so as to tax the rich heavily and spare the poor.
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  • The " termino municipal " is the chief political and administrative civil division.
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  • The civil code of the republic is based upon Roman law.
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  • The magistrates have both civil and criminal jurisdiction in minor cases.
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  • The Civil War was over thirty-odd years before this was written.
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  • His great fame as a professor of civil law at the university of Bologna caused Balduinus to be elected podestd of the city of Genoa, where he was entrusted with the reforms of the law of the republic. He died at Bologna in 1225, and has left behind him some treatises on procedure, the earliest of their kind.
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  • He at once devoted his energies to repairing the evils caused by civil war.
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  • Thus the high-priest is not only a high-priest and civil ruler, but also a warrior.
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  • Bedlingtonshire was made part of Northumberland for civil purposes by acts of parliament in 1832 and 1844.
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  • The public schools were flourishing at the outbreak of the Civil War.
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  • The civil wars were probably more disastrous to it than to any other agricultural interest of the island.
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  • Very much was done for public works, sanitation, the reform of administration, civil service and education.
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  • Minnesota furnished more than 25,000 troops for the Federal armies during the Civil War.
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  • In Scotland simony is an offence both by civil and ecclesiastical law.
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  • On the other hand, they resemble civil awards in that they may be set aside, i.e.
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  • A governor-general was appointed, with full powers, civil and criminal.
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  • They took an active part in the civil no less than the ecclesiastical government.
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  • The resulting civil war was terminated only by the death of Elizabeth on the 13th of December 1443.
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  • The castle was alternately Roundhead and Cavalier in the civil war.
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  • Civil servants, who were paid in this depreciated scrip, suffered considerable distress.
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  • In the territories there are civil and criminal courts of first instance, and municipal courts.
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  • The financial situation in Venezuela was for a long time extremely complicated and discreditable, owing to defaults in the payment of public debts, complications arising from the guarantee of interest on railways and other public works, responsibility for damages to private property during civil wars and bad administration.
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  • Moreover, it is doubtful from extant remains of Assyrian calendars whether the astrological week prevailed in civil life even among the Babylonians and Assyrians.
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  • The expenditure, including a civil list of £20,000, stands at £445,000.
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  • The emperor Caracalla, wishing to make use of this civil war for a conquest of the East in imitation of his idol, Alexander the Great, attacked the Parthians in 216.
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  • Mimaut, consul-general of France at Alexandria, sent him several books, among which was the memoir written upon the Suez Canal, according to Bonaparte's instructions, by the civil engineer Lapere, one of the scientific members of the French expedition.
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  • After being slightly modified, the plan was adopted in 1856 by an international commission of civil engineers to which it had been submitted.
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  • After the outbreak of the civil war, he was recalled by Caesar in 49, and entered his service, but took no active part against his old patron Pompey.
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  • Close by are the ruins of the castle of Sobroso, which played an important part in the medieval civil wars.
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  • He was educated at Broadgates Hall, now Pembroke College, Oxford, graduating bachelor of civil and canon law in June 1519.
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  • It comprises eight baronies and nineteen civil parishes.
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  • If he would not forthwith come and lead them,"they had told him," they would go their own way without him."The supremacy of the army without a guiding hand meant anarchy, that of the Presbyterians the outbreak of another civil war.
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  • In a letter to the city, possibly written by Cromwell himself, the officers repudiated any wish to alter the civil government or upset the establishment of Presbyterianism, but demanded religious toleration.
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  • He was overtaken by a dangerous illness, and on the 2nd of March civil war in support of the king broke out.
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  • The estates of only twenty-four leaders of the defeated cause were forfeited by Cromwell, and the national church was left untouched though deprived of all powers of interference with the civil government, the general assembly being dissolved in 1653.
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  • Doctrines directly attacking Christianity Cromwell regarded, indeed, as outside toleration and to be punished by the civil power, but at the same time he mitigated the severity of the penalty ordained by the law.
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  • It is when he is contrasted with other commanders, not of the age of Louis XIV., but of the Civil War, that Cromwell's greatness is most conspicuous.
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  • Thereafter it suffered greatly from the civil wars which raged in Abyssinia, and was more than once sacked.
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  • At the end of 1588 he went to Padua, to take his degree in canon and civil law, a necessary prelude in Savoy at that time to distinction in a civil career.
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  • It adjoins the village of Partabgarh proper, and the civil station sometimes known as Andrewganj.
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  • Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, he steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy.
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  • The amelu was a patrician, the man of family, whose birth, marriage and death were registered, of ancestral estates and full civil rights.
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  • In Congress he was a consistent defender of sound money and civil service reform; in municipal politics he was in favour of business administrations and opposed to partisan nominations.
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  • In the civil war between Caesar and Pompey Pollio sided with Caesar, was present at the battle of Pharsalus (48), and commanded against Sextus Pompeius in Spain, where he was at the time of Caesar's assassination.
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  • All the members of the suppressed communities received full exercise of all the ordinary political and civil rights of laymen; and annuities were granted to all those who had taken permanent religious vows prior to the 18th of January 1864.
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  • The statistics of civil proceedings vary considerably from province to province.
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  • The courts of appeal and cassation, too, often have more than they can do; in the year 1907 the court of cassation at Rome decided 948 appeals on points of law in civil cases, while no fewer than 460 remained to be decided.
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  • The law of the 23rd of January 1887 (still in force) extended the dispositions of the Civil Code with regard to privileges, and established special privileges in regard to harvested produce, produce stored in barns and farm buildings, and in regard to agricultural implements.
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  • Early in the 10th century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, known eventually as the counts of Tusculum, who almost succeeded in rendering the office hereditary, and in uniting the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member of their house.
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  • Under the imperial rule of Lothar the Saxon (1125-1137) and Conrad the Swabian (1138I I 52), these civil wars increased in violence owing to the absence of authority.
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  • Civil Wan He lost the island, which gave itself to Aragon; and of Gue!phs thus the kingdom of Sicily was severed from that of anj Naples, the dynasty in the one being Spanish and Ghibelline, in the other French and Guelph.
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  • The civil wars may be regarded as a continuation of the previous municipal struggle, intensified by recent hostilities between the burghers and the nobles.
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  • It is clear that at this time the fury of the civil wars was spent.
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  • A month later, under the pretence of stilling the civil strifes in the Valtelline, Bonaparte absorbed that Swiss district in the Cisalpine Republic, which thus included all the lands between Como and Verona on the north, and Rimini on the south.
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  • Garibaldi, elected member for Naples, ouficed Cavour in unmeasured terms for his treatment of the inteers and for the cession of Nic,e, accusing him of leading country to civil war.
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  • In the matter of criminal jurisdiction we paused for a moment at the edict of Milan; but we may at once trace this second or civil branch of episcopal judicature or quasi-judicature down as far as the reign of Charlemagne, when it underwent a fundamental change, and became, if either litigant once chose, no longer a matter of consent but of right.
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  • The episcopal judgment was to be equivalent to that of the emperor and irreversible, and the civil authorities were to see to its execution.
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  • A bishop refusing to come to Rome was to be brought there by the civil power.
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  • If the prosecutor have first brought him before the civil judge, the evidence is to be sent to the bishop, and the latter, if he thinks the crime has been committed, may deprive him of his office and order, and the judge shall apply to him the proper legal punishment.
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  • If the cause be ecclesiastical, the civil judges are to take no part in the inquiry.
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  • It will be noticed that Justinian supposes that the prosecutor may begin the proceedings before the civil judge.
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  • Seclusion in a monastery seems first to have been used by the civil power in aid of the spiritual.
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  • The subject matter over which the ecclesiastical courts had jurisdiction was no longer purely " criminal " with a civil quasijurisdiction by way of arbitration.
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  • Canon 127 of 1603 provided that the judges must be learned in the civil and ecclesiastical laws and at least masters of arts or bachelors of laws.
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  • As civil courts they judge in first instance all questions connected with glebes and the erection and repair of churches and manses.
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  • Hence, even in countries where the Roman Church is established, such as Belgium, Italy, the Catholic states of Germany and cantons of Switzerland, most of the Latin republics of America, and the province of Quebec, and a fortiori where this Church is not established, there is now no discipline over the laity, except penitential, and no jurisdiction exercised in civil suits, except possibly the matrimonial questions of princes (of which there was an example in the case of the reigning prince of Monaco).
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  • Ecclesiastical jurisdiction on the civil side for the trial of causes soon disappeared.
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  • Civil jurisdiction in causes appears to have been given up early (Cornelius, Svenska Kirkaus Historia, Upsala, 18 75, pp. 146, 186, 189, 285).
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  • In 58 he was praetor, sided with Pompey in the Civil War, and after his defeat was banished by Caesar, and died in exile.
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  • On the outbreak of the civil war, DeIotarus naturally sided with his old patron Pompey, and after the battle of Pharsalus escaped with him to Asia.
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  • When civil war again broke out, DeIotarus was persuaded to support Brutus and Cassius, but after the battle of Philippi went over to the triumvirs.
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  • With the death of the younger Marius, who killed himself after the surrender of Praeneste, the civil war was at an end, and Sulla was master of Rome and of the Roman world.
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  • When the civil war broke out, Sulla took the side of Caesar, and commanded the right wing at the battle of Pharsalus.
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  • On the 3rd of May Bothwell's divorce from his wife was decreed by the civil court, on the ground of his adultery with a maidservant, and on the 7th by the Roman Catholic court on the ground of consanguinity.
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  • Wakefield was for a short time at Westminster School, and was brought up to his father's profession, which he relinquished on occasion of his elopement at the age of twenty with Miss Pattle, the orphan daughter of an Indian civil servant.
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  • Towards the end of 1700 the need for the act was obvious, if the country was to be saved from civil war.
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  • Finally a clause said that "no person born out of the kingdoms of England, Scotland or Ireland, or the dominions thereunto belonging (although he be naturalized or made a denizen) except such as are born of English parents, shall be capable to be of the Privy Council, or a member of either House of Parliament, or enjoy any office or place of trust, either civil or military, or to have any grant of lands, tenements or hereditaments from the Crown to himself, or to any other or others in trust for him."
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  • The cemetery also contains monuments to Alonzo P. Stinson, the first soldier from Portland killed in the Civil War, to the Portland soldiers in the War of Independence, and to Rear-Admiral James Alden (1810-1877), of the U.S. Navy, a native of Portland.
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  • In the course of his long life he held various civil offices, including that of consul in 273, with universal respect.
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  • When the Civil War broke out, he became a major in a Missouri volunteer regiment and served as chief of staff to Major-General Nathaniel Lyon until the death of that officer.
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  • He went to Rome after the termination of the civil wars, and spent twenty-two years in studying the Latin language and literature and preparing materials for his history.
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  • During his term of office he appeared in a case before the United States Supreme Court, where his knowledge of civil law so strongly impressed Edward Livingston, the secretary of state, who was himself an admirer of Roman Law, that he urged Legare to devote himself to the study of this subject with the hope that he might influence American law toward the spirit and philosophy and even the forms and processes of Roman jurisprudence.
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  • Through Livingston, Legare was appointed American chargé d'affaires at Brussels, where from 1833 to 1836 he perfected himself in civil law and in the German commentaries on civil law.
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  • His great work, the forcing into common law of the principles of civil law, was unaccomplished; but Story says "he seemed about to accomplish [it]; for his arguments before the Supreme Court were crowded with the principles of the Roman Law, wrought into the texture of the Common Law with great success."
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  • It is administered by an elective municipal council with a civil service administrator as mayor.
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  • It has a chamber of commerce, the president of which has a seat on the superior council of Indo-China; a chamber of the court of appeal of Indo-China, a civil tribunal of the first order, and is the seat of the chamber of agriculture of Tongking.
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  • Memorial Hall was built in memory of the soldiers from Lee who died during the Civil War.
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  • There are civil, commercial and criminal courts in Montevideo, a departmental court in each departmental capital, and a justice of the peace in each of 205 judicial districts into which the republic is divided, with sub-district courts under deputy judges in addition.
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  • In July 1902 a plot for his assassination was frustrated, and in 1903, on the election of Jose Battle to the presidency, civil war broke out.
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  • Some impetus was given to the city's growth by the completion of the National Road, and later by the opening of railways, but until after the Civil War its advancement was slow.
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  • Admission to military command was won first, then admission to civil jurisdiction; a share in religious functions was won last of all.
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  • About 1836 he entered the civil service as an official of the foreign ministry.
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  • Justice is administered from a written civil and criminal code.
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  • Other exceptions are the " Institutions of the Empress Marie," which absorb, inter alia, the duties on playing-cards and the taxes on places of public entertainment; the imperial civil list, so far as this does not exceed the sum fixed in 1906 (16,359,595 roubles!); the expenses of the two imperial chanceries, 10,000,000 roubles per annum, which constitute in effect a secret service fund.
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  • The civil procedure was kept secret.
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  • The first of these, based on the English model, are the courts of the elected justices of the peace, with jurisdiction over petty causes, whether civil or criminal; the second, based on the French model, are the ordinary tribunals of nominated judges, sitting with or without a jury to hear important cases.
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  • The senate, as supreme court of cassation, has two departments, one for civil and one for criminal cases.
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  • All civil cases involving less than z oo roubles value were within their competence, and more important cases by consent of the parties.
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  • Both the Molokani and the Dukhobortsi deny the authority of the civil government as such, and object on principle to military service.
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  • It always had a prince, no doubt, but he was engaged by formal contract without much attention being paid to hereditary rights, and he was merely leader of the troops, while all the political power remained in the hands of the civil officials and the Vetche, a popular assembly which was called together in the market-place, as occasion required, by the tolling of the great bell.
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  • For this purpose he organized, outside the regular administration, a large corps of civil officials and armed retainers, whose duty it was to obey him implicitly in all things; and with this force, which rose rapidly from 1000 to 6000 men, he acted like a savage invader in a conquered country.
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  • Well trained as was the civil service of France, the effect of this supervision in deadening activity was sometimes more marked than in its effect in preventing abuse.
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  • In the United States a committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers, appointed to consider the question of rail manufacture in consequence of an increase in the number of rail-failures, issued an interim report in 1907 in which it suggested a range of carbon from 0-55 to 0-65% for the heaviest sections of Bessemer steel flange rails, with a phosphorus maximum of 0.085%; while the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials, current at the same period, put the carbon limits at o 45 to 0-55%, and the phosphorus limit at o io.
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  • For rails of basic open-hearth steel, which is rapidly ousting Bessemer steel, the Civil Engineers' specifications allowed from o 65 to 0-75% of carbon with 0-05% of phosphorus, while the specifications of the American Railway Engineering and Maintenance of Way Association provided for a range of 0.75 to 0-85% of carbon, with a maximum of 0.03% of phosphorus.
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  • His legal career was early interrupted by the Civil War.
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  • Indian affairs, the committee on foreign relations and others, was prominent in the discussion of matters brought before the Senate from these committees, advocated the enlargement of the navy and the reform of the civil service, and opposed the pension veto messages of President Cleveland.
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  • Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
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  • Meanwhile a series of petty civil wars greatly interfered with the prosperity of the native population, who grouped themselves into two opposing political parties.
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  • But in 1887 and 1888 civil war prevailed on the question of the succession to the native kingship, the Germans supporting Tamasese, and the British and American residents supporting Malietoa.
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  • Civil war immediately ensued, in which several American and British officers and sailors were killed by the natives, the Germans upholding the claims of Mataafa, and the British and Americans supporting the rival candidate.
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  • In 1823 he was appointed conservator of the physical cabinet at Munich, and in the following year he received from the king of Bavaria the civil order of merit.
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  • At thirty, still a dependant, without a settled occupation, without a definite social status, he often regretted that he had not " embraced the lucrative pursuits of the law or of trade, the chances of civil office or India adventure, or even the fat slumbers of the church."
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  • Persons guilty of treason or felony in any state or Territory and not restored to civil rights, idiots and insane persons, are excluded from the suffrage.
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  • The assertion in the " Declaration of Rights " that " no power exists in the people of this or any other state of the Federal Union to dissolve their connexion therewith or perform any act tending to impair, subvert, or resist the supreme authority of the government of the United States," is a result of the drafting of the instrument during the Civil War.
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  • There is also a provision that only three-fourths of the jurors may be required to agree to a verdict in civil cases, although the legislature has the power to require by statute a unanimous agreement.
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  • Being " battle-born," Nevada was loyal to the Union throughout the Civil War, and in spite of its scanty population furnished a company of troops in 1861, which were joined to a California regiment.
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  • In 1618, however, the burgesses received an incorporation charter; but after the civil wars the corporate body began to fail through poverty, and in the 18th century had ceased to exist.
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  • At Eleusis, Demeter was venerated as the introducer of all the blessings which agriculture brings in its train - fixed dwelling-places, civil order, marriage and a peaceful life; hence her name Thesmophoros, " the bringer of law and order," and the festival Thesmophoria.
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  • On the establishment of civil government in the islands, on the 4th of July 1901, he became governor, ex officio.
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  • He broke with John after the murder of Orleans, though he tried to prevent civil war, and only finally joined the Armagnac party in 1410.
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  • His historical writings, with the exception of a small volume on American Political Ideas (1885), an account of the system of Civil Government in the United States (1890), The Mississippi Valley in the Civil War (1900), a school history of the United States, and an elementary story of the revolutionary war, are devoted to studies, in a unified general manner, of separate yet related episodes in American history.
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  • Civil war broke out, and in 1551 the bishop of Holar and two of his sons were captured and executed.
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  • Bennigsen, having studied at the university of Gottingen, entered the Hanoverian civil service.
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  • Daniel O'Neill (c. 1612-1664), son of Conn MacNeill MacFagartach O'Neill, a member of the Clanaboy branch of the family, whose wife was a sister of Owen Roe, was prominent in the Civil Wars.
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  • He commanded a troop of horse in Scotland in 1639; was involved in army plots in 1641, for which he was committed to the Tower, but escaped abroad; and on the outbreak of the Civil War returned to England and served with Prince Rupert, being present at Marston Moor, the second battle of Newbury and Naseby.
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  • Such tenets were destructive not only of Catholicism but of Christianity of any kind and of civil society itself; and for this reason so unecclesiastical a person as the emperor Frederick II.
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  • He gives us a detailed account of his sufferings in prison, his loss of civil rights, &c., in the third part of his History.
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  • Its strength made Stephen force Bishop Roger to surrender it in 1139, but during the civil war in his reign it passed into the hands of the empress Maud.
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  • The town suffered severely during the civil wars, the castle being besieged by the parliamentary forces in 1642 and 1645.
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  • The sequel shows how a Jew might rise to power in the civil service of the Egyptian Empire and yet remain a hero to some of the Jews - provided that he did not intermarry with a Gentile.
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  • After six years of civil war he appealed to them to, state the conditions under which they would lay aside their hostility.
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  • The civil war was renewed; but Aulus Gabinius, the proconsul, soon crushed the pretender and set up an aristocracy in Judaea with Hyrcanus as guardian of the Temple.
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  • In the midst of all this civil strife the Pharisees and all who were preoccupied with religion found it almost impossible to discern what they should do to please God.
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  • The people and the Jews remained in a state of civil war, until each side sent an embassy (40) to wait upon the emperor.
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  • The rulers, who desired peace, and upon whom Florus had laid the duty of restoring peace, asked him for troops; but the civil war ended in their complete discomfiture.
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  • The result was civil war and famine.
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  • A few days before the passover of 70 Titus advanced upon Jerusalem, but the civil war went on.
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  • Under the constitution of Caracalla (198-217) all inhabitants of the Roman empire enjoyed the civil rights of the Cives Romani (Scherer, Die Rechtsverhaltnisse der Juden, p. Io).
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  • But economic laws are often too strong for civil vagaries or sectarian fanaticism, and as the commerce of Austria suffered by the absence of the Jews, it was impossible to exclude the latter from the fairs in the provinces of from the markets of the capital.
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  • Under Dutch rule they enjoyed full civil rights.
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  • The American Jews bore their share in the Civil War (7038 Jews were in the two armies), and have always identified themselves closely with national movements such as the emancipation of Cuba.
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  • Civil war dragged on for many years - long after the deaths of the first leaders - but Taufaahau, who became king in 1845 under the name of George Tupou I., proved a strong ruler.
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  • Minor offences (1rX17gµeVillaTa) and civil causes are tried by courts of first instance in each of the five departments.
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  • There are 26 justices of peace, to whose decision are referred slight contraventions of the law (lrraLQµara) and civil causes in which the amount claimed is below 600 francs.
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  • The Ottoman civil code is maintained for the present, but it is proposed to establish a code recently drawn up by Greek jurists which is mainly based on Italian and Saxon law.
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  • Thus they took no part either in the Persian or in the Peloponnesian War, or in any of the subsequent civil contests in which so many of the cities and islands of Greece were engaged.
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  • The Moslem peasantry now flocked to the fortified towns and civil war began.
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  • He was never concerned with civil jurisdiction, and was dependent on the senate for supplies of money.
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  • Roundhead was also used during the Civil War as the name of a weapon.
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  • The Civil War then interfered, and in 1880 the mileage was only 1127 m.
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  • The public school system, established in 1846, never was universal, because of special legislation for various counties; public education was retarded during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period (when immense sums appropriated for schools were grossly mismanaged), but conditions gradually improved after 1875, especially through the concentration of schools.
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  • Since the Civil War the banking laws have become more stringent and the national banks have exercised a wholesome influence.
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  • During the Civil War battles were fought at Corinth (1862), Port Gibson (1863), Jackson (1863) and Vicksburg (1863).
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    0
  • Claiborne's Mississippi as a Province, Territory and State (Jackson, 1880), gives the best account of the period before the Civil War.
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    0
  • Until the Civil War agriculture was about the only important industry in the state, and at the close of the 19th century it was still the leading one; but from 1880 to 11900 the ratio of agriculturists to all inhabitants of the state engaged in some gainful occupation decreased from 75.3 to 64.1%.
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  • Peanut culture, introduced into the state from Virginia soon after the close of the Civil War, spread rapidly.
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    0
  • In Caswell county, North Carolina, " lemon yellow " tobacco was first produced in 1852, and the demand for this " bright " variety became so great that except during the interruption of the Civil War its culture spread rapidly.
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    0
  • Operations ceased during the Civil War, and although resumed soon after its close, they became somewhat desultory.
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    0
  • The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.
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  • He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1881, served two years as midshipman, then resigned from the navy and became a civil engineer.
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  • He served in various capacities in the Civil War, and in1865-1867was a member of the state House of Representatives, becoming secretary of the commonwealth in1873-1878and again in 1879-1882, recorder of Philadelphia in 1878-1879, and state treasurer in 1886-1887.
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  • While in prison he wrote the "Fort Warren letter" (August 11th), in which he urged the people of Texas to recognize their defeat, grant civil rights to the freedmen, and try to conciliate the North.
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  • In those countries where the Reformation triumphed, this triumph represented the victory of the civil over the clerical powers in the long contest.
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  • The influx of new ideas provoked civil war, in which the already decadent Shogunate was abolished and the authority of the Mikado restored.
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  • From about the time of Gomin's entrance the prisoner was inspected, not by delegates of the Commune, but by representatives of the civil committee of the 48 sections of Paris.
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  • The Dutch authorities who had inscribed on his death certificate the name of Charles Louis de Bourbon, duc de Normandie (Louis XVII.) permitted his son to bear the name de Bourbon, and when the family appealed in 1850-1851, and again in 1874, for the restitution of their civil rights as heirs of Louis XVI.
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  • In the Civil War he attained the rank of brigadier-general (March 1863) and received the brevet of major-general (1865).
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  • There is a monument at Ottawa to the 1400 soldiers from La Salle county who died in the Civil War, and among the public buildings are the County Court House, the Court House for the second district of the Illinois Appellate Court, and Reddick's Library, founded by William Reddick.
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  • Dumont was a Genevese exile, and an old friend of Romilly's, who willingly prepared for him those famous addresses which Mirabeau used to make the Assembly pass by sudden bursts'of eloquent declamation; Claviere helped him in finance, and not only worked out his figures, but even wrote his financial discourses; Lamourette wrote the speeches on the civil constitution of the clergy; Reybaz not only wrote for him his famous speeches on the assignats, the organization of the national guard, and others, which Mirabeau read word for word at the tribune, but even the posthumous speech on succession to the estates of intestates, which Talleyrand read in the Assembly as the last work of his dead friend.
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  • He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
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  • During the civil wars Knaresborough was held for some time by the Royalists, but they were obliged to surrender, and the castle was among those ordered to be destroyed by parliament in 1646.
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    0
  • It is not too much to say that the conviction of the justice of their cause that carried the northern states successfully through the Civil War was largely due to the arguments of Webster.
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  • He alone transacts the business which occupies all the magistrates and councils of Venice, both civil and criminal; and all state affairs are managed by him, let their nature be what it may.
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  • He was one of the chief leaders in the second Civil War, but met with no success, and on the 27th of August, together with Lord Norwich, he surrendered to Fairfax at Colchester on promise of quarter for life.'
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  • In times of peace it is kept under, but during war, or whenever the bands of civil order are loosened, it becomes a cause of anxiety and a source of danger.
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    0
  • Desultory efforts were made to establish a civil government, but in the main there was no administration formed on statesmanlike principles.
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    0
  • But they were absorbed by the direction of military and political combinations, and by intrigues for the preservation of their own power; and, even allowing for all this, they failed to evince the civil capacity which might have been anticipated.
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  • The civil and military government of the province, as well as that of Lorraine, was assumed by the Germans as soon as they obtained possession of those parts of France, which was very shortly after the commencement of the war.
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    0
  • During the early part of the Civil War a small Confederate force was in possession, but in November 1862 it was driven out by United States gunboats.
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  • Their finances were indeed excellent; they kept regular accounts, and had already developed the modern principle of separating the civil list from the expenses of the government; but when they brought the tables of moneychangers into the temple, they were doing as the Templars had done before them, and were likely to suffer as the Templars had suffered.
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  • In fact, nearly the whole of the region between the Caucasus and the Perso-Turkish frontier on the south, from the Caspian Sea on the one side to the Black Sea on the other, was embroiled in a civil war of the most sanguinary and ruthless character, the inveterate racial animosities of the combatants being in both cases inflamed by religious fanaticism.
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  • The total number of civil parishes is 314.
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  • On the outbreak of the Civil War of the 17th century, the county at first inclined to support the king, who received an enthusiastic reception when he visited Derby in 1642, but by the close of 1643 Sir John Gell of Hopton had secured almost the whole county for the parliament.
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  • Aaron Burr was tried for treason and then for misdemeanour in this building in 1807, the Virginia secession convention met here in 1861, and during the Civil War the sessions of the Confederate Congress were held here.
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    0
  • The importance of Richmond during the Civil War was principally due to its having been made the capital of the Confederate States (by act of the Provisional Government on the 8th of May 1861).
    0
    0
  • But the Civil War and the subsequent political disturbances intervened to prevent the continuance of this progress, and the agriculture of the end of the century seems to have relapsed into stagnation.
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  • Here we may notice that the perpetuation of the republic by means of the armed forces tended to exalt the army at the expense of the civil authorities.
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  • With this aim in view he sought to find a man possessing ability in war and probity in civil affairs, who would act as figure-head to his long projected constitution.
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  • Moreau was notoriously lethargic in civil affairs.
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  • The Parisians received the news of the event with joy, believing that freedom was now at last to be established on a firm basis by the man whose name was the synonym for victory in the field and disinterestedness in civil affairs.
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  • He names all the judges for criminal and civil cases, other than the juges de paix (magistrates) and the judges of the Cour de cassation, without having the power to discharge them."
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  • It was performed by Fesch, now a cardinal; but Napoleon could afterwards urge the claim that all the legal formalities had not bten complied with; and the motive for the marriage may probably be found in the refusal of the pope to appear at the coronation unless the former civil contract was replaced by the religious rite.
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  • Two days afterwards Desmoulins brought it into notice by appearing with it before the municipality of Paris to demand "the formal statement of the civil estate of his son."
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  • The early castle, which existed before 1086, was important during the civil wars of Stephen's reign; in 1142 Robert, earl of Gloucester, on his departure for France, committed it to his son's charge.
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  • John fortified it against Louis of France in 1216, and during the civil wars it was the scene of much fighting, being stormed by the parliamentary forces in 1644.
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  • If British civil and parliamentary systems were to be brought to the challenge of force, he could only say " Let us go forward together and put these grave matters to the proof."
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  • Mr. Churchill went out to Egypt, and held in Cairo a conference of the British civil and military officers then administering those countries.
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  • The aim of the work is to show, on Scriptural grounds, that sins of professing Christians are to be punished by civil authority, and not by withholding of sacraments on the part of the clergy.
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  • Throughout the war, too, he was so intensely concerned about states' rights and civil liberty that he opposed the exercise of extra-constitutional war powers by President Jefferson Davis lest the freedom for which the South was fighting should be destroyed.
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  • During the Civil War the castle was dismantled by the Royalist commandant.
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  • In 1800 Fernald's Island was purchased by the Federal government for a navy yard; it was the scene of considerable activity during the War of 1812, but was of much greater importance during the Civil War, when the famous " Kearsarge " and several other war vessels were built here.'
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  • During the Civil War Halifax was garrisoned by parliament, and a field near it is still called the Bloody Field on account of an engagement which took place there between the forces of parliament and the Royalists.
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  • By the close of 1850 the railway mileage had increased to 575 m., and for the next forty years, with the exception of the Civil War period, more than 2000 m.
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  • A municipal civil service commission of three members (holding office for three years) is chosen by the president of the board of education, the president of the city council, and the president of the board of sinking fund commissioners; the pay (if any) of these commissioners is set by each city.
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  • In the Civil War Ohio loyally supported the Union, furnishing 319,659 men for the army.
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  • The Civil Code, issued 1852, the Criminal Code in 1869 and the Revised Statutes in 1879, have several times been amended and published in new editions.
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  • Hinsdale's History and Civil Government of Ohio (Chicago, 1896) is more elementary.
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  • Grote maintains that ostracism was a useful device, on the grounds that it removed the danger of tyranny, and was better than the perpetual civil strife of the previous century.
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  • It provided for municipal elections in January; for the election of a mayor for four years; for his recall at the end of two years if a majority of the registered voters so vote in the state election in November in the second year of his term; for the summary removal for cause by the mayor of any department head or other of his appointees; for a city council of one chamber of nine members, elected at large each for three years; for nomination by petition; for a permanent finance commission appointed by the governor; for the confirmation of the mayor's appointments by the state civil service commission; for the mayor's preparation of the annual budget (in which items may be reduced but not increased by the council), and for his absolute veto of appropriations except for school use.
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  • Civil service reform principles cover the entire municipal administration.
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  • In 1805 Boston began the export of ice to Jamaica, a trade which was gradually extended to Cuba, to ports of the southern states, and finally to Rio de Janeiro and Calcutta (1833), declining only after the Civil War; it enabled Boston to control the American trade of Calcutta against New York throughout the entire period.
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  • In the period from 1822 to the Civil War anti-slavery is the most striking feature of Boston's annals.
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    0
  • The government was vested in the council (1 30uXii) and people (8rl/20s), and administered by civil officers with Greek titles, the proedros (president), the grammateus (secretary), the archons, syndics and dekaprotoi (a fiscal council of ten), following the model of a Greek municipality under the Roman Empire.
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  • In France, the Code Civil recognizes two such relationships, the letting to hire of houses (bail a loyer) and the letting to farm of rural properties (bail d ferme).
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  • In Mauritius, the provisions of the Code Civil are in force without modification.
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  • During the Civil War Cairo was an important strategic point, and was a military centre and depot of supplies of considerable importance for the Federal armies in the west.
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  • He sided with Sulla in the civil war, was included in the proscription list of 87, and when Marius declined to pardon him, committed suicide.
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  • On East Rock is a monument to the Connecticut soldiers who fell in the War of Independence, the War of 1812, the Mexican War and the Civil War; on the West Rock is a cave, "Judges' Cave," in which the regicides William Goffe and Edward Whalley are said to have concealed themselves when sought for by royal officers in 1661.
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  • They agreed that the Scriptures should be their guide in civil affairs, and that only approved church members should be admitted to the body politic; twelve men were appointed to choose seven men ("seven pillars") who should found the church and admit to its original membership such planters as they thought properly qualified.
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  • The period since the Civil War has been marked by a diversification of industries.
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    0
  • The cotton-growing industry was interrupted by the Civil War, and the seed-milling business did not begin again until 1868.
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  • Spain.-Cotton was formerly grown in southern Spain on an extensive scale, and as recently as during the American Civil War a crop of 8000 to 10,000 bales was obtained.
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  • Before the Civil War each planter would have his own ginhouse.
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  • Though the association brought about an extension and improvement of the Indian crop, in which result it was enormously assisted by the high prices consequent upon the American Civil War, it sank after a few years into obscurity, and soon passed out of existence altogether, while the effects of its work dwindled finally into insignificance.
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  • During the Civil War it was held continuously by the Unionists, but local sentiment was bitterly divided.
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  • From this time forward, Oldenbarneveldt at the head of the civil government and Maurice in command of the armed forces of the republic worked together in the task of rescuing the United Netherlands from Spanish domination (for details see Holland).
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  • Henry thus gained a basis in the Levant; while the death of Saladin in 1193, followed by a civil war between his brother, Malik-alAdil, and his sons for the possession of his dominions, weakened the position of the Mahommedans.
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  • On both sides was civil war, urged as fiercely as that against the common enemy, in which the parties sought allies indiscriminately among Christians and Mahommedans.
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  • He sprang from a Roman Catholic family which for some generations had held important posts in the Hanoverian civil service.
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  • Florida's industrial progress has been mainly since the Civil War, for before that conflict a large part of the state was practically undeveloped.
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    0
  • The Civil War, however, interrupted the early progress, and the present system of common schools dates from the constitution of 1868 and the school law of 1869.
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  • Civil in place of military government was instituted; immigration began; and Andrew Turnbull, an Englishman, brought over a band of about 1500 Minorcans (1769), whom he engaged in the cultivation of indigo at New Smyrna.
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  • About the same time an attempt to organize a government at St Mary's was made by American sympathizers, and a petty civil war began between the Americans, who called themselves " Patriots," and the Indians, who were encouraged by the Spanish.
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  • By the treaty of 1819 Spain formally ceded East and West Florida to the United States; the treaty was ratified in 1821, when the United States took formal possession, but civil government was not established until 1822.
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  • A new constitution was framed and was ratified by the electors, and Florida passed from under a quasi-military to a full civil government on the 4th of July 1868.
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  • Yocum's Civil Government of Florida (De Land, Florida, 1904); and the Revised Statutes of Florida (1892).
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  • Marsden, that it was established as a civil court by Edward III.
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  • But the connexion with foreign parts led to the gradual introduction of a procedure resembling that coming into use on the continent and based on the Roman civil law.
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  • The principal officers of the court in subordination to the judge were the registrar (an office which always points to a connexion with canon or civil law), and the marshal, who acted as the maritime sheriff, having for his baton of office a silver oar.
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  • It is impossible here to describe in detail his relations to Napoleon, and the part which he played in the drawing up of the Civil Code, later on called the Code Napoleon.
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  • Apart from the important part which he took in helping to co-ordinate and draft the Civil Code, Cambaceres did the state good service in many directions, notably by seeking to curb the impetuosity of the emperor, and to prevent enterprises so fatal as the intervention in Spanish affairs (1808) and the invasion of Russia (1812) proved to be.
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  • Her conduct excited popular indignation; and the consequent disorders, amounting almost to civil war, gave an opportunity to the ambition of Andronicus.
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  • Commercial warfare failed, the Embargo was repealed, and Jefferson, having entangled foreign relations and brought the country to the verge of civil war, retired to private life, leaving to his successor Madison, and to Gallatin, the task of extricating the nation from its difficulties.
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  • In the great civil wars Athens sided with Pompey and held out against Caesar's lieutenants, but received a free pardon " in consideration of her great dead."
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    0
  • The first part of the commission's work, consisting of a code of civil procedure, was reported and enacted in 1848, and by the 1st of January 1850 the complete code of civil and criminal procedure was completed, and was subsequently enacted by the legislature.
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  • Eventually the civil code with some changes was adopted in twenty-four states, and the criminal code in eighteen, and the whole formed a basis of the reform in procedure in England and several of her colonies.
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  • In this work he personally prepared almost the whole of the political and civil codes.
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  • He gave his support to the Republican party in 1856 and to the Lincoln administration throughout the Civil War.
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  • The civil and religious contracts took place at Paris early in April, and during the honeymoon, spent at the palace of Compiegne, the emperor showed the greatest regard for his wife.
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  • She preserved some of the Napoleonic laws and institutions; in 1817 she established the equality of women in heritage, and ordered the compilation of a civil code which was promulgated in January 1820.
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  • A reaction in his favour was beginning in his later days, but he died defeated and deserted at Seville, leaving a will by which he endeavoured to exclude Sancho and a heritage of civil war.
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  • Its affairs are administered by a governor-general, who is also commander-in-chief of the forces, by a bureau of civil government, and by three prefectural governors, below whom are the heads of twenty territorial divisions called cho; its finances are not included in the general budget of the Japanese empire; it is garrisoned by a mixed brigade taken from the home divisions; and its currency is on a silver basis.
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  • The society grew in strength during the Civil War, when the increased demand for coal caused an influx of miners, many of them lawless characters, into the coal-fields, and in1862-1863it opposed enlistments in the Federal Army and roughly treated some of the enlisting officers.
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    0
  • Manufacturing interests soon became important, and during the Civil War Atlanta was the seat of Confederate military factories and a depot of supplies.
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    0
  • In the subsequent civil war he fought on the side of Louis, and was captured at the battle of Lincoln (1217).
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    0
  • During the civil wars Hartlepool, which a few years before was said to be the only port town in the country, was taken by the Scots, who maintained a garrison there until 1647.
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    0
  • His colonial ancestors held official positions in the civil and military service of Virginia.
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    0
  • He went to the bar and practised in London for a few years, but he was soon called back to Oxford as regius professor, of civil law (1870-1893).
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    0
  • The administration of the province is conducted by a chief commissioner on behalf of the governor-general of India in council, assisted by members of the Indian civil service, provincial civil service, subordinate civil service, district and assistant superintendents of police, and officers specially recruited for various departments.
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    0
  • On the resignation of Lord North's administration, of which Lord George Germain was one of the least popular members, he left the civil service, and was nominated to a cavalry command in the revolted provinces of America.
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    0
  • At Strassburg he was introduced to Prince Maximilian, afterwards elector of Bavaria, and was by him invited to enter the civil and military service of that state.
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    0
  • He was also made an extra civil grand cross of the order of the Bath, and in May of the same year he was raised to the dignity of an earl.
    0
    0
  • He entered the United States navy in 1812, and was actively employed till the beginning of the Civil War.
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    0
  • When the Civil War began he took the side of the Confederacy.
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    0
  • For many years after this they were liable to imprisonment for non-payment of tithes, and, together with other Dissenters, they remained under various civil disabilities, the gradual removal of which is part of the general history of England.
    0
    0
  • But he protested energetically against tlae loss of the pope's temporal power in 1870, against the confiscation of the property of the religious orders, and against the law of civil marriage established by the Italian government, and he refused to welcome Victor Emmanuel in his diocese.
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    0
  • Doubtless there was often genuine mutual affection; slaves sometimes, as in noted instances during the civil wars, showed the noblest spirit of devotion to their masters.
    0
    0
  • In the First Civil War they were to be found in both camps, and the murderers of Caesar were escorted to the Capitol by gladiators.
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    0
  • Antony, Octavius, and Sextus Pompeius employed them in the Second Civil War; and it is recorded by Augustus on the Monumentum Ancyranum that he gave back to their masters for punishment about 30,000 slaves who had absconded and borne arms against the state.
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    0
  • Freedmen and their sons were subject to civil disabilities; the third generation became ingenui (full citizens).
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    0
  • He was educated at the universities of St Andrews and Glasgow, and in his sixteenth year was sent to Paris, where he studied civil and canon law.
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    0
  • Besides the ritual and religious rolls, there are the hieratic, civil and literary documents, and the demotic and enchorial papyri, relating generally to sales of property.
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    0
  • Macneill, working chiefly on surveys, harbours and railroads, and was appointed in 1855 to the chair of civil engineering in Glasgow, vacant by the resignation of Lewis Gordon, whose work he had undertaken during the previous session.
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    0
  • He was a voluminous writer on subjects directly connected with his chair, and, besides contributing almost weekly to the technical journals, such as the Engineer, brought out a series of standard textbooks on Civil Engineering, The Steam-Engine and other Prime Movers, Machinery and Millwork, and Applied Mechanics, which have passed through many editions, and have contributed greatly to the advancement of the subjects with which they deal.
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    0
  • The stained glass both in the cathedral and in other churches of the city is particularly noteworthy; its survival may be traced to the stipulation made by the citizens when surrendering to parliament in the civil wars that it should not be damaged.
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    0
  • The work of reconstructing the civil administration in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony could only be carried on to a limited extent while operations continued in the field.
    0
    0
  • She was a mystic, with remarkable clairvoyant powers, and did great service as a nurse, a spy and a scout in the Civil War.
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    0
  • The arrests of Sims and of Shadrach in Boston in 1851; of "Jerry" M`Henry, in Syracuse, New York, in the same year; of Anthony Burns in 1854, in Boston; and of the two Garner families in 1856, in Cincinnati, with other cases arising under the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, probably had as much to do with bringing on the Civil War as did the controversy over slavery in the Territories.
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    0
  • The deposit of rock salt on Petite Anse Island, in the coast swamp region, has been extensively worked since its discovery during the Civil War.
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    0
  • The strong, black perique of the delta - cultivated very generally in the lower alluvial region before the Civil War, but now almost exclusively in St James parish - is a famous leaf, grown since early colonial times.
    0
    0
  • Rice farming, which had its beginning immediately after the Civil War and first became prominent in the 'seventies, has developed enormously since 1880.
    0
    0
  • In Louisiana alone (as the state is known to-day), out of all the territory acquired from France as the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, was the civil law so established under French and Spanish rule that it persisted under American dominion.
    0
    0
  • In all the other states formed from the Purchase, the civil law, never existent practically, was early expressly abrogated, and the common law of England established in its place.
    0
    0
  • In 1825 legislative sanction was given to the greater part of a civil code prepared by a commission (including Livingston) appointed in 1821, and the French element became steadily more important.
    0
    0
  • English law has largely moulded, for example, criminal and commercial law and the law of evidence; the development of the law of corporations, damages, prohibitions and such extraordinary remedies as the mandamus has been very similar to that in other states; while in the fusion of law and equity, and the law of successions, family relations, &c., the civil law of Spain and France has been unaffected.
    0
    0
  • Civil war being threatened within the state President Hayes sent to Louisiana a commission composed of Wayne McVeagh, Gen.
    0
    0
  • Before the Civil War of 1895-1898 the capital invested in sugar estates was greater by half than that reprerented by tobacco and coffee plantations, live-stock ranches and other farms. Since that time fruit and live-stock interests have increased.
    0
    0
  • After 1868 the mines were again abandoned and flooded, the mining property being ruined during the civil war.
    0
    0
  • Of the expenditure more than ten million dollars annually went for the public debt, 5.5 to 6 millions for the army and navy, as much more for civil administration (including more than two millions for purely Peninsular services with which the colony was burdened); and on an average probably one million more went for sinecures.
    0
    0
  • The local authorities were divided among themselves by bitter feuds - the ecclesiastical against the civil, the ayuntamiento against the governors, the administrative officers among themselves; brigandage, mutinies and intestinal struggles disturbed the peace.
    0
    0
  • Gradual abolition of slavery was declared by a law of the 13th of February 1880; definitive abolition in 1886; and in 1893 the equal civil status of blacks and whites in all respects was proclaimed by General Calleja.
    0
    0
  • The demands of the Liberals were as in 1868; those for personal and property rights were much more definitely stated, and among explicit reforms demanded were the separation of civil and military power, general recognition of administrative responsibility under a colonial autonomous constitutional regime; also among economic matters, customs reforms and reciprocity with the United States were demanded.
    0
    0
  • In the previous budget there had been a special heading, " Proceeds of Domains transferred from the Civil List," estimated to produce ET620,233, which may have been intended to include all the various receipts above enumerated.
    0
    0
  • The civil list has been reduced to the definite amount of £T443,880, which, without the consent of parliament, cannot be increased.
    0
    0
  • This, however, is not a real decrease, salaries of functionaries not on the active list having been removed to the region of supplementary credits, as are those of civil departments.
    0
    0
  • No other items in the budget call for special remark, but in order that the information given may be complete, each head of expenditure is shown separately below, and the budget for 1910-1911, as first placed before the Turkish parliament, presents the following picture, from which it may be observed that the public debt absorbs 26% of the revenue, war service 38% and civil services 36%.
    0
    0
  • Regulations prescribing the duties of the local governors and officials of all ranks were drawn up only in 1865 and 1870, but since Mahmud's time their functions were exclusively civil and administrative.
    0
    0
  • A regular hierarchical order was elaborated for the official classes, both civil and military, whereby the rank of each person was clearly defined.
    0
    0
  • The codification of the civil law, which soon became necessary, was effected by the promulgation in 1859 of the Mejelle, or civil code.
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  • The Kurds, the constant oppressors of that people, had received official recognition and almost complete immunity from the control o f the civil law by being formed into a Y g eo Y manry frontier-guard known as the Hamidian cavalry.
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  • A serious Bulgarian insurrection in Macedonia in the autumn of 1903 induced Austria and Russia to combine in formulating the Miirzsteg reform programme, tardily consented to by Turkey, by which Austrian and Russian civil agents were appointed to exercise a certain degree of control and supervision over the three vilayets of Salonica, Monastir and Kossovo.
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  • But the achievements of the two civil agents were less noteworthy; and in 1905 it was agreed that, in view of the financial necessities of the provinces, the other great powers should each appoint delegates to a financial commission with extensive powers of control in fiscal matters.
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  • After the first fervour of enthusiasm had subsided the Christian nationalities in Macedonia resumed their old attitude of mutual jealousy, the insurgent bands began to reappear, and the government was in1909-1910forced to undertake the disarmament of the whole civil population of the three vilayets.
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  • The growth during the Civil War was partly due to the rapid development of the manufacturing interests of the city, which supplied large quantities of iron products and of clothing to the Federal government.
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  • The whole area was united as one civil parish in 1903, and the population in 1901 was 16 4,333, of whom only about 8% spoke Welsh.
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  • When independence had been obtained, Miaoulis in his old age was entangled in the civil conflicts of his country, as an opponent of Capodistrias and the Russian party.
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  • The chief heads of expenditure are the civil list, comprising the personal allowance to the king and the royal family (£46,018 in '904), public works (£39,593) and government house and residences (£29977) History.
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  • A third Epidaurus was situated in Illyricum, on the site of the present Ragusa Vecchia; but it is not mentioned till the time of the civil wars of Pompey and Caesar, and has no special interest.
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  • As his health improved it was hoped that he would be able to adopt the family profession of civil engineering, and in 1868 he went to Anstruther and then to Wick as a pupil engineer.
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  • The judicial department comprises a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and (since 1881) four associate justices elected for terms of six years, and lower courts consisting of district courts with original jurisdiction in civil cases in law and equity, and in criminal cases upon indictments by grand juries; justices' courts, in which the amount in litigation cannot exceed $ioo, or the punishment cannot exceed three months' imprisonment or a fine of $loo; and of municipal and probate courts with the usual jurisdictions.
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  • The events of the Peninsular War, especially as narrated in the Wellington Despatches, are replete with instruction not only for the soldier, but also for the civil administrator.
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  • Farther north, along the line of the former town wall, are the criminal law courts (1879-1882, enlarged 1893) and the civil law courts (finished in 1901).
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  • The only point on which he had of his own initiative shown a strong objection to revolutionary measures was in the matter of the civil constitution of the clergy.
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  • The officers of the Church during the first few centuries of its existence were content to officiate in the dress of civil life, though their garments were expected to be scrupulously clean and of decent quality.
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