Citizens Sentence Examples
There, good citizens, is the result of a wasted day in the mountains.
Citizens in these countries are grateful for any job that pays anything at all, and their primary concern is simply survival.
In 1789 all citizens were made equal before the law, and the position of Presbyterianism improved till 1791.
The rink was an object of pride to the citizens of the small, highly active community.
Durango, Colorado, once one of the wildest cities in the old west, was now the home of 12,000 citizens and one of the country's last narrow-gage railroads.Advertisement
A great meeting of citizens was then called and marched through the streets.
The god of a city was originally owner of its land, which encircled it with an inner ring of irrigable arable land and an outer fringe of pasture, and the citizens were his tenants.
Perhaps that's why many of the citizens of the picturesque town decided they might as well enjoy mother nature's offerings rather than remain locked indoors for six or seven months.
Next a small party consisting of two British subjects, two American citizens, and a Dane, sailed from the Sandwich Islands for Port Lloyd in 1830, taking with them some Hawaiian natives.
As soon as the men of the various regiments began to disperse among the wealthy and deserted houses, the army was lost forever and there came into being something nondescript, neither citizens nor soldiers but what are known as marauders.Advertisement
The building stood there, gazing down on the quiet town like some magnificent matron, watching over her citizens as she had for a hundred years.
Foreigners may become citizens in five years by naturalization.
Direct payments are made to an increasing number of citizens and the size of those payments rise.
I'm glad to see Parkside is looking out for its citizens, regardless of the hour and whether they deserve it or not.
The municipal authority in those times claimed the right to exercise a censorship over the citizens' private life.Advertisement
At this time the state had been brought to the brink of ruin by the growth of avarice and luxury; there was a glaring inequality in the distribution of land and wealth, and the number of full citizens had sunk to 700, of whom about roc practically monopolized the land.
The approach of the " Monitor " and the Union gunboats up the James river caused a partial and temporary panic; President Davis appointed a day for prayer, and the families of some of the cabinet secretaries and many citizens fled the city precipitately; but confidence, restored by " Bacon's Rebellion," was auditor-general of the colony from 1687 until his death, and was a member of the committee which founded the College of William and Mary.
It purports to be a conversation at the little town of Beaucaire between a soldier (obviously the writer himself) and three men, citizens of Marseilles, Nimes and Montpellier, who oppose the Jacobinical government and hope for victory over its forces.
Its officers were required to obey "the statutes of the teaching body, which have for their object uniformity of instruction, and which tend to form for the state citizens attached to their religion, their prince, their country and their family."
The resulting Acte additionel (supplementary to the constitutions of the empire) bestowed on France an hereditary chamber of peers and a chamber of representatives elected by the "electoral colleges" of the empire, which comprised scarcely one hundredth part of the citizens of France.Advertisement
Its basis is not a coercive authority imposed upon the citizens from without, but consists in the spiritual recognition, on the part of the citizens, of that which constitutes their true nature.
Further, two ducal councillors were appointed to assist the doge, and he was compelled, not merely permitted, to seek the advice of the more prominent citizens at moments of crisis.
The theory of the government, a theory expressed throughout the whole commercial career of the republic, the theory which made Venice a rigidly protective state, was that the Levant trade belonged solely to Venice and her citizens.
From 1847 to 1851 he arranged gifts from France to American libraries aggregating 30,655 volumes, and a gift of 50 volumes by the city of Paris in 1843 (reciprocated in 1849 with more than 1000 volumes contributed by private citizens) was the nucleus of the Boston public library.
Thus for nearly two centuries it preserved intact its old " town " government, disposing of all its affairs in the " town-meeting " of its citizens.Advertisement
The triple summit of Beacon Hill, of which no trace remains to-day (or possibly a reference to the three hills of the then peninsula, Beacon, Copp's and Fort) led to the adoption of the name Trimountaine for the peninsula,-a name perpetuated variously in present municipal nomenclature as in Tremont; but on the 17th of September 1630, the date adopted for anniversary celebrations, it was ordered that " Trimountaine shall be called Boston," after the borough of that name in Lincolnshire, England, of which several of the leading settlers had formerly been prominent citizens.'
In 1770, on the 5th of March, in a street brawl, a number of citizens were killed or wounded by the soldiers, who fired into a crowd that were baiting a sentry.
The Tea Act of 1773 was defied by the emptying into the harbour of three cargoes of tea on the 16th of December 1773, by a party of citizens disguised as Indians, after the people in town-meeting had exhausted every effort, through a period of weeks, to procure the return of the tea-ships to England.
In 1835 a mob, composed in part of wealthy and high-standing citizens, attacked a city-building, and dragged Garrison through the streets until the mayor secured his safety by putting him in gaol.
A new career of ambition was opened to her citizens in the Roman honours that rewarded services to the imperial armies during their frequent expeditions in the East.
In accordance with the judicious policy which he had observed in Asia Minor and at Antioch, he granted full pardon to the citizens; only the chief officials and advisers were put to death; Zenobia and her son were captured and reserved for his triumph when he returned to Rome.
A rescript of Augustus forbade Roman citizens to practise druidical rites.
Four citizens of consular rank were accused of being concerned in it, and were put to death by order of the senate before he could interfere.
Another civic improvement was the plan that a permanent committee of citizens should be engaged in the solving of the housing problem, and that the chamber of commerce, cooperating with the state, should employ a director in charge of the Americanization programme in which the public schools and corporations cooperate.
A brawl in which he and his servants became involved with the citizens of Dover led to a serious quarrel between the king and Earl Godwine.
City planning was undertaken in 1912 with a commission of nine citizens and five ex-officio members.
All citizens were now ordered to leave, the place was turned into a military camp, and when Sherman started on his "March to the Sea," on the 15th of November, a large part of the city was burned.
Here her unrestrainable high spirits and levity gave great offence to the citizens.
This part of the bill was resented by many citizens, who were unwilling to allow others to share their privileges.
In 1813, a sally being made by the French garrison on an advanceguard of the Russians under Benckendorff, the citizens of Breda again made themselves masters of the town.
Its professed object was to clear Rome of the large number of pauper citizens, who formed a standing menace to peace.
The only land available for the purposes of the bill was the Ager Campanus and the Ager Stellatis, where 5000 citizens were to be settled at once, but as these were utterly insufficient, other lands were to be acquired by purchase.
He became a full member of the state only, as in the case of foreigners, by a vote in an assembly of six thousand citizens; and even this vote might be set aside by a graphe paranomon.
Slaves who had rendered eminent services to the public, as those who fought at Arginusae and at Chaeronea, were at once admitted to the status of citizens in the class of (so-called) Plataeans.
But the extension of properties in the hands of the patricians, and the continued absences of citizens required by the expanding system of conquest, necessarily brought with them a demand for slave labour, which was increasingly supplied by captives taken in war.
Freedmen and their sons were subject to civil disabilities; the third generation became ingenui (full citizens).
Augustus set himself against the undue multiplication of manumissions, probably considering the rapid succession of new citizens a source of social instability, and recommended a similar policy to his successor.
When the news of this reached Paris, it created a strong feeling against the planters; and on the motion of the Abbe Gregoire it was resolved by the assembly on the 15th of May 1791 " that the people of colour resident in the French colonies, born of free parents, were entitled to, as of right, and should be allowed, the enjoyment of all the privileges of French citizens, and among others those of being eligible to seats both in the parochial and colonial assemblies."
This he modifies by explaining that self-interest is based on the relationships of life; a man needs money for the sake of his children, his friends and the state whose general prosperity depends on the wealth of its citizens.
The stained glass both in the cathedral and in other churches of the city is particularly noteworthy; its survival may be traced to the stipulation made by the citizens when surrendering to parliament in the civil wars that it should not be damaged.
In the reign of Richard I., the citizens rose against the Jews, who fled to the castle.
Here, however, they were obliged to surrender, many killing themselves after putting to death their wives and children, the rest being massacred by the citizens.
During the 14th century there were constant quarrels between the citizens and the abbey of St Mary's about the suburb of Bootham, which the citizens claimed as within the jurisdiction of the city, and the abbey as a separate borough.
He published his defence in An Address to the Free and Independent Citizens of the United States of North America (Hartford, Conn., and London, 1784).
In 1794 Spain, hard pressed by Great Britain and France, turned to the United States, and by the treaty of 1794 the Mississippi river was recognized by Spain as the western boundary of the United States, separating it from Louisiana, and free navigation of the Mississippi was granted to citizens of the United States, to whom was granted for three years the right " to deposit their merchandise and effects in the port of New Orleans, and to export them from thence without paying any other duty than a fair price for the hire of the stores."
Of the voting population 53.2% of native white, and 37.3% of coloured Cuban citizens, and 71.6% of Spanish citizens could read.
The senate contains four members from each province, chosen for eight years by a provincial electoral board, which consists of the provincial councilmen plus a double number of electors (half of them paying high taxes) who are selected at a special election by their fellow citizens.
The house of representatives, whose members are chosen directly by the citizens for four years, one-half retiring every two years, has the special power of impeaching the president and cabinet officers.
Every large town has a mayor and deputy mayor, appointed by the government, and a town council, of whom one third are similarly appointed, while the citizens choose the rest; a proportionate number of councillors representing each religious community.
Each district has its court of law, where cases are tried by three official judges and two assessors, selected from the leading citizens.
The city has, besides, numerous fine office buildings, including that of the Society for Savings (an institution in which each depositor is virtually a stockholder), the Citizens', Rose, Williamson, Rockefeller, New England and Garfield buildings; and several beautiful churches, notably the Roman Catholic and Trinity cathedrals, the First Presbyterian ("Old Stone"), the Second Presbyterian, the First Methodist and Plymouth (Congregational) churches.
Few if any cities in the Union have, in recent years, been better governed than Cleveland, and this seems to be due largely to the keen interest in municipal affairs which has been shown by her citizens.
In 1090 the prince vindicated his loyalty by suppressing, on Robert's behalf, a revolt of the citizens of Rouen which Rufus had fomented.
During the same period the Lutheran zeal of the citizens led to the expulsion of the Mennonites and other Protestant sects, who founded Altona.
The tunica, a loose sack-like tunic with a hole for the head, was the innermost garment worn by all classes of Roman citizens under the republic and empire.
On the 8th of August representatives from every class in the capital urged the necessity of a vigorous resistance; and the citizens of Copenhagen, headed by the great burgomaster Hans Nansen, protested their unshakable loyalty to the king, and their determination to defend Copenhagen to the uttermost.
The place thereafter was subject either to the rulers of Tunis or of Constantine, but the citizens were noted for their frequent revolts.
The nobles, who though favourable to the Hussite cause yet supported the regent, promised to act as mediators with Sigismund; while the citizens of Prague consented to restore to the royal forces the castle of Vysehrad, which had fallen into their hands.
The citizens of Prague laid siege to the Vysehrad, and towards the end of October (1420) the garrison was on the point of capitulating through famine.
His authority was recognized by the Utraquist nobles, the citizens of Prague, and the more moderate Taborites, including Zizka.
He also passed that year an Act enforcing military training upon all able-bodied citizens.
James's, one of its leading citizens - a statesman, a man of letters, or a lawyer - whose name and reputation were already well known in Great Britain.
Fourteen years later, when curule aedile, he distributed large quantities of grain among the citizens at a very low price.
Although the equites were selected from the 'wealthiest citizens, service in the cavalry was so expensive that the state gave financial assistance.
As the demands upon the services of the cavalry increased, it was decided to supplement the regulars by the enrolment of wealthy citizens who kept horses of their own.
According to Mommsen, although the institution was not intended to be permanent, in later times vacancies in the ranks were filled in this manner, with the result that service in the cavalry, with either a public or a private horse, became obligatory upon all Roman citizens possessed of a certain income.
The first gradually disappeared, and Roman citizens were rarely found in the ranks of the effective cavalry.
It was chiefly recruited from the pick of the provincial cavalry, but contained some Roman citizens.
The total losses suffered by private citizens and corporate societies until the advent of Bolshevism is valued at 1,930,000,000 gold rubles; Soviet Russia inflicted losses to the amount of 953,000,000 gold rubles; German occupation and warfare to that of 481,000,000 marks.
It was named Sao Paulo, and has been at once the source whence knowledge and civilization have been diffused through Brazil, and the nucleus of a colony of its manliest and hardiest citizens, which sent out successive swarms of hardy adventurers to people the interior.
The local patriotism and good taste of the citizens have regulated recreation and have also preserved in pristine vigour many peculiarly Scottish customs and pastimes.
So long, however, as its walls formed the boundary, and space therefore was limited, the citizens had to provide house-room by building dwellings of many storeys.
The citizens hastened to construct a second line of wall, enclosing the Cowgate and the heights beyond, since occupied by Greyfriars churches and Heriot's hospital, but still excluding the Canongate, as pertaining to the abbey of Holyrood.
The barons supported Azo of Liguria, the lawful successor of Herbert II.; the citizens of Le Mans set up a commune, expelled Azo's representatives and made war on the barons.
The attempt was not completely successful; but the government was now equally divided between the two estates by the creation of a supreme magistracy of twenty-four citizens - twelve nobles and twelve popolani.
But meanwhile the exclusiveness of the single class of citizens from whose ranks the chief magistrates were drawn had converted the government into a close oligarchy and excited the hatred of every other class.
This was the beginning of a determined struggle for supremacy, carried on for many years, between the different classes of citizens, locally termed ordini or monti - the lower classes striving to grasp the reins of government, the higher classes already in office striving to keep all power in their own hands, or to divide it in proportion to the relative strength of each monte.
The nobles were worsted, being driven from the city as well as from power; but the absolute rule of the twelve was brought to an end, and right of participation in the government was extended to another class of citizens.
From this renewal dates the formation of the new order or monte dei riformatori, the title henceforth bestowed on all citizens, of both the less and the greater people, who had reformed the government and begun to participate in it in 1368.
Then, having withdrawn to its own quarter, it was suddenly attacked by the infuriated citizens (noveschi and dodicini), who broke into houses and workshops and put numbers of the inhabitants to the sword without regard for age or sex.
About the same time the republic was exposed to still graver danger by the conspiracy of some of its leading citizens to seize the reins of power and place the city under the suzerainty of Alphonso, as it had once been under that of the duke of Milan.
Dividing the power between their two orders of the nine and the people, they excluded the riformatori and replaced them by a new and heterogeneous order styled the aggregati, composed of nobles, exiles of 1456 and citizens of other orders who had never before been in office.
Thereupon certain Sienese citizens in Rome, headed by Aeneas Piccolomini (a kinsman of Pius II.), entered into negotiations with the agents of the French king and, having with their help collected men and money, marched on Siena and forced their way in by the new gate (now Porta Romana) on 26th July 1552.
He wrote poems of all kinds in a language hitherto employed only for ballads and hymns; he instituted a theatre, and composed a rich collection of comedies for it; he filled the shelves of the citizens with works in their own tongue on history, law, politics, science, philology and philosophy, all written in a true and manly style, and representing the extreme attainment of European culture at the moment.
There are numerous places of resort for the citizens.
The representative body is composed half of elected members, and half of citizens who pay the highest taxes.
For, inexorable as Stephen ever was towards fanatical pagans, renegades and rebels, he was too good a statesman to inquire too closely into the private religious opinions of useful and quiet citizens.
On the Loth Tyler seized Canterbury, sacked the palace of Archbishop Sudbury, the chancellor, and beheaded three citizens as "traitors."
Richard then led the mob to a neighbouring meadow, where he kept them in parley till Walworth, who had returned within the city to summon the loyal citizens to the king's aid, returned with a sufficient following to overawe and disperse the rebels.
After affirming that the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes constitute a single nation and appealing to the right of self-determination, it declared in favour of complete national unity under the Karagjorgjevic dynasty, " a constitutional democratic and parliamentary monarchy, equality of the three national names and flags, of the Cyrilline and Latin alphabets, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Mussulman religions, equal rights for all citizens, universal suffrage in parliamentary and municipal life, and the freedom of the Adriatic to all nations."
The House of Burgesses consists of 160 members, of whom 80 are elected in secret ballot by the direct suffrages of all tax-paying citizens, 40 by the owners of house-property within the city (also by ballot), and the remaining 40, by ballot also, by the so-called "notables," i.e.
Foiled by the valour of the citizens, they sailed away and harried the coast from Essex to Hampshire. !Ethelred now resorted to the old experiment and bought them off for £16,000 and a promise of supplies.
At the meeting between the king and the citizens to arrange for the defence of the capital, Nansen urged the necessity of an obstinate defence.
They desired equal rights for all citizens, the abolition of monopolies and abuses, together with the maintenance of the state's independence.
A number of leading citizens were at once formed into a reform committee.
He was twice banished for attempting to overthrow the oligarchical party in Syracuse; in 317 he returned with an army of mercenaries under a solemn oath to observe the democratic constitution which was then set up. Having banished or murdered some Io,000 citizens, and thus made himself master of Syracuse, he created a strong army and fleet and subdued the greater part of Sicily.
The old citizens thus gradually grew into an exclusive or aristocratic body, called yauopoc or landowners.
He gave citizenship both to mercenaries and to settlers from Greece, and added to the population the inhabitants of other cities conquered by him, so that Syracuse became a city of mixed population, in which the new citizens had the advantage.
The citizens began to think of surrender, and Nicias was so confident that he neglected to push his advantages.
It received large accessions from some of the Greek cities of southern Italy, from Hipponium on its west and Caulonia on its east coast, both of which Dionysius captured in 389 B.C. There had also been an influx of free citizens from Rhegium.
Ten years afterwards, in 357, the exile entered Achradina a victor, welcomed by the citizens as a deliverer both of themselves and of the Greeks of Sicily generally.
From 343 to 337 he was supreme at Syracuse, with the hearty good will of the citizens.
In the interval of twenty years between the death of Timoleon and the rise of Agathocles to power another revolution at Syracuse transferred the government to an oligarchy of 600 leading citizens.
His wars in Sicily and Africa left him time to do something for the relief of the poorer citizens at the expense of the rich, as well as to erect new fortifications and public buildings; and under his strong government Syracuse seems to have been at least quiet and orderly.
Epicydes did his best to stir up the citizens of Leontini against Rome and the Roman party at Syracuse.
Sir Henry's own principal contribution to the discussion was rather unfortunate, for while insisting on the blessings derived by England from its free-trade policy, he coupled this with the rhetorical admission (at Bolton in 1903) that "12,000,000 British citizens were underfed and on the verge of hunger."
The evil is of very long standing, for in 1306 the citizens petitioned Edward I.
From 1416 citizens were obliged to hang out candles between certain hours on dark nights to illuminate the streets.
He holds that the Londoners passed " their own laws by their own citizens without reference to the king at all," and in the present case of a king who according to Kemble " had carried the influence of the crown to an extent unexampled in any of his predecessors."
The citizens of London were a divided body, and Duke William knowing that he had many friends in the city saw that a waiting game was the best for his cause in the end.
The defeated chiefs retired on the city, led by Ansgar the Staller, under whom as sheriff the citizens of London had marched to fight for Harold at Senlac. They elected Edgar Atheling, the grandson of Edmund Ironside, as king, which the Saxon Chronicle says " was indeed his natural right."
On hearing of this action William marched towards London, when the citizens sallied forth to meet him.
Thus ends the Saxon period, and the Norman period in London begins with the submission of the citizens as distinct from the action of the rest of the kingdom, which submission resulted soon afterwards in the Conqueror's remarkable charter to William the bishop and Gosfrith the portcity, reeve, supposed to be the elder Geoffrey de Mandeville.
One of the earliest acts of the Conqueror was to undertake the erection of a citadel which should overawe the citizens and give him the command of the city.
The position of the city grew in importance, but the citizens suffered from severe laws and from serious restrictions upon their liberties.
This king granted the citizens their first real charter, but this was constantly violated.
The citizens, however, did not obtain their rights without paying for them, and in 1139 they paid Stephen one hundred marks of silver to enable them to choose their own sheriffs.
Stephen became by the shifting fortune of war a prisoner, and the empress Matilda might, if she had had the wisdom to favour the citizens, have held the throne, which was hers by right of birth.
She, however, made them her enemies by delivering up the office of justiciary of London and the sheriffwick to her partisan Geoffrey, earl of Essex, and attempting to reduce the citizens to the enslaved condition of the rest of the country.
The large amount of building at this time proves that the citizens were wealthy.
John granted several charters to the city, and it was expressly stipulated in Magna Charta that the city of London should have all its ancient privileges and free customs. The citizens opposed the king during the wars of the barons.
After the marriage at Canterbury of the king with Eleanor of Provence the royal personages came to London, and were met by the mayor, aldermen and principal citizens to the number of 360, sumptuously apparelled in silken robes embroidered, riding upon stately horses.
The citizens were so pleased at this unexpected occurrence that they willingly lent the king £¦000 in 1488, which he required for military preparations against France.
At first there was a panic among the citizens, but subsequently the city was placed in a proper state of defence, and the king himself encamped in St George's Fields.
Sir John Gresham, mayor in 1548, revived the march of the city watch, which was made more splendid by the addition of three hundred light horsemen raised by the citizens for the king's service.
In 1550 the citizens purchased the manor of Southwark, and with it they became possessed of the monastery of St Thomas, which was enlarged and prepared for the reception of " poor, sick and helpless objects."
The citizens, however, soon found out their mistake, and the lord mayor, aldermen and recorder proclaimed Queen Mary at Cheapside.
This dread of pestilence, united with a puritanic hatred of plays, made the citizens do all they could to discountenance theatrical entertainments.
Many of the chief citizens followed the example of the courtiers, and built for themselves country residences in Middlesex, Essex and Surrey; thus we learn from Norden that Alderman Roe lived at Muswell Hill, and we know that Sir Thomas Gresham built a fine house and planned a beautiful park at Osterley.
Citizens went to Holborn and Bloomsbury for change of air, and houses were there prepared for the reception of children, invalids and convalescents.
In spite of the best advice, however, the jealousies of the citizens prevented any systematic design from being carried out, and in consequence the old lines were in almost every case retained.
The citizens did not dispute the right of election by the kingdom but they held that that election did not necessarily include the choice of London.
By the Local Government Act of 1888 the citizens of London were deprived of all right of jurisdiction over the county of Middlesex, which had been expressly granted by various charters.
These general Common assemblies of the citizens are described in the old city Hall.
The elections in Common Hall were by the whole body of citizens until Edward I.'s reign, citizens were then specially summoned to Common Hall by the mayor.
Highway, in the law of the states of the American Union, generally means a lawful public road, over which all citizens are allowed to pass and repass on foot, on horseback, in carriages and waggons.
The Biirgerschaft consists of 150 (formerly 300) representatives, chosen by the citizens for six years, and forms the legislative body.
Fourteen members are elected by such citizens of Bremen (city) as have enjoyed a university education, forty by the merchants, twenty by the manufacturers and artisans, and forty-eight by the other citizens.
Soon after the Joyeuse Entrée a serious feud began between the citizens and the patrician class, and eventually the duke threw in his lot with the latter.
After a struggle of over twenty years' duration the White Hoods, as the citizens called themselves, were crushed.
After the new centre was built, a society called the Societa per la difesa di Firenze antica was formed by many prominent citizens to safeguard the ancient buildings and prevent them from destruction, and a spirit of intelligent conservatism seems now to prevail in this connexion.
The citizens found themselves in opposition to the nobility of the hills around the city, Teutonic feudatories of Ghibelline sympathies, who interfered with their commerce.
Florence frequently waged war with these nobles and with other cities on its own account, although in the name of the countess, and the citizens began to form themselves into groups and associations which were the germs of the arti or gilds.
The attempt to seize Montevarchi and other castles where the Guelph exiles were congregated failed, and in 1250 the burghers elected thirty-six caporali di popolo, who formed the basis of the primo popolo or body of citizens independent of the nobles, headed by the capitano del popolo.
The priori and other officers were drawn by lot from among the Guelphs over thirty years old who were declared fit for public office by a special board of 98 citizens (1329).
The podestd and the capitano assenting to this treachery, he dismissed the gonfaloniere, reduced the priori to a position of impotence, disarmed the citizens, and soon afterwards accepted the lordship of Arezzo, Volterra, Colle, San Gimignano and Pistoia.
He also summoned 300 leading citizens on the pretext of wishing to consult them, but fearing treachery they refused to come.
On the 26th of July 1343, the citizens rose in arms, demanded the duke's abdication, and besieged him in the palace.
This was agreed to, and in 1405 the city was sold to Florence for 260,000 florins; and Gino Capponi,' the Florentine commissioner, took possession of the citadel, but a few days later the citizens arose in arms and recaptured it from the mercenaries.
After a six months' siege Pisa surrendered on terms (9th October 1406), and, although it was not sacked, many of the citizens were exiled and others forced to live in Florence, a depopulation from which it never recovered.
Subsequently all extraordinary refo Fiscalr expenditure was met by forced loans (prestanze), but the (1427),ms method of distribution aroused discontent among the lower classes, and in 1427 a general catasto or assessment of all the wealth of the citizens was formed, and measures were devised to distribute the obligations according to each man's capacity, sò as to avoid pressing too hardly on the poor.
Charles was impressed with the wealth and refinement of the citizens, and above all with the solid fortress-like appearance of their palaces.
Charles's demands by no means pleased the citizens, and the arrogance and violence of his soldiers led to riots in which they were assailed with stones in the narrow streets.
When the king began to hint at the recall of Piero de' Medici, whose envoys had gained his ear, the signory ordered the citizens to be ready to fly to arms. The proposal was dropped, but Charles demanded an immense sum of money before he would leave the city; long discussions followed, and when at last he presented an insolent ultimatum the syndics refused to accept it.
There were 3200 such citizens, and they sat one-third at a time for six months.
The Greater Council was to elect another council of 80 citizens over forty years old, also to be changed every six months; this body, which the signory must consult once a week, together with the colleges and the signory itself, was to appoint ambassadors and commissaries of war, and deal with other confidential matters.
Italy, Piero de' Medici, encouraged by the league, enlisted a number of mercenaries and marched on Florence, but the citizens, fired by Savonarola's enthusiasm, flew to arms and prepared for an energetic resistance; owing to Piero's incapacity and the exhaustion of his funds the expedition came to nothing.
New Medici plots having been discovered, Bernardo del Nero and other prominent citizens were tried and put to death; but the party hostile to Savonarola gained ground and had the support of the Franciscans, who were hostile to the Dominican order.
Giuliano became de facto head of the government, but he did not pursue the usual vindictive policy of his house, although he resorted to the Laurentian method of amusing the citizens with splendid festivities.
Although alone against papacy and empire, the citizens The siege of showed the greatest spirit and devotion, and were Florence.
He was acting governor at the time of the "Boston Massacre" in 1770, and was virtually forced by the citizens of Boston, under the leadership of Samuel Adams, to order the removal of the British troops from the town.
On the death of Gideon, Abimelech set himself to assert the authority which his father had earned, and through the influence of his mother's clan won over the citizens of Shechem.
It no doubt acquired Roman citizenship in 49 B.C., and became a municipium; and is mentioned two years later apropos of a dispute between the citizens and their slaves.
When the old kin-bond or maegth was beginning to weaken or dissolve, and the state did not yet afford adequate protection to its citizens, individuals naturally united for mutual help.
The Egyptian rebels managed to gain most influence, and, in accordance with their desire, 'Ali was appointed caliph by the citizens of Medina.
The final blow to any political pretensions of Medina was dealt by the caliph when he had his son Yazid declared as his successor, thus taking away any claim on the part of the citizens of Medina to elect to the caliphate.
Germans were early pushing as permanent settlers into the Scandinavian towns, and in Wisby, on the island of Gothland, the Scandinavian centre of Baltic trade, equal rights as citizens in the town government were possessed by the German settlers as early as the beginning of the 13th century.
The decisive factor in determining membership in the League was the historical right of the citizens of a town to participate in Hanseatic privileges abroad.
The former was built early in the 13th century by the bishop in consequence of a revolt on the part of the citizens; the latter, mentioned as early as 737, is now private property.
It received civic rights in 1225, and soon became a prosperous place, but much of its history consists of broils between the bishops and the citizens.
Since then Vienna has benefited largely by the enlightened efforts of its citizens and the exceptional opportunities afforded by the removal of the fortifications.
The bishop of Montreal and of Quebec, and a large number of the citizens, protested, but nothing less than bloodshed would satisfy the misguided patriots.
After holding a school mastership and two curacies, he was made rector of St Martin's Orgar in London in 1628, where he took a leading part in the contest between the London clergy and the citizens about the city tithes, and compiled a treatise on the subject, which is printed in Brewster's Collectanea (1752).
Owing to the starving condition of its defenders, and aided by the treachery of Giovanni Gambacorti, they entered the city in triumph on the 9th of October, and sought to "crush every germ of rebellion and drive out its citizens by measures of the utmost harshn=ss and cruelty."
In 1270 he was one of the four citizens to whose keeping the muniments of the city were entrusted.
Citizenship is accorded to all Peruvians over the age of 21 and to all married men under that age, and the right of suffrage to all citizens who can read and write, or possess real estate or workshops, or pay taxes.
Both senators and deputies are elected for terms of six years, and both must be native-born Peruvian citizens in the full enjoyment of their civil rights.
The town was almost entirely destroyed by fire in 1327, after which the emperor Louis the Bavarian, in recognition of the loyalty of the citizens, rebuilt it very much on the scale it retained down to the beginning of the 19th century.
While she was urging the citizens to make peace with the pope there came the news of his death.
It was largely through the influence of Ellsworth, who took the principal part in the negotiations, that Napoleon consented to a convention, of the 30th of September 1800, which secured for citizens of the United States their ships captured by France but not yet condemned as prizes, provided for freedom of commerce between the two nations, stipulated that "free ships shall give a freedom to goods," and contained provisions favourable to neutral commerce.
At the beginning of the 11th century the citizens established a constitution, composed of a general council or legislative assembly and a credenza or executive; and during the next century they were engaged in wars with Venice and Vicenza for the right of water-way on the Bacchiglione and the Brenta - so that, on the one hand, the city grew in power and selfreliance, while, on the other, the great families of Camposampiero, D'Este and Da Romano began to emerge and to divide the Paduan district between them.
The citizens, in order to protect their liberties, were obliged to elect a podesta, and their choice fell first on one of the D'Este family (c. 1175).
The Florence streets rang with Lorenzo's ribald songs (the "canti carnascialeschi"); the smooth, cultured citizens were dead to all sense of religion or morality; and the spirit of the fashionable heathen philosophy had even infected the brotherhood of St Mark.
A Brescian friar relates that a halo of light was seen to flash round his head, and the citizens remembered his awful prophecies when in 1512 their town was put to the sack by Gaston de Foix.
Lorenzo sent leading citizens to him to urge him to show more respect to the head of the state.
His efforts were successful; religion and learning made equal progress; St Mark's became the most popular monastery in Florence, and many citizens of noble birth flocked thither to take the vows.
Charles entered Florence on the 17th of November 1494, and the citizens' fears evaporated in jests on the puny exterior of the "threatened scourge."
So the citizens turned to the patriot monk whose words had freed them of King Charles, and Savonarola became the lawgiver of Florence.
The great council consisted of 3200 citizens of blameless reputation and over twenty-five years of age, a third of the number sitting for six months in turn in the hall of the Cinquecento expressly built for the purpose.
Abjuring pomps and vanities, its citizens observed the ascetic regime of the cloister; half the year was devoted to abstinence and few dared to eat meat on the fasts ordained by Savonarola.
It was with the aid of these youthful enthusiasts that Savonarola arranged the religious carnival of 1496, when the citizens gave their costliest possessions in alms to the poor, and tonsured monks, crowned with flowers, sang lauds and performed wild dances for the glory of God.
The citizens were growing weary of the monastic austerities imposed on them, and Alexander foresaw that his revenge was at hand.
Among the five leading citizens concerned in the plot was Bernardo del Nero, a very aged man of lofty talents and position.
In, 160 the citizens revolted against Archbishop Arnold, and in 1163 the walls of the city were pulled down by order of the emperor Frederick I.
In 1244 certain rights of self-government were given to the citizens; and in 1254 Mainz was the centre and mainspring of a powerful league of Rhenish towns.
The citizens espoused the cause of Diether, but their city was captured by Adolph; it was then deprived of its privileges and was made subject to the archbishop. Many of the inhabitants were driven into exile, and these carried into other lands a knowledge of the art of printing, which had been invented at Mainz by Johann Gutenberg in 1450.
In 1792 the citizens welcomed the ideas of the French Revolution; they expelled their archbishop, Friedrich Karl Joseph d'Erthal, and opened their gates to the French troops.
There were several violent contests between rivals anxious to secure so splendid a position as the electorate, and the pretensions of the archbishops occasionally moved the citizens of Mainz to revolt.
The most noted citizens are Bishop Crowther and Sir Samuel Lewis, chief justice of Sierra Leone 1882-1894.
The Moslems, who are among the most law-abiding and intelligent citizens of Freetown, have several state-aided primary schools.
Island are citizens of the state.
So far as state and national elections are concerned, the privilege was extended to native non-freeholders by the constitution of 1842, to naturalized foreigners who had served in the Civil War by an amendment of the 7th of April 1886, and to all adult male citizens by the amendment of the 4th of April 1888.
Patavium acquired Roman citizenship with the rest of Gallia Transpadana in 49 B.C. Under Augustus, Strabo tells us, Patavium surpassed all the cities of the north in wealth, and in the number of Roman knights among its citizens in the census of Augustus was only equalled by Gades, which had also Soo.
The emperor was merciful enough to leave it in possession of its privileges, but he inflicted a fine of 80,000 gold gulden, and until October 1547 the citizens had to endure the presence of from 8000 to 10,000 soldiers.
The ordinary citizens were roused to assert their rights, and they found a leader in Vincenz Fettmilch, who carried the contest to dangerous excesses, but lacked ability to bring it to a successful issue.
In the words of Dr Kriegk, Geschichte von Frankfurt, (1871), the insurrection completely destroyed the political power of the gilds, gave new strength to the supremacy of the patriciate, and brought no further advantage to the rest of the citizens than a few improvements in the organization and administration of the magistracy.
In 1792 the citizens had to pay 2,000,000 gulden to the French general Custine; and in 1796 Kleber exacted 8,000,000 francs.
The elections are, however, indirect; the citizens nominating the Wahlmonner (deputy electors) and the latter electing the representatives.
Its inhabitants were saved from massacre by the devotion of Eustache de St Pierre and six of the chief citizens, who were themselves spared at the prayer of Queen Philippa.
Its fidelity to the monarchy was tested in 1513, when the citizens were besieged by 50,000 Swiss and Germans, and forced to agree to a treaty so disadvantageous that Louis XII.
The famous temple of Kwannon, the goddess of mercy, is in the Asakusa Park, in which a permanent fair is held; it is a great holiday resort of the citizens.
It is possible that in very early times the Eupatridae were the only full citizens of Athens; for the evidence suggests that they alone belonged to the phratries, and the division into phratries must have covered the whole citizen body.
He procured the election of his son Andrew as prince of Pskov, and a powerful minority of the citizens of the republic of Novgorod held the balance in his favour against the Muscovite influence, but his ascendancy in both these commercial centres was at the best precarious.
Roman history was no longer a record of national glory, stimulating the patriotism and flattering the pride of all Roman citizens, but a personal eulogy or a personal invective, according as servility to a present or hatred of a recent ruler was the motive which animated it.
The moderation of the assessment is shown not only by the fact that it was paid so long without objection, but also by the individual items. Even in 425 Naxos and Andros paid only 15 talents, while Athens had just raised an eisphora (income tax) from her own citizens of 200 talents.
Moreover the practice among Athenian settlers of acquiring land in the allied districts must have been vexatious to the allies, the more so as all important cases between Athenians and citizens of allied cities were brought to Athens.
The population (about 39,000) is divided into two classes- orang burger or citizens, and orang negri or villagers, the former being a class of native origin enjoying certain privileges conferred on their ancestors by the old Dutch East India Company.
The protection of naturalized citizens who, on return to their native land, were subject to prosecution on charges of disloyalty, enlisted his active interest and support, and the agitation, in which he was conspicuous, led to the treaty of 1870 between the United States and Great Britain, which placed adopted and native citizens on the same footing.
The white population is not only far larger but more cosmopolitan, less stationary and more dependent on a single industry; it has few links with the past, and both city and citizens bear the marks of youth.
We find then two prominent notes of the state influence, firstly, the adaptation of the old ideas of the household and agricultural cults to the broader needs of the community, especially to the new necessities of internal justice between citizens and war against external enemies, and secondly the organization of more or less casual worship into something like a consistent system.
In 358 B.C. the citizens of Tarquinii captured and put to death 307 Roman soldiers; the resulting war ended in 351 with a forty years' truce, renewed for a similar period in 308.
Thomas II., after capturing several cities and castles in Piedmont, lost them again and was made prisoner by the citizens of Turin, but was afterwards liberated.
It describes his entering Rome on foot, amid the rejoicings of the citizens; his liberality towards his soldiers and to the citizens of Rome, a liberality that was extended even to persons under eleven years of age; his charities for the maintenance of the children of the poor; his remission of succession-duties in cases where the property was small or the heirs members of the testator's family; his establishment of free trade in corn between the various parts of the empire; his abandonment of vexatious and petty prosecutions for "high treason"; his punishment of informers; his abolition of pantomimes; his repairs of public buildings and his extension and embellishment of the Circus Maximus.
One was a Roman colonia (municipality of Roman citizens, self-governing) situated on the hill near the present Fourvieres (Forum vetus)..
In 1897 the sum o was subscribed by citizens to found a hospital (1903) to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria, and named after her.
In 1892 Queen Victoria conferred upon the mayor of the city the title of lord mayor, and upon the corporation the name and description of The Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Citizens of the city of Belfast."
The strenuous resistance of the citizens frustrated this scheme, and Edward marched into Burgundy, whence he made his way back towards Paris.
Already the citizens of Milan have purchased their liberty with their blood and with a heroism of which history offers few examples..
Other reverses followed, but the attack on Cuneo was heroically repulsed by the citizens.
He succeeded in inducing the Germans to abandon that clause of the terms by which the burgomaster, the communal counsel and one hundred citizens were required to surrender themselves as hostages.
But Paez, who commanded in Venezuela, having been accused of arbitrary conduct in the enrolment of the citizens of Caracas in the militia, refused obedience to the summons of the senate, and placed himself in a state of open rebellion against the government, being encouraged by a disaffected party in the northern departments who desired separation from the rest of the republic.
The month before, the citizens of Utrecht had refused to raze their suburban villas, and defence of the fortifications had consequently been impossible.
Servilius and all the Roman citizens within its walls being massacred by the inhabitants in 90 B.C. It was captured after a long siege by Pompeius Strabo in 89 B.C. The leader, Judacilius, committed suicide, the principal citizens were put to death, and the rest exiled.
His reading in Livy taught him to admire the Roman system of employing armies raised from the body of the citizens; and Cesare Borgia's method of gradually substituting the troops of his own duchy for aliens and mercenaries showed him that this plan might be adopted with success by the Italians.
That he left an unfavourable opinion among his fellow citizens is very decidedly recorded by the historian Varchi.
Members of the lower house must be at least twenty-four years of age, members of the senate at least twenty-seven; members of both houses must at the time of their election have been citizens of the state for at least three years.
Other dependent citizens are cared for in the institutions of other states at public expense.
It was not only that she lost many thousands of her best citizens, but this blow against Protestantism deprived her of those Protestant alliances in Europe which had been in the past her great diplomatic support.
Sibilla and the loyal Margarito prepared to defend Palermo, but the citizens admitted the emperor on the 20th of November 1194.
Chaeroneia is also notable as the birthplace of Plutarch, who returned to his native town in old age, and was held in honour by its citizens for many successive generations.
All male citizens over twenty-one years of age and resident in the state for one year and in the county or election precinct for six months immediately preceding election (except paupers, idiots, lunatics, felons, United States soldiers, marines and seamen, and persons who have taken part, either as principal or second, in fighting a duel or in sending a challenge) have the right of suffrage.
The other officials are elected by popular vote for two years' terms. The governor and lieutenantgovernor must be, at the time of election, at least thirty years of age, citizens of the United States, and residents of the state for the preceding five years.
Senators and representatives must be at least twenty-six years old, citizens of the United States, qualified electors of the state, and residents of the state for two years, and of the district for one year, preceding the election.
In 1402 also he was made rector or curate (capellarius) of the Bethlehem chapel, which had in 1391 been erected and endowed by some zealous citizens of Prague for the purpose of providing good popular preaching in the Bohemian tongue.
The citizens of Fayetteville were mainly Confederate sympathizers; Fayetteville was raided by Federal cavalry on the 14th of July 1862, and was permanently occupied by Federal troops in the autumn of the same year.
The suffrage now belongs to all male citizens of the United States at least twenty-one years of age who shall have resided in the state for six months, and in some one county sixty days preceding an election, except idiots and persons insane or convicted of some infamous crime.
In 1737 he had been appointed postmaster at Philadelphia, and about the same time he organized the first police force and fire company in the colonies; in 1749, after he had written Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania, he and twenty-three other citizens of Philadelphia formed themselves into an association for the purpose of establishing an academy, which was opened in 1751, was chartered in 1753, and eventually became the University of Pennsylvania; in 1727 he organized a debating club, the " Junto," in Philadelphia, and later he was one of the founders of the American Philosophical Society (1743; incorporated 1780); he took the lead in the organization of a militia force, and in the paving of the city streets, improved the method of street lighting, and assisted in the founding of a city hospital (1751); in brief, he gave the impulse to nearly every measure or project for the welfare and prosperity of Philadelphia undertaken in his day.
Having won popularity by donations to poorer citizens, he took advantage of a festival of Hera, which was being celebrated outside the walls, to make himself master of the city (about 535 B.C.).
The State also admitted that large classes of its citizens - the clergy, students, crusaders, widows and the miserable and helpless in general - were justiceable only by Church tribunals.
All the citizens were expected to attend the annual town-meeting, and such male inhabitants as were not citizens were privileged to attend and to propose and discuss measures, although they had no right to vote.
More patents are issued, relatively, to citizens of Massachusetts than to those of any other state except Connecticut.
The beginning of the active opposition to the crown may be placed in the resistance, led by James Otis, to the issuing of writs (after 1 75 2, Otis's famous argument against them being made in 1760-1761) to compel citizens to assist the revenue officers; followed later by the outburst of feeling at the imposition of the Stamp Act (1765), when Massachusetts took the lead in confronting the royal power.
In 1773 (Dec. 16) a party of citizens, disguised as Indians and instigated by popular meetings, boarded some tea-ships in the harbour of Boston, and to prevent the landing of their taxable cargoes threw them into the sea; this incident is known in history as the " Boston tea-party."
The new liberties, as might be expected, did not tend to improve the relations between the town of Utrecht and its ecclesiastical sovereign; and the feud reached its climax (1481-84) in the "groote vorlag," or great quarrel, between the citizens and Bishop David, the Bastard of Burgundy, who had been foisted upon the unwilling chapter by the combined pressure of Duke Philip of Burgundy, his half-brother, and the pope.
In 589 his fellow citizens entrusted Pittacus with despotic power (with the title of Aesymnetes) for the purpose of protecting them against the exiled nobles, at the head of whom were Alcaeus and his brother Antimenides.
It has also an orthodox bishop. The Roman Catholics, who constitute the majority of citizens, possess a lofty and beautiful cruciform cathedral, built entirely of stone and metal.
The family of Herodotus belonged to the upper rank of the citizens.
Men were not men according to Greek notions unless they were citizens; and Herodotus, aware of this, probably sharing in the feeling, was anxious, having lost his political status at Halicarnassus, to obtain such status elsewhere.
Discontent with the religious policy of New Haven, however, caused a number of the Stamford citizens to withdraw and to found Hempstead, Long Island, and for the same reason many of the people of Stamford approved of the union of the New Haven colony and Connecticut by the charter of 1662; and in October 1662 Stamford submitted to Connecticut.
They were recognized once more as citizens of Savoy, and in the war against France which broke out in 1696 the Vaudois regiment did good service for its duke.
The citizens were frequently quarrelling with the bishops, who also carried on wars with neighbouring princes, especially with the house of Brunswick-Luneburg, under whose protection Hildesheim placed itself several times.
There is no trace of its having continued into imperial times, but the cults of Lavinium were kept up, largely by the imperial appointment of honorary non-resident citizens to hold the priesthoods.
The citizens of Lavinium were known under the empire as Laurentes Lavinates, and the place itself at a late period as Laurolavinium.
Sulla retired to Puteoli after his resignation of the dictatorship in 79, and ten days before his death reconciled the disputes of the citizens by giving them a constitution.
As Christianity passed to Gentile soil, the sovereign assembly (ecclesia) of privileged citizens in each Greek city furnished an analogy to the latter usage.
The "obligatory referendum" exists in the case of all laws, while 8000 citizens have the right of "initiative" in proposing bills or alterations in the cantonal constitution.
Nicolls won over the burgomaster of New Amsterdam and other prominent citizens by the favourable terms which he offered, and Stuyvesant was forced, without fighting, into a formal surrender on the 8th of September.
The new constitution provided for a boule whose members were to be recruited by lot from all citizens above thirty; the functions of this body to be exercised by four sections succeeding one another by yearly rotation and serving without pay; all high officials to be chosen by it out of its own members.
Suffrage is conferred upon all adult citizens of the United States (including women, 1910) who have lived in the state one year, in the county ninety days, and in the city, town, ward or precinct thirty days immediately preceding the election, and are able to read and speak the English language; Indians who are not taxed, idiots, insane persons and convicts are debarred.
Since the country was considered to be of little value the question of boundaries was not pressed either by Great Britain or the United States after the War of 1812, and by a treaty concluded on the 10th of October 1818 it was agreed that " any country that may be claimed by either party on the north-west coast of North America, westward of the Stony (Rocky) Mountains shall be free and open for the term of ten years from the date of the signature of the present convention to the vessels, citizens and subjects of the two powers."
The citizens organized a " vigilance committee " and hanged many of the outlaws.
His official acts and the influence of his speeches and messages led to the adoption by both citizens and government of a new theory regarding natural resources.
Indeed, he gave sufficient satisfaction to the citizens to be re-elected at the close of his term, and it may be suspected that the honour of the position, which was really one of considerable dignity and importance, was not altogether indifferent to him.
All male citizens twenty-five years old and upwards who pay 3 marks per annum in taxes have the suffrage; and all above thirty years of age who pay 30 marks in annual taxes are eligible as members of the lower house.
It became famous by the so-called "butchery of Eperjes," a tribunal instituted by the Austrian general Caraffa in 1687, which condemned to death and confiscated the property of a great number of citizens accused of Protestantism.
Under the provisions of this lex, large tracts of land were bought up and allotted to poor citizens.
It was cumbrous and but little calculated to arouse patriotic sentiments in its citizens.
Since there was no longer a Parliament, or any personal immunity, the military authorities established unlimited police rule, which seemed to be obsessed with terror of its own citizens; anyone who seemed to them suspect was subjected to internment in concentration camps.
The governor and lieutenant-governor must be citizens of the United States, qualified electors of the state, at least thirty years old, and residents of the state for two years preceding the election.
Senators and representatives must be qualified electors, citizens of the United States, at least twenty-five years old, and residents of the state for two years next preceding election.
He demanded the nationalization of the possessions of the clergy, and the right of all citizens to carry arms. After the dissolution of the Constituent Assembly, Buzot returned to Evreux, where he was named president of the criminal tribunal.
The extent of her family connexions, and the correspondence she maintained with foreign sovereigns, together with the confidence inspired by her personal character, often enabled her to smooth the rugged places of international relations; and she gradually became in later years the link between all parts of a democratic empire, the citizens of which felt a passionate loyalty for their venerable queen.
It consists chiefly of the residences of the wealthier citizens of Sydney and is connected with the city by rail and tram.
All citizens of the United States residing in North Dakota are declared to be citizens of the state.
The right of suffrage is confined by the constitution to males twenty-one years of age, who are citizens of the United States or have declared their intention of becoming citizens, and who have resided in the state one year, in the county six months, and in the voting precinct ninety days preceding the election.
A Decorated chapel in it, formerly desecrated, was restored to sacred use by citizens of Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., in 1857, in memory of the connexion of that city with the English town.
These have been rendered possible only by the excellent system of electric tramways which have brought districts formerly classed as pure country within reach of the citizens.
The fields and places of entertainment in Islington were favourite places of resort for the citizens of London in the 17th century and later; the modern Ball's Pond Road recalls the sport of duck-hunting practised here and on other ponds in the parish, and the popularity of the place was increased by the discovery of chalybeate wells.
Of the 52,644 (42,607) foreigners, there were 34,277 (26,018) French, 10,211 (9, 26) Italians, 4653 (4283) subjects of the German empire, 583 (468) British subjects, 832 (777) Russians, and 285 (251) citizens of the United States of America.
But at that date the city obtained its independence, and is now ruled by a town council of 41 members, and an executive of 5 members, the election in each case being made direct by the citizens, and the term of office being 4 years.
By the latest enactments (one dating from 1905) 2500 citizens can claim a vote ("facultative referendum") as to any legislative project, or can exercise the "right of initiative" as to any such project or as to the revision of the cantonal constitution.
It was thus natural that the citizens should invoke the aid of Savoy against their bishop, Robert of the Genevois (1276-1287).
It was during this struggle that about 1287 (these privileges were finally sanctioned by the bishop in 1309) the citizens organized themselves into a commune or corporation, elected 4 syndics, and showed their independent position by causing a seal for the city to be prepared.
One of that bishop's successors, Adhemar Fabri (1385-1388) codified and confirmed all the franchises, rights and privileges of the citizens (1387), this grant being the Magna Carta of the city of Geneva.
This offer was refused both by the bishop and by the citizens, while in 1420 the emperor Sigismund declared that he alone was the suzerain of the city, and forbade any one to attack it or harm it in any fashion.
It split the citizens into two parties; the Eidgenots relying on the Swiss, while the Mamelus (mamelukes) supported the duke.
This much enraged the duke, who took active steps against the citizens, and tried (1527) to carry off the bishop, Pierre de la Baume (1522-1544), who soon found it best to make his submission.
The strict rule of Calvin drove out many old Genevese families, while he caused to be received as citizens many French, Italian and English refugees, so that Geneva.
Filled with joy at their rescue from this attack, the citizens crowded to their cathedral, where Beza (then 83 years of age) bid them to sing the 124th Psalm which has ever since been sung.
In the early part of 1841 the "Third of March Association" was formed to watch over the interests of the citizens, and in November of that year the government was forced by a popular demonstration to summon an assemblee constituante, which in 1842 elaborated a new constitution that was accepted by the citizens.
But this constitution did not seem liberal enough to many citizens, so that in 1846 the government gave way to the Radicals, led by James Fazy (1794-1878), who drew up a constitution that was accepted by a popular vote on the 21st of May 1847.
The Way of the Tombs at Athens was lined with stelae, some of them in memory of prominent citizens.
In towns and districts in which there lives a considerable section (20% or more) of citizens speaking a language other than Czechoslovak, schools are to be provided, the instruction to be imparted in the language of that minority.
All citizens of the republic are fully equal before the law and enjoy equal civil and political rights whatever be their race, language or religion; the special provisions for the protection of national and other minorities have already been referred to.
The great Sokol union has a membership of over 300,000 in all, and the programme includes not only physical but also moral and disciplinary training, aiming at the production of citizens of character and patriotism.
In 1381 Leopold granted to the citizens the privilege of having a town council, while in 1462 the bishops resigned all rights of jurisdiction over the town to the Habsburgers, so that its later history is merged in that of Tirol.
Most of these German citizens in process of time were absorbed by the Polish population, and became devoted, heart and soul, to their adopted country; but these were not the only Germans with whom the young Polish state depressed the land, and, at this very time, another enemy appeared in the east - the Lithuanians.
So wealthy did Cracow become at last that Casimir the Great felt it necessary to restrain the luxury of her citizens by sumptuary ordinances.
Louis the Great placed the burgesses on a level with the gentry by granting to the town council of Cracow jurisdiction over all the serfs in the extra-rural estates of the citizens.
The Czartoryscy, of all men, were bound by their principles and professions to set their fellow citizens an example of fraternal concord.
Burghers there were, properly speaking, none, for most of the citizens in the large towns were foreigners governed by the Jus magdeburgicum.
On a plateau above the river, the favourite promenade of the citizens, stands the Vladimir monument (1853) in bronze.
The garrison, of its original strength of 17,700 officers and men, had lost 4750, besides 336 citizens.
Both are brought up among shepherds, carry on war against Fidenae and Veii, double the number of citizens, organize the army, and disappear from earth in a storm.
As the contest against the proprietor had been nearly won, the majority of the best citizens desired the continuance of the old government and it was not until the Maryland delegates in the Continental Congress were found almost alone in holding back that their instructions not to vote for independence were rescinded.
Citizens of these states served on either side in the war.
There were, moreover, 170,444 naturalized French citizens, mainly of Spanish and Italian origin.
The franchise is confined to " citizens," in which category the native Jews are included by decree of the 24th of October 1870.
The Mahommedans, who number nearly eight-ninths of the population, are not, however, " citizens