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circulation

circulation

circulation Sentence Examples

  • There was a marked increase in the circulation of the evening papers.

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  • The sub-surface circulation in the Atlantic may be regarded as consisting of two parts.

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  • The sub-surface circulation in the Atlantic may be regarded as consisting of two parts.

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  • The net effect of the surrounding land is, in fact, to reverse the seasonal variations of the planetary circulation, but without destroying its type.

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  • This pumping action results in an extremely rapid circulation of the heating agent, enabling long distances to be traversed without much loss of heat.

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  • The gold reserve in the possession of the Banca dItalia on September 30th 1907 amounted to 32,240,984, and the silver reserve to 4,767,861; the foreign treasury bonds, &c. amounted to 3,324,074, making the total reserve 40,332,919; while the circulation amounted to 54,612,234.

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  • The amounts of Turkish gold, silver and debased coinage in circulation are approximately £T16,500,000, in gold, £T8,70o,000 (940,000,000 piastres at 108) in silver mejidies and fractions, and 200,000,000 piastres in beshlik and metallik.

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  • The conditions permit of the circulation of the alternating currents of low periodicity, which are used for operating the bells, but in respect of the battery the circuit is open until the subscriber lifts the receiver, when the hook switch, thus released, joins the transmitter with one winding of an induction coil in series across the circuit.

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  • The wind circulation over the Atlantic is of a very definite character.

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  • But its circulation was limited, and only the second volume had appeared (1768) when Deyverdun went abroad.

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  • But its circulation was limited, and only the second volume had appeared (1768) when Deyverdun went abroad.

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  • In order to increase the circulation, he ventured on lithographing the letters.

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  • In order to increase the circulation, he ventured on lithographing the letters.

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  • There are no alimentary canal or specialized organs for circulation or for respiration.

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  • For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.

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  • Its most important feature on the theological as distinct from the political side was the endeavour to promote the circulation of the Bible in the vernacular, by encouraging translation and procuring an order in 1538 that a copy of the Bible in English should be set up in every church in a convenient place for reading.

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  • Adrianople, small change is often supplemented by cardboard tickets, metal discs, &c., put into circulation by private establishments or individuals of good credit.

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  • There is little definite circulation of water within the Mediterranean itself.

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  • The value of their land certificates or cartetle fondiarie (representing capital in circulation) rose from 10,420,000 in 1881 to 15,560,000 in 1886, and to 30,720,000 in 1891, but fell to 29,320,000 in 1896, to 27,360,000 in 1898, and to 24,360,000 in 1907; the amount of money lent increased from 1/2Io,44o,000 in 1881 to 15,600,000 in 1886, and 30,800,000 in 1891, but fell to 29,320,000 in 1896, to 27,360,000 in 1899, and to f2I,72o,000 in 1907.

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  • I would rather ride on earth in an ox cart, with a free circulation, than go to heaven in the fancy car of an excursion train and breathe a malaria all the way.

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  • In the North Atlantic the distribution of pressure and resulting wind circulation are very largely modified by the enormous areas of land and frozen sea which surround the ocean on three sides.

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  • During this period the bank-note circulation was increased to $161,700,000, and two mortgage banks - the National Hypothecary Bank and the Provincial Mortgage Bank (of Buenos Aires) - flooded the country with $509,000,000 of cedulas (hypothecary bonds).

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  • The part of this atmospheric circulation which is steadiest in its action is the trade winds, and this is, therefore, the most effective in producing drift movement of the surface waters.

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  • This is considerably in excess of the circulation, 40,404,000, fixed by royal decree of 1900; but the issue of additional notes was allowed, provided they were entirely covered by a metallic reserve, whereas up to the fixed limit a 40% reserve only was necessary.

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  • In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes.

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  • He held this position till 1848, and worked with a remarkable intensity - holding teachers' conventions, delivering numerous lectures and addresses, carrying on an extensive correspondence, introducing numerous reforms, planning and inaugurating the Massachusetts normal school system, founding and editing The Common School Journal (1838), and preparing a series of Annual Reports, which had a wide circulation and are still considered as being "among the best expositions, if, indeed, they are not the very best ones, of the practical benefits of a common school education both to the individual and to the state" (Hinsdale).

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  • The doctrine of the circulation of the blood, which Descartes adopted from Harvey, supplied additional arguments in favour of his mechanical theory, and he probably did much to popularize the discovery.

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  • This is considerably in excess of the circulation, 40,404,000, fixed by royal decree of 1900; but the issue of additional notes was allowed, provided they were entirely covered by a metallic reserve, whereas up to the fixed limit a 40% reserve only was necessary.

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  • In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes.

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  • The doctrine of the circulation of the blood, which Descartes adopted from Harvey, supplied additional arguments in favour of his mechanical theory, and he probably did much to popularize the discovery.

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  • The rate of circulation in the ordinary low pressure hot-water system may be considerably accelerated by means of steam injections.

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  • Harvey in that remarkable work 1 which would give him a claim to rank among the founders of biological science, even had he not been the discoverer of the circulation of the blood.

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  • Hence the extraordinary slowness of their manoeuvres, not because the Austrian infantry were bad marchers, but because the preparation and circulation of orders was still far behind the French standard.

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  • The second part of the circulation in the depth is the slow " creep " of water of very low temperature along the bottom.

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  • Microfilaria nocturna swarmed in the blood at night-time and disappeared from the peripheral circulation during the day, hiding away in the large vessels at the base of the lungs and of the heart.

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  • Microfilaria nocturna swarmed in the blood at night-time and disappeared from the peripheral circulation during the day, hiding away in the large vessels at the base of the lungs and of the heart.

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  • In 1916 they were barred from circulation in Canada " because of garbled despatches " concerning the World War.

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  • In 1916 they were barred from circulation in Canada " because of garbled despatches " concerning the World War.

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  • The conception of the development of the plan of the earth from the first of cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long geological periods, the guiding power of environment on the circulation of water and of air, on the distribution of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness whici it never previously possessed.

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  • Dr Natterer, the chemist of the " Pola " expeditions, has expressed the opinion that the poverty of the pelagic fauna is solely due to the want of circulation in the depths.

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  • In 1851 further attempts were made to withdraw the paper money from circulation, but these were interrupted by the Crimean War, and the government was, on the contrary, obliged to issue notes of 20 and io piastres.

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  • But detailed studies of the circulation of the water in any small area show deviations from the calculated results that are to be expected: thus Nansen's investigation of the Norwegian sea shows that the main directions of streaming of the water are broken up by numerous large and small vortices.

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  • But detailed studies of the circulation of the water in any small area show deviations from the calculated results that are to be expected: thus Nansen's investigation of the Norwegian sea shows that the main directions of streaming of the water are broken up by numerous large and small vortices.

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  • The manner in which the circulation of hot water takes place in the tubes is as follows.

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  • In addition to the books mentioned above he published a number of books which had a remarkable circulation in England and America, such as Speaking to the Heart (1862); The Way to Life (1862); Man and the Gospel (1865); The Angel's Song (1865); The Parables (1866); Our Father's Business (1867); Out of Harness (1867); Early Piety (1868); Studies of Character from the Old Testament (1868-1870); Sundays Abroad (1871).

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  • The public library, containing 922,348 volumes in January 1908, is the second library of the country in size, and is the largest free circulating library in the world (circulation 1907, 1,529,111 volumes).

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  • There is thus a minimum circulation in the greater depths causing there uniformity of temperature, an absence of the circulation of oxygen by other means than diffusion, and a protection of the sulphuretted hydrogen from the oxidation which takes place in homologous situations in the open ocean.

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  • The circulation soon reached what was then the immense figure of 7000.

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  • On the 18th of January 1906 the currency in circulation amounted to $502,420,485, which is more than $95 per capita.

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  • Protoplasmic Movements.In the cells of many plants the cytoplasm frequently exhibits movements of circulation or rotation.

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  • It is not surprising that with such maxims as these in his mouth, unguarded in his expressions and careless of his reputation, he should have afforded room for the circulation of many stories to his disadvantage."

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  • The re-establishment of the circulation, therefore, should be undertaken with the greatest possible care.

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  • The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.

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  • wards, so that the amount of cash required for circulation on the exchange became unreasonably excessive and an annoying waste of time was entailed.

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  • The Carnegie Institute in the decade increased the extent of its service to the community; its central library, with 464,313 volumes, had 8 branches, 16 stations, 128 school stations, 10 club stations and 8 playground stations, with a circulation of 1,363,365 books; both the scientific museum and the art department added greatly to their collections; in the school of technology the enrolment grew from 2,102 students in 1909 to 4,982 students in 1920, including those in the departments of science and engineering, arts, industries and the Margaret Morrison school for women.

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  • The capital in circulation for these loans, established on the 1st of March 1326 (1910), is approximate.

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  • As main arteries for this circulation of water through its system great canals, constituting in reality so many branches of the river, connected all parts of Babylonia, and formed a natural means both of defence and also of transportation from one part of the country to another.

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  • There is no Uruguayan gold coin in circulation, but the theoretical monetary unit is the gold peso national, weighing 1.697 grammes, .917 fine.

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  • By far the greater proportion of those constituents remains in circulation in the manure of the farm, whilst the remainder yields highly valuable products for sale in the forms of meat and milk.

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  • There must have been many imperfect copies in circulation, from which people transcribed such sections as they found or chose, and afterwards completed their MS. as occasion served.

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  • There must have been many imperfect copies in circulation, from which people transcribed such sections as they found or chose, and afterwards completed their MS. as occasion served.

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  • He tested her foot for circulation.

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  • His papers were sensational in form and contents and had an enormous popular circulation.

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  • 916 to the Eastern Recension of the Hebrew Text" (1899, for private circulation).

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  • 3) are often combined in one tank placed at a point above the level of circulation.

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  • The system is hermetically sealed after being pumped full of water, an expansion chamber in the shape of a pipe of larger dimensions being provided at the top of the system above the highest point of circulation.

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  • A leading industry is the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals, several of the periodicals published here having an enormous circulation.

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  • The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.

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  • In the South Atlantic the narrow land surfaces of Africa and South America produce comparatively little effect in disturbing the normal planetary circulation.

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  • In the central parts of the two high-pressure areas there is practically no surface circulation.

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  • Paper Circulation.

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  • He formed a comprehensive theory of the variations of climate with latitude and season, and was convinced of the necessity of a circulation of water between the sea and rivers, though, like Plato, he held that this took place by water rising from the sea through crevices in the rocks, losing it .s dissolved salts in the process.

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  • From that time he was hunted from place to place, though his wide connexions with the nobility and the friendship of his numerous followers provided for him secure hiding-places and for his books a large circulation.

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  • The rule of treatment in all cases of threatened mortification is to keep the part warm by flannel or cotton-wool, but to avoid all methods which unduly hurry the returning circulation.

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  • The general scheme of oceanic circulation was made out prior to 1910.

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  • The heating of the latter causes great differences of pressure, which in turn set up changes of atmospheric circulation.

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  • The latex is not to be confused with the sap of trees, on the circulation of which their nutrition depends.

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  • The epoch-making treatise in which it was set forth, virtually finished in 1530, began to be known through the circulation in manuscript of a Commentariolus, or brief popular account of its purport written by Copernicus in that year.

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  • After the 1900 election he established and edited at Lincoln a weekly political journal, The Commoner, which attained a wide circulation.

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  • Taken internally aconite acts very notably on the circulation, the respiration and the nervous system.

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  • The action of aconitine on the circulation is due to an initial stimulation of the cardio-inhibitory centre in the medulla oblongata (at the root of the vagus nerves), and later to a directly toxic influence on the nerve-ganglia and muscular fibres of the heart itself.

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  • The antipyretic action which considerable doses of aconite display is not specific, but is the result of its influence on the circulation and respiration and of its slight diaphoretic action.

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  • The extreme pain and rapid swelling of the vocal cords - with threatened obstruction to the respiration - that characterize acute laryngitis may often be relieved by the sedative action of this drug upon the circulation.

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  • The circulation of magnetic induction or flux through magnetic and non-magnetic substances, such as iron and air, is in many respects analogous to that of an electric current through good and bad conductors.

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  • (2) But the word was applied to writings that were kept from public circulation not because of their transcendent, but of their secondary or questionable value.

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  • It must have early passed out of circulation, as it was unknown to Josephus.

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  • Under the provisions of the funding loan of 1898 a scheme for the withdrawal of the paper money was carried into effect, and by the end of December 1906 the amount in circulation had been reduced from 788,364,614 2-milreis (the outstanding circulation 31st August 1898) to 664,792,960 2-milreis.

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  • There is no gold in circulation, however, and gold duties are paid with gold cheques purchased at certain banks with paper money.

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  • The Panorama had a large circulation and influence, and Herculano's biographical sketches of great men and his articles of literary and historical criticism did much to educate the middle class by acquainting them with the story of their nation, and with the progress of knowledge and the state of letters in foreign countries.

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  • Of a similar character was the pseudo-Aristotelian Theologia which was in circulation at least as early as 1200.

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  • He saw that the amount of money in circulation did not constitute the wealth of the community, and that the prohibition of the export of the precious metals was rendered inoperative by the necessities of trade.

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  • Dr Alexander wrote a considerable number of theological works, which had a large circulation.

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  • The discontinued Harveian Institution for young men was named after William Harvey, discoverer of the circulation of the blood, a native of Folkestone (1578), who is also commemorated by a tercentenary memorial on the Lees.

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  • He was an eloquent preacher, but his reputation rests chiefly on his expository works, which are said to have had a larger circulation both in Europe and America than any others of their class.

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  • Whatever be the ancestral cell from which these cells spring, it is in the bone marrow that we find a differentiation into the various marrow cells from which are developed the mature corpuscles that pass from the marrow into the blood circulation.

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  • The gland is supposed to secrete a ferment, which, being absorbed into the portal circulation, breaks up a certain portion at least of the grape-sugar contained in the portal blood, and so prevents this overflowing into the circulation in general.

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  • Should the portion of tissue deprived of its circulation be contained in an internal organ, as is so often the case where the obstruction in the artery is due to embolism, it becomes converted into what is known as an " infarction."

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  • These infarcts are most common in organs provided with a terminal circulation, such as prevails in the kidney and spleen.

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  • 1 rapidity of the blood circulation has become greatly diminished.

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  • The sugars are taken up from the circulation and stored in a less soluble form - known as " animal starch " - in the liver and muscle cells; they play an important part in the normal metabolism of the body.

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  • For the special pathological details of various diseases, see the separate articles on Parasitic Diseases; Neuro-Pathology; Digestive Organs; Respiratory System; Blood: Circulation; Metabolic Diseases; Fever; Bladder; Kidneys; Skin Diseases; EYE Diseases; Heart Disease; EAR, &c.; and the articles on different diseases and ailments under the headings of their common names.

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  • When William Harvey by his discovery of the circulation furnished an explanation of many vital processes which was reconcilable with the ordinary laws of mechanics, the efforts of medical theorists were naturally directed to bringing all the departments of medicine under similar laws.

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  • He made a resolute attempt to reconstruct medicine on the two bases of the doctrine of the circulation of the blood and the new views of chemistry.

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  • And it is not alien from the present point of view to turn for a moment to the light thrown on the cardio-arterial pulse and the measurement of its motions by the more intimate researches into the phenomena of the circulation by many observers, among whom in the 19th century James Hope, E.

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  • By them the demonstration of Harvey that the circulation of the blood is in large part a mechanical process, and nowhere independent of mechanical laws, was considerably enlarged and extended.

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  • The discoveries of the separate paths of sensory and motor impulses in the spinal cord, and consequently of the laws of reflex action, by Charles Bell and Marshall Hall respectively, in their illumination of the phenomena of nervous function, may be compared with the discovery in the region of the vascular system of the circulation of the blood; for therein a key to large classes of normal and aberrant functions and a fertile principle of interpretation were obtained.

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  • These events, although far more mischievous in the brain, the functions of which are far-reaching, and the collateral circulation of which is ill-provided, are seen very commonly in other parts.

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  • With this broader and more accurate knowledge of the conditions of the health of the circulation a corresponding efficiency has been gained in the manipulation of certain remedies and new methods of treatment of heart diseases, especially by baths and exercises.

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  • Marey, 1863) attention was drawn to the physical features of the circulation, to the signs of degeneration of the arterial tree, and less definitely to the fluctuations of blood pressure; but as we have said under the consideration of diseases of the heart, the kymographs of Ludwig and his pupils brought out these fluctuations far more accurately and completely.

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  • About 1850, efficient ventilators of the centrifugal type were first introduced, and are now almost universally employed where the circulation of large volumes of air is necessary, as in collieries.

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  • A certain pressure of air is required to maintain circulation against the resistance, and for a given volume per minute the smaller and more irregular the mine openings the greater must be the pressure.

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  • The circulation of air in any given division of the mine is further controlled and its course determined by temporary or permanent partitions, known as brattices, by the erection of stoppings, or by the insertion of doors in the mine passages and by the use of special airways.

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  • In the walls and floor of the kiln special cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is considerably accelerated while a very even distribution of temperature is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress.

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  • On the 21st of February 1795 the project which he presented to withdraw four milliards of assignats from circulation, was rejected, and on the 3rd of April he was excluded from the committee of finance.

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  • In a similar way the more general state of motion may be analysed, given by w =r ch2('-y), y =a+, i, (26) as giving a homogeneous strain velocity to the confocal system; to which may be added a circulation, represented by an additional term in w.

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  • Flow, Circulation, and Vortex Motion.-The line integral of the tangential velocity along a curve from one point to another, defined by s v as + u'a s) ds =f (udx+vdy-}-zdz), (I) is called the " flux " along the curve from the first to the second point; and if the curve closes in on itself the line integral round the curve is called the " circulation " in the curve.

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  • With a velocity function 49, the flow -f d 4 = 4)142, (2) (9) (to) (6) (22) Z Uy (I -a4,ic /r4), so that the flow is independent of the curve for all curves mutually reconcilable; and the circulation round a closed curve is zero, if the curve can be reduced to a point without leaving a region for which 4 is single valued.

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  • By analogy with the spin of a rigid body, the component spin of the fluid in any plane at a point is defined as the circulation round a small area in the plane enclosing the point, divided by twice the area.

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  • For in a rigid body, rotating about Oz with angular velocity the circulation round a curve in the plane xy is x ds yds) ds = times twice the area.

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  • ,In a fluid, the circulation round an elementary area dxdy is equal to dv du udx + (v+dx) dy- (u+dy) dx-vdy= () dxdy, so that the component spin is dv du (5) 2 dx - dy) in the previous notation of § 24; so also for the other two components and n.

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  • Hence in any infinitesimal part of the fluid the circulation is zero round every small plane curve passing through the vortex line; and consequently the circulation round any curve drawn on the surface of a vortex filament is zero.

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  • If at any points of a vortex line the cross-section ABC, A'B'C' is drawn of the vortex filament, joined by the vortex line AA', then, since the flow in AA' is taken in opposite directions in the complete circuit ABC AA'B'C' A'A, the resultant flow in AA' cancels, and the circulation in ABC, A'B'C' is the same; this is expressed by saying that at all points of a vortex filament wa is constant where a is the cross-section of the filament and w the resultant spin (W.

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  • = -dQ+1dg2, and integrating round a closed curve (udx+vdy+wdz) =0, and the circulation in any circuit composed of the same fluid particles is constant; and if the motion is differential irrotational and due to a velocity function, the circulation is zero round all reconcilable paths.

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  • Interpreted dynamically the normal pressure of the surrounding fluid on a tube cannot create any circulation in the tube.

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  • The circulation being always zero round a small plane curve passing through the axis of spin in vortical motion, it follows conversely that a vortex filament is composed always of the same fluid particles; and since the circulation round a cross-section of a vortex filament is constant, not changing with the time, it follows from the previous kinematical theorem that aw is constant for all time, and the same for every cross-section of the vortex filament.

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  • The body is held fixed, and the reactio of the mechanism and the resultant of the impulsive pressure on th surface are a measure of the impulse, linear,, , and angula A, µ, v, required to start the circulation.

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  • 00 ab2dX °0 ab2dX (22) L (I JS)' (18) (t9) This impulse will remain of constant magnitude, and fixed relatively to the body, which thus experiences an additional reaction from the circulation which is the opposite of the force required to change the position in space of the circulation impulse; and these extra forces must be taken into account in the dynamical equations.

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  • The effect of an external circulation of vortex motion on the motion of a cylinder has been investigated in § 29; a similar procedure will show the influence of circulation through a hole in a solid, taking as the simplest illustration a ring-shaped figure, with uniplanar motion, and denoting by the resultant axial linear momentum of the circulation.

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  • ZI /t = - (a - s) M'Q 2 sine cos ° - EQ sin() =[ - (a - (3)M'U+E]V (8) Now suppose the cylinder is free; the additional forces acting on the body are the components of kinetic reaction of the liquid - aM' (Ç_vR), - (3M' (-- E -FUR), - EC' dR, (9) so that its equations of motion are M (Ç - vR) _ - aM' (_vR) - (a - $) M'VR, (io) M (Ç+uR) = - OM' (dV+U R) - (a - ()M'UR - R, '(II) C dR = dR + (a - Q)M'UV+0V; (12) and putting as before M+aM'=ci, M+13M' = c2, C+EC'=C3, ci dU - c2VR=o, dV +(c1U+E)R=o, c 3 dR - (c 1 U+ - c 2 U)V =o; showing the modification of the equations of plane motion, due to the component E of the circulation.

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  • Nevertheless, it has been found in practice, when syrups with low quotient of purity and high quotient of impurity are being treated, injecting the feed at a number of different points in the pan does reduce the time required to boil the pan, though of no practical advantage with syrups of high quotient of purity and free from the viscosity which impedes circulation and therefore quick boiling.

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  • The roots like all other parts of plants contain protoplasm or living material, which cannot carry on its functions unless it is supplied with an adequate amount of oxygen: hence the necessity for the continuous circulation of fresh air through the soil.

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  • Good crops, however, can often be grown in such areas without irrigation if attention is paid to the proper circulation of water in the soil and means for retaining it or preventing excessive loss by evaporation.

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  • The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.

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  • The tobacco is hung in a barn in which there is a free circulation of air during dry weather.

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  • When conditions so changed that government could free itself from its dependence on the baron, feudalism disappeared as the organization of society; when a professional class arose to form the judiciary, when the increased circulation of money made regular taxation possible and enabled the government to buy military and other services, and when better means of intercommunication and the growth of common ideas made a wide centralization possible and likely to be permanent.

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  • To these stories have been added others originating in Bagdad and Egypt and a few others, which were at first in independent circulation.

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  • The coinage in1906-1907was about £150,000 gold and £65,000 silver, and the total circulation in that year was estimated at £1,400,000 in gold coin and £600,000 in silver coin.

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  • A large increase in imports, caused by fictitious prosperity and inability to obtain drafts against guano shipments, led to the exportation of coin to meet commercial obligations, and this soon reduced the currency circulation to a paper basis.

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  • - In this process a current of steam, which is generated in a separate boiler and superheated, if necessary, by circulation through a heated copper worm, is led into the distilling vessel, and the mixed vapours condensed as in the ordinary processes.

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  • A posthumous work entitled Contemplatio Philosophica was printed for private circulation in 1793 by his grandson, Sir William Young, Bart., prefaced by a life of the author, and with an appendix containing letters addressed to him by Bolingbroke, Bossuet, &c. Several short papers by him were published in Phil.

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  • When a special poison has entered the wound at the time of its infliction or at some subsequent date, it is necessary to provide against septic conditions of the wound itself and blood-poisoning of the general circulation.

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  • Occasionally these translations were copied for circulation among officials, but the bulk of the people knew nothing of them.

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  • The newspapers sacrificed theiraudience to their erudition and preferred classicism to circulation.

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  • A much more moderate tone pervades the writings of the press since restrictions were entirely removed, and although there are now 1 775 journals and periodicals published throughout the empire, with a total annual circulation of some 700 million copies, intemperance of language, such as in former times would, have provoked official interference, is practically unknown to-day.

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  • The largest circulation recorded in 1908 was about 150,000 copies daily, and the honor of attaining that exceptional figure belonged to the Osaka Asahi Shimbun.

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  • It is clear that Swedenborg showed (150 years before any other scientist) that the motion of the brain was synchronous with the respiration and not with the action of the heart and the circulation of the blood, a discovery the full bearings of which are still far from being realized.

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  • As from the " pamphlet of news " arose the weekly paper wholly devoted to the circulation of news, so from the general newspaper was specialized the weekly or monthly review of literaModern ture, antigrities and science, which, when it included Magazines.

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  • Between 1840 and 1850 Graham's Magazine was the leading popular miscellany in the country, reaching at one time a circulation of about 35,000 copies.

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  • The venom is generally introduced into the subcutaneous tissue, whence it reaches the general circulation by absorption through the lymph and blood-vessels.

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  • The Australian venom and that of all viperine snakes, perhaps also that of the cobra, if introduced rapidly into the circulation, occasions extensive intravascular clotting.

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  • Then let the circulation return, and apply the ligature again.

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  • A first edition of his Historia Britonum was in circulation by the year 1139, although the text which we possess appears to date from 1147.

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  • According to Sir Thomas Fraser nothing else can compete with alcohol as a food in desperate febrile cases, and to this use must be added its antipyretic power already explained and its action as a soporific. During its administration in febrile cases the drug must be most carefully watched, as its action may prove deleterious to the nervous system and the circulation in certain classes of patient.

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  • In art-work of this nature the principal points to be looked to in depositing are the electrical connexions to the cathode, the shape of the anode (to secure uniformity of deposition), the circulation of the electrolyte, and, in some cases, the means for escape of anode oxygen.

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  • (Dunecht, for private circulation, 1877); Gill, Mem.

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  • The often-cited description of the pulmonary circulation (which occurs in the 1546 draft) begins p. 169; it has escaped even Sigmond that Servetus had an idea of the composition of water and of air; the hint for his researches was the dual form of the Hebrew words for blood, water, &c. Two treatises, Desiderius (ante 1542) and De tribus impostoribus (1598) have been wrongly ascribed to Servetus.

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  • The passage on the pulmonary circulation, first noticed by W.

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  • When these processes continue for a long time in deep water shut off from free circulation so that it does not become aerated by contact with the atmosphere the water becomes unfit to support the life of fishes, and when the accumulation of putrefying organic matter gives rise to sulphuretted hydrogen as in the Black Sea below 125 fathoms, life, other than bacterial, is impossible.

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  • The respiration of marine animals in the depths of deep basins in which there is no circulation adds to the carbonic acid at the expense of the dissolved oxygen.

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  • A cyclonic circulation of the atmosphere is associated with a cyclonic circulation of the water of the ocean, as is well shown in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic between the Azores and Greenland.

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  • The west-wind drifts on the poleward side carry back part of the water southward to reunite with the equatorial current, and thus there is set up an anticyclonic circulation of water between io and 40° in each hemisphere, the movement of the water corresponding very closely with that of the wind.

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  • Thus all the water carried forward by any current must have the place it left immediately occupied by water from another place, so that only a complete system of circulation can exist in the ocean.

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  • This produces a heaping-up of warm water towards the middle of the anticyclonic current circulation between io° and 40°, and on the other hand an updraught of deep water along the outer side of the cyclonic currents.

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  • Such currents, due to the banking up of water, have a large share in setting the depths of the sea in motion, and so securing the vertical circulation and ventilation of the ocean.

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  • Pettersson has made a careful study of ice melting as a motive power in oceanic circulation, and points out that it acts in two ways: on the surface it produces dilution of the water, forming a fresh layer and causing an outflow seaward of surface water with very low salinity; towards the deep water it produces a strong cooling effect, leading to increase of density and sinking of the chilled layers.

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  • Both actions result in the drawing in of an intermediate layer of water from a distance which takes part in the double system of vertical circulation as is indicated in fig.

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  • The actual direction of this circulation is strongly modified by the influence of the earth's rotation.

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  • Pettersson's view that ice-melting dominates the 'whole circulation of the oceans and regulates in particular the currents of the seas round northern Europe must, however, be looked on as carrying the explanation too far.

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  • A very powerful vertical circulation is thus set up between enclosed seas and the outer ocean.

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  • Buchan, " Specific Gravities and Oceanic Circulation," Trans.

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  • Whatever impression was made by this report, or by other rumours of the event on which it was founded, was far exceeded, about 1165, by the circulation of a letter purporting to be addressed by Prester John to the emperor Manuel.

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  • Such a circulation of air can only be effected by mechanical means when the workings are of any extent, the methods actually adopted being - (i) The rarefaction of the air in the upcast pit by a furnace placed at the bottom; and (2) Exhaustion by machinery at the surface.

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  • in., a circulation of 850 cub.

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  • Among the later productions of his pen were, besides the Plan of a Reform in the Election of the House of Commons, pamphlets entitled Proceedings in the House of Commons on the Slave Trade (1796), Reflections on the Abundance of Paper in Circulation and the Scarcity of Specie (1810), Historical Questions Exhibited (1818), and a Letter to Earl Grey on the Policy of Great Britain and the Allies towards Norway (1814).

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  • When A is held still, and B rotated, centrifugal action sets up vortex currents in the water in the pockets; thus a continuous circulation is caused between B and A, and the consequent changes of momentum give rise to oblique reactions.

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  • Such was the number of portraits, 2 busts and medallions of him in circulation before he left Paris that he would have been recognized from them by any adult citizen in any part of the civilized world."

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  • This was published at Cambridge, apparently for private circulation, almost immediately after Herbert's death, and a second imprint followed in the same year.

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  • It was probably these closing reflections which led to the translation of the theses from Latin into German, and their surprising circulation.

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  • He was astonished to observe the wide circulation of the theses both in the Latin and German versions.

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  • It is protected for a long distance by moles, in which a break has been left in the Fischhauser Wiek, to permit of freer circulation of the water and to prevent damage to the mainland.

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  • No organs of circulation or respiration are known; but the nervous system is well developed, and consists of a pair of ganglia corresponding with the limbs and connected by longitudinal commissural chords.

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  • Three of the Gospels have clearly been for some time in circulation; St Matthew's is used several times, and there are phrases which occur only in St Luke's, while St John's Gospel lies behind the eucharistic prayers which the writer has embodied in his work.

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  • Varin in 1640 and the practice of hammering was forbidden in 1645.3 In England the new machinery was tried in London in 1561, but abandoned soon afterwards; it was finally adopted in 1662, although the old pieces continued in circulation until 1696.

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  • In return, the Mint receives at its nominal value for recoinage the worn gold and silver coin which is withdrawn from circulation by the Bank of England and some other banks.

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  • The second volume began with a circulation of about 455 0 copies, and with a loss on the first year's publication of $3000.

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  • By the end of the third year The New Yorker had reached a circulation of 9500 copies, and had sustained a total loss of $7000.

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  • When, on the 2nd of May 1840, some time after the nomination by the Whig party of William Henry Harrison for the Presidency, Greeley began the publication of a new weekly campaign paper, The Log Cabin, it sprang at once into a great circulation; 40,000 copies of the first number were sold, and it finally rose to 80,000.

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  • By the end of the fourth week it had run up a circulation of 6000, and by the seventh reached rr,000, which was then the full capacity of its press.

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  • In September 1841 Greeley merged his weekly papers, The Log Cabin and The New Yorker, into The Weekly Tribune, which soon attained as wide circulation as its predecessors, and was much more profitable.

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  • It rose in a time of great political excitement to a total circulation of a quarter of a million, and it sometimes had for successive years 140,000 to 150,000.

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  • The circulation of The Daily Tribune was never proportionately great - its advocacy of a protective tariff, prohibitory liquor legislation and other peculiarities, repelling a large support which it might otherwise have commanded in New York.

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  • It rose within a short time after its establishment to a circulation of 20,000, reached 50,000 and 60,000 during the Civil War, and thereafter ranged at from 30,000 to 45,000.

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  • After May 1845 a semi-weekly edition was also printed, which ultimately reached a steady circulation of from 15,000 to 25,000.

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  • 2 3.7 There may have been stories in circulation like that of Ea-bani (� 8), and even such as those of the Skidi Pawnee, in which "people" marry animals, or become animals.

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  • The bank-note circulation rose in proportion.

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  • It had loans on security outstanding to the amount of 186 millions, and the bank-notes in circulation amounted to 2,130 millions of kronen.

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  • 18,440 ., 35,5 8 9 " In proportion to the increase of the notes in circulation prices and wages rose, and the krone depreciated on the foreign exchanges.

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  • The total amount of such Treasury bills in circulation at the end of 1918 was roughly 7,400 millions of kronen.

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  • Already in 1767 the book had disappeared from circulation, and no copy of it is now procurable; but the substance of it has been preserved in the Ami des hommes of Mirabeau, and the Physiocratie of Dupont de Netnours.

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  • The archetype of this section existed independently in Greek; for the second Latin and the Slavonic Versions presuppose an independent circulation of their Greek archetype in western and Slavonic countries.

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  • In 1881 he founded Knowledge, a popular weekly magazine of science (converted into a monthly in 1885), which had a considerable circulation.

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  • Partly on account of its great extent, and partly because there is no wide opening to the Arctic regions, the normal wind circulation is on the whole less modified in the North Pacific than in the Atlantic, except in the west, where the south-west logy.

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  • The isothermal lines, in fact, suggest that in the vast area of the Pacific something corresponding to the " planetary circulation " is established, further investigation of which may be of extreme value in relation to current inquiries concerning the upper air.

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  • The surface currents of the Pacific have not been studied in the same detail as those of the Atlantic, and their seasonal variations Circulation are little known except in the monsoon regions.

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  • It splits into two parts east of the Philippines, one division flowing northwards as the Kuro Siwo or Black Stream, the analogue of the Gulf Stream, to feed a drift circulation which follows the winds of the North Pacific, and finally forms the Californian Current flowing southwards along the American coast.

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  • The surface circulation of the Pacific is, on the whole, less active than that of the Atlantic. The centres of the rotational movement are marked by " Sargasso Seas " in the north and south basins, but they are of small extent compared with the Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic. From the known peculiarities of the distribution of temperature, it is probable that definite circulation of water is in the Pacific confined to levels very near the surface, except in the region of the Kuro Siwo, and possibly also in parts of the Peruvian Current.

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  • It had a circulation, great for those days, of 12,000 copies.

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  • It is legally equivalent to the silver peso, which continues in circulation.

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  • The Reformation quickened men's interest in the Scriptures to an extraordinary degree, so that, notwithstanding the adverse attitude adopted by the Roman Church at and after the council of Trent, the translation and circulation of the Bible were taken in hand with fresh zeal, and continued in more systematic fashion.

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  • In Arnauld's Defence (1669) of the famous Port Royal version of the New Testament in French (issued, 1667), he states that it had been printed in many forms and sizes, including very cheap editions for the poor, and goes on to describe how its circulation was promoted by "les sacrifices que s'imposaient les pieux solitaires pour faire participer les plus indigents au bienfait de leur entreprise.

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  • His colleagues in the Religious Tract Society united with other earnest evangelical leaders to establish a new society, which should have for its sole object "to encourage a wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures, without note or comment."

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  • (b) Another more serious controversy related to the circulation - chiefly through affiliated societies on the continent - of Bibles containing the Deutero-canonical books of the Old Testament.

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  • In 1826 the society finally resolved that its fundamental law be fully and distinctly recognized as excluding the circulation "of those Books, or parts of Books, which are usually termed Apocryphal."

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  • During the year 1905-1906 the society's circulation reached the unprecedented total of 5,977,453 copies, including 968,683 Bibles and 1,326,475 Testaments.

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  • The circulation of the Scriptures by German Bible Societies during 1905 was estimated as follows :-The Prussian Bible Society (Berlin), 182,000 copies; the Wurttemberg Bible Institute (Stuttgart), 247,000; the Berg Bible Society (Eberfeld), 142,000; the Saxon Bible Society (Dresden), 44,000; the Central Bible Association (Nuremberg), 14,000; the Canstein Bible Institute (Halle), the Schleswig-Holstein Bible Society, the Hamburg-Altona Bible Society and others, together 56,000.

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  • During 1905, nine cantonal Bible societies in Switzerland circulated altogether 71,000 copies; the Netherlands Bible Society reported a circulation of 54,544 volumes, 48,137 of which were in Dutch; the Danish Bible Society circulated 45,289 copies; the Norwegian Bible Society circulated 67,058 copies; and in Sweden the Evangelical National Society distributed about 110,000 copies.

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  • Money, "the great wheel of circulation," is altogether different from the goods which are circulated by means of it; it is a costly instrument by means of which all that each individual receives is distributed to him; and the expenditure required, first to provide it, and afterwards to maintain it, is a deduction from the net revenue of the society.

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  • A series of sermons on the relation between the discoveries of astronomy and the Christian revelation was published in January 1817, and within a year nine editions and 20,000 copies were in circulation.

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  • He allowed his supporters to suggest the offer of the regal title by putting in circulation an oracle according to which it was destined for a king of Rome to subdue the Parthians, and when at the Lupercalia (15th January 44 B.C.) Antony set the diadem on his head he rejected the offer half-heartedly on account of the groans of the people.

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  • Provisions are also made for continuing the coinage of " trade dollars " for export, which have a wide circulation in the Orient but are not current at home.

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  • The amount of gold in circulation is small, the bank notes convertible into gold taking its place.

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  • There were 34 chartered banks in Mexico in 1908, of which 29 enjoyed the privilege of issuing bank notes; the total note circulation on the 31st of December 1906 was 97,787,878 pesos.

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  • On gaining an entry into the blood of a vertebrate the organisms pass rapidly into the general circulation, and are thus carried all over.

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  • One reason for this scarcity is to be sought in connexion with the fact that multiplicative stages are very rarely met with, at any rate in the general circulation.

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  • In the one case they are entirely restricted to the neighbourhood of the boil or ulcer, whereas in the other there is a general infection of the body, the organisms spreading to all parts and being met with in the spleen, liver, bone-marrow, &c., and (rarely) in the peripheral circulation.

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  • Under these regulations the entire coinage was put into circulation.

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  • There is practically neither gold nor silver in circulation, and the value of the banknotes is so fluctuating that trade is seriously hampered.

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  • See Honore Mirabeau, Les Lettres de cachet et des prisons d'etat (Hamburg, 1782), written in the dungeon at Vincennes into which his father had thrown him by a lettre de cachet, one of the ablest and most eloquent of his works, which had an immense circulation and was translated into English with a dedication to the duke of Norfolk in 1788; Frantz Funck-Brentano, Les Lettres de cachet d Paris (Paris, 1904); and Andre Chassaigne, Les Lettres de cachet sous l'ancien regime (Paris, 1903).

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  • The money in circulation consists of a limited number of notes issued by the federal government, and the notes of the chartered banks, together with gold, silver and copper coin.

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  • The banking system, which retains many features of the Scotch system, on which it was originally modelled, combines security for the note-holders and depositors with prompt increase and diminution of the circulation in accordance with the varying conditions of trade.

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  • In October 1906 the chartered banks had an aggregate paid-up capital of over $94,000,000 with a note circulation of $83,000,000 and deposits of over $553,000,000.

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  • During an attack of fever he made observations on himself with reference to the action of quickened circulation upon thought, which led him to the conclusion that psychical phenomena were to be accounted for as the effects of organic changes in the brain and nervous system.

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  • He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.

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  • Since the amount of money in circulation was not sufficient to meet the demands of the increasing population, a system of state banks was instituted.

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  • He wished to withdraw his early art writings from circulation, but the public demand made this practically impossible.

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  • His works were translated and read abroad, and had an enormous circulation in Great Britain and the United States.

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  • This led to the circulation of many editions of Josippon, which thus formed a link in the chain of events which culminated in the readmission of the Jews to England by Cromwell.

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  • Starting from Lavoisier's discoveries, he held that life is metabolism, a perpetual circulation.

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  • Probably, then, the original and limited address, or rather salutation, was never copied when this treatise in letter form, like the epistle to the Romans, passed into the wider circulation which its contents merited.

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  • 1 Lord Overstone reprinted in 1857, for private circulation, Price's and other rare tracts on the national debt and the sinking fund.

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  • Hardly were they in circulation throughout the Frankish Empire when it happened that a pope, Nicholas I., was elected who was animated by the same spirit as that which tunities for intervening in the affairs not only of the Western but of the Eastern Church, and he seized upon them with great decision.

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  • At this time Protestant opinions were being disseminated in England chiefly by the surreptitious circulation of the works of Wycliffe, and especially of his translations of the New Testament.

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  • Of the special regard which Henry seemed to have conceived for him Latimer took advantage to pen the famous letter on the free circulation of the Bible, an address remarkable, not only for what Froude justly calls " its almost unexampled grandeur," but for its striking repudiation of the aid of temporal weapons to defend the faith, "for God," he says, "will not have it defended by man or man's power, but by His Word only, by which He hath evermore defended it, and that by a way far above man's power and reason."

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  • The Kolokol soon obtained an immense circulation, and exercised an extraordinary influence.

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  • For some years his influence in Russia was a living force, the circulation of his writings was a vocation zealously pursued.

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  • The Gurkhas, after becoming masters of Nepal, were anxious to renew the profitable traffic in coin, and in this view sent a deputation to Lhasa with a quantity of coin to be put in circulation.

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  • A continual circulation might thus be set up in an isothermal enclosure and maintained with the performance of an unlimited supply of work.

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  • However, we do hear of versions of Nestorian writers like Diodore of Tarsus being in circulation, and the Disputation of Archelaus proves that the current orthodoxy of eastern Armenia was Adoptianist, if not Ebionite in tone.

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  • The whole of the interior surface is washed with a fountain of alkali, kept in circulation by means of a small centrifugal pump. In this apparatus, and with about one horse-power utilized at the transformer, the absorption of gas is 21 litres per hour ("The Oxidation of Nitrogen Gas," Trans.

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  • After his death restorations of Apollonius's treatise De sectione determinata and of Euclid's treatise De porismatibus were printed for private circulation in xxv.

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