There was a marked increase in the circulation of the evening papers.
The sub-surface circulation in the Atlantic may be regarded as consisting of two parts.
The net effect of the surrounding land is, in fact, to reverse the seasonal variations of the planetary circulation, but without destroying its type.
This pumping action results in an extremely rapid circulation of the heating agent, enabling long distances to be traversed without much loss of heat.
The gold reserve in the possession of the Banca dItalia on September 30th 1907 amounted to 32,240,984, and the silver reserve to 4,767,861; the foreign treasury bonds, &c. amounted to 3,324,074, making the total reserve 40,332,919; while the circulation amounted to 54,612,234.
The amounts of Turkish gold, silver and debased coinage in circulation are approximately £T16,500,000, in gold, £T8,70o,000 (940,000,000 piastres at 108) in silver mejidies and fractions, and 200,000,000 piastres in beshlik and metallik.
The wind circulation over the Atlantic is of a very definite character.
The conditions permit of the circulation of the alternating currents of low periodicity, which are used for operating the bells, but in respect of the battery the circuit is open until the subscriber lifts the receiver, when the hook switch, thus released, joins the transmitter with one winding of an induction coil in series across the circuit.
But its circulation was limited, and only the second volume had appeared (1768) when Deyverdun went abroad.
In order to increase the circulation, he ventured on lithographing the letters.
There are no alimentary canal or specialized organs for circulation or for respiration.
For purposes of measurement the polar boundaries are taken to be the Arctic and Antarctic circles, although in discussing the configuration and circulation it is impossible to adhere strictly to these limits.
Its most important feature on the theological as distinct from the political side was the endeavour to promote the circulation of the Bible in the vernacular, by encouraging translation and procuring an order in 1538 that a copy of the Bible in English should be set up in every church in a convenient place for reading.
The value of their land certificates or cartetle fondiarie (representing capital in circulation) rose from 10,420,000 in 1881 to 15,560,000 in 1886, and to 30,720,000 in 1891, but fell to 29,320,000 in 1896, to 27,360,000 in 1898, and to 24,360,000 in 1907; the amount of money lent increased from 1/2Io,44o,000 in 1881 to 15,600,000 in 1886, and 30,800,000 in 1891, but fell to 29,320,000 in 1896, to 27,360,000 in 1899, and to f2I,72o,000 in 1907.
There is little definite circulation of water within the Mediterranean itself.
I would rather ride on earth in an ox cart, with a free circulation, than go to heaven in the fancy car of an excursion train and breathe a malaria all the way.
In the North Atlantic the distribution of pressure and resulting wind circulation are very largely modified by the enormous areas of land and frozen sea which surround the ocean on three sides.
The rate of circulation in the ordinary low pressure hot-water system may be considerably accelerated by means of steam injections.
During this period the bank-note circulation was increased to $161,700,000, and two mortgage banks - the National Hypothecary Bank and the Provincial Mortgage Bank (of Buenos Aires) - flooded the country with $509,000,000 of cedulas (hypothecary bonds).
The part of this atmospheric circulation which is steadiest in its action is the trade winds, and this is, therefore, the most effective in producing drift movement of the surface waters.
This is considerably in excess of the circulation, 40,404,000, fixed by royal decree of 1900; but the issue of additional notes was allowed, provided they were entirely covered by a metallic reserve, whereas up to the fixed limit a 40% reserve only was necessary.
In the stricter sense, physical geography is that part of geography which involves the processes of contemporary change in the crust and the circulation of the fluid envelopes.
He held this position till 1848, and worked with a remarkable intensity - holding teachers' conventions, delivering numerous lectures and addresses, carrying on an extensive correspondence, introducing numerous reforms, planning and inaugurating the Massachusetts normal school system, founding and editing The Common School Journal (1838), and preparing a series of Annual Reports, which had a wide circulation and are still considered as being "among the best expositions, if, indeed, they are not the very best ones, of the practical benefits of a common school education both to the individual and to the state" (Hinsdale).
The doctrine of the circulation of the blood, which Descartes adopted from Harvey, supplied additional arguments in favour of his mechanical theory, and he probably did much to popularize the discovery.
Harvey in that remarkable work 1 which would give him a claim to rank among the founders of biological science, even had he not been the discoverer of the circulation of the blood.
Hence the extraordinary slowness of their manoeuvres, not because the Austrian infantry were bad marchers, but because the preparation and circulation of orders was still far behind the French standard.
The second part of the circulation in the depth is the slow " creep " of water of very low temperature along the bottom.
The manner in which the circulation of hot water takes place in the tubes is as follows.
Microfilaria nocturna swarmed in the blood at night-time and disappeared from the peripheral circulation during the day, hiding away in the large vessels at the base of the lungs and of the heart.
In 1916 they were barred from circulation in Canada " because of garbled despatches " concerning the World War.
The conception of the development of the plan of the earth from the first of cooling of the surface of the planet throughout the long geological periods, the guiding power of environment on the circulation of water and of air, on the distribution of plants and animals, and finally on the movements of man, give to geography a philosophical dignity and a scientific completeness whici it never previously possessed.
Dr Natterer, the chemist of the " Pola " expeditions, has expressed the opinion that the poverty of the pelagic fauna is solely due to the want of circulation in the depths.
In 1851 further attempts were made to withdraw the paper money from circulation, but these were interrupted by the Crimean War, and the government was, on the contrary, obliged to issue notes of 20 and io piastres.
In addition to the books mentioned above he published a number of books which had a remarkable circulation in England and America, such as Speaking to the Heart (1862); The Way to Life (1862); Man and the Gospel (1865); The Angel's Song (1865); The Parables (1866); Our Father's Business (1867); Out of Harness (1867); Early Piety (1868); Studies of Character from the Old Testament (1868-1870); Sundays Abroad (1871).
But detailed studies of the circulation of the water in any small area show deviations from the calculated results that are to be expected: thus Nansen's investigation of the Norwegian sea shows that the main directions of streaming of the water are broken up by numerous large and small vortices.
The public library, containing 922,348 volumes in January 1908, is the second library of the country in size, and is the largest free circulating library in the world (circulation 1907, 1,529,111 volumes).
He tested her foot for circulation.
There is thus a minimum circulation in the greater depths causing there uniformity of temperature, an absence of the circulation of oxygen by other means than diffusion, and a protection of the sulphuretted hydrogen from the oxidation which takes place in homologous situations in the open ocean.
The circulation soon reached what was then the immense figure of 7000.
On the 18th of January 1906 the currency in circulation amounted to $502,420,485, which is more than $95 per capita.
Protoplasmic Movements.In the cells of many plants the cytoplasm frequently exhibits movements of circulation or rotation.
It is not surprising that with such maxims as these in his mouth, unguarded in his expressions and careless of his reputation, he should have afforded room for the circulation of many stories to his disadvantage."
The re-establishment of the circulation, therefore, should be undertaken with the greatest possible care.
The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.
wards, so that the amount of cash required for circulation on the exchange became unreasonably excessive and an annoying waste of time was entailed.
The Carnegie Institute in the decade increased the extent of its service to the community; its central library, with 464,313 volumes, had 8 branches, 16 stations, 128 school stations, 10 club stations and 8 playground stations, with a circulation of 1,363,365 books; both the scientific museum and the art department added greatly to their collections; in the school of technology the enrolment grew from 2,102 students in 1909 to 4,982 students in 1920, including those in the departments of science and engineering, arts, industries and the Margaret Morrison school for women.
The capital in circulation for these loans, established on the 1st of March 1326 (1910), is approximate.
As main arteries for this circulation of water through its system great canals, constituting in reality so many branches of the river, connected all parts of Babylonia, and formed a natural means both of defence and also of transportation from one part of the country to another.
There is no Uruguayan gold coin in circulation, but the theoretical monetary unit is the gold peso national, weighing 1.697 grammes, .917 fine.
By far the greater proportion of those constituents remains in circulation in the manure of the farm, whilst the remainder yields highly valuable products for sale in the forms of meat and milk.
There must have been many imperfect copies in circulation, from which people transcribed such sections as they found or chose, and afterwards completed their MS. as occasion served.
His papers were sensational in form and contents and had an enormous popular circulation.
916 to the Eastern Recension of the Hebrew Text" (1899, for private circulation).
3) are often combined in one tank placed at a point above the level of circulation.
The system is hermetically sealed after being pumped full of water, an expansion chamber in the shape of a pipe of larger dimensions being provided at the top of the system above the highest point of circulation.
A leading industry is the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals, several of the periodicals published here having an enormous circulation.
Thirdly, I got a virtually noiseless air circulation unit for the toilet.
The Royal Mint, in addition to supplying circulation coins, has since 1970 also produced commemorative and collectors coins.
Newspapers with weak circulation can cross the internet off their list of suspected culprits.
debased the coinage in 1526 to compete with the great number of inferior foreign pieces in circulation.
decanted off, whilst the water is picked up again for circulation by a thirty-foot water wheel.
The term ' sexual dissidence ' was put into circulation by Gayle Rubin twenty years ago in her key article ' Thinking Sex ' .
Tho produced on a stencil duplicator, photocopies and electronic uploads give it an immense circulation among the militias.
The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
In the South Atlantic the narrow land surfaces of Africa and South America produce comparatively little effect in disturbing the normal planetary circulation.
In the central parts of the two high-pressure areas there is practically no surface circulation.
He formed a comprehensive theory of the variations of climate with latitude and season, and was convinced of the necessity of a circulation of water between the sea and rivers, though, like Plato, he held that this took place by water rising from the sea through crevices in the rocks, losing it .s dissolved salts in the process.
From that time he was hunted from place to place, though his wide connexions with the nobility and the friendship of his numerous followers provided for him secure hiding-places and for his books a large circulation.
The rule of treatment in all cases of threatened mortification is to keep the part warm by flannel or cotton-wool, but to avoid all methods which unduly hurry the returning circulation.
The general scheme of oceanic circulation was made out prior to 1910.
The heating of the latter causes great differences of pressure, which in turn set up changes of atmospheric circulation.
The latex is not to be confused with the sap of trees, on the circulation of which their nutrition depends.
The epoch-making treatise in which it was set forth, virtually finished in 1530, began to be known through the circulation in manuscript of a Commentariolus, or brief popular account of its purport written by Copernicus in that year.
After the 1900 election he established and edited at Lincoln a weekly political journal, The Commoner, which attained a wide circulation.
Taken internally aconite acts very notably on the circulation, the respiration and the nervous system.
The action of aconitine on the circulation is due to an initial stimulation of the cardio-inhibitory centre in the medulla oblongata (at the root of the vagus nerves), and later to a directly toxic influence on the nerve-ganglia and muscular fibres of the heart itself.
The antipyretic action which considerable doses of aconite display is not specific, but is the result of its influence on the circulation and respiration and of its slight diaphoretic action.
The extreme pain and rapid swelling of the vocal cords - with threatened obstruction to the respiration - that characterize acute laryngitis may often be relieved by the sedative action of this drug upon the circulation.
The circulation of magnetic induction or flux through magnetic and non-magnetic substances, such as iron and air, is in many respects analogous to that of an electric current through good and bad conductors.
(2) But the word was applied to writings that were kept from public circulation not because of their transcendent, but of their secondary or questionable value.
It must have early passed out of circulation, as it was unknown to Josephus.
There is no gold in circulation, however, and gold duties are paid with gold cheques purchased at certain banks with paper money.
The Panorama had a large circulation and influence, and Herculano's biographical sketches of great men and his articles of literary and historical criticism did much to educate the middle class by acquainting them with the story of their nation, and with the progress of knowledge and the state of letters in foreign countries.
Of a similar character was the pseudo-Aristotelian Theologia which was in circulation at least as early as 1200.
He saw that the amount of money in circulation did not constitute the wealth of the community, and that the prohibition of the export of the precious metals was rendered inoperative by the necessities of trade.
Dr Alexander wrote a considerable number of theological works, which had a large circulation.
The discontinued Harveian Institution for young men was named after William Harvey, discoverer of the circulation of the blood, a native of Folkestone (1578), who is also commemorated by a tercentenary memorial on the Lees.
He was an eloquent preacher, but his reputation rests chiefly on his expository works, which are said to have had a larger circulation both in Europe and America than any others of their class.
Whatever be the ancestral cell from which these cells spring, it is in the bone marrow that we find a differentiation into the various marrow cells from which are developed the mature corpuscles that pass from the marrow into the blood circulation.
The gland is supposed to secrete a ferment, which, being absorbed into the portal circulation, breaks up a certain portion at least of the grape-sugar contained in the portal blood, and so prevents this overflowing into the circulation in general.
Should the portion of tissue deprived of its circulation be contained in an internal organ, as is so often the case where the obstruction in the artery is due to embolism, it becomes converted into what is known as an " infarction."
These infarcts are most common in organs provided with a terminal circulation, such as prevails in the kidney and spleen.
1 rapidity of the blood circulation has become greatly diminished.
The sugars are taken up from the circulation and stored in a less soluble form - known as " animal starch " - in the liver and muscle cells; they play an important part in the normal metabolism of the body.
For the special pathological details of various diseases, see the separate articles on Parasitic Diseases; Neuro-Pathology; Digestive Organs; Respiratory System; Blood: Circulation; Metabolic Diseases; Fever; Bladder; Kidneys; Skin Diseases; EYE Diseases; Heart Disease; EAR, &c.; and the articles on different diseases and ailments under the headings of their common names.
When William Harvey by his discovery of the circulation furnished an explanation of many vital processes which was reconcilable with the ordinary laws of mechanics, the efforts of medical theorists were naturally directed to bringing all the departments of medicine under similar laws.
He made a resolute attempt to reconstruct medicine on the two bases of the doctrine of the circulation of the blood and the new views of chemistry.
And it is not alien from the present point of view to turn for a moment to the light thrown on the cardio-arterial pulse and the measurement of its motions by the more intimate researches into the phenomena of the circulation by many observers, among whom in the 19th century James Hope, E.
By them the demonstration of Harvey that the circulation of the blood is in large part a mechanical process, and nowhere independent of mechanical laws, was considerably enlarged and extended.
The discoveries of the separate paths of sensory and motor impulses in the spinal cord, and consequently of the laws of reflex action, by Charles Bell and Marshall Hall respectively, in their illumination of the phenomena of nervous function, may be compared with the discovery in the region of the vascular system of the circulation of the blood; for therein a key to large classes of normal and aberrant functions and a fertile principle of interpretation were obtained.
These events, although far more mischievous in the brain, the functions of which are far-reaching, and the collateral circulation of which is ill-provided, are seen very commonly in other parts.
With this broader and more accurate knowledge of the conditions of the health of the circulation a corresponding efficiency has been gained in the manipulation of certain remedies and new methods of treatment of heart diseases, especially by baths and exercises.
Marey, 1863) attention was drawn to the physical features of the circulation, to the signs of degeneration of the arterial tree, and less definitely to the fluctuations of blood pressure; but as we have said under the consideration of diseases of the heart, the kymographs of Ludwig and his pupils brought out these fluctuations far more accurately and completely.
About 1850, efficient ventilators of the centrifugal type were first introduced, and are now almost universally employed where the circulation of large volumes of air is necessary, as in collieries.
A certain pressure of air is required to maintain circulation against the resistance, and for a given volume per minute the smaller and more irregular the mine openings the greater must be the pressure.
The circulation of air in any given division of the mine is further controlled and its course determined by temporary or permanent partitions, known as brattices, by the erection of stoppings, or by the insertion of doors in the mine passages and by the use of special airways.
In the walls and floor of the kiln special cooling channels or air passages are provided and by gradually opening these to atmospheric circulation the cooling is considerably accelerated while a very even distribution of temperature is obtained; by these means even the largest slabs can now be cooled in three or four days and are nevertheless sufficiently well annealed to be free from any serious internal stress.
On the 21st of February 1795 the project which he presented to withdraw four milliards of assignats from circulation, was rejected, and on the 3rd of April he was excluded from the committee of finance.
In a similar way the more general state of motion may be analysed, given by w =r ch2('-y), y =a+, i, (26) as giving a homogeneous strain velocity to the confocal system; to which may be added a circulation, represented by an additional term in w.
Flow, Circulation, and Vortex Motion.-The line integral of the tangential velocity along a curve from one point to another, defined by s v as + u'a s) ds =f (udx+vdy-}-zdz), (I) is called the " flux " along the curve from the first to the second point; and if the curve closes in on itself the line integral round the curve is called the " circulation " in the curve.
With a velocity function 49, the flow -f d 4 = 4)142, (2) (9) (to) (6) (22) Z Uy (I -a4,ic /r4), so that the flow is independent of the curve for all curves mutually reconcilable; and the circulation round a closed curve is zero, if the curve can be reduced to a point without leaving a region for which 4 is single valued.
By analogy with the spin of a rigid body, the component spin of the fluid in any plane at a point is defined as the circulation round a small area in the plane enclosing the point, divided by twice the area.
For in a rigid body, rotating about Oz with angular velocity the circulation round a curve in the plane xy is x ds yds) ds = times twice the area.
,In a fluid, the circulation round an elementary area dxdy is equal to dv du udx + (v+dx) dy- (u+dy) dx-vdy= () dxdy, so that the component spin is dv du (5) 2 dx - dy) in the previous notation of § 24; so also for the other two components and n.
Hence in any infinitesimal part of the fluid the circulation is zero round every small plane curve passing through the vortex line; and consequently the circulation round any curve drawn on the surface of a vortex filament is zero.
If at any points of a vortex line the cross-section ABC, A'B'C' is drawn of the vortex filament, joined by the vortex line AA', then, since the flow in AA' is taken in opposite directions in the complete circuit ABC AA'B'C' A'A, the resultant flow in AA' cancels, and the circulation in ABC, A'B'C' is the same; this is expressed by saying that at all points of a vortex filament wa is constant where a is the cross-section of the filament and w the resultant spin (W.
= -dQ+1dg2, and integrating round a closed curve (udx+vdy+wdz) =0, and the circulation in any circuit composed of the same fluid particles is constant; and if the motion is differential irrotational and due to a velocity function, the circulation is zero round all reconcilable paths.
Interpreted dynamically the normal pressure of the surrounding fluid on a tube cannot create any circulation in the tube.
The circulation being always zero round a small plane curve passing through the axis of spin in vortical motion, it follows conversely that a vortex filament is composed always of the same fluid particles; and since the circulation round a cross-section of a vortex filament is constant, not changing with the time, it follows from the previous kinematical theorem that aw is constant for all time, and the same for every cross-section of the vortex filament.
The body is held fixed, and the reactio of the mechanism and the resultant of the impulsive pressure on th surface are a measure of the impulse, linear,, , and angula A, µ, v, required to start the circulation.
00 ab2dX °0 ab2dX (22) L (I JS)' (18) (t9) This impulse will remain of constant magnitude, and fixed relatively to the body, which thus experiences an additional reaction from the circulation which is the opposite of the force required to change the position in space of the circulation impulse; and these extra forces must be taken into account in the dynamical equations.
The effect of an external circulation of vortex motion on the motion of a cylinder has been investigated in § 29; a similar procedure will show the influence of circulation through a hole in a solid, taking as the simplest illustration a ring-shaped figure, with uniplanar motion, and denoting by the resultant axial linear momentum of the circulation.
ZI /t = - (a - s) M'Q 2 sine cos ° - EQ sin() =[ - (a - (3)M'U+E]V (8) Now suppose the cylinder is free; the additional forces acting on the body are the components of kinetic reaction of the liquid - aM' (Ç_vR), - (3M' (-- E -FUR), - EC' dR, (9) so that its equations of motion are M (Ç - vR) _ - aM' (_vR) - (a - $) M'VR, (io) M (Ç+uR) = - OM' (dV+U R) - (a - ()M'UR - R, '(II) C dR = dR + (a - Q)M'UV+0V; (12) and putting as before M+aM'=ci, M+13M' = c2, C+EC'=C3, ci dU - c2VR=o, dV +(c1U+E)R=o, c 3 dR - (c 1 U+ - c 2 U)V =o; showing the modification of the equations of plane motion, due to the component E of the circulation.
Nevertheless, it has been found in practice, when syrups with low quotient of purity and high quotient of impurity are being treated, injecting the feed at a number of different points in the pan does reduce the time required to boil the pan, though of no practical advantage with syrups of high quotient of purity and free from the viscosity which impedes circulation and therefore quick boiling.
The roots like all other parts of plants contain protoplasm or living material, which cannot carry on its functions unless it is supplied with an adequate amount of oxygen: hence the necessity for the continuous circulation of fresh air through the soil.
Good crops, however, can often be grown in such areas without irrigation if attention is paid to the proper circulation of water in the soil and means for retaining it or preventing excessive loss by evaporation.
The carbon compounds of the latter are of no direct nutritive value to the succeeding crop, but the decaying vegetable tissues very greatly assist in retaining moisture in light sandy soils, and in clay soils also have a beneficial effect in rendering them more open and allowing of better drainage of superfluous water and good circulation of fresh air within them.
The tobacco is hung in a barn in which there is a free circulation of air during dry weather.
When conditions so changed that government could free itself from its dependence on the baron, feudalism disappeared as the organization of society; when a professional class arose to form the judiciary, when the increased circulation of money made regular taxation possible and enabled the government to buy military and other services, and when better means of intercommunication and the growth of common ideas made a wide centralization possible and likely to be permanent.
To these stories have been added others originating in Bagdad and Egypt and a few others, which were at first in independent circulation.
The coinage in1906-1907was about £150,000 gold and £65,000 silver, and the total circulation in that year was estimated at £1,400,000 in gold coin and £600,000 in silver coin.
A large increase in imports, caused by fictitious prosperity and inability to obtain drafts against guano shipments, led to the exportation of coin to meet commercial obligations, and this soon reduced the currency circulation to a paper basis.
- In this process a current of steam, which is generated in a separate boiler and superheated, if necessary, by circulation through a heated copper worm, is led into the distilling vessel, and the mixed vapours condensed as in the ordinary processes.
A posthumous work entitled Contemplatio Philosophica was printed for private circulation in 1793 by his grandson, Sir William Young, Bart., prefaced by a life of the author, and with an appendix containing letters addressed to him by Bolingbroke, Bossuet, &c. Several short papers by him were published in Phil.
When a special poison has entered the wound at the time of its infliction or at some subsequent date, it is necessary to provide against septic conditions of the wound itself and blood-poisoning of the general circulation.
Occasionally these translations were copied for circulation among officials, but the bulk of the people knew nothing of them.
The newspapers sacrificed theiraudience to their erudition and preferred classicism to circulation.
A much more moderate tone pervades the writings of the press since restrictions were entirely removed, and although there are now 1 775 journals and periodicals published throughout the empire, with a total annual circulation of some 700 million copies, intemperance of language, such as in former times would, have provoked official interference, is practically unknown to-day.
The largest circulation recorded in 1908 was about 150,000 copies daily, and the honor of attaining that exceptional figure belonged to the Osaka Asahi Shimbun.
It is clear that Swedenborg showed (150 years before any other scientist) that the motion of the brain was synchronous with the respiration and not with the action of the heart and the circulation of the blood, a discovery the full bearings of which are still far from being realized.
As from the " pamphlet of news " arose the weekly paper wholly devoted to the circulation of news, so from the general newspaper was specialized the weekly or monthly review of literaModern ture, antigrities and science, which, when it included Magazines.
Between 1840 and 1850 Graham's Magazine was the leading popular miscellany in the country, reaching at one time a circulation of about 35,000 copies.
The venom is generally introduced into the subcutaneous tissue, whence it reaches the general circulation by absorption through the lymph and blood-vessels.
The Australian venom and that of all viperine snakes, perhaps also that of the cobra, if introduced rapidly into the circulation, occasions extensive intravascular clotting.
Then let the circulation return, and apply the ligature again.
A first edition of his Historia Britonum was in circulation by the year 1139, although the text which we possess appears to date from 1147.
According to Sir Thomas Fraser nothing else can compete with alcohol as a food in desperate febrile cases, and to this use must be added its antipyretic power already explained and its action as a soporific. During its administration in febrile cases the drug must be most carefully watched, as its action may prove deleterious to the nervous system and the circulation in certain classes of patient.
When these processes continue for a long time in deep water shut off from free circulation so that it does not become aerated by contact with the atmosphere the water becomes unfit to support the life of fishes, and when the accumulation of putrefying organic matter gives rise to sulphuretted hydrogen as in the Black Sea below 125 fathoms, life, other than bacterial, is impossible.
The respiration of marine animals in the depths of deep basins in which there is no circulation adds to the carbonic acid at the expense of the dissolved oxygen.
A cyclonic circulation of the atmosphere is associated with a cyclonic circulation of the water of the ocean, as is well shown in the Norwegian Sea and North Atlantic between the Azores and Greenland.
The west-wind drifts on the poleward side carry back part of the water southward to reunite with the equatorial current, and thus there is set up an anticyclonic circulation of water between io and 40° in each hemisphere, the movement of the water corresponding very closely with that of the wind.
Thus all the water carried forward by any current must have the place it left immediately occupied by water from another place, so that only a complete system of circulation can exist in the ocean.
This produces a heaping-up of warm water towards the middle of the anticyclonic current circulation between io° and 40°, and on the other hand an updraught of deep water along the outer side of the cyclonic currents.
Such currents, due to the banking up of water, have a large share in setting the depths of the sea in motion, and so securing the vertical circulation and ventilation of the ocean.
Pettersson has made a careful study of ice melting as a motive power in oceanic circulation, and points out that it acts in two ways: on the surface it produces dilution of the water, forming a fresh layer and causing an outflow seaward of surface water with very low salinity; towards the deep water it produces a strong cooling effect, leading to increase of density and sinking of the chilled layers.
Both actions result in the drawing in of an intermediate layer of water from a distance which takes part in the double system of vertical circulation as is indicated in fig.
The actual direction of this circulation is strongly modified by the influence of the earth's rotation.
Pettersson's view that ice-melting dominates the 'whole circulation of the oceans and regulates in particular the currents of the seas round northern Europe must, however, be looked on as carrying the explanation too far.
A very powerful vertical circulation is thus set up between enclosed seas and the outer ocean.
Buchan, " Specific Gravities and Oceanic Circulation," Trans.
Whatever impression was made by this report, or by other rumours of the event on which it was founded, was far exceeded, about 1165, by the circulation of a letter purporting to be addressed by Prester John to the emperor Manuel.
Such a circulation of air can only be effected by mechanical means when the workings are of any extent, the methods actually adopted being - (i) The rarefaction of the air in the upcast pit by a furnace placed at the bottom; and (2) Exhaustion by machinery at the surface.
in., a circulation of 850 cub.
Among the later productions of his pen were, besides the Plan of a Reform in the Election of the House of Commons, pamphlets entitled Proceedings in the House of Commons on the Slave Trade (1796), Reflections on the Abundance of Paper in Circulation and the Scarcity of Specie (1810), Historical Questions Exhibited (1818), and a Letter to Earl Grey on the Policy of Great Britain and the Allies towards Norway (1814).
When A is held still, and B rotated, centrifugal action sets up vortex currents in the water in the pockets; thus a continuous circulation is caused between B and A, and the consequent changes of momentum give rise to oblique reactions.
Such was the number of portraits, 2 busts and medallions of him in circulation before he left Paris that he would have been recognized from them by any adult citizen in any part of the civilized world."
This was published at Cambridge, apparently for private circulation, almost immediately after Herbert's death, and a second imprint followed in the same year.
It was probably these closing reflections which led to the translation of the theses from Latin into German, and their surprising circulation.
He was astonished to observe the wide circulation of the theses both in the Latin and German versions.
It is protected for a long distance by moles, in which a break has been left in the Fischhauser Wiek, to permit of freer circulation of the water and to prevent damage to the mainland.
No organs of circulation or respiration are known; but the nervous system is well developed, and consists of a pair of ganglia corresponding with the limbs and connected by longitudinal commissural chords.
Three of the Gospels have clearly been for some time in circulation; St Matthew's is used several times, and there are phrases which occur only in St Luke's, while St John's Gospel lies behind the eucharistic prayers which the writer has embodied in his work.
Varin in 1640 and the practice of hammering was forbidden in 1645.3 In England the new machinery was tried in London in 1561, but abandoned soon afterwards; it was finally adopted in 1662, although the old pieces continued in circulation until 1696.
In return, the Mint receives at its nominal value for recoinage the worn gold and silver coin which is withdrawn from circulation by the Bank of England and some other banks.
The second volume began with a circulation of about 455 0 copies, and with a loss on the first year's publication of $3000.
By the end of the third year The New Yorker had reached a circulation of 9500 copies, and had sustained a total loss of $7000.
When, on the 2nd of May 1840, some time after the nomination by the Whig party of William Henry Harrison for the Presidency, Greeley began the publication of a new weekly campaign paper, The Log Cabin, it sprang at once into a great circulation; 40,000 copies of the first number were sold, and it finally rose to 80,000.
By the end of the fourth week it had run up a circulation of 6000, and by the seventh reached rr,000, which was then the full capacity of its press.
In September 1841 Greeley merged his weekly papers, The Log Cabin and The New Yorker, into The Weekly Tribune, which soon attained as wide circulation as its predecessors, and was much more profitable.
It rose in a time of great political excitement to a total circulation of a quarter of a million, and it sometimes had for successive years 140,000 to 150,000.
The circulation of The Daily Tribune was never proportionately great - its advocacy of a protective tariff, prohibitory liquor legislation and other peculiarities, repelling a large support which it might otherwise have commanded in New York.
It rose within a short time after its establishment to a circulation of 20,000, reached 50,000 and 60,000 during the Civil War, and thereafter ranged at from 30,000 to 45,000.
After May 1845 a semi-weekly edition was also printed, which ultimately reached a steady circulation of from 15,000 to 25,000.
2 3.7 There may have been stories in circulation like that of Ea-bani (ï¿½ 8), and even such as those of the Skidi Pawnee, in which "people" marry animals, or become animals.
The bank-note circulation rose in proportion.
It had loans on security outstanding to the amount of 186 millions, and the bank-notes in circulation amounted to 2,130 millions of kronen.
18,440 ., 35,5 8 9 " In proportion to the increase of the notes in circulation prices and wages rose, and the krone depreciated on the foreign exchanges.
The total amount of such Treasury bills in circulation at the end of 1918 was roughly 7,400 millions of kronen.
Already in 1767 the book had disappeared from circulation, and no copy of it is now procurable; but the substance of it has been preserved in the Ami des hommes of Mirabeau, and the Physiocratie of Dupont de Netnours.
The archetype of this section existed independently in Greek; for the second Latin and the Slavonic Versions presuppose an independent circulation of their Greek archetype in western and Slavonic countries.
In 1881 he founded Knowledge, a popular weekly magazine of science (converted into a monthly in 1885), which had a considerable circulation.
Partly on account of its great extent, and partly because there is no wide opening to the Arctic regions, the normal wind circulation is on the whole less modified in the North Pacific than in the Atlantic, except in the west, where the south-west logy.
The isothermal lines, in fact, suggest that in the vast area of the Pacific something corresponding to the " planetary circulation " is established, further investigation of which may be of extreme value in relation to current inquiries concerning the upper air.
The surface currents of the Pacific have not been studied in the same detail as those of the Atlantic, and their seasonal variations Circulation are little known except in the monsoon regions.
It splits into two parts east of the Philippines, one division flowing northwards as the Kuro Siwo or Black Stream, the analogue of the Gulf Stream, to feed a drift circulation which follows the winds of the North Pacific, and finally forms the Californian Current flowing southwards along the American coast.
The surface circulation of the Pacific is, on the whole, less active than that of the Atlantic. The centres of the rotational movement are marked by " Sargasso Seas " in the north and south basins, but they are of small extent compared with the Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic. From the known peculiarities of the distribution of temperature, it is probable that definite circulation of water is in the Pacific confined to levels very near the surface, except in the region of the Kuro Siwo, and possibly also in parts of the Peruvian Current.
It had a circulation, great for those days, of 12,000 copies.
It is legally equivalent to the silver peso, which continues in circulation.
The Reformation quickened men's interest in the Scriptures to an extraordinary degree, so that, notwithstanding the adverse attitude adopted by the Roman Church at and after the council of Trent, the translation and circulation of the Bible were taken in hand with fresh zeal, and continued in more systematic fashion.
His colleagues in the Religious Tract Society united with other earnest evangelical leaders to establish a new society, which should have for its sole object "to encourage a wider circulation of the Holy Scriptures, without note or comment."
(b) Another more serious controversy related to the circulation - chiefly through affiliated societies on the continent - of Bibles containing the Deutero-canonical books of the Old Testament.
In 1826 the society finally resolved that its fundamental law be fully and distinctly recognized as excluding the circulation "of those Books, or parts of Books, which are usually termed Apocryphal."
During the year 1905-1906 the society's circulation reached the unprecedented total of 5,977,453 copies, including 968,683 Bibles and 1,326,475 Testaments.
The circulation of the Scriptures by German Bible Societies during 1905 was estimated as follows :-The Prussian Bible Society (Berlin), 182,000 copies; the Wurttemberg Bible Institute (Stuttgart), 247,000; the Berg Bible Society (Eberfeld), 142,000; the Saxon Bible Society (Dresden), 44,000; the Central Bible Association (Nuremberg), 14,000; the Canstein Bible Institute (Halle), the Schleswig-Holstein Bible Society, the Hamburg-Altona Bible Society and others, together 56,000.
During 1905, nine cantonal Bible societies in Switzerland circulated altogether 71,000 copies; the Netherlands Bible Society reported a circulation of 54,544 volumes, 48,137 of which were in Dutch; the Danish Bible Society circulated 45,289 copies; the Norwegian Bible Society circulated 67,058 copies; and in Sweden the Evangelical National Society distributed about 110,000 copies.
Money, "the great wheel of circulation," is altogether different from the goods which are circulated by means of it; it is a costly instrument by means of which all that each individual receives is distributed to him; and the expenditure required, first to provide it, and afterwards to maintain it, is a deduction from the net revenue of the society.
A series of sermons on the relation between the discoveries of astronomy and the Christian revelation was published in January 1817, and within a year nine editions and 20,000 copies were in circulation.
He allowed his supporters to suggest the offer of the regal title by putting in circulation an oracle according to which it was destined for a king of Rome to subdue the Parthians, and when at the Lupercalia (15th January 44 B.C.) Antony set the diadem on his head he rejected the offer half-heartedly on account of the groans of the people.
Provisions are also made for continuing the coinage of " trade dollars " for export, which have a wide circulation in the Orient but are not current at home.
The amount of gold in circulation is small, the bank notes convertible into gold taking its place.
There were 34 chartered banks in Mexico in 1908, of which 29 enjoyed the privilege of issuing bank notes; the total note circulation on the 31st of December 1906 was 97,787,878 pesos.
On gaining an entry into the blood of a vertebrate the organisms pass rapidly into the general circulation, and are thus carried all over.
One reason for this scarcity is to be sought in connexion with the fact that multiplicative stages are very rarely met with, at any rate in the general circulation.
In the one case they are entirely restricted to the neighbourhood of the boil or ulcer, whereas in the other there is a general infection of the body, the organisms spreading to all parts and being met with in the spleen, liver, bone-marrow, &c., and (rarely) in the peripheral circulation.
Under these regulations the entire coinage was put into circulation.
There is practically neither gold nor silver in circulation, and the value of the banknotes is so fluctuating that trade is seriously hampered.
See Honore Mirabeau, Les Lettres de cachet et des prisons d'etat (Hamburg, 1782), written in the dungeon at Vincennes into which his father had thrown him by a lettre de cachet, one of the ablest and most eloquent of his works, which had an immense circulation and was translated into English with a dedication to the duke of Norfolk in 1788; Frantz Funck-Brentano, Les Lettres de cachet d Paris (Paris, 1904); and Andre Chassaigne, Les Lettres de cachet sous l'ancien regime (Paris, 1903).
The money in circulation consists of a limited number of notes issued by the federal government, and the notes of the chartered banks, together with gold, silver and copper coin.
The banking system, which retains many features of the Scotch system, on which it was originally modelled, combines security for the note-holders and depositors with prompt increase and diminution of the circulation in accordance with the varying conditions of trade.
In October 1906 the chartered banks had an aggregate paid-up capital of over $94,000,000 with a note circulation of $83,000,000 and deposits of over $553,000,000.
During an attack of fever he made observations on himself with reference to the action of quickened circulation upon thought, which led him to the conclusion that psychical phenomena were to be accounted for as the effects of organic changes in the brain and nervous system.
He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.
Since the amount of money in circulation was not sufficient to meet the demands of the increasing population, a system of state banks was instituted.
He wished to withdraw his early art writings from circulation, but the public demand made this practically impossible.
His works were translated and read abroad, and had an enormous circulation in Great Britain and the United States.
This led to the circulation of many editions of Josippon, which thus formed a link in the chain of events which culminated in the readmission of the Jews to England by Cromwell.
Starting from Lavoisier's discoveries, he held that life is metabolism, a perpetual circulation.
Probably, then, the original and limited address, or rather salutation, was never copied when this treatise in letter form, like the epistle to the Romans, passed into the wider circulation which its contents merited.
1 Lord Overstone reprinted in 1857, for private circulation, Price's and other rare tracts on the national debt and the sinking fund.
Hardly were they in circulation throughout the Frankish Empire when it happened that a pope, Nicholas I., was elected who was animated by the same spirit as that which tunities for intervening in the affairs not only of the Western but of the Eastern Church, and he seized upon them with great decision.
At this time Protestant opinions were being disseminated in England chiefly by the surreptitious circulation of the works of Wycliffe, and especially of his translations of the New Testament.
Of the special regard which Henry seemed to have conceived for him Latimer took advantage to pen the famous letter on the free circulation of the Bible, an address remarkable, not only for what Froude justly calls " its almost unexampled grandeur," but for its striking repudiation of the aid of temporal weapons to defend the faith, "for God," he says, "will not have it defended by man or man's power, but by His Word only, by which He hath evermore defended it, and that by a way far above man's power and reason."
The Kolokol soon obtained an immense circulation, and exercised an extraordinary influence.
For some years his influence in Russia was a living force, the circulation of his writings was a vocation zealously pursued.
The Gurkhas, after becoming masters of Nepal, were anxious to renew the profitable traffic in coin, and in this view sent a deputation to Lhasa with a quantity of coin to be put in circulation.
A continual circulation might thus be set up in an isothermal enclosure and maintained with the performance of an unlimited supply of work.
However, we do hear of versions of Nestorian writers like Diodore of Tarsus being in circulation, and the Disputation of Archelaus proves that the current orthodoxy of eastern Armenia was Adoptianist, if not Ebionite in tone.
The whole of the interior surface is washed with a fountain of alkali, kept in circulation by means of a small centrifugal pump. In this apparatus, and with about one horse-power utilized at the transformer, the absorption of gas is 21 litres per hour ("The Oxidation of Nitrogen Gas," Trans.
After his death restorations of Apollonius's treatise De sectione determinata and of Euclid's treatise De porismatibus were printed for private circulation in xxv.
C. Dawson's biography of him worked a revolution in the circulation of missionary literature.
In such an exploration of the sun's atmosphere it might be anticipated that definite currents, or some evidences of atmospheric circulation analogous to those familiar in terrestrial meteorology, would be discovered.
a free circulation of air through the pit.
The highest points of the pipes are fitted with small taps, for the removal of air, which would retard circulation if allowed to remain.
If they are adopted, the wires should be a few inches away from the wall, to allow free circulation of air between it and the tree, and thus avoid the scorching or burning of leaves and fruits during the summer months in very hot places.
A genial moist atmosphere must be kept up in the hottest houses during the growing season, with a free circulation of air admitted very cautiously by well-guarded ventilators.
The aorta is not independent as in Chitons, but is a sinus like the other channels of the circulation.
He published the story of his life, Twenty-five Years in the Secret Service, and it had an immense circulation.
He goes on to show that the variations of prices are due solely to money and commodities in circulation.
In 904theaverage value of notes in circulation was 645,989,100 francs.
Nickel money is for 5, Io and 20 centimes, and the copper coinage has been withdrawn from circulation.
The allimportant property of the drug is its action on the circulation.
The action of this drug on the kidney is of importance only second to its action on the circulation.
In large doses the action of digitalis on the circulation causes various cerebral symptoms, such as seeing all objects blue, and various other disturbances of the special senses.
Digitalis is used in therapeutics exclusively for its action on the circulation.
This change of colour is chiefly occasioned by the diminished circulation in the leaves, and the higher degree of oxidation to which their chlorophyll has been submitted.
Of the newspapers published at Cologne the most important is the Kolnische Zeitung (often referred to as the "Cologne Gazette"), which has the largest circulation of any paper in Germany, and great weight and influence.
(a) In the practice of the resistance method, both ends of a short bar are kept at a steady temperature by means of solid copper blocks provided with a water circulation, and the whole is surrounded by a jacket at the same temperature, which is taken as the zero of reference.
In November 1640 the Long Parliament succeeded to the Short, and sent Laud and Strafford to the Tower, and Hobbes, who had become, or thought he had become, a marked man by the circulation of his treatise (of which, " though not printed, many gentlemen had copies "), hastened to Paris, " the first of all that fled."
That periodical, just entering on the ninth year of its long existence, was the only one in the kingdom which then had what would now be called a large circulation.
Newspapers.While in England a few important newspapers I have an immense circulation, the newspapers of Germany are much more numerous, but on the whole command a more limited sale.
Some large cities, notably Berlin, Cologne, Hamburg, Dresden, Leipzig and Munich, have, however, newspapers with a daily circulation of over 100,000 copies, and in the case of some papers in Berlin a million copies is reached.
The old gold coins, amounting to 4,550,000, had been called in 1900 8 as early as 1873: and the old silver coins have 1901 7 since been successively put out of circulation, so 1902 6 that none actually remains as legal tender but the 1903 6 thaler (3s).
Besides these ten-mark pieces, there are Doppclkronen (double crowns), about equivalent in value to an English sovereign (the average rate of exchange being 20 marks 40 pfennige per LI sterling), and, formerly, half-crowns (halbe Kronen =5 marks) in gold were also issued, hut they have been withdrawn from circulation.
Before that date there existec thirty-two banks with the privilege of issuing notes, and on the 31s1 of December 1872, 67,100,000 in all was in circulation, L25,Ioo,00c of that sum being uncovered.
The banking law was designed tc reduce this circulation of notes; 19,250,000 was fixed as an aggre gate maximum of uncovered notes of t,he banks.
Circulation, other Liabilities.
Any part of this issue assigned to private banks which might be withdrawn from circulation, owing to a deficiency in the legal reserve funds, was to be transferred to the Reichsbank.
This was a prosecution of nine German subjects for sedition, conspiracy and lse-majest against the Russian emperor, and for the circulation of books and pamphlets attacking him and his government.
His chief literary work was An Alarm to the Unconverted (1672), otherwise known as The Sure Guide to Heaven, which had an enormous circulation.
1 Subsequent pontiffs continued to exhort the episcopate and the whole body of the faithful to be on their guard against heretical writings, whether old or new; and one of the functions of the Inquisition when it was established was to exercise a rigid censorship over books put in circulation.
To counteract it celibacy was finally imposed on the clergy, and the great mendicant orders evolved; while the constant polemic of the Cathar teachers against the cruelty, rapacity and irascibility of the Jewish tribal god led the church to prohibit the circulation of the Old Testament among laymen.
The bank's notes of issue must be covered to the extent of two-fifths by legal specie (gold and current silver) in reserve; the rest of the paper circulation, according to bank usage.
The accounts of the bank at the end of 1900 were as follows: capital, £8,750,000; reserve fund, £428,250; note circulation, £62,251,000; cash, £50,754,000.
In 1907 the reserve fund was £548,041; note circulation, £84,501,000; cash, £60,036,625.
The first step towards putting this act into practice was the issue of one-krone pieces (silver), which circulated as half gulden, and of nickel coins; all the copper coins and other silver coins were recalled, the silver gulden alone being left in circulation.
This was, however, not put into circulation; it was used first for paying off the Staatsnoten.
For the time until the 1st of July 1908, however, the old gulden were left in circulation, payments made in them, at the rate of two kronen to one gulden, being legal up to any amount.
Most's paper, the Freiheit, was introduced through Switzerland, and had a large circulation.
Formerly European coins of all kinds were in general circulation, now the only foreign coins current are the English sovereign, the French 20 franc piece and the Turkish mejidie, a gold coin worth 18 shillings.
The Egyptian pound is practically nonexistent, nearly all that were coined having been withdrawn from circulation.
In practice the system works perfectly smoothly, the gold flowing in and out of the country through the agency of private banking establishments in proportion to the requirements of the circulation.
As in most agricultural countries, there is a great expansion of the circulation in the autumn and winter months in order to move the crops, followed by a long period of contracted circulation throughout the rest of the year.
Several books of proverbs or instructions were put in circulation during the Middle Kingdom.
Sixtus prided himself upon his hoard, but the method by which it had been amassed was financially unsound: some of the taxes proved ruinous, and the withdrawal of so much money from circulation could not fail to cause distress.
Muscles when active seem to pour into the circulation substances which, of unknown chemical composition, are physiologically recognizable by their stimulant action on the respiratory nervous centre.
A free exchange of views took place, with the result that Mr. Asquith invited the Press to appoint a representative who would interview Lord Kitchener and Mr. Churchill each week with the object of putting questions to them and receiving private information for circulation to editors.
This led to the circulation of malicious stories to the effect that Great Britain was not doing her share, and that she was preserving her soldiers at the expense of those furnished from overseas.
But his most original creation in this respect was the zone system, which immensely facilitated and cheapened the circulation of all wares and produce, and brought the remotest districts into direct communication with the central point at Budapest.
Both appear first in the 15th century, probably as results of the war for the Toggenburg inheritance (1436-50); for the intense hatred of Austria, greatly increased by her support of the claims of Zurich, favoured the circulation of stories which assumed that Swiss freedom was of immemorial antiquity, while, as the war was largely a struggle between the civic and rural elements in the Confederation, the notion that the (rural) Schwyzers were of Scandinavian descent at once separated them from and raised them above the German inhabitants of the towns.
His membership of that body was alone sufficient to make him an object of suspicion; his administration at the regie des poudres was attacked; and Marat accused him in the Ami du Peuple of putting Paris in prison and of stopping the circulation of air in the city by the mur d'octroi erected at his suggestion in 1787.
is carefully piled in tiers or courses, with strips of wood about an inch thick between each layer, so as to allow of the free circulation of air all round each piece.
an expansion of a lecture delivered to young men in Exeter Hall, which attained a circulation of 30,000 copies within a year of its publication.
These sources then are " post-exilic," and the elimination of material first composed in that age leaves historical, legal and other material which was obviously in circulation (so, e.g., the non-priestly portions of Genesis).
Armstrong before the London Chemical Society on the 31st of October 1901 contained many personal details of Frankland's life, together with a full discussion of his scientific work; and a volume of Autobiographical Sketches was printed for private circulation in 1902.
His police stories, though not so convincing as those of Emile Gaboriau, with whom his name is generally associated, had a great circulation, and many of them have been translated into English.
Nor is it possible to accept the statements that " the splendid genius, the lasting influence, and the reiterated polemics of Plato have stamped the name sophist upon the men against whom he wrote as if it were their recognized, legitimate and peculiar designation," and that " Plato not only stole the name out of general circulation,.
When the internal circulation failed, he issued a forced currency of copper, which is said to have deranged the whole commerce of the country.
During his college course he wrote a number of trivial pieces for a college magazine, and shortly after graduating printed for private circulation the poem which his class asked him to write for their graduation festivities.
The results of the Australian and German expeditions, which were for a great part of the time synchronous with those of Scott and Amundsen, required to be taken into consideration before a general theory of the atmospheric circulation within the Antarctic circle could be established.
Other letters of Cicero, especially those written to persons with whom he was not quite at his ease or those meant for circulation, are composed in his elaborate style with long periods, parentheses and other devices for obscuring thought.
end of the lake), and the efforts of the Austrian police to prevent their circulation were completely powerless.
To aid the free circulation of money and facilitate trade, the government grants subsidies for the establishment of co-operative warehouse companies with bonded warehouses.
When Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France appeared, in 1790, Paine at once wrote his answer, The Rights of Man first part appeared on the r3th of March 1791, and had an enormous circulation before the government took alarm and endeavoured to suppress it, thereby exciting intense curiosity to see it, even at the risk of heavy penalties.
The current coin consists largely of Mexican and Central and South American dollars; but little coin is in circulation.
the self-regarding actions of men) which alone, by means of inventions and the circulation of capital in connexion with luxurious living, stimulate society into action and progress.
Besides these contributions from his own pen, he did much for the series by suggesting subjects, by reviewing tracts written by others, and by lending to their circulation the weight of his personal influence.
In the Gulfs of Suez and Akaba, almost the only part of the Red Sea in which tidal phenomena are well developed, a sharply defined tidal circulation is found.
The great evaporation going on from the surface probably causes a slow vertical circulation in the depth, the salter colder waters sinking, and ultimately escaping to the Indian Ocean.
"Challenger," " Oceanic Circulation," p. 30; J.
She did much by the circulation of petitions to secure the passage in New York in 1848 of a law giving a married woman property rights; and in the same year on the 19th and 20th of June in Seneca Falls, whither the Stantons had removed in 1847 from Boston, was held, chiefly under the leadership of Mrs Mott and Mrs Stanton, the first Woman's Rights Convention.
The biography, though worthless, had an immense circulation, and is to a considerable degree responsible for the traditional conception of Washington.
In a country in which newspapers had at best only a local circulation, and where communication was still slow and difficult, the knowledge that Washington favoured anything superseded, with very many men, both argument and the necessity of information.
This committee publishes a magazine of " Life and Work," which has a circulation of over 10o,000, and has organized young men's gilds in connexion with congregations and revived the ancient order of deaconesses.
During the earlier half of the 17th century the number of Welsh Bibles distributed throughout the Principality could hardly have exceeded 8000 in all, and except the Bible there was scarcely any Welsh work of importance in circulation.
The "dolce libriccino," the famous Trattato utilissimo del beneficio di Gesu Christo crocifisso verso i christiani, which was the composition of a Sicilian Benedictine and had been touched up by the great latinist Flaminio, just appeared at Mantua in 1542 under the auspices of Morone, and had a wide circulation (over 40,000 copies of the second edition, Venice 1543, were sold).
in London from drawings and patterns sent over from New York, for weekly papers of large circulation.
It is possible, therefore, that written works were in circulation among the learned, and that these contained varying interpretations which were likely to injure efforts to maintain a uniform Judaism.
Then a single monthly magazine, with a circulation of a few hundreds, was all that the denomination possessed in the way of periodical literature; in 1906 its quarterlies, monthlies and weeklies were numbered by hundreds.
Provision for circulation of solution is made in the systems of copper-refining now in use.
Obviously this slow circulation has but little effect on the rate at which the copper may be deposited.
The monetary unit is io kronor gold, and gold pieces, not widely met with in circulation, are struck of 20, 10 and 5 kronor.
The Caps struck at once at the weak point of their opponents by ordering a budget report to be made; and it was speedily found that the whole financial system of the Hats had been based upon reckless improvidence and c prof the wilful misrepresentation, and that the only fruit of their long rule was an enormous addition to the national debt and a depreciation of the note circulation to onethird of its face value.
The monetary circulation in Chile consists almost wholly of paper currency, nominally based on a gold standard of 1 The expenditures of 1902 are also given as 25,882,702 pesos gold, and 108,844,693 pesos currency.
previous to that date; but the financial crisis of 1898 caused the suspension of specie payments, and a forced issue of additional paper led to a further postponement of conversion and the prompt withdrawal of specie from circulation.
The paper circulation consists of national and bank issues.
On the 1st of January 1890 the national issues stood at 22,487,916 pesos, and the bank issues at 16,679,790 pesos, making a total of 39,167,706 pesos currency in circulation.
This gave an aggregate registered circulation of 86,045,166 pesos in 1898.
In 1904 another issue of 30,000,000 pesos was authorized and the date of conversion was still further postponed, and in 1907 a more general act provided that the maximum paper circulation should not exceed 150,000,000 pesos of the value of 18d.
In 1807, in conjunction with his cousin Karl van Ess, he had published a German translation of the New Testament, and, as its circulation was discountenanced by his superiors, he published in 1808 a defence of his views, entitled Ausziige aus den heiligen Veitern and anderen Lehrern der katholischen Kirche fiber das nothwendige and niitzliche Bibellesen.
In 1822 he resigned his offices at Marburg in order to devote his whole time to the defence of his views regarding Bible reading by the people, and to endeavour to promote the circulation of the scriptures.
Taking this value of the kran, the values of the various nickel and silver coins in circulation work out as:
This was owing to the depreciation of the copper coir~age from 1896 onwards, consequent upon there being an excess of coinage due to the excessive quantities formerly put in circulation from the mint.
Accordingly the government in 1900 replaced the copper by a nickel coinage (face value of nickel coin in circulation end of 1907, 4,000,000 bans).
Gold coins are: 3/4, 3/4, I, 2, 5, and 10 toman pieces, but they are not in circulation as current money because of their ever-varying value in silver krans, which depends upon the exchange on London.
In his paper on Banking in Persia (Journal of the Instit~ute of Bankers, 1891), Mr Joseph Rabino pointed out the great difficulties which make the easy distribution of fundsthat is, the providing them when and where requireda matter of impossibility in Persia, and gives this fact as the reason why the Imperial Bank of Persia has local issues of notes, payable at the issuing branches only, for, in a country like Persia, where movements of specie are so costly, slow and difficult as to become impracticable except on a small scale, the danger of issuing notes payable at more than one place is obvious On the 20th of September 1907 the value of the notes in circulation was 395,000, and the bank held 550,000 deposits in Persia.
cease and the excess of the copper coinage be withdrawn from circulation.
removal of the pain, better action of the heart, and more perfect circulation.
Thus a very strong heart, although it may be useful to its possessor for many years, driving the blood rapidly through the vessels, and supplying all his tissues with such abundant nutriment as to enable him to endure great exertion, mental or bodily, may in the end cause death by bursting a vessel in the brain, which might have resisted the pressure of a feebler circulation for years longer.
On the other hand, a heart that is too feeble may cause its owner's death by its inability to carry on the circulation against increased - resistance.
This may occur suddenly, as when the resistance is increased in the arterial system by a e on f sudden exertion or strain, and more slowly when the resistance is increased in the pulmonary circulation of the by inflammation of the respiratory passages.
The thyroid gland, which is situated in front of the neck, yields a secretion which passes into the blood and there tends to maintain a state of moderate dilatation in the blood-vessels and of oxidization in the tissues, so that the circulation remains good and the body-heat and muscular activity remain well maintained.
On the other hand, when it becomes atrophied the circulation becomes feeble, the face heavy and dull, the patient suffers from cold, the features glow lumpish, mental processes become sluggish, and bodily vigour diminishes.
Therapeutic measures which are commonly adopted in the treatment of a cold have for their object, to destroy the microbes before they penetrate fairly into the organism, and to restore the balance of the circulation and increase the strength of the invaded parts.
Sometimes the patient is put to bed and the circulation is encouraged, especially on the surface of the body, by the use of hot spirits and water, or opium and ipecacuanha, while the outside of the nose is protected to a certain extent from loss of heat, and consequent irritation, by smearing it with a tallow candle or rubbing some ointment over the skin.
On the other hand, when the ulceration is old and the circulation through it poor, the aim of the therapeutist is to reawaken the normal reparative process, to bring about increased circulation and increased tissue change, and thereby insure healing.
Although the high temperature in an inflamed part is chiefly due to the increased circulation of blood in it, yet the presence of inflammation appears to cause increased formation of heat either in the inflamed part itself or in the body generally, because we rarely find inflammation exist to any extent without the temperature of the body being raised and a febrile condition produced.
When a patient is covered with several blankets, loss of heat from the surface both by radiation and evaporation is to a great extent prevented, but if a cradle be placed over him, so as to raise the bedclothes and allow of free circulation of air around his body, both radiation and evaporation will be increased and the temperature consequently lowered.
In this disease the face is heavy, puffy and expressionless, the lips thick, the speech slow, the hands shapeless and spade-like, the patient apathetic, the circulation slow and the extremities cold.
When the thyroid tablets or extract of thyroid are given in too large quantities to patients suffering from myxoedema, the symptoms of myxoedema disappear, but in their place appear others indicative of increased metabolism and accelerated circulation.
High tension in the arteries is often associated with sleeplessness, the pressure of blood being such that the circulation in the brain is constantly maintained at a high rate of speed and the brain is unable to obtain rest.
The means of producing sleep may be divided into two classes: those (r) which lessen the circulation, and which (2) diminish the excitability of the brain cells.
A combination of the two kinds of remedy is sometimes useful, and chloral sometimes succeeds when other things fail, because it depresses the circulation as well as lessens the activity of the brain-cells.
In very bad cases of heart disease, where the patient is unable to go about, the best plan of treatment usually is to make him stay absolutely quiet in bed and have massage, which aids the circulation, tends to remove waste, and increases the appetite.
The nature of this is not very easy to analyse, but as mental depression is closely associated with irritation of the vagus nerve and weakening of the circulation, it seems not at all unlikely that mountain air acts by accelerating the pulse and quickening the circulation, and thus creating a sense of well-being.
While this treament by itself would aid recovery from nervous exhaustion, it would lessen appetite and thus interfere with nervous repair; but the want of exertion is supplied by means of massage, which stimulates the circulation and increases the appetite, so that the patient gets all the benefit of exercise without any exhaustion.
The notes of the Bank of Portugal in circulation amounted in value to about £14,000,000.
The amount in circulation on the 30th of June 1903 was officially estimated at 9,144,254 bolivianos (800,122), issued on a par with silver.
The silver boliviano, however, is rarely seen in circulation because of the cheaper paper currency.
Another important advance is in our knowledge of the part played by bacteria in the circulation of carbon in nature.
Cohn long ago showed that certain glistening particles observed in the cells of Beggiatoa consist of sulphur, and Winogradsky and Beyerinck have shown that a whole series of sulphur bacteria of the genera Thiothrix, Chromatium, Spirillum, Monas, &c., exist, and play important parts in the circulation of this element in nature, e.g.
In the case of diphtheria Sidney Martin obtained toxic albumoses in the spleen, which he considered were due to the digestive action of an enzyme formed by the bacillus in the membrane and absorbed into the circulation.
in the human subject, often due to streptococci, the process is similar, but the organisms are found especially in the capillaries of the internal organs and may not be detectable in the peripheral circulation during life.
This single cavity and its lining serve apparently for all those functions (digestion, excretion, circulation and often reproduction) which in more complex organisms are distributed among various cavities of independent and often very diverse origin.
It has therefore a strong dynastic and Romanist tendency, and its circulation was permitted even at the time when most Bohemian books were prohibited and many totally destroyed.
By 1343 there was in circulation his great work the Dialogus (see Goldast ii.
On the third evening the cups are placed in open frames which allow free circulation of the air.
The action on the circulation is largely secondary, however, to the all-important action of opium on the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata.
The centre is directly poisoned by the circulation through it of opium-containing blood, and the patient's breathing becomes progressively slower, shallower and more irregular until finally it ceases altogether.
Other denominational agencies have been concerned with the printing and circulation of Swedenborgian literature, a training college for the ministry (founded in 1852), and a Ministers' Aid Fund (18J4), and an Orphanage (1881).
On the 30th of June 1906 the coin and bullion in reserve amounted to £8,192,000 and the note circulation to £1,462,000.
In 1831 he published a tract on tithes, "to correct the prejudices of the lower order of farmers," and in the following year a collection of hymns for use in his parish, which had a large general circulation; a small volume of stories entitled the Note Book of a Country Clergyman; and a sermon, The Apostolical Ministry.
In many Entomostraca the heart is absent, and it is impossible to speak of a " circulation " in the proper sense of the term, the blood being merely driven hither and thither by the movements of the body and limbs and of the alimentary canal.
The control exercised by an urban district council over streets and buildings is to a very large extent exercised through by-laws which they are empowered to make for various purposes relating to the laying out and formation of new streets, the erection and construction of new buildings, the provision of sufficient air-space about buildings to secure a free circulation of air, and the provision of suitable and sufficient sanitary conveniences.
Emerson (1797-1871) he published The School and the Schoolmaster, which had a large circulation and great influence.
Whatever the currency in classical circles of the epistle as a literary form, it is irrational to put first in the development of Christian literature a general epistle, couched in fluent, even rhetorical, Greek, and afterwards the Pauline letters, which both as to origin and subsequent circulation were a product of urgent conditions.
Grosart edited from original manuscripts Selections from the Unpublished Writings of Jonathan Edwards of America (Edinburgh, 1865, printed for private circulation).
His Pantheisticon, sive formula celebrandae sodalitatis socraticae, of which he printed a few copies for private circulation only, gave great offence as a sort of liturgic service made up of passages from heathen authors, in imitation of the Church of England liturgy.
But after 1878 the Russian silver rouble was rated so highly as to drive the native coins out of circulation; and in 1889 Rumania joined the Latin Monetary Union and adopted a gold standard.
A source which seems plausible, perhaps only because it is less easy to test, is rearrangement of the structure of the elements' atoms. An atom is no longer figured as indivisible, it is made up of more or less complex, and more or less permanent, systems in internal circulation.
The paper circulation in 1905 exceeded 700,000,000 pesos.
Political troubles in 1884-1885 led to a suspension of cash payments in 1885, and in 1886 Congress made the notes inconvertible and of forced circulation.
On October 16, 1899 - the outstanding circulation then amounting to 46,000,000 pesos, - the government decreed an unlimited issue to meet its expenditures in suppressing the revolution, and later on the departments of Antioquia, Bolivar, Cauca, and Santander were authorized to issue paper money for themselves.
This suicidal policy continued until February 28, 1903, when, according to an official statement, the outstanding paper circulation was: - 700,598,865.30 So great was the depreciation of this currency that before the end of the war loo American gold dollars were quoted at 22,500 pesos.
Even at this valuation, the recognized outstanding circulation (for there had been fraudulent issues as well) amounted to more than I,400,000.
In 1903 Congress adopted a gold dollar of 1.672 grammes weight .900 fine (equal to the U.S. gold dollar) as the monetary standard created a redemption bureau for the withdrawal of the paper circulation, prohibited the further issue of such currency, and authorized free contracts in any currency.
Certain rents and taxes were set aside for the use of the redemption bureau, and a nominally large sum has been withdrawn from circulation through this channel.
The monetary system is that of Great Britain and the coins in circulation are exclusively British.
In physiological matters he is in advance of Aristotle and Galen, though we can hardly assert - as has sometimes been thought - that he anticipated Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood.
We might expect to find such a collection, in view of the numerous and important councils held in Gaul; but their decisions remained scattered among a great number of collections none of which had ever a wide circulation or an official character.
During this period, which extended from the end of the 9th century to the middle of the 12th, we can enumerate about forty systematic collections, of varying value and circulation, which all played a greater or lesser part in preparing the juridical renaissance of the 12th century, and most of which were utilized by Gratian.
used to be drawn up by his notary, Petrus Collivacinus of Benevento, his object being to supersede the collections in circulation, which were incomplete and to a certain extent spurious.
These discoveries as a whole must be regarded as the greatest in physiology since that of the circulation of the blood by William Harvey.
North of the equator the surface circulation is under the control of the monsoons, and changes with them, the currents consisting chiefly of north-east and south-west drifts in the open sea, and induced streams following the coasts.
The west wind drift sends a stream northwards along the west coast of Australia, the West Australia current, the homologue of the Benguela current in the South Atlantic. The principal feature in the circulation in the depths of the Indian Ocean is a slow movement of Antarctic water northwards along the bottom to take the place of that removed from the surface by evaporation, and by currents in the lower latitudes.
A four-chambered heart, with a complete double circulation, and warm blood (less markedly so in the lowest group than in the rest of the class), distinguish mammals from existing reptiles, although not from birds.
The amount of draft which is necessary to carry out the circulation of the gases and to draw in the adequate amount of air is regulated by dampers placed in the main flue.
The circulation of water in the Baltic proper must be considered apart from the circulation in the channels connecting it with the Circu1 North Sea; and in this relation the plateau connecting the islands Falster and Moen with the coast of Mecklen burg and Rugen must be taken as the dividing line.
In these waters a vertical circulation is kept up by convection currents.
The circulation in the channels connecting the Baltic proper with the North Sea is of a complex character.
The rock-salt and cold water circulation can then be dispensed with.
The streets are narrow, and by a system called Kucheh-bandi (street-closing) established long ago for impeding the circulation of crowds and increasing general security, every quarter of the town, or block of buildings, is shut off from its neighbours by gates which are closed during local disorders and regularly at night.
The reputation of these coins for purity of metal and accuracy of weight was so great that they had a very wide circulation, and in consequence it was thought undesirable to make any alteration in the types lest their genuineness should be doubted.
(for private circulation) (Prague, 1893 seqq.).
The circulation is maintained by the rhythmical contraction of the afferent vessel and by less regular contractions of some of the other vessels.
It is incumbent upon the clergy to see that all children are taught reading, writing and arithmetic. The people are great readers; considering the number of the inhabitants, books and periodicals have a very extensive circulation.
showing that there was once a considerable literature in circulation regarding Manasseh's later history.
In circulation there are gold pieces of 10 and 20 dinars; silver of 50 paras, and I, 2 and 5 dinars; nickel of 5, 10 and 20 paras; and bronze of 2 paras.
It states that the squares of the periods of circulation round the sun of the several planets are in the same ratio as the cubes of their mean distances.
Misled, however, into identifying it with magnetism, he imagined circulation in the solar system to be maintained through the material compulsion of fibrous emanations from the sun, carried round by his axial rotation.
Yet they were never assimilated by Kepler; while, on the other hand, the laws of planetary circulation he had enounced were strangely ignored by Galileo.
The authorized note circulation is £6,354,494 and the actual note circulation in June 1906 was £6,310,243, two of the banks not being banks of issue.
In early youth he collected his arguments in a book, which, according to Plato, was put into circulation without his knowledge.
Ricci's pointed attacks on Buddhism, and the wide circulation of his books, called forth the opposition of the Buddhist clergy.
encouraged the culture of silk, though without much result, had orchards planted and marshes drained; while though he permitted the free circulation of wine and corn, this depended on the harvests.
A disciple of Quesnay and of Gournay, he tried to repeat in great affairs the experience of liberty which he had found successful in small, and to fortify the unity of the nation and the government by social, political and economic reforms. He ordained the free circulation of grain within the kingdom, and was supported by Louis XVI.
The destruction of the plate for printing assignats, on the 18th of February 1796, did not prevent the drop in the forty milliards still in circulation.
In the papal letters of the end of the 9th and the whole of the 10th century, only two or three insignificant citations of the pseudo-Isidore have been pointed out; the use of the pseudo-Isidorian forged documents did not become prevalent at Rome till about the middle of the 11th century, in consequence of the circulation of the canonical collections in which they figured; but nobody then thought of casting any doubts on the authenticity of those documents.
on condition that the bank keeps ash in hand, gold and silver in equal quantities, equal to a third of the notes in circulation up to fio,000,ooo, and eqtial to half the amount issued above that sum.
Societies were formed at Tiflis and in several European capitals for the circulation of pamphlets and newspapers, and secret societies, such as the Huntchagist, were instituted for more revolutionary methods.
On the eve of the crucial election of 1800, [Hamilton] wrote a bitter personal attack on the president (containing much confidential cabinet information), which was intended for private circulation, but which was secured and published by Aaron Burr, his legal and political rival.
The note circulation is about £150,000, and the deposits £3,520,000, about half bearing interest.
On this occasion he restored the system of uninominal constituencies, resisted the socialist agitation, and pressed, though in vain, for the adoption of drastic measures against the false bank-notes put in circulation by the Roman bank.
With liquid machines of the compression and absorption system, the rooms are either cooled by means of cold pipes or surfaces placed in them, or by a circulation of air cooled in an apparatus separated from the rooms. The cold pipes may be direct-expansion pipes in which the liquid evaporates, or they may be pipes or walls through which circulates an uncongealable brine previously cooled to the desired temperature.
The pipes are placed on the ceilings or sides according to circumstances, but they must be arranged so as to induce a circulation of air throughout the compartment and ensure every part being cooled.