Circular Sentence Examples
The rubber is circular in section, and about 2 in.
She pulled into the large circular drive at exactly seven.
Vara tugged off his own necklace, a simple strip of leather with a circular stone.
She held her breath as they approached and turned into the circular drive.
Midmorning light filtered into the circular chamber, the sounds of fighting distant.Advertisement
It extended over a circular area, with a radius of 50 m.
These architectural decorations are derived from a style of building found by the recent German expedition extant in an ancient church; courses of stone here alternate in the walls (both inside and out) with beams of wood held by circular clamps.
The vortex advances with a certain velocity; and if an equal circular vortex is generated coaxially with the first, the mutual influence can be observed.
This spot increases in size; in the stalks it assumes an oval shape, with its long axis parallel to the stalk, whilst in the leaves and grapes it is more or less circular in outline.
The latter are circular or rectangular vessels, holding from 500 to 1500 gallons each, according to the capacity of the factory, and fitted with steam coils at the bottom and skimming troughs at the top. In them the syrup is quickly brought up to the boil and skimmed for about five minutes, when it is run off to the service tanks of the vacuum pans.Advertisement
A circular disposition of the cells facilitates charging by the use of a pipe rotating above them, but it renders the disposal of the hot spent slices somewhat difficult and inconvenient.
The cavities of the hollow tentacles open into a circular canal which surrounds the oesophagus at the base of the lophophore.
It is circular, 3/4 m.
The melting pans are generally circular vessels, fitted with a perforated false bottom, on which the sugar to be melted is dumped.
The muscles are composed of outer circular and inner longitudinal layers, and of branched dorso-ventral fibres.Advertisement
For manufacturing purposes a furnace similar to that used for the making of glass was employed to heat a circular row of crucibles standing on a shelf along the wall of the furnace.
In this capacity he exhibited an almost feverish activity; he perpetually appeared at the bar of the assembly on behalf of the commune; he announced the massacres of September in the prisons in terms of apology and praise; and he sent off the famous circular of the 3rd of September to the provinces, recommending them to do likewise.
It consists of a number of tubes mounted vertically on a horizontal circular disk which rotates about a vertical axis in a cylindrical vessel.
In the Pape-Henneberg condenser, which has been adopted in the German navy, they are oval in section and tend to become circular under the pressure of the steam; this alteration in shape makes the tubes self-scaling.
This layer also forms the attachment for the muscles, of which there are two enveloping coats, a circular and a longitudinal layer and also dorso-ventral fibres.Advertisement
If the box be round, they will seek to lead the eye away from the naked regularity of the circle by a pattern distracting attention, as, for example, by a zigzag breaking the circular outline, and supported by other ornaments.
In all printing the paper is laid on the upper surface of the block, and the impression rubbed off with a circular pad, composed of twisted cord within a covering of paper cloth and bamboo-leaf, and called the baren.
Its basin is circular, about 600 ft.
The present foundations are built of architectural fragments, probably from an earlier building of circular form on the same site.
A little farther on, but below the Sacred Way, is another open space, of circular form, which is perhaps the iXcos or sacred threshing-floor on which the drama of the slaying of the Python by Apollo was periodically performed.Advertisement
In the other extreme case the oblate spheroid becomes a circular disk when e = i, and then the capacity C2 = 2a17r.
The reader is also referred to an article by Lord Kelvin (Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, p. 178), entitled " Determination of the Distribution of Electricity on a Circular Segment of a Plane, or Spherical Conducting Surface under any given Influence," where another equivalent expression is given for the capacity of an ellipsoid.
Let a solid circular sectioned cylinder of radius R 1 be enclosed in a coaxial tube of inner radius R2.
The most characteristic is the " pan," a circular dish of sheetiron or " tin," with sloping sides about 13 or 14 in.
The ores, having been broken and ground, generally in tube mills, until they pass a 150 to 200-mesh sieve, are transferred to the leaching vats, which are constructed of wood, iron or masonry; steel vats, coated inside and out with pitch, of circular section and holding up to woo tons, have come into use.
The Carpathians proper consist of an outer wall, which forms the frontier between Hungary and the adjacent provinces of Austria, and of an inner wall which fills the whole of Upper Hungary, and forms the central group. The outer wall is a complex, roughly circular mass of about 600 m.
Many of the Massachusetts revolutionary documents, including the famous "Massachusetts Resolves" and the circular letter to the legislatures of the other colonies, are from his pen; but owing to the fact that he usually acted as clerk to the House of Representatives and to the several committees of which he was a member, documents were written by him which expressed the ideas of the committee as a whole.
To this adapter is attached a flat circular flange h.
Dawes found the best method for the purpose in question was to limit the aperture of the object-glass by a diaphragm having a double circular aperture, placing the line joining the centres of the circles approximately in the position angle under measurement.
The Ionian geographers looked on the circular disk of the habitable world as surrounded by a mighty stream named Oceanus, the name of the primeval god, father of gods and men, and thus the bond of union between heaven and earth.
In the region of tropical hurricanes the navies, while in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean converging wind system of a circular storm causes a heaping many soundings were made in connexion with submarine up of water capable of devastating the low coral islands of the cables to the East.
The polygons adopted were of 20 or more sides approximating to a circular form.
There are several mosques and an Abyssinian church (of the usual circular construction) built of stone.
Regensburg, a, large circular building which has for its aim the glorification of the heroes of the war of liberation in 1813.
The lake, which is roughly circular with a diameter of some 13 m., lies at an altitude of 6135 ft.
At intervals are circular spaces, called " glorietas," with statues (the famous bronze equestrian statue of Charles IV., and monuments to Columbus, Cuauhtemoc the last of the Aztec emperors, and Juarez).
As for the marvels of Peru, the walls of the temple of the sun in Cuzco, with their circular form and curve inward, from the ground upward, are most imposing.
Almost the only characters they possess in common are the short and spike-like horns of the bucks, which are ringed at the base, with smooth tips, and the large size of the face-gland, which opens by a circular aperture.
It contains four Protestant churches, among them the German church, with a handsome steeple, and the curious circular Lithuanian church, a Roman Catholic church, a Jewish synagogue and a classical school (Gymnasium).
The treatment of an angle as generated by rotation, the investigation of the relations between trigonometrical ratios and circular measure, the application of interpolation to trigonometrical tables, and the general use of graphical methods to represent continuous variation, all imply an analytical onlook, and must therefore be deferred to this stage.
Suppose, for instance, that we require the area of a circular grass-plot of measured diameter.
As a matter of fact, no grass-plot is truly circular; and it might be found that if the breadth in various directions were measured more accurately the want of circularity would reveal itself.
Thus the inaccuracy in taking the measured diameter as the datum is practically of the same order as the inaccuracy in taking the grass-plot to be circular.
The lengths of arcs of the same circle being proportional to the angles subtended by them at the centre, we get the idea of circular measure.
By considering the circle as the limit of a polygon, it follows that the formulae (iii) and (v) of § 26 hold for a right circular cylinder and a right circular cone; i.e.
Similarly a surface of revolution can be divided by planes at right angles to the axis into elements, each of which is approximately a section of the surface of a right circular cone.
By unrolling each such element (§ 30) into a sector of a circular annulus, it will be found that the total area of the surface is M'.
Let a be the radius of a circle, and 0 (circular measure) the unknown angle subtended by an arc. Then, if we divide 0 into m equal parts, and L 1 denotes the sum of the corresponding chords, so that L i =2ma sin (0/2m), the true length of the arc is L1 +a9 3 - 5 + ..., where cp. =B/2m.
The crucible is then lifted out by circular tongs suspended in such a way that two men can take part in the; operation.
The rough edges of the bars are removed by a circular revolving file, and the hollow ends are cut off.
The lampreys are readily recognized by their long, eel-like, scaleless body, terminating anteriorly in the circular, suctorial mouth characteristic of the whole sub-class.
At Baiae itself there exist three large and lofty domed buildings, two octagonal, one circular, and all circular in the interior, of opus reticulatum and brick, which, though popularly called temples, are remains of baths or nymphaea.
The most notable topographic feature is the roughly circular mountain area of north-eastern New York known as the Adirondack mountains (q.v.).
From the materials at hand he constructed a circular chart, which was engraved on marble by Augustus and afterwards placed in the colonnade built by his sister Polla.
A small circular disk at one end of a torsion arm formed part of a solid wall, but was free to move through a hole in the wall slightly larger than the disk.
Seebeck (1805-1849) is the simplest form of apparatus thus designated, and consists of a large circular disk mounted on a central axis, about which it may be made to revolve with moderate rapidity.
If the rod is circular in section and perfectly uniform the end will describe a circle, ellipse or straight line; but, as the elasticity is usually not exactly the same in all directions, the figure usually changes and revolves.
Let us suppose that the rod is circular, of radius r, and that the radial displacement of the surface is r t.
By similar methods, a circular plate may be made to exhibit nodal lines dividing the surface by diametral lines into four or a greater, but always even, number of sectors, an odd number being incompatible with the general law of stationary waves that the parts of a body adjoining a nodal line on either side must always vibrate oppositely to each other.
Circular nodal lines unaccompanied by intersecting lines cannot be produced in the manner described; but may be got either by drilling a small hole through the centre, and drawing a horse-hair along its edge to bring out the note, or by attaching a long thin elastic rod to the centre of the plate, at right angles to it, holding the rod by the.
Bells may be regarded as somewhat like circular plates vibrating with radial nodes, and with the edges turned down.
South-east of this is the principal residential quarter of Colombo, with the circular Victoria Park as its centre.
The circular church of Santa Costanza, also of the 4th century, served as a baptistery and contained the tomb of the daughter of Constantine.
In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members.
A circular revolving platform rests on the pivot and rollers.
The main girders rest on the revolving platform, and the ends of the bridge are circular arcs fitting the fixed roadway.
Thus if the members are pinned together, the, joint consisting of a single circular pin, the centre of which lies in the axis of the piece, it is clear that the direction of the only stress which can be transmitted from pin to pin will coincide with this axis.
On the Great Orme are old circular buildings, an ancient fortress, a "rocking-stone" (cryd Tudno) and the 7th-century church of St Tudno, restored.
A sudden loss of power then supervened, and on Friday evening, the 18th of January, the Court Circular published an authoritative announcement of her illness.
It is nearly circular and has an area of about 30 sq.
Above one of the graves was a small circular altar, and there were also several sculptured slabs set up above them.
Just within the Lion Gate is a projection of the wall surrounding a curious circular enclosure, consisting of two concentric circles though the historical identity of the persons actually buried in them is a more difficult question.
It consists of a circular domed chamber, nearly 50 ft.
As the date of inception of the circular zodiac now at Paris the year 46 B.C. has, however, been suggested with high probability, from (among other indications) the position among the signs of the emblem of the planet Jupiter.
It is nearly circular in shape and 55 sq.
We can obtain a pertinent illustration from the motion of a vortex ring in a fluid; if the circular core of the ring is thin compared with its diameter, and the vorticity is not very great, it is the vortical state of motion that travels across the fluid without transporting the latter bodily with it except to a slight extent very close to the core.
It has in fact been found, with the very great precision of which optical experiment is capable, that all terrestrial optical phenomenareflexion, refraction, polarization linear and circular, diffraction - are entirely unaffected by the direction of the earth's motion, while the same result has recently been extended to electrostatic forces; and this is our main experimental clue.
Further, in the hydropolyp the digestive cavity either remains simple and undivided and circular in transverse section, or may show ridges projecting internally, which in this case are formed of endoderm alone, without any participation of the mesogloea.
Of native churches there are two forms - one square or oblong, found in Tigre; the other circular, found in Amhara and Shoa.
An outer court, circular or rectangular, surrounds the body of the church.
For some purposes it is preferable to retain the circular measure, i radians, as being undistinguishable from sin i and tan i when i is small as in direct fire.
The predominance of this somewhat recondite teaching gave to these epistles even more the character of treatises, which in the case of Ephesians is further enhanced by the fact that it is probably a circular letter addressed not to a single church but to a group of churches.
And the objections to Ephesians are considerably reduced when it is taken as a circular letter.
The two valves of the shell of the common cockle are similar to each other, and somewhat circular in outline.
There is a fine Perpendicular east window of circular form.
Dr Lewis Mott has pointed out that "Round Tables" exist in many parts of Great Britain, the name being often associated with circular trenches, or rings of stones, which were demonstrably employed in connexion with the agricultural festivals held at Pentecost, Midsummer and Michaelmas.
On closely examining Layamon's version it seems probable that he had in his mind not merely a circular, but a turning table; he gives it as ground for the quarrel that all the knights wished to sit within; at the table the Cornish workman will make none shall be left without, but they shall sit "without and within, man against man."
To obviate this the cunning workman devised a circular table, turning on a pivot, with seats affixed, at which the guests sat the one half in turn within, the other without, the hall "man against man."
At the junction of the two arms of the Rhine stands the old castle (De Burcht), a circular tower built on an earthen mound.
The mathematical function log x or log x is one of the small group of transcendental functions, consisting only of the circular functions (direct and inverse) sin x, cos x, &c., arc sin x or sin-' x,&c., log x and e x which are universally treated in analysis as known functions.
Thus log x is the integral function of 1/x, and it can be shown that log x is a genuinely new transcendent, not expressible in finite terms by means of functions such as algebraical or circular functions.
A connexion with the circular functions, however, appears later when the definition of log x is extended to complex values of x.
Both as regards structure and habits, the leopard may be reckoned as one of the more typical representatives of the genus Felis, belonging to that section in which the hyoid bone is loosely connected with the skull, owing to imperfect ossification of its anterior arch, and the pupil of the eye when contracted under the influence of light is circular, not linear as in the smaller cats.
He has applied the theory with especial ingenuity to the interpretation of the circular bony plates in the carapace of the aberrant leather-back sea-turtles (Sphargidae) by prefacing an initial land phase, in which the typical armature of land tortoises was acquired, a first marine or pelagic phase, in which this armature was lost, a third littoral or seashore phase, in which a new polygonal armature was acquired, and a fourth resumed or secondary marine phase, in which this polygonal armature began to degenerate.
A medusa has a layer of muscles, more or less strongly developed, running in a circular direction on the surface of the subumbrella, the contractions of which are antagonized by the elasticity of the gelatinous substance of the body.
By the contraction of the subumbral circular muscles the concavity of the subumbrella is increased, and as water is thereby forced out of the subumbral cavity the animal is jerked upwards.
Besides the circular subumbral muscles, there may be others running in a radial direction, chiefly developed as the longitudinal retractor muscles of the manubrium.
The mouth may be circular or four-cornered, and in the latter case the manubrium at the angles of the mouth may become drawn out into four lappets, the oral arms, each with a groove on its inner side continuous with the corner FIG.
There also might be seen the flat circular temalacatl or " spindle-stone," where captives armed with wooden weapons were allowed the mockery of a gladiatorial fight against well-armed champions.
Asplanchnaceae; trochus circular; foot absent or minute; trophi incudate; stomach blind; males frequent, not very dissimilar to females.
He undertook in the latter part of September and the first three weeks of October a circular tour to the different courts of Europe in the hope of obtaining some intervention, or at least some good offices.
The castle is a fine example of Gothic, and mainly consists of a great oblong quadrangle, flanked on the south side by circular towers.
Shortly after his marriage Eric issued a circular ordering a general thanksgiving for his delivery from the assaults of the devil.
The municipal boundary lies generally a little outside the so-called Circular Road, which may be taken as encircling the city proper, with a few breaks.
From the north end of Sackville Street, several large thoroughfares radiate through the northern part of the city, ultimately joining the Circular Road at various points.
He clearly perceived the significant analogy between terrestrial gravity and the force exerted in the solar system, and by the ingenious device of a circular pendulum illustrated the composite character of the planetary movements.
The only relics of the fortifications of the old town, whose place is now occupied by shady promenades, is the Florian's Gate and the Rondell, a circular structure, built in 1498.
At the beginning of that reign Malesherbes during his short ministry endeavoured to infuse some measure of justice into the system, and in March 1784 the baron de Breteuil, a minister of the king's household, addressed a circular to the intendants and the lieutenant of police with a view to preventing the crying abuses connected with the issue of lettres de cachet.
On Powder House Hill (originally Quarry Hill), in Nathan Tufts Park, there still stands an interesting old slate-stone powder house, a circular building, 30 ft.
The ancient fortifications, still extant in the beginning of the 19th century, have disappeared almost entirely, but of the four gateways one named after St Lawrence remains nearly perfect, consisting of two loopholed circular towers; and there are considerable ruins of another, the West or Butler Gate.
A circular railway about the water-front, wharves and warehouses facilitates the loading and unloading of vessels.
On the 4th of December 1642 Cardinal Richelieu died, and on the very next day the king sent a circular letter to all officials ordering them to send in their reports to Cardinal Mazarin, as they had formerly done to Cardinal Richelieu.
The new walls were given a circular shape, with eleven bastions and three gates.
In a circular frame the silk is clamped between boards, and these are fixed on a large drum.
The flat frame is the most gentle in its usage of the silk, but is most costly in labour; whilst the circular frame, being more severe in its action, is not suitable for the thoroughly degummed silks, but on the other hand is best for silks containing much wormy matter, because the silk hanging down into the combing teeth is thoroughly cleansed of such foreign matter, which is deposited under the machine.
If any such circular or document sent to an infant purports to issue from any address named therein or indicates any address as the place at which application is to be made with reference to the subject matter of the document, and at that place there is carried on any business connected with loans, every person who attends such place for the purpose of taking part in or assisting in the carrying on of such business will be deemed to have sent or caused to be sent such circular or document, unless he proves that he was not in any way a party to and was wholly ignorant of the sending of such document.
Under the act of 1892 this shifting of the burden of proof only occurred if the circular had been sent to any person at any university, college, school or other place of education.
Secretary Knox's idea, as expressed in the identical circular note addressed by him on the 18th of October 1909 to the powers, was to invest the International Prize Court, proposed to be established by the convention of the 18th of October 1907, with the functions of a " court of arbitral justice."
A homogeneous oscillation is one which for all time is described by a circular function such as sin(nt+ a), t being the time and n and a constants.
The qualification that the circular function must apply to all time is important, and unless it is recognized as a necessary condition of homogeneity, confusion in the more intricate problems or radiation becomes inevitable.
The circular tomb of Menecrates, with its well-known inscription, is on the Bay of Castrades.
Aristotle could not know enough, physically, about Nature to understand its matter, or its motions, or its forces; and consequently he fell into the error of supposing a primary matter with four contrary primary qualities, hot and cold, dry and moist, forming by their combinations four simple bodies, earth, water, air and fire, with natural rectilineal motions to or from the centre of the earth; to which he added a quintessence of ether composing the stars, with a natural circular motion round the earth.
A third, circular temple stood between the forum and the south gate.
The most common article of defensive armour was the shield, which was small and circular and apparently of quite thin lime-wood, the edge being formed probably by a thin band of iron.
The hall is about 40 by 30 ft., with a circular hearth in the centre (&rTia or Evxapa).
At the top level the wall was covered by a colonnade of wooden pillars resting on circular stone blocks.
On the 30th of March 1791 nine preachers sent out the famous Halifax circular making suggestions as to the choice of president and other matters that must come before the conference.
The first signature to this circular was that of William Thompson who was afterwards elected as the first president.
A trenchant reply to this circular was prepared by Alexander Kilham, one of the younger Methodist preachers.
But Alexander too was active; by means of a circular letter he published abroad the excommunication of his presbyter, and the controversy excited more and more general interest.
Newton tells us that this agreement led him to adopt the law of the inverse square of the distance about 1665-1666, before Huygens's results as to circular motion had been published.
The steel is generally used in the form of long bars of circular section.
Within the grounds, which comprise nearly 1500 acres, is the mausoleum erected by the 10th duke, a structure resembling in general design that of the emperor Hadrian at Rome, being a circular building springing from a square basement, and enclosing a decorated octagonal chapel, the door of which is a copy in bronze of Ghiberti's gates at Florence.
An altar found (in situ) on the south side of the circular enclosure shows by an inscription that this was the Heroum, where worship of the heroes was practised down to a late period.
The building consisted of a circular Ionic colonnade (of eighteen columns), about 15 metres in diameter, raised on three steps and enclosing a small circular cella, probably adorned with fourteen Corinthian half-columns.
The ends of the basin at northnorth-west and south-south-east were adorned by very small open temples, each with a circular colonnade of eight pillars.
The polygonal walls of the acropolis may still be seen in a fair state of preservation on a circular hill standing about 500 ft.
The collar is formed of alternate black eagles and a circular medallion with the motto on a white centre surrounded by the initials F.R.
The badge of the class for science or art is a circular medallion of white, with a gold eagle in the centre surrounded by a blue border with the inscription Pour le Merite; on the white field the letters '3F.
Cyclocarpineae, Apothecium usually circular, no capillitium.
Berzelius, although by common consent it was much simpler and more convenient than his cumbersome system of circular symbols.
Near the centre of the park is Mud Caldron, a circular crater about 40 ft.
Both successions were doomed to failure; and the result 7 In likening the earth to a cylinder Anaximander recognized its circular figure in one direction.
Several early earthworks are seen in the vicinity, among which the circular camp on Bury Hill, S.W.
In 1157 an almost circular moat, still preserved in the inner canal or Naviglio, was constructed round the town; but in 1162 Frederick Barbarossa took and almost entirely destroyed the city, only a few churches surviving.
Climbers are trained from the bottom around or across trellises, of which the cylindrical or the balloon-shaped, or sometimes the flat oval or circular, are the best forms. The size should be adapted to the habit of the plant, which should cover the whole by the time flowers are produced.
The underground mycelium in many cases spreads wider and wider each year, often in a circular manner, and the sporophores springing from it appear in the form of a ring - the so called fairy rings.
It is connected with the main railway station by means of a circular railway, while a short branch connects it with the ordinary custom-house quay.
The stand is generally made circular in section, each of the three legs being shod at the lower extremity with steel.
It is fitted with a section pipe and a circular balanced sluice for admitting and cutting off the water-supply.
North of San Nicholas is Tondo, the most densely populated district; in the suburbs, outside the fire limits, the greater part of the inhabitants live in native houses of bamboo frames roofed and sided with nipa palm, and the thoroughfares consist of narrow streets and navigable streams. Paco, south-west of Intramuros, has some large cigar factories, and a large cemetery where the dead are buried in niches in two concentric circular walls.
The water rises in a circular well 32 ft.
Although toad-like it is not really related to the toads proper, but belongs to the family Discoglossidae, characterized by a circular, adherent tongue, teeth in the upper jaw and on the palate, short but distinct ribs on the anterior vertebrae, and convex-concave vertebrae.
By the 16th of March 1866 the Austrian war preparations were so far advanced that Count Mensdorff thought it safe to send an ultimatum to Prussia and, at the same time, a circular note to the princes declaring that, in the event of an evasive reply, Austria would move in the diet for the mobilization of the federal forces.
On the 24th Bismarck in his turn issued a circular note stating that, in view of the Austrian war preparations, Prussia must take measures for her defence; at the same time he laid before the princes the outline of the Prussian scheme for the reform of the Confederation, a scheme which included a national parliament to be elected by universal suffrage, as offering surer guarantees for conservative action than lilnitations that seek to determine the majority befprehand.
This was denounced by Bismarck in a circular note to the powers as a breach of the convention of Gastein and of the treaty of January 16, 1864, by which Austria and Prussia had agreed to govern the duchies in common.
The circular letter of Count Kaunitz, dated the 6th of July 1791, calling on the sovereigns to unite against the Revolution, was at once the beginning of the Concert of Europe, and in a sense the last manifesto of the Holy Roman Empire as " the centre of political unity."
Within this is usually a sheath of connective tissue, which surrounds a layer of circular muscles; the latter may be split up into separate bundles, but more usually form a uniform sheet.
Within the circular muscles is a layer of longitudinal muscles, very often broken into bundles, the number of which is often of specific importance.
Oblique muscles sometimes lie between the circular and longitudinal sheaths.
From time to time it gives off minute circular nerves, which run round the body in the skin.
Communication with the upper town is effected by means of two elevators, a circular tramway, and steep zigzag roads.
The subjects of its nine chapters are - (I) the Corinthian, Ionic and Doric orders; (2) the ornaments of capitals, ac.; (3) the Doric order; (4) proportions of the cella and pronaos; (5) sites of temples; (6) doorways of temples and their architraves; (7) the Etruscan or Tuscan order of temples; (8) circular temples; (9) altars.
It generally makes its nest in a hollow branch, plastering up the opening with clay, leaving only a circular hole just large enough to afford entrance and exit; and the interior contains a bed of dry leaves or the filmy flakes of the inner bark of a fir or cedar, on which the eggs are laid.
Corn is threshed by a norag, a machine resembling a chair, which moves on small iron wheels or thin circular plates fixed to axle-trees, and is drawn in a circle by oxen.
They drew the plough, trampled the corn sheaves round the circular threshing floor, and were sometimes employed to drag heavy weights.
The large circular millstones of Roman age worked by horse-power are usually made from slices of granite columns.
A similar method was common for circular holes, which were cut by a tube, either with powder or fixed teeth.
As Lord Granville explained in a circular to the powers, tion.
The pyramids of Egypt, the mausolea of the Lydian kings, the circular, chambered sepulchres of Mycenae, and the Etruscan tombs at Caere and Vold, are lineally descended from the chambered barrows of prehistoric times, modified in construction according to the advancement of architectural art at the period of their erection.
The escape of zoospores is effected by the degeneration of the sporangial wall (Chaetophora), or by a pore (Cladophora), a slit (Pediastrum), or a circular fracture (Oedogonium).
When a cell divides it is found that there remains in the middle of the new wall a single large circular pit, which persists throughout the life of the cells, becoming more and more conspicuous with the progress of the thickening of the wall.
Parts of this castle date from the 11th century, but there are many additions such as the late Norman circular chapel, the Decorated state rooms, and details in Perpendicular and Tudor styles.
The kilns commonly employed are "chamber kilns," circular structures not unlike an ordinary running lime kiln, but having the top closed and connected at the side with a wide flue in which the slurry is exposed to the hot products of combustion from the kiln.
The so-called Odeum, a circular building in which the famous code was found, was completely cleared in 1912, and five small fragments of the inscription were recovered.
A circular building identified (bv Svoronos) as the Attic mint in the Peloponnesian War, was cleared, and a fine archaic relief of an ephebe crowning himself was discovered.
Near it are a series of curious circular excavations in the chalk, called the Maze, of unknown date or purpose.
It may be defined as a section of a right circular cone by a plane parallel to a tangent plane to the cone, or as the locus of a point which moves .so that its distances from a fixed point and a fixed line are equal.
They recommended that the examination should be conducted by external and internal examiners, representing in each case the examining body and the school staff respectively, and that reports on the school work of candidates should be available for reference by the examiners (circular of the Board of Education of 12th of July 1904).
Finally, the Tylopoda differ not only from other ungulates, but from all other mammals, in the fact that the red corpuscles of the blood, instead of being circular in outline, are oval as in the inferior vertebrate classes.
King Ferdinand had been invited to Laibach, according to the circular of the 8th of December, in order that he might be free to act as "mediator between his erring peoples and the states whose tranquillity they threatened."
The framework is attached to two independent circular arcs Cs and rr having their centres at 0 and provided with clamps D and A on the axis F of the instrument.
These cisterns are bell-shaped or bottle-shaped excavations, with a narrow circular shaft in the top, hollowed in the rock and lined with cement.
If a circular disk is wrought into a hemisphere and the attempt is made to hammer the edges round, crumpling must occur.
In the former case, the first reaction is produced in castiron pans or " pots," very heavy castings of circular section, fired from below, either directly or by the waste heat from the mufflefurnace.
The leaf-cutter bees (Megachile) - which differ from Andrena and Halictus and agree with Osmia, Apis and Bombus in having elongate tongues - cut neat circular disks from leaves, using them for lining the cells of their underground nests.
This elicited from him a circular, in which he asserted his loyalty to the four general councils, and declared that the hostile bishops had been guilty of schism.
Their dwellings are circular, rubblebuilt, flat, clay-topped houses, or caves in the limestone rocks.
The old city (ciudad vieja) occupies a low rocky headland that projects westward between the estuary and an almost circular bay which forms the harbour; it was once enclosed with walls and defended by small forts, all of which have been removed.
The harbour of Montevideo consists of a shallow bay, circular in shape and about 22 m.
They have a symmetrical circular shape, the condensation increasing rapidly towards the centre.
It was revised and kept alive by Jeremy Bentham in his fanatical scheme for a "panopticon or inspection house," described as "a circular building, an iron cage glazed, a glass lantern as large as Ranelagh, with the cells on the outer circumference."
Although Earl Grey addressed a circular letter t3 all colonial governments offering them the questionable boon c c transportation, only one, the comparatively new colony of Western Australia, accepted.
This feature, rare in German towns, is due to the fact that Crefeld was always an "open place," and that therefore the circular form of a fortress town could be dispensed with.
On his accession Yazid sent a circular to all his prefects, officially announcing his father's death, and ordering them to administer the oath of allegiance to their subjects.
He next caused a circular letter, commanding all Maghribins to refuse obedience to the caliph, to be read from the pulpit throughout the whole extent of the Maghrib (western North Africa).
All M is P. Proceeding from one order to the other, by converting one of the premises, and substituting the conclusion as premise for the other premise, so as to deduce the latter as conclusion, is what he calls circular inference; and he remarked that the process is fallacious unless it contains propositions which are convertible, as in mathematical equations.
The conclusion then is really used to establish the major premise, and if we still will infer it therefrom we fall into the circular proof.'
Local militia, protecting none who refused to join in the common defence, and all serving " not as soldiers but as farmers mutually pledged to protect each other from the depredations of outlaws who infest the state," strove to secure such public order as was necessary to the gathering of crops, so as "to prevent the starvation of the citizens" (governor's circular, 1865).
The separate shadows are circular, if the disk is parallel to the screen.
The district of Weimar, which is at once the largest division and the geographical and historical kernel of the grand-duchy, is a roughly circular territory, situated on the plateau to the north-east of the Thuringian Forest.
The scale values of the records given by the horizontal and vertical force magnetographs are determined by deflecting the respective needles, either by means of a magnet placed at a known distance or by passing an electric current through circular coils of large diameter surrounding the instruments.
The scenery of the Thuringian portion of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt attracts many visitors annually, the most beautiful spots being the gorge of the Schwarza and the lovely circular valley in which the village of Schwarzburg nestles at the foot of a curiously isolated hill, crowned by the ancient castle of the princely line.
The dwellings were circular, from 18 to 35 ft.
This may be compared with the period of revolution in a circular orbit of radius c about the same centre of force, viz.
We may apply this to the investigation of the stability of a circular orbit.
Hence if h and a be connected by the relation h2=af(a) proper to a circular orbit, we have -
If this is the case, the apsidal angle must evidently be commensurable with -ir, and since it cannot vary discontinuously the apsidal angle in a nearly circular orbit must be constant.
Thus for a circular orbit with the centre of force at an excentric point, the hodograph is a conic with the pole as focus.
The points where axes intersect the plane of section are called centres; the point where the line of contact intersects it, the poini of contact, or pitch-point; and the wheels are described as circular, elliptical, &c., according to the forms of their sections made by that plane.
If the velocity ratio is to be -constant, as in, fYi Williss Class A, the wheels must be circular; and this is the most common form for wheels.
A rack, to work with a circular wheel, must be straight.
The pitch-circles of a pair of circular toothed wheels are sections of their pitch-surfaces, made for spur-wheels (that is, for wheels whose axes are parallel) by a plane at right angles to the axes, and for bevel wheels by a sphere described about the common apex.
Hence, in any pair of circular wheels which work together, the numbers of teeth in a complete circumference are directly as the radii and inversely as the angular velocities.
Hence also, in any pair of circular wheels which rotate continuously for one revolution or more, the ratio of the numbers of teeth and its reciprocal the angular velocity ratio must be expressible in whole numbers.
The teeth of wheels of any figure, as well as of circular wheels, may be traced by rolling curves on their pitch-surfaces; and all teeth of the same pitch, traced by the same rolling curve with the same tracing-point, will work together correctly if their pitchsurfaces are in rolling contact.
Make d bf=pc, cg=pc. From f, with the radiusfa, draw the circular arc ah; from g, with the radius ga, / B
Pulleys and drums for communi cating a constant velocity ratio are circular.
The effective radius, or radius of the pitch-circle of a circular pulley or drum, is equal to the real radius added to half the thickness of the connector.
The angular velocities of a pair of connected circular pulleys or drums are inversely as the effective radii.
Eccentric.An eccentric circular disk fixed on a shaft, and used to give a reciprocating motion to a rod, is in effect a crank-pin of sufficiently large diameter to surround the shaft, and so to avoid the weakening of the shaft which would arise from bending it so as to form an ordinary crank.
The flat pivot is a cylinder of steel having a plane circular end as a rubbing surface.
Indeed there is hardly a village in India which cannot boast of a shrine dedicated to Siva, and containing the emblem of his reproductive power; for almost the only form in which the" Great God "is adored is the Linga, consisting usually of an upright cylindrical block of marble or other stone, mostly resting on a circular perforated slab.
As the chief authority of their tenets, the Nimavats recognize the Bhagavata-purana; though several works, ascribed to Nimbarka - partly of a devotional character and partly expository of Vedanta topics - are still extant, Adherents of this sect are fairly numerous in northern India, their frontal mark consisting of the usual two perpendicular white lines, with, however, a circular black spot between them.
The results of these skilfully conducted observations were published in a memoir on The Uranian and Neptunian Systems. 3 From this research it appears that the orbits of all four satellites of Uranus are sensibly circular, and although no special search was made, he concludes that none of Sir William Herschel's supposed outer satellites can have any real existence.
Of these, the Tour de Constance, built by Louis IX., is the most interesting; it commands the northwestern angle of the ramparts, and contains two circular, vaulted chambers, used as prisons for Protestants after the revocation of the edict of Nantes.
In one, a large circular tomb, were found three sepulchral couches in stone, carved in imitation of wood, and a fine statuette in bronze of Ajax committing suicide.
In Greece the head of the symbol is generally circular, and only in a few early inscriptions is the upright carried through the circle, p. The common form is ?
He describes the ruins as consisting of a low, circular platform, about 42 m.
It will be understood that Nicholson's theories were to print both from the flat and from type arranged in circular or cylinder form.
They are square, oblong or circular in section, and the interior is fitted with horizontal or inclined plates or prisms, which regulate the fall of the ore.
The M`Dougall furnace is turret-shaped, and consists of a series of circular hearths, on which the ore is agitated by rakes attached to revolving arms and made to fall from hearth to hearth.
Some of these furnaces are straight, others circular.
The first water-jacketed cupola which came into general use was a circular inverted cone, with a slight taper, of 36 inches diameter at the tuyeres, and composed of an outer and an inner metal shell, between which water circulated.
The main difference between a breaker card and a finisher card is that the latter is fitted with finer pins, that it contains two doffing rollers, and that it usually possesses a greater number of pairs of workers and strippers - a full circular finisher card having four sets.
Thus, externally, he is surrounded by all the splendour of sovereignty; on his head he wears a great and resplendent crown, with a high circular centrepiece; he is clothed in gold and jewels; round him is a brilliant court, composed of his submissive servants.
It is nearly circular in form, with an area of about 25 sq.
The king, in a letter to Queen Victoria, declined for the time being to receive the Order of the Garter, which had just been offered him, and on the 6th of February the government addressed a circular letter to the powers, proposing to submit the issues in dispute to a European conference.
This drop will not spread out like the first drop, but will take the form of a flat lens with a distinct circular edge, showing that the surface-tension of what is still apparently pure water is now less than the sum of the tensions of the surfaces separating oil from air and water.
If after the deposition of the drop, a little lycopodium be scattered over the surface, it is seen that a circular space surrounding the drop, of about the size of a shilling, remains bare, and this, however often the dusting be repeated, so long as any of the carbon bisulphide remains.
In the next place, there is the surface-tension acting downwards, but at an angle a with the vertical, across the circular section of the bubble itself, whose circumference is 21ry, and the downward force is therefore 2lryT cos a.
When the conjugate axis of the hyperbola increases without limit, the loops of the nodoid are crowded on one another, and each becomes more nearly a ring of circular section, without, however, ever reaching this form.
When a liquid flows out of a vessel through a circular opening in the bottom of the vessel, the form of the stream is at first nearly cylindrical though its diameter gradually diminishes from the orifice downwards on account of the increasing velocity of the liquid.
Let us conceive an infinitely long circular cylinder of liquid, at rest (a motion common to every part of the fluid is necessarily without influence upon the stability, and may therefore be left out of account for convenience of conception and expression), and inquire under what circumstances it is stable or unstable, for small displacements, symmetrical about the axis of figure.
If, however, the circular ends of the catenoid are closed with solid disks, so that the volume of air contained between these disks and the film is determinate, the film will be in stable equilibrium however large a portion of the catenary it may consist of.
When the orifice is circular of radius a, the limiting value of a is 1 J' z, where z is the least root of the equation FIG.
Among the most important public squares are the Opern-platz, around or near which stand the opera house, the royal library, the university and the armoury; the Gendarmenmarkt, with the royal theatre in its centre, the Schloss-platz; the Lustgarten, between the north side of the royal palace, the cathedral and the old and new museums; the Pariser-platz with the French embassy, at the Brandenburg Gate; the KBnigs-platz, with the column of Victory, the Reichstagsgebaude and the Bismarck and Moltke monuments; the Wilhelms-platz; the circular Belle-Alliance-platz, with a column commemorating the battle of Waterloo; and, in the western district, the spacious Liitzow-platz.
After the opening of the circular railway in 1871, private enterprise set to work to develop these districts, and a " villa colony " was built at the edge of the Grunewald between the station West-end and the Spandauer Bock.
On Captain's Hill is the Standish Monument (begun in 1872), a circular tower, on an octagonal base, of rough Hallowell granite, surmounted by a statue of Miles Standish, 124 ft.
Not only was the cottabus the ordinary accompaniment of the festal assembly, but at least in Sicily a special building of a circular form was sometimes erected so that the players might be easily arranged round the basin, and follow each other in rapid succession.
The bags are then sealed up, packed in oblong or circular baskets and sent to Smyrna or other ports on mules.
Ispahan opium also occurs in the form of parallelopipeds weighing about 16-20 oz.; sometimes flat circular pieces weighing about 20 oz.
The Patio process, sometimes named the American-heap-amalgamation process, which is carried out principally in Mexico, aims at amalgamating the silver in the open in a circular enclosure termed a torta, the floor of which is generally built of flagstones.
The vats in common use are circular wooden tanks, 16-20 ft.
The circular muscles usually form two chief portions, a peripheral wreath-muscle (Kranzmuskel), subdivided into four, eight or sixteen areas, and an oral ring-muscle round the mouth.
The whole length of the alimentary canal is provided, as a rule, with muscular fibres, both circular and longitudinal, running in its walls, and, in addition, there may be muscle-bands running between the gut and the body-wall.
The edge of the mantle at the anterior aperture is very thick and muscular; at the posterior aperture also there is a circular muscle, and here the edge is interrupted by a ventral sinus and is provided internally with a dorsal and ventral valve which can be applied to each other so as to close the aperture.
Foot conical with a laterally expanded and dorsally interrupted circular fold.
One of the earliest was devoted to electrical conduction in a thin plate, and especially in a circular one, and it also contained a theorem which enables the distribution of currents in a network of conductors to be ascertained.
The rainbow-like circular wheels are the propellers, answering to the wheels of a steam-boat, and acting upon the air after the manner of a windmill.
On the 27th of October 1906 he flew a distance of nearly half a mile at Issy-lesMolineaux, and on the 13th of January 1908 he made a circular flight of one kilometre, thereby winning the Deutsch-Archdeacon prize of X2000.
On the north-west side of the Pennine system, marked off from it by the upper valleys of the rivers Eden and Lune, lies the circular hill-tract whose narrow valleys, radiating from its centre somewhat like wheel-spokes, contain the beautiful lakes which give it the celebrated name of the Lake District.
It forms a roughly circular highland area, the drainage lines of which radiate outward from the centre in a series of narrow valleys, the upper parts of which cut deeply into the mountains, and the lower widen into the surrounding plain.
In a circular letter addressed to the powers on the 1st of August 1885 His Majesty declared the neutrality of the "Independent State of the Congo," and set out the boundaries which were then claimed for the new state.
At the date of the issue of the circular the agreements with France and Portugal had partially defined the boundaries of the Free State on the lower river, and the 30th degree of longitude east of Greenwich was recognized as the limit of its extension eastwards.
The Bateke build their houses in circular groups opening on a sort of courtyard; the houses in Bangala villages are built in parallel rows about 200 ft.
Stone and mortar are used in building, but the Abyssinian houses are of the roughest kind, being usually circular huts, ill made and thatched with grass.
The churches are usually circular in form, the walls of stone, the roof thatched.
An inner arm ran nearly east from the island and terminated in a masonry head and fort, and an outer detached arm bent to the north and terminated in a circular fort, a narrow entrance for shipping being left between the two.
Numerous prehistoric relics have been discovered in the district, and a large circular encampment is seen at Winklebury Hill.
The Galleria Vittoria, opened in 1907, is a circular building with handsome dome, situated near the main entrance of the Villa Communale.
The experiments given by Professor Burr indicate that a closed column is stronger than an open one, but practice does not always support theory, and many other questions besides mere form arise in connexion with the choice of a section; special considerations in the use of columns in buildings sometimes call for a form very different from the circular section, and such include the transfer of loads to the centre of the section, the maximum efficiency under loading, and the requirements for pipe space around or included in the column form.
Near Bilma is a small circular oasis, kept green by a fine spring, but immediately to the south begins the most dreary part of the Saharan desert, over which the caravans travel for fifteen days without discovering the slightest trace of vegetable life.
Four circular vaults are sunk in the interior and four passages have been pierced below from the outside, which probably lead to them.
The wood consists of tracheids, with circular bordered pits on their radial walls, and in the late summer wood pits are unusually abundant on the tangential walls.
A characteristic feature of the genus Agathis (Dammara) the Kauri pine of New Zealand, is the deciduous habit of the branches; these become detached from the main trunk leaving a well-defined absciss-surface, which appears as a depressed circular scar on the stem.
The stamens of Araucaria and Agathis are peculiar in bearing several long and narrow free pollen-sacs; these may be compared with the sporangiophores of the horsetails (Equisetum); in Taxus (yew) the filament is attached to the centre of a large circular distal expansion, which bears several pollen-sacs on its under surface.
It is in the nature of the secondary xylem that the Coniferales are most readily distinguished from the Dicotyledons and Cycadaceae; the wood is homogeneous in structure, consisting almost entirely of tracheids with circular or polygonal bordered pits on the radial walls, more particularly in the late summer wood.
A well-grown plant projects less than a foot above the surface of the ground; the stem, which may have a circumference of more than 12 ft., terminates in a depressed crown resembling a circular table with a median groove across the centre and prominent broad ridges concentric with the margin.
Numerous circular pits occur on the concentric ridges of the depressed and wrinkled crown, marking the position of former inflorescences borne in the leaf-axil at different stages in the growth of the plant.
Dolbadarn Castle is a circular tower near the foot of Peris lake.
In the shape of a spot there is neither rule nor permanence, though those that are nearly circular seem to resist change better than the others.
We can distinguish therefore in the body of a polyp the column, circular or oval in section, forming the trunk, resting on a base or foot and surmounted by the crown of tentacles, which enclose an area termed the peristome, in the centre of which again is the mouth.
Thus near Cookhouse railway station it makes an almost circular bend of 20 m., the ends being scarcely 2 m.
In 1848 a circular was sent by the 3rd Earl Grey, then colonial secretary, to the governor of the Cape (and to other colonial governors), asking him to ascertain the feelings of the colonists regarding the reception of a certain class of convicts, the intention being to send to South Africa Irish peasants who had been driven into crime by the famine of 1845.
His circular of the 1st of June 1853 to American diplomatic agents abroad, recommending that, whenever practicable, they should " appear in the simple dress of an American citizen," created much discussion in Europe; in 1867 his recommendation was enacted into a law of Congress.
As they revolve these brushes engage the tea in the hopper, draw it out by degrees, and drop it into a compartment of a circular drum which hangs on one end is placed in the weights-pan of the balance, and is the only loose weight used with the machine.
The circular drum is divided into four equal compartments by radial diaphragms. And in a pan at the other end of the beam (which is counter - balanced for the weight of the drum) is a I-lb weight to weigh the tea.
In Actinia and its allies, and most generally, though not invariably, in Anthozoa,the stomodaeum is not circular, but is compressed from side to side so as to be oval or slit-like in transverse section.
Driving pulleys are usually constructed of cast iron, and are of circular form, having a central nave by which they are secured to the shaft by keys or other fastenings, and straight or curved arms connecting the nave to the rim, which latter is of a form adapted to the connector.
A circular arc, centre D and radius c/2, meets D E in K, and the perpendicular KL gives 2c sin a.
Circular letters were sent out, punishments were inflicted, but many excuses were made and only about £34,00o was contributed.
Oscil., a copy being presented to me, in my letter of thanks to him I gave those rules in the end thereof a particular commendation for their usefulness in Philosophy, and added out of my aforesaid paper an instance of their usefulness, in comparing the forces of the moon from the earth, and earth from the sun; in determining a problem about the moon's phase, and putting a limit to the sun's parallax, which shews that I had then my eye upon comparing the forces of the planets arising from their circular motion, and understood it; so that a while after, when Mr Hooke propounded the problem solemnly, in the end of his attempt to prove the motion of the earth, if I had not known the duplicate proportion before, I could not but have found it now.
For as Kepler knew the orb to be not circular but oval, and guessed it to be elliptical, so Mr Hooke, without knowing what I have found out since his letters to me, can know no more, but that the proportion was duplicate quam proxime at great distances from the centre, and only guessed it to be so accurately, and guessed amiss in extending that proportion down to the very centre, whereas Kepler guessed right at the ellipsis.
Tentacles supplied from circular canal.
An altar also from Khorsabad (now in the British Museum) has a circular table and a solid base triangular on plan, with pilasters ornamented with animals' paws at the angles.
These circular hearths persisted into the Canaanite period, but were ultimately superseded by the Semitic developments.
After executing a great circular sweep through Prigord, Limousin and Berry, he was returning to Bordeaux laden with plunder, when he was intercepted by the king of France near Poitiers.
The points in question have since been called (it is believed first by Dr George Salmon) the circular points at infinity, or they may be called the circular points; these are also frequently spoken of as the points I, J; and we have thus the circle characterized as a conic which passes through the two circular points at infinity; the number of conditions thus imposed upon the conic is = 2, and there remain three arbitrary constants, which is the right number for the circle.
We may consider in relation to a curve, not only the line infinity, but also the circular points at infinity; assuming the curve to be real, these present themselves always conjointly; thus a circle is a conic passing through the two circular points, and is thereby distinguished from other conics.
The circular cubic and the bicircular quartic, together with the Cartesian (being in one point of view a particular case thereof), are interesting curves which have been much studied, generally, and in reference to their focal properties.
We may from each of the circular points draw tangents to a given curve; the intersection of two such tangents (belonging of course to the two circular points respectively) is a focus.
There are in some cases points termed centres, or singular or multiple foci (the nomenclature is unsettled), which are the intersections of improper tangents from the two circular points respectively; thus, in the circular cubic, the tangents to the curve at the two circular points respectively (or two imaginary asymptotes of the curve) meet in a centre.
The notions of distance and of lines at right angles are connected with the circular points; and almost every construction of a curve by means of lines of a determinate length, or at right angles to each other, and (as such) mechanical constructions by means of linkwork, give rise to curves passing the same definite number of times through the two circular points respectively, or say to circular curves, and in which the fixed centres of the construction present themselves as ordinary, or as singular, foci.
Again, the normal, qua line at right angles to the tangent, is connected with the circular points, and these accordingly present themselves in the before-mentioned theories of evolutes and parallel curves.
Though usually more or less cylindrical or circular in section, hairs are often elliptical or flattened, as in the curly-haired races of men, the terminal portion of the hair of moles and shrews, and conspicuously in the spines of the spiny squirrels of the genus Xerus and those of the mouse-like Platacanthomys.
The circular grate G can be turned round K by means of the crank E from the outside.
Between Esthonia and Courland is the Gulf of Riga, a shallow inlet of roughly circular form, about loo m.
At the extremity of the quay is a large circular tower, called Reginald's Tower, forming at one time a portion of the city walls, and occupying the site of the tower built by Reginald the Dane in 1003.
The term is sometimes given incorrectly in architecture to a circular disk carved with a conventional rose, which is found in many early styles, the proper term being rosette.
A line became continuous, returning into itself by way of infinity; two parallel lines intersect in a point at infinity; all circles pass through two fixed points at infinity (the circular points); two spheres intersect in a fixed circle at infinity; an asymptote became a tangent at infinity; the foci of a conic became the intersections of the tangents from the circular points at infinity; the centre of a conic the pole of the line at infinity, &c. In analytical geometry the line at infinity plays an important part in trilinear co-ordinates.
The rigidity of the integument caused by the deposition of dense chitin upon it is intimately connected with the physiological activity and form of all the internal organs, and is undoubtedly correlated with the total disappearance of the circular muscular layer of the body-wall present in Chaetopods.
Forlimpopoli was again destroyed by Cardinal Albornoz in 1360, and rebuilt by Sinibaldo Ordelaffi, who constructed the wellpreserved medieval castle (1380), rectangular with four circular towers at the corners.
The Servian government defined its attitude in a circular note to the Powers (9th of March), and finally accepted the terms of a conciliatory declaration suggested by the British government (31st of March).
If it be positive, a widely extending patch is seen on the plate, consisting of a dense nucleus, from which branches radiate in all directions; if negative the patch is much smaller and has a sharp circular boundary entirely devoid of branches.
The retention, however, by Copernicus of the antique postulate of uniform circular motion impaired the perfection of his plan, since it involved a partial survival of the epicyclical machinery.
The most remarkable 3 to M, about N N' feature of the surface comprises the craters, which are scattered everywhere, and generally surrounded by an approximately circular elevated ring.
The law of this motion was such that the phenomena could be represented by supposing the motion to be actually circular and uniform, the apparent variations being explained by the hypothesis that the earth was not situated in the centre of the orbit, but was displaced by an amount about equal to one-twentieth of the radius of the orbit.
Euler conceived the idea of starting with a preliminary solution of the problem in which the orbit of the moon should be supposed to lie in the ecliptic, and to have no eccentricity, while that of the sun was circular.
It has an irregularly circular form of about 2 m.
There are several cairns and the remains of a circular British encampment on the mountain between Aberdare and Merthyr.
The village has encroached upon the remains of a huge stone circle (not quite circular), surrounded by a ditch and rampart of earth, and once approached by two avenues of monoliths.
The provision of defensive armour for ships of war had long occupied his attention, and he had constructed plans and a model of a vessel lying low in the water, carrying one heavy gun in a circular turret mounted on a turntable.
Until 1905 the chief ancient buildings at Sparta were the theatre, of which, however, little shows above ground except portions of the retaining walls; the socalled Tomb of Leonidas, a quadrangular building, perhaps a temple, constructed of immense blocks of stone and containing two chambers; the foundation of an ancient bridge over the Eurotas; the ruins of a circular structure; some remains of late Roman fortifications; several brick buildings and mosaic pavements.