The rubber is circular in section, and about 2 in.
high, large remains of a circular cyclopean tower, called Dun-Aengus, ascribed to the Fir-bolg or Belgae; or, individually, to the first of three brothers, Aengus, Conchobar and Nil, who reached Aran Islands from Scotland in the 1st century A.D.
She pulled into the large circular drive at exactly seven.
She held her breath as they approached and turned into the circular drive.
Vara tugged off his own necklace, a simple strip of leather with a circular stone.
The circular church of S.
tion of a stage c.c, Circular canal.
Midmorning light filtered into the circular chamber, the sounds of fighting distant.
deep, is almost circular, and was the central point of a large volcanic district, though it is probably not itself an extinct crater.
Nothing was said until we settled on a bench near the circular band stand, beneath the obligatory memorial statue.
by 84 ft., has a square tower and circular domed towers at the corners.
He wished to put everything concerning the Shiptons in the circular file of his memory and get on with a normal life.
The mouth may be a simple, circular pore at the extremity of the manubrium, or by folding of the edges it may become square or shaped like a Maltese cross, with four corners and four lips.
As she turned into the circular drive and shut off the engine, she let out a long sigh.
The panhandle fed into the roughly circular main body of the lake, and she paused.
Leo, the saint's favourite disciple and companion on Mount Alverno at the time, which describes the circumstances of the stigmatization; Elias of Cortona, the acting superior, wrote on the day after his death a circular letter wherein he uses language clearly implying that he had himself seen the Stigmata, and there is a considerable amount of contemporary authentic second hand evidence.
The collection of well-defined sites was tastefully arranged around a circular loop with about thirty camp sites on both the inside and outside of the narrow roadway.
E, Type of Coryne, Forskalia, &c. c.c, Circular canal.
You may see from a boat, in calm weather, near the sandy eastern shore, where the water is eight or ten feet deep, and also in some other parts of the pond, some circular heaps half a dozen feet in diameter by a foot in height, consisting of small stones less than a hen's egg in size, where all around is bare sand.
The nuraghe in its simplest form is a circular tower about 30 ft.
Young advised them to call their state Vermont, and he also sent through them a circular letter, dated the nth of April 1777, urging the people to adopt a state constitution on the Pennsylvania model.
It is usual for the umbrella to have an even, circular, uninterrupted margin; but in the order Narcomedusae secondary down-growths between the tentacles produce a lobed, indented margin to the umbrella.
Lyons), who died after 22 B.C. It is a circular structure of blocks of travertine 160 ft.
Among some tribes a circular grave was dug and the body placed in it with its face towards the east, and a high mound covered with bark or thatch raised over it.
They consist of a number of circular or rectangular pits sunk from the cap of a hill, and going down to a depth of in some cases as much as 120 ft., until in fact the miners have been stopped by being unable to cope with the quantity of water made when the level of the valley was reached.
A final argument is the existence in some cases of a village of circular stone buildings of similar construction to the nuraghi, but only 15 to 25 ft.
What the diplomatic matter might be he did not care, but it gave him great pleasure to prepare a circular, memorandum, or report, skillfully, pointedly, and elegantly.
On the 15th of June the pope addressed to Cardinal Rampolla del Tindaro, secretary of state, a letter reiterating in uncompromising terms the papal claim to the temporal power, and at the end of July Cardinal Rampolla reformulated the same claim in a circular to the papal nuncios abroad.
Sofia, a circular edifice of about 760, now modernized, the roof of which is supported by six ancient columns, is a relic of the Lombard period; it has a fine cloister of the 12th century constructed in part of fragments of earlier buildings; while the cathedral with its fine arcaded facade and incomplete square campanile (begun in 1279) dates from the 9th century and was rebuilt in 1114.
Pierre well remembered this small circular drawing room with its mirrors and little tables.
Probably this is the only house in the town where verses are composed, which are afterward printed in a circular form, but not published.
A nervous system has been shown to exist in many species, and consists of a perioesophageal ring giving off usually six nerves which run forwards and backwards along the lateral and median lines; these are connected by numerous fine, circular threads in the sub-cuticle.
These static and kinetic conditions succeed each other rapidly, and the result is to detach or throw off from the antenna semi-loops of electric force, which move outwards in all directions and are accompanied by expanding circular lines of magnetic force.
The lid is especially attractive to insects from its bright colour and honey secretion; three wings lead up to the mouth of the pitcher, on the inside of which a row of sharp spines points downwards, and below this a circular ridge (r, fig.
For this reason the altar, as representative of the universe, is built in five layers, representing earth, air and heaven, and the intermediate regions; and in the centre of the altar-site, below the first layer, on a circular gold plate (the sun), a small golden man (purusha) is laid down with his face looking upwards.
In one subdivision of the leeches, the Gnathobdellidae, the mouth has three chitinous jaws which produce a triangular bite, though the action has been described as like that of a circular saw.
The architrave is flat, and there is a space over it, serving both to admit light and to relieve the pressure on it from above, and the size decreases slightly from the bottom to the top. Within the doorway is, as a rule, a niche on the right, and a staircase ascending in the thickness of the wall to the left; in front is another similar doorway leading to the chamber in the interior, which is circular, and about 15 ft.
Of the forty-four churches, all in the circular Abyssinian style, which are said to have formerly existed in Gondar or its immediate neighbourhood, Major Powell-Cotton found only one intact in woo.
The entocodon is to be regarded, therefore, not as primarily an ingrowth of ectoderm, but rather as an upgrowth of both bodylayers, in the form of a circular rim (IVa), representing the umbrellar margin; it is comparable to the bulging that forms the umbrella in the direct method of budding, but takes place before a manubrium is formed, and is greatly reduced in size, so as to become a little pit.
sub, Sub-umbral ectoderm c.c, Circular canal.
Dilatation (stomach) of the Circular canal.
(After Haeckel.) c, Circular canal.
Of the old castle, called Nenagh Round, dating from the time of King John, there still exists the circular donjon or keep. There are no remains of the hospital founded in 1200 for Austin canons, nor of the Franciscan friary, founded in the reign of Henry III.
In the circular form it constitutes a natural and even primitive use of the idea of a crown, modified by an equally simple idea of the emanation of light from the head of a superior being, or by the meteorological phenomenon of a halo.
Each instrument is provided with a keyboard, resembling that of a small piano, the key levers of which communicate with a circular row of vertical pins.
c.c, Circular canal.
The aureola, when enveloping the whole body, is generally oval or elliptical in form, but is occasionally circular or quatrefoil.
The circular system is developed continuously over the entire subumbral surface, and the velum represents a special local development of this system, at a region where it is able to act at the greatest mechanical advantage in producing the contractions of the umbrella by which the animal progresses.
Alengon has a large circular corn-market and a clothmarket.
44, F) grow out from the ring-canal, and the double plate of ectoderm on the distal side of the entocodon becomes perforated, leaving a circular rim composed of two layers of ectoderm, the velum (v) of the medusa.
The characters offered by the circular lip are among the most important for the distinction of species.
In some species of Rana and Staurois inhabiting mountainous districts in south-eastern Asia, the larvae are adapted for life in torrents, being provided with a circular adhesive disk on the ventral surface behind the mouth, by means of which they are able to anchor themselves to stones.
is a flat disk, circular or elliptical in outline, had in the ideas time of Homer acquired a special definiteness by the introduction of the idea of the ocean river bounding the whole, an application of imperfectly understood observations.
Tozer 2 as the father of geography on account of his Periodos, or general treatise on the earth, did not advance beyond the primitive conception of a circular disk.
H e rodotus, equally oblivious of the sphere, criticized and Herodotus rid i culed the circular outline of the oekumene, which he knew to be longer from east to west than it was broad from north to south.
The circular outline had given way in geographical opinion to the elliptical with the long axis lying east and west, and Aristotle was inclined to view it as a very long and relatively narrow band almost encircling the globe in the temperate zone.
The circular space on each side of the basi-temporal (bt.) is the opening of the anterior tympanic recess.
The cloaca is divided by transverse circular folds, which project from its inner walls, into three successive chambers.
The next chamber, the urodaeum, is small, and receives in its dorso-lateral wall the ureters and the genital ducts; above and below this chamber is closed by circular folds, the lower of which, towards the ventral side, passes into the coating of the copulatory organ when such is present.
The third or outermost chamber, the proctodaeum, is closed externally by the sphincter ani; the orifice is quite circular.
CHAGOS, a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, belonging to Britain, disposed in circular form round the Chagos bank, in 4° 44' t o 7° 39' S., and 70 55' to 72° 52' E.
of Erzerum, in a large circular pool (altitude, 8625 ft.), which is venerated by Armenians and Moslems, and flows south-east to the plain of Erzerum (5750 ft.).
The former are for the most part concerned with questions relating to the theory of light, arising out of his professorial lectures, among which may be specially mentioned his paper "On the Diffraction of an Object-Glass with Circular Aperture."
Not long after his accession to office Gorchakov issued a circular to the foreign powers, in which he announced that Russia proposed, for internal reasons, to keep herself as free as possible from complications abroad, and he added the now historic phrase, "La Russie ne boude pas; die se recueille."
THOLOS (06Xos), the term given in Greek architecture to a circular building, with or without a peristyle; the earliest examples are those of the beehive tombs at Mycenae and in other parts of Greece, which were covered by domes built in horizontal courses of masonry.
The grubs, when hatched, start galleries nearly at right angles to this, and when fully grown form oval cells in which they pupate; from these the young beetles emerge by making circular holes directly outward through the bark.
boundary is purely conventional: it crosses the peninsula of Kola from the Varanger Fjord to the Gulf of Bothnia; thence it runs to the Kurisches Haff in the southern Baltic, and thence to the mouth of the Danube, taking a great circular sweep to the W.
With increase of speeds this matter has become important as an element of comfort in passenger traffic. As a first approximation, the centre-line of a railway may be plotted out as a number of portions of circles, with intervening straight tangents connecting them, when the abruptness of the changes of direction will depend on the radii of the circular portions.
But if the change from straight to circular is made through the medium of a suitable curve it is possible to relieve the abruptness, even on curves of comparatively small radius.
The smoothest and safest running is, in fact, attained when a " transition," " easement " or " adjustment " curve is inserted between the tangent and the point of circular curvature.
This may be rectangular in shape (" straight " shed), containing a series of parallel tracks on which the engines stand and which are reached by means of points and crossings diverging from a main track outside; or it may take a polygonal or circular form (round house or rotunda), the lines for the engines radiating from a turn-table which occupies the centre and can be rotated so as to serve any of the radiating lines.
These railways, which in part are operated jointly, were given a circular location, but the shortcomings of this plan soon became apparent.
(For the details of the shield and method of its operation, see Tunnel.) By means of the shield Greathead cut a circular hole at a depth ranging from 40 to 80 ft.
The altar at which these solemn rites are performed consists of a triple circular marble terrace, 210 ft.
In the same temple stands the altar of prayer for good harvests, which is surmounted by a triple-roofed circular structure 99 ft.
in height, but lacking the upper storeys, and a Franciscan friary (1490); while a circular tower, and a square keep (occupied as barracks), mark strongholds, the one built by King John and the other by the Ormondes, and testify to the former importance of the town, which was doubtless accentuated by its physical position in a passway between the neighbouring mountain ranges.
It is circular internally and decagonal externally, in two storeys, built of marble blocks, and surmounted by an enormous monolith, brought from the quarries of Istria and weighing more than 300 tons.
The campanile (850-878) is circular, and has perhaps the earliest example of the use of disks of coloured majolica as a decoration.
Agata, also circular, probably belong also to the 9th century, while the two square campanili of S.
The former, well restored by Ricci in1898-1900(except for the dome with its baroque frescoes which has not been altered), is a regular octagon, with a vestibule, originally flanked by two towers on the west, a choir added on the east, triangular outside and circular within; it is surrounded within by two galleries interrupted at the presbytery, and supported by eight large pillars, the intervals between which are occupied by open exedrae.
Above this comes a row of circular shields, adorned with intricate arabesques, while bands and wreaths of lilies are everywhere scupltured on the windows, balconies, tambours and cornices, adding lightness to the fabric. The whole is raised on a platform 7 ft.
It is also remarkable that all the great planets and many of the small ones have their orbits very nearly in the same plane, and nearly circular in form.
In the Cyclorrhapha on the other hand, in which the actual pupa is concealed within the hardened larval skin, the imago escapes through a circular orifice formed by pushing off or through the head end of the puparium.
There are some ancient stone remains in Tongatapu, burial places (feitoka) built with great blocks, and a remarkable monument consisting of two large upright blocks morticed to carry a transverse one, on which was formerly a circular basin of stone.
He was a Whig member of the United States senate in 1831-1837, and as such took a prominent part in the legislative struggle over the United States Bank, whose rechartering he favoured and which he resolutely defended against President Jackson's attack, opposing in able speeches the withdrawal of deposits and Secretary Woodbury's " Specie Circular of 1836.
Below this is a circular, and below that again a longitudinal, layer of muscle fibres.
Usually the epidermis is immediately followed by the circular layer of muscles, and this by the longitudinal coat.
mc, Circular muscle.
But what more than any other point of strategy made the fight famous was that the Scots fought on foot in battalions with their spears outwards, in a circular formation serving the same purpose as the modern square.
The foot of the limpet is a nearly circular disk of muscular tissue; in front, projecting from and raised above it, are the head and neck (figs.
The visceral hump forms a low conical dome above the subcircular foot, and standing out all round the base of this dome so as completely to overlap the head and foot, is the circular mantle-skirt.
The circular vaulted keep erected by Earl William Marshal (c. 1200), remains almost intact.
The success it gained was doubtless due in some degree to the difficulty which most men had in comprehending it, for it was enwrapped in alluring mystery, but more to the confidence with which it was announced as being the long-looked-for key to the wonders of creation, since its promoters did not hesitate to term it the discovery of " the Natural System," though they condescended, by way of explanation to less exalted intellects than their own, to allow it the more moderate appellation of the Circular or, Quinary System.
That no groups are natural which do not exhibit, or show an evident tendency to exhibit, such a circular series.
The primary circular divisions of every group are three actually, or five apparently.
The contents of such a circular group are symbolically (or analogically) represented by the contents of all other circles in the animal kingdom.
That the different ranks or degrees of circular groups exhibited in the animal kingdom are Nine k in number, each being involved within the other."
A " circular system " was advocated by the eminent botanist Fries, and the views of Macleay met with the partial approbation of the celebrated entomologist Kirby, while at least as much may be said of the imaginative Oken, whose mysticism far surpassed that of the Quinarians.
The dome is the leading idea or motif in Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture; the domes are placed over square, not circular apartments, and their bases are brought to a circle by means of pendentives.
a main building with wings; the large amount of window space; the comparative flatness of the façades; the employment of a cornice to each storey; the effect of light and shade given by the balconies; and in churches by the circular pediments on the facades.
The facade has the characteristic circular pediment with a large west window surrounded by three smaller windows separated by two ornamental roundels in coloured marble and of geometric design.
East of the Rocky Mountains (Washington, 1891), and his Report on the Mound Explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology in the 12th Report (1894) of that Bureau, supplementing his earlier bulletins, Problem of the Ohio Mounds and the Circular, Square and Octagonal Earthworks of Ohio (1889); and W.
It consists essentially of a series of circular notched disks, the so-called saws, revolving between the interstices of an iron bed upon which the cotton is placed: the teeth of the " saws " catch the lint and pull it off from the seeds, then a revolving brush removes the detached lint from the saws, and creates sufficient draught to carry the lint out of the machine to some distance.
The official figures are supplemented from time to time by numerous private forecasts, for instance those in " Neild's circular."
For the first associated circular of any importance, the market had to wait until 1832.
The issue of this circular by subscribing firms, on the basis of particulars collected by brokers appointed at a weekly meeting, gave rise in 1841 to the Cotton Brokers' Association, to which the development of the market by the systematizing of procedure is largely due.
The rest of the tale may be told in Mr Ellison's own words: " Down to 1864 the leading firms continued to issue weekly market reports, but in that year the association commenced the publication of an associated circular.
This was followed in the same year by the Daily Table of sales and imports, which in 1874 was succeeded by the present more complete Daily Circular.
Tanks of various types are employed in storing the oil, those at the wells being circular and usually made of wood, with a content of 250 barrels and upwards.
Protonemertini, in which there are two layers of dermal muscles, external circular and internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies external to the circular muscles; the mouth lies behind the level of the brain; the proboscis has no stylet; there is no caecum to the intestine.
Heteronemertini, in which the dermal musculature is in three layers, an external longitudinal, a middle circular, an internal longitudinal; the nervous system lies between the first and second of these layers; the outer layer of longitudinal muscles is a new development; there is no intestinal caecum; no stylets on the proboscis and the mouth is behind the level of the brain.
The first three orders, which have a double muscular layer, external circular and internal longitudinal, are sometimes grouped together as the Dimyaria; the Heteronemertini, in which a third coat of longitudinal muscles arises outside the circular layer, are then placed in a second branch, the Trimyaria.
The proboscis, which is thus an eminently muscular organ, is composed of two or three, sometimes powerful, layers of muscles - one of longitudinal and one or two of circular fibres.
At the circular insertion of the proboscis in front of the brain the muscular fibres belonging to the anterior extremity of the body and those connected with the proboscis are very intimately interwoven, forming a strong attachment.
The short tube between this circular insertion and the rhynchostome is called the rhynchodaeum.
I, outer circular, and long., longitudinal layer of muscular tissue; circ. 2, long.
I, additional circular and longitudinal layers of the same; g al, nervous layer.
the external and" the internal one, there being a strong circular layer between them (fig.
The Heteronemertini thus appear to have developed an extra layer of longitudinal fibres internally to those which they inherited from more primitive ancestors, whereas the Metanemertini are no longer in possession of the internal circular layer, but have on the contrary largely developed the external circular one, which has dwindled away in the Heteronemertini.
In Valencinia there is nothing but a circular opening without furrow.
A, Circular muscular layer.
A ", Second circular (in Carinella).
In its simplest form an electromagnetic ammeter consists of a circular coil of wire in which is pivoted eccentrically an index needle carrying at its lower end a small mass of iron.
In this magnetic field is pivoted a small circular or rectangular coil carried in jewelled bearings, the current being passed into and out of the movable coil by fine flexible conductors.
The stupa was circular, 70 ft.
In the water of the lake there is a general set of current towards the outlet at the strait of Mackinac, following the east shore, with slight circular currents in the main portion of the lake and at the northern end around Beaver island.
By degrees the inhabited area began to comprise the open ground to the north-west, the nearer portion of the later Ceramicus, or " potters' field " (afterwards divided by the walls of Themistocles into the Inner and Outer Ceramicus), and eventually extended to the north and east of the citadel, which, by the beginning of the 5th century B.C., had become the centre of a circular or wheel-shaped city, 7rOXtos TpOXOEU OS ciKpa Kapnva (Oracle apud Herod.
It was not, however, till 1886 that traces of the original circular Greek orchestra were pointed out by DOrpfeld.
The monument consists of a small circular temple of Pentelic marble, 212 ft.
At the eastern end of the Acropolis a little circular temple of white marble with a peristyle of 9 Ionic columns was dedicated to Rome and Augustus; its foundations were discovered during the excavations of 1885-1888.
Inside the syncytium is a not very regular layer of circular muscle fibres, and within this again some rather scattered longitudinal fibres; there is no endothelium.
The canals of the proboscis open ultimately into a circular vessel which runs round its base.
j, Circular muscular layer.
Under any of these hypotheses the address would indicate that we have a circular letter, written to a group of churches, doubtless in Asia Minor.
A cadastral survey for purposes of taxation was already at work in Babylonia in the age of Sargon of Akkad, 3800 B.C. In the British Museum may be seen a series of clay tablets, circular in shape and dating back to 2300 or 2100 B.C., which contain surveys of lands.
considerable thickness, suspended in the centre ' of the circular vault of the heavens, an idea perhaps borrowed from the Babylonians, for Job (xxvi.
v) as being circular in outline and bounded by a.
Circular maps, however, remained in the popular favour long after their erroneousness had been recognized by the learned.
an oblong rectangular, a circular and an oval type, the latter being either FIG.
- The World according to Cosmas Indicoplcustes (535) a compromise between the two former, or an artistic development of the circular type.
The map or diagram of which Leonardo Dati in his poem on the Sphere (Della Spera) wrote in 1422 " un T dentre a uno 0 mostra it disegno " (a T within an 0 shows the design) is one of the most persistent types among the circular or wheel maps of the world.
Most of the expansions of Portolano maps into maps of the world are circular in shape, and resemble the wheel maps of an earlier period.
There is one circumstance, however, which seems to mark a difference between the two animals: the eye of the dog of every country and species has a circular pupil, but the position or form of the pupil is oblique in the wolf.
Each is circular with a central depression.
wide leads into the circular bay of GubbetKharab (Hell's Mouth), behind which rise a chaotic mass of volcanic rocks, destitute of vegetation and presenting a scene of weird desolation.
A circular was soon after sent to the governors and marshals of the nobility all over Russia proper, informing them of this desire of the Lithuanian nobles, and setting out the fundamental principles which should be observed " if the nobles of the provinces should express a similar desire."
Muckle Roe, "great red island" (202), roughly circular in shape and about 3 m.
square, usually rectangular, though sometimes, circular or FIG.
are immense circular halls of a bottle shape, like a glass-house furnace, lighted by air shafts.
19, 20), from Agincourt, of the catacomb and of one of the circular halls, show how widely this cemetery differs in arrangement from the Roman catacombs.
The frequency of blind passages and of circular chambers will be noticed, as well as the very large number of bodies in the cruciform recesses, apparently amounting in one in stance to nineteen.
- bs Plan of of St Circular marks that this cemetery " gives an Syracuse.(From Agincourt.) idea of a work executed with design and leisure, and with means v e ry different from those at command in producing the catacombs of Rome."
It is a square tower built over a circular, probably Norman, arch, and has embattled corner turrets.
above the sea in this district, never above 70, and are generally treeless except for marginal timber along the sluggish, meandering streams. One of their peculiar features - the sandy circular " mounds," 2 to 10 ft.
The valley of the Yumuri, near Matanzas, a small circular basin crossed by a river that issues through a glen to the sea, is perhaps the most beautiful in Cuba.
On the 22nd of June the Russian army, under Prince Gorchakov, crossed the Pruth, not - as was explained in a circular to the powers - for the purpose of attacking Turkey, but solely to obtain the material guarantees for the enjoyment of the privileges conferred upon her by the existing treaties.
The characteristic craft for local service in the immediate environment of Bagdad is the kufa, a circular boat of basket-work covered with bitumen, often of a size sufficient to carry five or six horses and a dozen men.
Circular notes are those addressed by one power to the other powers generally, e.g.
It consisted of a circular chamber, surrounded on the outside by a Doric colonnade, and on the inside by a Corinthian one.
The dorsal epidermal nerve-tract is continued in front into the ventral wall of the collar nerve-tube, and at the point of junction there is a circular commissural thickening following the posterior rim of the collar and affording a special connexion between the dorsal and ventral nervetracts.
But his task in the south was doubtless rather that of an organizer, and a kind of circular letter has come down to us which was addressed by Patrick, Auxilius and Iserninus, to all the clergy of the island.
Of these one is circular, with a diameter of 60 ft.
QUERN, the primitive form of hand-mill for grinding corn, consisting of two flat circular stones; the lower stone, often shaped with a rim; has a wooden or metal pin in the centre which passes through a hole in the upper stone; the worker pours the grain through the hole with one hand, revolving the upper stone with the other by means of a peg fixed to one side.
At the end of the canal is a large commercial harbour, beyond which the channel opens into the lake - in reality an arm of the sea - roughly circular in form and covering about 50 sq.
The ventral valve is usually the larger, and in many genera, such as Terebratula and Rhynchonella, has a prominent beak or umbo, with a circular or otherwise shaped foramen at or near its extremity, partly bounded by one or two plates, termed a deltidium.
In some orders the Phylembryo is succeeded by an Obolella stage with a nearly circular outline, but this is not universal.
The two plates may meet in the middle line, and leave only a small oval opening near the centre for the pedicle, as in Rhynchonella; or they may meet only near the base of the delthyrium forming the lower boundary of the circular pedicle-opening, as in Terebratula; or the right plate may remain quite distinct from the left plate, as in Terebratella.
- More or less circular, cone-shaped, inarticulate Brachiopoda.
Every other concomitant is a rational integral function of these four forms. The linear covariant, obviously the Jacobian of a x and x x is the line perpendicular to x and the vanishing of the quadrinvariant a x is the condition that a x passes through one of the circular points at infinity.
The determination of the true relation between the length of a pendulum and the time of its oscillation; the invention of the theory of evolutes; the discovery, hence ensuing, that the cycloid is its own evolute, and is strictly isochronous; the ingenious although practically inoperative idea of correcting the "circular error" of the pendulum by applying cycloidal cheeks to clocks - were all contained in this remarkable treatise.
For the mean motion of the earth in one second in circular measure, we have n 8149' l o g.
The field at the centre of a circular conductor of radius r through which current is passing is H = 27ri/r, (3) the direction of the force being along the axis and related to the direction of the current as the thrust of a corkscrew to its rotation.
Since i +47-K' can never be negative, the apparent susceptibility will be positive or negative according as is greater or less than Thus, for example, a tube containing a weak solution of an iron salt will appear to be diamagnetic if it is immersed in a stronger solution of iron, though in air it is paramagnetic.4 Circular Magnetization.
The method has been employed by the authors themselves in studying the effects of tension, torsion and circular magnetization, while R.
Honda subjected tubes of iron, steel and nickel to the simultaneous action of circular and longitudinal fields, and observed the changes of length when one of the fields was varied while the other remained constant at different successive values from zero upwards.
The wire is subject to two superposed magnetizations, the one longitudinal, the other circular, due to the current traversing the wire; the resultant magnetization is consequently in the direction of a screw or spiral round the wire, which will be right-handed or left-handed according as the relation between the two magnetizations is right-handed or left-handed; the magnetic expansion or contraction of the metal along the spiral lines of magnetization produces the Wiedemann twist.
If a longitudinally magnetized wire is twisted, circular magnetization is developed; this is evidenced by the transient electromotive force induced in the iron, generating a current which will deflect a galvanometer connected with the two ends of the wire.
C. Twisting a longitudinally magnetized wire produces circular magnetization.
Sepolcro, a circular church with ornamentation in brick and an imitation of opus reticulatum, should probably be attributed to the 6th or 7th centuries.
These must one and all be cleared away before we can enter on that era of universal peace towards the attainment of which the tsar of Russia declared, in his famous circular of 1898, the efforts of all governments should be directed.
The summit of the promontory (748 ft.) is reached by the old line of the Via Appia, which is flanked by tombs and by remains of an ancient defensive wall with circular towers (currently attributed to Theodoric, but probably a good deal earlier in date).
Second in importance to George Street is Pitt Street, which runs parallel to it from the Circular Quay to the railway station; Macquarie Street runs alongside the Domain and contains a number of public buildings, including the treasury, the office of public works, the houses of parliament and the mint.
The Circular Quay at the head of Sydney Cove is 1300 ft.
According to the assumed law of the secondary wave, the result must actually depend upon the precise radius of the outer boundary of the region of integration, supposed to be exactly circular.
An interesting exception to the general rule that full brightness requires the existence of the first zone occurs when the obstacle assumes the form of a small circular disk parallel to the plane of the incident waves.
When light passes through a small circular or annular aperture, the illumination at any point along the axis depends upon the precise relation between the aperture and the distance from it at which the point is taken.
If, as in the last paragraph, we imagine a system of zones to be drawn commencing from the inner circular boundary of the aperture, the question turns upon the manner in which the series terminates at the outer boundary.
Thus in the case of the circular disk, equidistant (r) from the source of light and from the screen upon which the shadow is observed, the width of the first exterior zone is given by = X(2r)/4(2x), 2x being the diameter of the disk.
The resolving power of a telescope with circular or rectangular aperture is easily investigated experimentally.
Theory of Circular Aperture.
- We will now consider the important case where the form of the aperture is circular.
When, as in the application to rectangular or circular apertures, the form is symmetrical with respect to the axes both of x and y, S = o, and C reduces to C = ff cos px cos gy dx dy,.
In the case of the circular aperture the distribution of light is of course symmetrical with respect to the focal point p=o, q=o; and C is a function of p and q only through 11 (p 2 -}-q 2).
Trans., 1834) in his original investigation of the diffraction of a circular object-glass, and readily obtained from (6), is z z 3 25 27 J1(z) = 2 2 2.4 + 2 2.4 2.6 2 2.4 2.6 2.8 + When z is great, we may employ the semi-convergent series Ji(s) = A/ (7, .- z)sin (z-17r) 1+3 8 1 ' 6 (z) 2 18.104.22.168.1.3.5 5 () 3 1 22.214.171.124 1 3 cos(z - ?r) 8 ' z (z) 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.7 1 5 + 184.108.40.206.40 (z
The first dark ring in the diffraction pattern of the complete circular aperture occurs when r/f = 1.2197 XO /2R (15).
The results of the theory of the diffraction patterns due to circular apertures admit of an interesting application to coronas, such as are often seen encircling the sun and moon.
At other parts of the field the effect is the same, in accordance with the principle known as Babinet's, whether the imaginary screen in front of the object-glass is generally transparent but studded with a number of opaque circular disks, or is generally opaque but perforated with corresponding apertures.
If we put for shortness 7 for the quantity under the last circular function in (I), the expressions (i), (2) may be put under the forms u sin T, v sin (T - a) respectively; and, if I be the intensity, I will be measured by the sum of the squares of the coefficients of sin T and cos T in the expression u sin T +v sin (T - a), so that I =u 2 +v 2 +2uv cos a, which becomes on putting for u, v, and a their values, and putting f =Q .
The theory of Talbot's bands with a half-covered circular aperture has been considered by H.
the shadow of a circular disk and of a screen circularly perforated.
Problems not limited to two dimensions, such for example as the shadow of a circular disk, present great difficulties, and have not hitherto been treated by a rigorous method; but there is no reason to suppose that Fresnel's results would be departed from materially.
These architectural decorations are derived from a style of building found by the recent German expedition extant in an ancient church; courses of stone here alternate in the walls (both inside and out) with beams of wood held by circular clamps.
a crystal or glass circular disk, more suited to the shape of the sacred wafer; this is mounted in a frame of golden rays, and the whole is supported by a stem and bases.
The furnace consists of a shaft, circular (or more rarely rectangular) in plan, into which alternate layers of fuel and ore are charged, an air blast being generally injected near to the bottom of the furnace through one or more tuyeres.
Probably the oldest head-dress is the circular close-fitting cap (plain or braided), which, according to Meyer, is of Sumerian (non-Semitic) origin.
The bulla was a circular gold locket containing a charm of some kind against evil.'
The change appears to begin in the fibrils which lie between the circular muscle fibres of the middle coat of the smaller arterioles and extends both backwards and forwards along the vessels.
30 a circular tower, about So ft.
The town lies under high hills on a small circular harbour accessible to small craft.
He left a gap to the north of the circular fort which formed the centre of the Athenian lines, the point where Epipolae slopes down to the sea, and he omitted to occupy Euryelus.
The military skill of Gylippus enabled the Syracusan militia to meet the Athenian troops on equal terms, to wrest from them their fortified position on Plemmyrium, which Nicias had occupied as a naval station shortly after Gylippus's arrival, and thus to drive them to keep their ships on the low beach between their double walls, to take Labdalum, an Athenian fort on the northern edge of Epipolae, and make a third counter-work right along Epipolae in a westerly direction, to the north of the circular fort.
Marcianus, and the type is different from that of the Roman catacombs, the galleries being far larger (partly owing to the hardness of the limestone in which they are excavated), and having circular chambers at the points * of junction.
Provision was made in the design, by Sir Aston Webb, for the extension of the Mall to open upon Trafalgar Square, through gateways in a semicircular range of buildings to be occupied by government offices, and for a wide circular space in front of the Palace, with a statue of the Queen by Thomas Brock in its centre.
- The Zulus live in kraals, circular enclosures with, generally, a ring fence inside forming a cattle pen.
He was especially successful in making vases and circular dishes of vitro di trina; one of the latter in the Correr collection at Venice, believed to have been made in his glass-house, measures 55 centimetres (nearly 23 in.) in diameter.
Round disks made of these substances were placed in a closely fitting cylindrical cavity drilled in a block of steel, the cavity having a circular aperture of two or four centimetres below.
Example z.-Liquid motion past a circular cylinder.
35 A circular vortex, such as a smoke ring, will set up motion symmetrical about an axis, and provide an illustration; a half vortex ring can be generated in water by drawing a semicircular blade a short distance forward, the tip of a spoon for instance.
The vortex advances with a certain velocity; and if an equal circular vortex is generated coaxially with the first, the mutual influence can be observed.
preserves its original direction, if a principal axis of the body; otherwise the axis describes a cone, right circular if the body has uniaxial symmetry, and a Poinsot cone in the general case.
This spot increases in size; in the stalks it assumes an oval shape, with its long axis parallel to the stalk, whilst in the leaves and grapes it is more or less circular in outline.
in diameter, which follows the curve of the hemispherical bottom, and is fitted from one side to the other of the defecator; one end is entirely closed, and the other is connected by a small pipe to a shallow circular vessel outside the defecator, covered with an india-rubber diaphragm, to the centre of which is attached a light rod actuating a steam throttle-valve, and capable of being adjusted as to length, &c. The copper pipe and circular vessel are filled with cold water, which on becoming heated by the surrounding juice expands, and so forces up the india-rubber diaphragm and shuts off the steam.
The latter are circular or rectangular vessels, holding from 500 to 1500 gallons each, according to the capacity of the factory, and fitted with steam coils at the bottom and skimming troughs at the top. In them the syrup is quickly brought up to the boil and skimmed for about five minutes, when it is run off to the service tanks of the vacuum pans.
A circular disposition of the cells facilitates charging by the use of a pipe rotating above them, but it renders the disposal of the hot spent slices somewhat difficult and inconvenient.
The melting pans are generally circular vessels, fitted with a perforated false bottom, on which the sugar to be melted is dumped.
(I) Let a spiral line be drawn on a right circular cylinder; a screw surface is then obtained by drawing lines from every point of this spiral perpendicular to its axis.
(2) A right cylinder having for its base an Archimedean spiral is intersected by a right circular cone which has the generating line of the cylinder passing through the initial point of the spiral for its axis.
The muscles are composed of outer circular and inner longitudinal layers, and of branched dorso-ventral fibres.
For manufacturing purposes a furnace similar to that used for the making of glass was employed to heat a circular row of crucibles standing on a shelf along the wall of the furnace.
In this capacity he exhibited an almost feverish activity; he perpetually appeared at the bar of the assembly on behalf of the commune; he announced the massacres of September in the prisons in terms of apology and praise; and he sent off the famous circular of the 3rd of September to the provinces, recommending them to do likewise.
four series of "Researches on Heat," in the course of which he described the polarization of heat by tourmaline, by transmission through a bundle of thin mica plates inclined to the transmitted ray, and by reflection from the multiplied surfaces of a pile of mica plates placed at the polarizing angle, and also its circular polarization by two internal reflections in rhombs of rock-salt.
It consists of a number of tubes mounted vertically on a horizontal circular disk which rotates about a vertical axis in a cylindrical vessel.
In the Pape-Henneberg condenser, which has been adopted in the German navy, they are oval in section and tend to become circular under the pressure of the steam; this alteration in shape makes the tubes self-scaling.
This layer also forms the attachment for the muscles, of which there are two enveloping coats, a circular and a longitudinal layer and also dorso-ventral fibres.
high with a circular cupola topping a square building 90 ft.
Gymnolaemata (Allman).- Lophophore circular, with no epistome.
- Zooecia prismatic or cylindrical, with terminal, typically circular orifice, not protected by any special organ.
- Lophophore horse-shoe shaped, or in Fredericella circular.
The cavities of the hollow tentacles open into a circular canal which surrounds the oesophagus at the base of the lophophore.
The arches are circular or pointed.
It is circular, 3/4 m.
If the box be round, they will seek to lead the eye away from the naked regularity of the circle by a pattern distracting attention, as, for example, by a zigzag breaking the circular outline, and supported by other ornaments.
In all printing the paper is laid on the upper surface of the block, and the impression rubbed off with a circular pad, composed of twisted cord within a covering of paper cloth and bamboo-leaf, and called the baren.
Its basin is circular, about 600 ft.
And hence I found the required area of the circular segment 2 x3 A x5 il-A to be x - 5 - 7, &c. And in the same manner might be 3 produced the interpolated areas of other curves; as also the area of the hyperbola and the other alternates in this series (1 - (i+xx) 1, (1 --xx) I, &c....
Ehrenberg), a genus of lobose Rhizopoda, characterized by a chitinous plano-convex shell, the circular aperture central on the fiat ventral face, and more than one nucleus and contractile vacuole.
The present foundations are built of architectural fragments, probably from an earlier building of circular form on the same site.
A little farther on, but below the Sacred Way, is another open space, of circular form, which is perhaps the iXcos or sacred threshing-floor on which the drama of the slaying of the Python by Apollo was periodically performed.
The above expressions for the capacity of an ellipsoid of three unequal axes are in general elliptic integrals, but they can be evaluated for the reduced cases when the ellipsoid is one of revolution, and hence in the limit either takes the form of a long rod or of a circular disk.
In the other extreme case the oblate spheroid becomes a circular disk when e = i, and then the capacity C2 = 2a17r.
The reader is also referred to an article by Lord Kelvin (Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, p. 178), entitled " Determination of the Distribution of Electricity on a Circular Segment of a Plane, or Spherical Conducting Surface under any given Influence," where another equivalent expression is given for the capacity of an ellipsoid.
p. 112) has given a full expression for the capacity C of two circular plates of thickness t and radius r placed at any distance d apart in air from which the edge effect can be calculated.
2 If a large plate has a Guard circular hole cut in it, and this is nearly filled up by a circular plate lying in the same plane, and if we place another large plate parallel to the first, then the electric field between this second plate and the small circular plate is nearly uniform; and if S is the area of the small plate and d its distance from the opposed plate, its capacity may be calculated by the simple formula C=S/47rd.
Let a solid circular sectioned cylinder of radius R 1 be enclosed in a coaxial tube of inner radius R2.
The most characteristic is the " pan," a circular dish of sheetiron or " tin," with sloping sides about 13 or 14 in.
The ores, having been broken and ground, generally in tube mills, until they pass a 150 to 200-mesh sieve, are transferred to the leaching vats, which are constructed of wood, iron or masonry; steel vats, coated inside and out with pitch, of circular section and holding up to woo tons, have come into use.
The Carpathians proper consist of an outer wall, which forms the frontier between Hungary and the adjacent provinces of Austria, and of an inner wall which fills the whole of Upper Hungary, and forms the central group. The outer wall is a complex, roughly circular mass of about 600 m.
ELLIPTICITY, in astronomy, deviation from a circular or spherical form; applied to the elliptic orbits of heavenly bodies, or the spheroidal form of such bodies.
Circular bowls are neatly turned from various woods.
The main stream, in fact, has a nearly circular course, rising in 4° 40' S., only some to miles from the lake shore and less than 40 miles from its mouth, though its length is at least 220 miles.
Many of the Massachusetts revolutionary documents, including the famous "Massachusetts Resolves" and the circular letter to the legislatures of the other colonies, are from his pen; but owing to the fact that he usually acted as clerk to the House of Representatives and to the several committees of which he was a member, documents were written by him which expressed the ideas of the committee as a whole.
orbits so nearly circular in form that the unaided eye would not notice the deviation from that form.
To this adapter is attached a flat circular flange h.
" the introduction of a diaphragm having two circular apertures touching each other in a point coinciding with the line of collimation of the telescope, and the diameter of each aperture exactly equal to the semidiameter of the cone of rays at the distance of the diaphragm from the focal point of the object-glass."
Dawes found the best method for the purpose in question was to limit the aperture of the object-glass by a diaphragm having a double circular aperture, placing the line joining the centres of the circles approximately in the position angle under measurement.
Dawes successfully employed the double circular aperture also with Amici's micrometer.
by placing circular diaphragms on the two segments of the object-glass.
If Struve had employed a properly proportioned double circular diaphragm, fixed symmetrically with the axis of the telescope in front of the divided lens and turning with the micrometer, it is probable that his report on the instrument would have been still more favourable.
The Ionian geographers looked on the circular disk of the habitable world as surrounded by a mighty stream named Oceanus, the name of the primeval god, father of gods and men, and thus the bond of union between heaven and earth.
In the region of tropical hurricanes the navies, while in the Mediterranean and in the Indian Ocean converging wind system of a circular storm causes a heaping many soundings were made in connexion with submarine up of water capable of devastating the low coral islands of the cables to the East.
FAIRY RING, the popular name for the circular patches of a dark green colour that are to be seen occasionally on permanent grass-land, either lawn or meadow, on which the fairies were supposed to hold their midnight revels.
The polygons adopted were of 20 or more sides approximating to a circular form.
There are several mosques and an Abyssinian church (of the usual circular construction) built of stone.
Regensburg, a, large circular building which has for its aim the glorification of the heroes of the war of liberation in 1813.
The lake, which is roughly circular with a diameter of some 13 m., lies at an altitude of 6135 ft.
It extended over a circular area, with a radius of 50 m.
At intervals are circular spaces, called " glorietas," with statues (the famous bronze equestrian statue of Charles IV., and monuments to Columbus, Cuauhtemoc the last of the Aztec emperors, and Juarez).
As for the marvels of Peru, the walls of the temple of the sun in Cuzco, with their circular form and curve inward, from the ground upward, are most imposing.
" The goniometric sight in its simplest form is a circular graduated base plate on which a short telescope or sighted ruler is pivoted.
A circular piece of this paper is folded twice upon itself so as to form a quadrant, one of the folds is pulled out, and the cone thus obtained is supported in a glass or porcelain funnel having an apical angle of 60°.
Almost the only characters they possess in common are the short and spike-like horns of the bucks, which are ringed at the base, with smooth tips, and the large size of the face-gland, which opens by a circular aperture.
It contains four Protestant churches, among them the German church, with a handsome steeple, and the curious circular Lithuanian church, a Roman Catholic church, a Jewish synagogue and a classical school (Gymnasium).
The treatment of an angle as generated by rotation, the investigation of the relations between trigonometrical ratios and circular measure, the application of interpolation to trigonometrical tables, and the general use of graphical methods to represent continuous variation, all imply an analytical onlook, and must therefore be deferred to this stage.
Suppose, for instance, that we require the area of a circular grass-plot of measured diameter.
As a matter of fact, no grass-plot is truly circular; and it might be found that if the breadth in various directions were measured more accurately the want of circularity would reveal itself.
Thus the inaccuracy in taking the measured diameter as the datum is practically of the same order as the inaccuracy in taking the grass-plot to be circular.
The lengths of arcs of the same circle being proportional to the angles subtended by them at the centre, we get the idea of circular measure.
By considering the circle as the limit of a polygon, it follows that the formulae (iii) and (v) of § 26 hold for a right circular cylinder and a right circular cone; i.e.
volume of right circular cylinder =length X area of base; volume of right circular cone = height X a area of base.
Similarly a surface of revolution can be divided by planes at right angles to the axis into elements, each of which is approximately a section of the surface of a right circular cone.
By unrolling each such element (§ 30) into a sector of a circular annulus, it will be found that the total area of the surface is M'.
Let a be the radius of a circle, and 0 (circular measure) the unknown angle subtended by an arc. Then, if we divide 0 into m equal parts, and L 1 denotes the sum of the corresponding chords, so that L i =2ma sin (0/2m), the true length of the arc is L1 +a9 3 - 5 + ..., where cp. =B/2m.
The crucible is then lifted out by circular tongs suspended in such a way that two men can take part in the; operation.
The rough edges of the bars are removed by a circular revolving file, and the hollow ends are cut off.
They are heated in circular furnaces 21 in.
in diameter and lifted out with circular tongs suspended from a travelling crane which is worked by electricity.
The plate has a circular groove in its face and the block has a corresponding curved groove.
The lampreys are readily recognized by their long, eel-like, scaleless body, terminating anteriorly in the circular, suctorial mouth characteristic of the whole sub-class.
At Baiae itself there exist three large and lofty domed buildings, two octagonal, one circular, and all circular in the interior, of opus reticulatum and brick, which, though popularly called temples, are remains of baths or nymphaea.
The most notable topographic feature is the roughly circular mountain area of north-eastern New York known as the Adirondack mountains (q.v.).
Fairlie, The Centralization of Administration in New York State (New York, 1898); Annual Reports of the State Board of Charities (Albany, 1867 sqq.); Annual Reports of the State Education Department (Albany, 1904 sqq.); and Sidney Sherwood, History of Higher Education in the State of New York (Washington, 1900), Circular of Information No.
From the materials at hand he constructed a circular chart, which was engraved on marble by Augustus and afterwards placed in the colonnade built by his sister Polla.
A small circular disk at one end of a torsion arm formed part of a solid wall, but was free to move through a hole in the wall slightly larger than the disk.
Seebeck (1805-1849) is the simplest form of apparatus thus designated, and consists of a large circular disk mounted on a central axis, about which it may be made to revolve with moderate rapidity.
If the rod is circular in section and perfectly uniform the end will describe a circle, ellipse or straight line; but, as the elasticity is usually not exactly the same in all directions, the figure usually changes and revolves.
Propagation of Waves in Pipes of Circular Section.
Let us suppose that the rod is circular, of radius r, and that the radial displacement of the surface is r t.
The velocity of propagation of a torsional disturbance along a wire of circular section may be found by the transfer of momentum method, remembering that we must now replace linear momentum by angular momentum.
By similar methods, a circular plate may be made to exhibit nodal lines dividing the surface by diametral lines into four or a greater, but always even, number of sectors, an odd number being incompatible with the general law of stationary waves that the parts of a body adjoining a nodal line on either side must always vibrate oppositely to each other.
Circular nodal lines unaccompanied by intersecting lines cannot be produced in the manner described; but may be got either by drilling a small hole through the centre, and drawing a horse-hair along its edge to bring out the note, or by attaching a long thin elastic rod to the centre of the plate, at right angles to it, holding the rod by the.
Bells may be regarded as somewhat like circular plates vibrating with radial nodes, and with the edges turned down.
42), consisting of two A circular quadrants of the same diameter as the plate.
43, and having a piece of thin membrane stretched over the opening at the top C, some dry sand being strewn over the membrane, is so placed over a circular or rectangular vibrating plate that the ends A, B lie over the segments of the plate, such as AOD, COB in the previous figure, which are in the same state of motion.
South-east of this is the principal residential quarter of Colombo, with the circular Victoria Park as its centre.
The baptistery proper was commonly a circular building, although sometimes it had eight and sometimes twelve sides, and consisted of an ante-room (rpoatAcos °Tacos) where the catechumens were instructed, and where before baptism they made their confession of faith, and an inner apartment where the sacrament was administered.
The circular church of Santa Costanza, also of the 4th century, served as a baptistery and contained the tomb of the daughter of Constantine.
In both England and America in early braced bridges cast iron, generally in the form of tubes circular or octagonal in section, was used for compression members, and wrought iron for the tension members.
The: bridge is carried on a circular base plate with a central pivot and a circular track for a live ring and conical rollers.
A circular revolving platform rests on the pivot and rollers.
The main girders rest on the revolving platform, and the ends of the bridge are circular arcs fitting the fixed roadway.
Thus if the members are pinned together, the, joint consisting of a single circular pin, the centre of which lies in the axis of the piece, it is clear that the direction of the only stress which can be transmitted from pin to pin will coincide with this axis.
the removal of the lapis manalis from the mundus, a circular pit at Rome supposed to be the opening to the world below, on three days in the year, whereby an opportunity of revisiting earth was afforded the dead).
On the Great Orme are old circular buildings, an ancient fortress, a "rocking-stone" (cryd Tudno) and the 7th-century church of St Tudno, restored.
A sudden loss of power then supervened, and on Friday evening, the 18th of January, the Court Circular published an authoritative announcement of her illness.
It is nearly circular and has an area of about 30 sq.
Above one of the graves was a small circular altar, and there were also several sculptured slabs set up above them.
Just within the Lion Gate is a projection of the wall surrounding a curious circular enclosure, consisting of two concentric circles though the historical identity of the persons actually buried in them is a more difficult question.
It consists of a circular domed chamber, nearly 50 ft.
As the date of inception of the circular zodiac now at Paris the year 46 B.C. has, however, been suggested with high probability, from (among other indications) the position among the signs of the emblem of the planet Jupiter.
- An Egypto-Greek planisphere, first described by Bianchini, 17 resembles in its general plan the circular zodiac of Dendera.
It is nearly circular in shape and 55 sq.
We can obtain a pertinent illustration from the motion of a vortex ring in a fluid; if the circular core of the ring is thin compared with its diameter, and the vorticity is not very great, it is the vortical state of motion that travels across the fluid without transporting the latter bodily with it except to a slight extent very close to the core.
It has in fact been found, with the very great precision of which optical experiment is capable, that all terrestrial optical phenomenareflexion, refraction, polarization linear and circular, diffraction - are entirely unaffected by the direction of the earth's motion, while the same result has recently been extended to electrostatic forces; and this is our main experimental clue.
t, tentacle; g.p, gastric pouch; r.c, radial canal not present in C and C'; c.c, circular or ring-canal; e.1, endoderm-lamella formed by concrescence.
Further, in the hydropolyp the digestive cavity either remains simple and undivided and circular in transverse section, or may show ridges projecting internally, which in this case are formed of endoderm alone, without any participation of the mesogloea.
Of native churches there are two forms - one square or oblong, found in Tigre; the other circular, found in Amhara and Shoa.
An outer court, circular or rectangular, surrounds the body of the church.
The square type may be due to basilican influence, the circular is a mere adaptation of the native hut: in both, the arrangements are obviously based on Jewish tradition.
For some purposes it is preferable to retain the circular measure, i radians, as being undistinguishable from sin i and tan i when i is small as in direct fire.
square, is a circular stone building surmounted by a pyramid.
The predominance of this somewhat recondite teaching gave to these epistles even more the character of treatises, which in the case of Ephesians is further enhanced by the fact that it is probably a circular letter addressed not to a single church but to a group of churches.
And the objections to Ephesians are considerably reduced when it is taken as a circular letter.
The two valves of the shell of the common cockle are similar to each other, and somewhat circular in outline.
There is a fine Perpendicular east window of circular form.
Remains of two small temples-one circular, with Corinthian columns, the other rectangular with Ionic columns-stand at the north-east extremity of the town, above the waterfalls.
in the north-west, and is generally much less rugged than the Alleghany Plateau; a peculiar feature of the southern portion of it is the numerous circular depressions (sink holes) in the surface and the cavernous region beneath.
Dr Lewis Mott has pointed out that "Round Tables" exist in many parts of Great Britain, the name being often associated with circular trenches, or rings of stones, which were demonstrably employed in connexion with the agricultural festivals held at Pentecost, Midsummer and Michaelmas.
On closely examining Layamon's version it seems probable that he had in his mind not merely a circular, but a turning table; he gives it as ground for the quarrel that all the knights wished to sit within; at the table the Cornish workman will make none shall be left without, but they shall sit "without and within, man against man."
To obviate this the cunning workman devised a circular table, turning on a pivot, with seats affixed, at which the guests sat the one half in turn within, the other without, the hall "man against man."
Of the former but little remains: the latter, however, is excellently preserved and consists of a circular court about 20 yds.
in length, and the masonry of the circular court is of astonishing beauty and accuracy.
At the junction of the two arms of the Rhine stands the old castle (De Burcht), a circular tower built on an earthen mound.
The mathematical function log x or log x is one of the small group of transcendental functions, consisting only of the circular functions (direct and inverse) sin x, cos x, &c., arc sin x or sin-' x,&c., log x and e x which are universally treated in analysis as known functions.
Thus log x is the integral function of 1/x, and it can be shown that log x is a genuinely new transcendent, not expressible in finite terms by means of functions such as algebraical or circular functions.
A connexion with the circular functions, however, appears later when the definition of log x is extended to complex values of x.
Both as regards structure and habits, the leopard may be reckoned as one of the more typical representatives of the genus Felis, belonging to that section in which the hyoid bone is loosely connected with the skull, owing to imperfect ossification of its anterior arch, and the pupil of the eye when contracted under the influence of light is circular, not linear as in the smaller cats.
He has applied the theory with especial ingenuity to the interpretation of the circular bony plates in the carapace of the aberrant leather-back sea-turtles (Sphargidae) by prefacing an initial land phase, in which the typical armature of land tortoises was acquired, a first marine or pelagic phase, in which this armature was lost, a third littoral or seashore phase, in which a new polygonal armature was acquired, and a fourth resumed or secondary marine phase, in which this polygonal armature began to degenerate.
A medusa has a layer of muscles, more or less strongly developed, running in a circular direction on the surface of the subumbrella, the contractions of which are antagonized by the elasticity of the gelatinous substance of the body.
By the contraction of the subumbral circular muscles the concavity of the subumbrella is increased, and as water is thereby forced out of the subumbral cavity the animal is jerked upwards.
Besides the circular subumbral muscles, there may be others running in a radial direction, chiefly developed as the longitudinal retractor muscles of the manubrium.
In some cases the circular.
The mouth may be circular or four-cornered, and in the latter case the manubrium at the angles of the mouth may become drawn out into four lappets, the oral arms, each with a groove on its inner side continuous with the corner FIG.
n.r.l Exumbral (so-called c.c. Circular or ring-canal.
There also might be seen the flat circular temalacatl or " spindle-stone," where captives armed with wooden weapons were allowed the mockery of a gladiatorial fight against well-armed champions.
We may note that it was long since shown that the apical organ (at first assumed to be the brain) of these larvae was innervated from an anterior thickening of the circular nerve ring, corresponding with the brain of Rotifers; the nerve cells immediately below the pit are the ordinary bipolar From H.
Asplanchnaceae; trochus circular; foot absent or minute; trophi incudate; stomach blind; males frequent, not very dissimilar to females.
He undertook in the latter part of September and the first three weeks of October a circular tour to the different courts of Europe in the hope of obtaining some intervention, or at least some good offices.
The castle is a fine example of Gothic, and mainly consists of a great oblong quadrangle, flanked on the south side by circular towers.
Shortly after his marriage Eric issued a circular ordering a general thanksgiving for his delivery from the assaults of the devil.
The municipal boundary lies generally a little outside the so-called Circular Road, which may be taken as encircling the city proper, with a few breaks.
From the north end of Sackville Street, several large thoroughfares radiate through the northern part of the city, ultimately joining the Circular Road at various points.
together and having a quadrantal shape, that is, approximately the shape of a quarter of a circular disk.
He clearly perceived the significant analogy between terrestrial gravity and the force exerted in the solar system, and by the ingenious device of a circular pendulum illustrated the composite character of the planetary movements.
macularius, the " Peetweet," or Spotted Sandpiper, so called from its usual cry, or from the almost circular marks which spot its lower plumage.
The only relics of the fortifications of the old town, whose place is now occupied by shady promenades, is the Florian's Gate and the Rondell, a circular structure, built in 1498.
At the beginning of that reign Malesherbes during his short ministry endeavoured to infuse some measure of justice into the system, and in March 1784 the baron de Breteuil, a minister of the king's household, addressed a circular to the intendants and the lieutenant of police with a view to preventing the crying abuses connected with the issue of lettres de cachet.
The introduction of these lines and points constitutes a striking achievement in geometry, and from their association with circles they have been named the " circular lines " and " circular points."
Other names for the circular lines are " circulars " or " isotropic lines."
identical with the circular lines, it follows that this circle consists of a real point and the two imaginary lines; conversely, the circular lines are both a pair of lines and a circle.
concentric circles have double contact at the circular points, the chord of contact being the line at infinity.
The general equation to the circle in trilinear co-ordinates is readily deduced from the fact that the circle is the only curve which intersects the line infinity in the circular points.
The line la+ma+ny is the radical axis, and since as+43 c-y =o is the line infinity, it is obvious that equation (I) represents a conic passing through the circular points, i.e.
If we make =,u=v o, p is infinite, and we obtain lap, bq, cr} 2 =o as the equation to the circular points.
- Data: radius=a; 0= circular measure of angle subtended at centre by arc; c = chord of arc; c 2 = chord of semi-arc; c 4 = chord of quarter-arc.
From these results the mensuration of any figure bounded by circular arcs and straight lines can be determined, e.g.
7 angled at C, ADB is the semicircle described on AB as diameter, AEB the circular arc described with centre C and radius CA= CB.
He also gave approximate rectifications of circular arcs after the manner of Huygens; and, what is very notable, he made an ingenious and, according to J.
The generality of treatment is indeed remarkable; he gives as the fundamental property of all the conics the equivalent of the Cartesian equation referred to oblique axes (consisting of a diameter and the tangent at its extremity) obtained by cutting an oblique circular cone in any manner, and the axes appear only as a particular case after he has shown that the property of the conic can be expressed in the same form with reference to any new diameter and the tangent at its extremity.
De Inclinationibus had for its object to insert a straight line of a given length, tending towards a given point, between two given (straight or circular) lines.
This opening in a uterus which has never been pregnant is a narrow transverse slit, rarely a circular aperture, but in those uteri in which pregnancy has occurred the slit is much wider and its lips are thickened and gaping and often scarred.
Near the lower part of the verumontanum is a little pouch, the utriculus masculinus, about one-eighth of an inch deep, the opening of which is guarded by a delicate membranous circular fold, the male hymen.
1 C represents the instrument used for guineas, the circular plates A representing plates of lead, which are used as ballast when lighter coins than guineas are examined.
circular, square, triangular and pentagonal, instead of numbering them I, 2, 3 and 4 respectively, a figure of the weight being stamped on the sliding rule opposite to every letter in the series to which it belongs, thus diminishing the probability of mistakes.
On Powder House Hill (originally Quarry Hill), in Nathan Tufts Park, there still stands an interesting old slate-stone powder house, a circular building, 30 ft.
The ancient fortifications, still extant in the beginning of the 19th century, have disappeared almost entirely, but of the four gateways one named after St Lawrence remains nearly perfect, consisting of two loopholed circular towers; and there are considerable ruins of another, the West or Butler Gate.
A circular railway about the water-front, wharves and warehouses facilitates the loading and unloading of vessels.
On the 4th of December 1642 Cardinal Richelieu died, and on the very next day the king sent a circular letter to all officials ordering them to send in their reports to Cardinal Mazarin, as they had formerly done to Cardinal Richelieu.
The new walls were given a circular shape, with eleven bastions and three gates.
Jebel Akhdar, being without "faults," has no deep internal valleys, and presents, the appearance of downs: but its seaward face is very deeply eroded, and deep circular sinkings (swallow-holes) are common.
There are two well-known principles of dressing: one known as " flat frame," giving good result with discharged silk, and the other known as circular frame " dressing, suitable for schappes.
In a circular frame the silk is clamped between boards, and these are fixed on a large drum.
The flat frame is the most gentle in its usage of the silk, but is most costly in labour; whilst the circular frame, being more severe in its action, is not suitable for the thoroughly degummed silks, but on the other hand is best for silks containing much wormy matter, because the silk hanging down into the combing teeth is thoroughly cleansed of such foreign matter, which is deposited under the machine.
Recently a new machine has been invented giving the same results as circular frame: the silk depends from boxes into combs, and at the same time has the gentle action of the flat frame.
If any such circular or document sent to an infant purports to issue from any address named therein or indicates any address as the place at which application is to be made with reference to the subject matter of the document, and at that place there is carried on any business connected with loans, every person who attends such place for the purpose of taking part in or assisting in the carrying on of such business will be deemed to have sent or caused to be sent such circular or document, unless he proves that he was not in any way a party to and was wholly ignorant of the sending of such document.
Under the act of 1892 this shifting of the burden of proof only occurred if the circular had been sent to any person at any university, college, school or other place of education.
Secretary Knox's idea, as expressed in the identical circular note addressed by him on the 18th of October 1909 to the powers, was to invest the International Prize Court, proposed to be established by the convention of the 18th of October 1907, with the functions of a " court of arbitral justice."
A homogeneous oscillation is one which for all time is described by a circular function such as sin(nt+ a), t being the time and n and a constants.
The qualification that the circular function must apply to all time is important, and unless it is recognized as a necessary condition of homogeneity, confusion in the more intricate problems or radiation becomes inevitable.
of Oahu, has an irregularly circular form with a maximum diameter of about 25 m.
The circular tomb of Menecrates, with its well-known inscription, is on the Bay of Castrades.
Aristotle could not know enough, physically, about Nature to understand its matter, or its motions, or its forces; and consequently he fell into the error of supposing a primary matter with four contrary primary qualities, hot and cold, dry and moist, forming by their combinations four simple bodies, earth, water, air and fire, with natural rectilineal motions to or from the centre of the earth; to which he added a quintessence of ether composing the stars, with a natural circular motion round the earth.
A third, circular temple stood between the forum and the south gate.
The most common article of defensive armour was the shield, which was small and circular and apparently of quite thin lime-wood, the edge being formed probably by a thin band of iron.
eight leading types: (r) circular or ring-shaped, (2) cruciform, (3) square-headed, (4) radiated, (5) S-shaped, (6) bird-shaped, (7) disk-shaped, (8) cupelliform or saucer-shaped.
8, Megaron, with roof supported on four columns, and the circular hearth in the r8, middle.
The hall is about 40 by 30 ft., with a circular hearth in the centre (&rTia or Evxapa).
At the top level the wall was covered by a colonnade of wooden pillars resting on circular stone blocks.
On the 30th of March 1791 nine preachers sent out the famous Halifax circular making suggestions as to the choice of president and other matters that must come before the conference.
The first signature to this circular was that of William Thompson who was afterwards elected as the first president.
A trenchant reply to this circular was prepared by Alexander Kilham, one of the younger Methodist preachers.
But Alexander too was active; by means of a circular letter he published abroad the excommunication of his presbyter, and the controversy excited more and more general interest.
Newton tells us that this agreement led him to adopt the law of the inverse square of the distance about 1665-1666, before Huygens's results as to circular motion had been published.
The steel is generally used in the form of long bars of circular section.
Within the grounds, which comprise nearly 1500 acres, is the mausoleum erected by the 10th duke, a structure resembling in general design that of the emperor Hadrian at Rome, being a circular building springing from a square basement, and enclosing a decorated octagonal chapel, the door of which is a copy in bronze of Ghiberti's gates at Florence.
(c) West of this is a small circular structure, enclosed by square walls.
An altar found (in situ) on the south side of the circular enclosure shows by an inscription that this was the Heroum, where worship of the heroes was practised down to a late period.
The building consisted of a circular Ionic colonnade (of eighteen columns), about 15 metres in diameter, raised on three steps and enclosing a small circular cella, probably adorned with fourteen Corinthian half-columns.
The ends of the basin at northnorth-west and south-south-east were adorned by very small open temples, each with a circular colonnade of eight pillars.
The polygonal walls of the acropolis may still be seen in a fair state of preservation on a circular hill standing about 500 ft.