Maybe the refrigerator is on a separate circuit breaker!
If the current is interrupted or alternating, and if a telephone receiver has its terminals connected to a separate metallic circuit joined by earth plates at two other places to the earth, not on the same equipotential surface of the first circuit, sounds will be heard in the telephone due to a current passing through it.
This consists of a low resistance coil of copper wire enclosed in a laminated iron circuit similar to the magnetic shunt already de Magnetic scribed.
In such cases it is usual to employ a local battery to produce the signals, and to close the local battery circuit by means of a relay working.
In the receiver there is a strong electromagnet, excited by a local current, which has in its circuit two annular air gaps, across which the magnetic field is practically uniform and constant.
It will be observed that the circuit is not in this case actually open; the meaning of the expression " open circuit " is " no battery to line."
The oldest and best known is the " two pipe " system, others being the " one pipe " or " simple circuit," and the " drop " or " overhead."
Morse showed, by experiments made in 1842 on a canal at Washington, that it was possible to interrupt the metallic electric circuit in two places and yet retain power of electric Morse.
When a current passes through R the armature A is attracted and the local circuit is closed through the armature at b.
Hence, by inserting a break-and-make key in the circuit of the battery, coil or dynamo, the uniform noise or hum in the telephone can be cut up into periods of long and short noises, which can be made to yield the signals of the Morse alphabet.
- Wireless Telegraphy The early attempts to achieve electric telegraphy involved the use of a complete metallic circuit, but K.
- Open Circuit, Single- (not in Great Britain).
The current thus sent to the line may be made either to act directly on the printing instrument or to close a local circuit by means of a relay.
for the longest circuit to be worked, the shorter circuits being brought up approximately to a level, as regards resistance, by the insertion of resistance coils in the circuit of the transmitting apparatus of each shorter line.
In order to relieve the circuit judges the legislature has established by special acts inferior courts, generally with criminal jurisdiction only, in nine counties of the state.
Under these circumstances a small portion of the current from the battery is shunted through the galvanometer circuit, and can be used to make electric signals.
It consists in punching, by means of " a puncher," a series of holes in a strip of paper in such a way that, when the strip is sent through another instrument, called the " transmitter," the holes cause the circuit to be closed at the proper times and for the proper proportionate intervals for the message to be correctly printed by the receiving instrument or recorder.
The line of the city walls can be distinctly traced for most of the circuit, but the actual remains of them are inconsiderable.
This machine reproduces a copy of the original transmitting slip, which can be passed on to any other Wheatstone circuit or can be run through a " Creed printer," which is a pneumatic machine actuating a typewriter by means of valves.
By a modification of the bridge method, applied with excellent results by Dr Muirhead to submarine work, condensers are substituted for a and b, one being also placed in the circuit between P and Q.
Since each letter is represented by a specific combination of positive and negative currents, it is possible, by means of the combinations, to close a local circuit at any given interval, and so cause the paper to be pressed against the periphery of the type-wheel at the time when the letter required is opposite.
third divided into small subdivisions to any terminals of which the cross circuit connexions may be affixed.
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of Appeals, the Circuit courts, such inferior courts as may be established, county courts, the powers and duties of which are, however, chiefly police and fiscal, and in justices of the peace.
When signals are to be sent from either station the operator turns the switch c out of contact with the stop b, and then operates precisely as in open circuit send '" i ing.
At the receiving end there are two telephone receivers, one joined in the loop circuit, the other in the earth return circuit.
ance coil of some 2000 turns of insulated copper wire, enclosed in a laminated iron circuit, and connected at intervals to a number of terminals so that equal increments of inductance may be obtained.
At the receiving end of the circuit a shaft is coupled to the motor; this is provided with gearing which rotates four combining commutators and four type-wheels, which print the letters on the band of paper.
Encouraged by this success, he even made the further suggestion that the remaining metallic portion of the circuit might perhaps some day be abolished and a system of wireless telegraphy established.'
This slip is then passed through a transmitter fitted with brush contacts and connected to the two line wires of a metallic loop. One circuit is formed by the loop itself, and a second, quite independent, by the two wires in parallel, earthed at each end.
It differs from the open circuit in only requiring one battery (although, as in the figure, half of it is often placed at each end), in having the re circuit ceiving instrument between the line and the key, and in having the battery continuously to the line.
The old ramparts and bastions (excluding the circuit of the citadel of 1591, now in great part demolished, in the south-east) make an enceinte of about 41 m., but the enclosed area is not all occupied by streets and houses.
Now, we know that the number of electrochemical equivalents electrolysed is proportional to the whole amount of electricity which passed through the circuit, and the product of this by the electromotive force of the battery is the work done by the latter, so that in this case also Joule showed that the heat generated was proportional to the work done.
Two receiving instruments, a siphon recorder and a mirror galvanometer, are shown; one only is absolutely necessary, but it is convenient Cable to have the galvanometer ready, so that in case of accident to the recorder it may be at once switched into circuit by the switch s.
- Closed Circuit, Singleis long and contains a large current System.
The antenna is connected either directively or inductively with the circuit.
If, then, a long copper bar which forms part of this circuit is placed in proximity to the transmitting antenna and the handle moved, some position can be found in which the natural time period of the cymometer circuit is made equal to the actual time period of the telegraphic antenna.
5 The writer recommended the use of a flexible plate at the source of sound, which would vibrate in response to the varying pressure of the bons' air, and thus open and close an electric circuit, and of a similar plate at the receiving station, which would be acted on electromagnetically and thus give out as many pulsations as there are breaks in the current.
The instrument was joined in circuit with a battery and another similar instrument placed at a distance; and a continuous current was made to flow through the circuit, keeping the electromagnets energized.
Both Bell and Gray proposed to do this by introducing a column of liquid into the circuit, the length or the resistance of which could be varied by causing the vibrations of the diaphragm to vary the depth of immersion of a light rod fixed to it and dipping into the liquid.
- Typical Cord Circuit, Western Electric Co.'s System, No.
- Typical Cord Circuit, British Insulated Co.'s System.
The original circuit at Tunstall no sooner felt its feet than it favoured consolidation rather than extension.
The walls of the city, now built under the direction of Themistocles, embraced a larger area than the previous circuit, with which they seem to have coincided at the Dipylon Gate on the north-west where the Sacred Way to Eleusis was joined by the principal carriage route to the Peiraeus and the roads to the Academy and Colonus.
The circuit has been practically ascertained in its general lines, though not in details; it is given by Thucydides (ii.
The north wall, leaving the city circuit at a point near the modern Observatory, ran from north-east to south-west near the present road to the Peiraeus, until it reached the Peiraeus walls a little to the east of their northernmost bend.
The first specific legislation on the subject was enacted on the 12th of February 1793, and like the Ordinance for the Northwest Territory and the section of the Constitution quoted above, did not contain the word "slave"; by its provisions any Federal district or circuit judge or any state magistrate was authorized to decide finally and without a jury trial the status of an alleged fugitive.
Special commissioners were to have concurrent jurisdiction with the U.S. circuit and district courts and the inferior courts of Territories in enforcing the law; fugitives could not testify in their own behalf; no trial by jury was provided; i The precise amount of organization in the Underground Railroad cannot be definitely ascertained because of the exaggerated use of the figure of railroading in the documents of the "presidents" of the road, Robert Purvis and Levi Coffin, and of its many "conductors," and their discussion of the "packages" and "freight" shipped by them.
in circuit, with five gates and three sally-ports.
Then or possibly even earlier the old rampart was for two-thirds of its circuit buried under enormous earthworks, the remainder being rebuilt.
Suppose the switches to be adjusted so that the effective number of turns in the variable coil is loo; the magnetizing forces in the two coils will then be equal, and if the test rod is of the same quality as the standard, the flow of induction will be confined entirely to the iron circuit, the two yokes will be at the same magnetic potential, and the compass needle will not be affected.
It can be shown that if a current i circulates in a small plane circuit of area S, the magnetic action of the circuit for distant points is equivalent to that of a short magnet whose axis is perpendicular to the plane of the circuit and whose moment is iS, the direction of the magnetization being related to that of the circulating current as the thrust of a right-handed screw to its rotation.
The circuit of the electro-magnet is made and broken by the vibration of the fork in different ways - say, by a wire bridge attached to the lower prong which dips into and lifts out of two mercury cups.
Many of the white farmers in this district, unlike their fellows dwelling farther north, were willing to accept British rule, and this fact induced Mr Justice Menzies, one of the judges of Cape Colony then on circuit at Colesberg, to cross the Orange and proclaim (October 1842) the country British territory, a proclamation disallowed by the governor, Sir George Napier, who, nevertheless, maintained that the emigrant farmers were still British subjects.
in circuit, the wall being 18 ft.
The county is in the south-eastern circuit, and assizes are held at Maidstone.
He practised at first in the courts of common law, travelling also the western circuit.
After this, travelling through Syria, he made a circuit among the petty Turkish states into which Asia Minor was divided after the fall of the kingdom of Rum (Iconium).
The administration of justice is vested principally in a supreme court of appeals, circuit courts, city courts and courts of a justice of the peace.
Whenever the docket of this court is crowded, or there is a case upon it in which it is improper for a majority of the judges to sit, the General Assembly may provide for a special court of appeals, to be composed of not more than five nor less than three judges of the circuit courts and city courts, in cities having a population of 10,000 or more.
Before his time, ideas on the measurable quantities with which we are concerned in an electric circuit were extremely vague.
The county is the midland circuit, and assizes are held at Bedford.
The mercury level is so adjusted that the circuit is just not made when the fork is at rest.
Circuit courts are also held by judges of the provincial court.
He proposed that one ship should be provided with the means of making an interrupted current in a circuit formed partly of an insulated metallic wire connected with the sea at both ends by plates, and partly of the unlimited ocean.
Canal system of flow lines of current through the sea, and these might be detected by any other ships furnished with two plates dipping into the sea at stem and stern, and connected by a wire having a telephone in its circuit, provided that the two plates were not placed on the same equipotential surface of the original current flow lines.
Willoughby Smith found that it was not necessary even to connect the telephone to a secondary circuit, but that it would be affected and give out sounds merely by being held in the variable magnetic field of a primary circuit.
By the use of a key in the battery circuit as well as an interrupter or current reverser, signals can be given by breaking up the continuous hum in the telephone into long and short periods.
At a later date other experimentalists found, however, that an equal thickness of sea-water interposed between a primary and secondary circuit completely prevented similar inductive intercommunication.
An interrupted current having a frequency of about 400 was used in the primary circuit, and a telephone was employed as a receiver in the secondary circuit.
If a battery on the mainland is connected through a key with the shore end of the main cable, and a speaking galvanometer is in circuit with the short cable crossing the Fastnet rock, then closing or opening the battery connexion will create a deflection of the galvanometer.
He proposed to employ two large flat coils of wire laid horizontally, on the ground, that on the mainland having in circuit a battery, interrupter and key, and that on the island a telephone.
He proved that when so syntonized the circuits are inductively respondent to each other with a much less power expenditure in the primary circuit than without the syntony.
field created round one circuit to induce, when varied, a secondary current in another circuit, there have been certain attempts to utilize what may best be described as electrostatic induction.
On one or more of the carriages of the trains were placed also insulated metallic sheets, which were in connexion through a telephone and the secondary circuit of an induction coil with the earth or rails.
In the primary circuit of the induction coil was an arrangement for rapidly intermitting the current and a key for short-circuiting this primary circuit.
Thus, in the case of one station and one moving railway carriage, there is a circuit consisting partly of the earth, partly of the ordinary telegraph wires at the side of the track, and partly of the circuits of the telephone receiver at one place and the secondary of the induction coil at the other, two air gaps existing in this circuit.
The signals were sent by cutting up the continuous hum in the telephone into long and short periods in accordance with the Morse code by manipulating the key in the primary circuit.
One of these was to be connected to the earth through a telephone receiver, and the other through the secondary circuit of an induction coil in the primary circuit of which was a key.
The idea was that variations of the primary current would create electromotive force in the secondary circuit which would act through the air condenser formed by the two plates.
In circuit with this battery was placed the secondary circuit of an induction coil, the primary circuit of which contained a telephone transmitter or microphone interrupter.
p. 203) noticed that a single electric spark about an inch long thrown on to a circuit of wire in an upper room could magnetize steel needles included in a parallel circuit of wire placed in a cellar 30 ft.
He employed as a detector of this wave a simple, nearly closed circuit of wire called a Hertz resonator, but it was subsequently discovered that the metallic microphone of D.
38 6), the insulated wires or plates being upheld by masts, its operation is as follows: - When the key in the primary circuit of the induction coil is pressed the transmitting antenna wire is alternately charged to a high potential and discharged with the production of high frequency oscillations in it.
These trains are produced by pressing the key in the primary circuit of the induction coil for a longer or shorter time' and generating a long or short series of oscillatory electric sparks between the spark balls with a corresponding creation of trains of electric waves.
Instead of inserting the sensitive tube between the receiving antenna and the earth, he inserted the primary coil of a peculiar form of oscillation transformer and connected the terminals of the tube to the secondary circuit of the transformer.
These spark balls are connected either to the secondary circuit of an induction coil I, or to that of an alternating current transformer having a secondary voltage of 20,000 to 100,000 volts.
These two circuits are so adjusted that the closed oscillation circuit, consisting of the condenser, primary coil 1 See German Patent of F.
D and spark gap, has the same natural time period of oscillation as the open circuit consisting of the antenna, secondary coil and adjustable inductance.
When this is the case, if discharges are made across the spark gap oscillations are excited in the closed circuit, and these induce other syntonic oscillations in the antenna circuit.
It can be shown that if two circuits, both having capacity (C) and inductance (L), are coupled together inductively, then, when oscillations are set up in one circuit, oscillations of two periods are excited in the other differing in frequency from each other and from the natural frequency of the circuit.
(iii) The antenna may be direct-coupled to the closed oscillatory circuit in the manner suggested by F.
In this case a closed condenser circuit is formed with a battery of Leyden jars, an inductance coil and a spark gap, and oscillations are excited in it by discharges created across the spark gap by an induction coil or transformer.
In many cases additional condensers or inductance coils are inserted in various places so that the arrangement is somewhat disguised, but by far the larger part of the electric wave wireless telegraphy in 1907 was effected by transmitters having antennae either inductively or directly coupled to a closed condenser circuit containing a spark gap.
If the direct coupling is adopted then the lower end of the antenna is connected directly to the condenser circuit.
The main capacity in this last circuit consists of a battery of Leyden See J.
jars or of Leyden panes immersed in oil or some form of air condenser, and the inductance coil or primary circuit of the oscillation transformer consists of a few turns of highly insulated wire wound on a frame and immersed in oil.
The oscillations are controlled either by a key inserted in the primary circuit of the exciting induction coil or transformer, or by a key cutting in and out of the primary condensers or throwing inductance in and out of the closed oscillation circuit.
The transformer T has its secondary or high-pressure terminals connected to spark balls S1, which are also connected by a circuit consisting of a large glass plate condenser C, and the primary circuit of an air-core transformer called an oscillation transformer.
The secondary circuit of this last is either connected between an aerial A and the earth E, or it may be again in turn connected to a second pair of spark balls and these again to a second condenser oscillation transformer and the aerial A.
He inserts in the primary circuit of the alternating FIG.
The impedance of the primary or alternator circuit is so adjusted that when both the chokers are in circuit the current flowing is not sufficient to charge the condensers; but when one choker is short-circuited the impedance is reduced so that the condenser is charged, but the alternating arc is not formed.
adjust the frequency so that it has the value of the normal time period of the circuit formed of the condenser and transformer secondary circuit, and thus it is possible to obtain condenser oscillatory discharges free from any admixture with alternating current arc. In this manner the condenser discharge can be started or stopped at pleasure, and long and short discharges made in accordance with the signals of the Morse FIG.
When electric oscillations are set up in an open or closed electric circuit having capacity and inductance, and left to themselves, they die away in amplitude, either because they dissipate their energy as heat in overcoming the resistance of the circuit, or because they radiate it by imparting wave motion to the surrounding ether.
If, however, the antenna is inductively or directly coupled to a condenser circuit of large capacity then the amount of energy which can be stored up before discharge takes place is very much greater, and hence can be drawn upon to create prolonged or slightly damped trains of waves.
To detect these currents some device has to be inserted in the antenna circuit or else inductively connected with it which is sensitive to high frequency currents.
In later improvements the secondary circuit of this jigger was interrupted by a small condenser, and the terminals of the relay and local cell were connected to the plates of this condenser, whilst the sensitive tube was attached to the outer ends of the secondary circuit.
Such an oscillation valve was first used by Fleming as a receiver for wireless telegraph purposes in 1904 as follows: - In between the receiving antenna and the earth is placed the primary coil of an oscillation transformer; the secondary circuit of this transformer contains a galvanometer in series with it, and the two together are joined between the external negative terminal of the carbon filament of the above-described lamp and the insulated platinum plate.
This last circuit has a natural frequency of its own which is numerically measured by I/27r-!(CL), where C is the capacity of the condenser and L is the inductance of the circuit.
an antenna of suitable capacity and inductance to a nearly closed electric circuit consisting of a condenser of large capacity, a spark gap and an inductance of low resistance.
When oscillations are excited in this last circuit they communicate them to the antenna provided this last circuit is tuned or syntonized to the closed circuit, and the radiating antenna has thus a large store of energy to draw upon and can therefore radiate prolonged trains of electric waves.
His transmitter consists of a nearly closed oscillating circuit comprising a condenser or battery of Leyden jars, a spark gap, and the primary coil of an oscillation transformer consisting of one turn of thick wire wound on a wooden frame.
Over this primary is wound a secondary circuit of five to ten turns which has one end connected to the earth through a variable inductance coil and the other end to an antenna.
These two circuits are syntonized so that the closed or condenser circuit and the open or antenna circuit are adjusted to have, when separate, the same natural electrical time of vibration.
The secondary circuit of this transformer is cut in the middle and has a condenser inserted in it, and its ends are connected to the sensitive metallic filings tube or coherer as shown in fig.
This receiver therefore, like the transmitter, consists of an open and a closed electric oscillation circuit inductively connected together; also the two circuits of the receiver must be syntonized or tuned both to each other and to those of the transmitter.'
At a later date a syntonic system comprising, as above stated, an antenna directly coupled to a resonant closed circuit was put into operation by Lodge and Muirhead, and much the same methods have been followed in the system known as the Telefunken system employed in Germany.
The oscillations set up in the vertical antenna excited sympathetic ones in the lateral circuit provided this was of the proper length; and the coherer was acted upon by the maximum potential variations possible.
Braun showed that oscillations suitable for the purposes of electric wave creation in wireless telegraphy could be set up in a circuit consisting of a Leyden jar or jars, a spark gap and an inductive circuit, and communicated to an antenna either by inductive or direct coupling (Brit.
When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
The receiving arrangements comprised also an open or antenna circuit connected directly with a closed condenser-inductance circuit, but in place of the spark gap in the transmitter an electrolytic receiver was inserted, having in connexion with it as indicator a voltaic cell and telephone.
In the same way the arrangements finally elaborated by Lodge and Muirhead consisted of a direct coupled antenna and nearly closed condenser circuit, and a similar receiving circuit containing as a detector the steel wheel revolving on oily mercury which actuated a siphon recorder writing signals on paper tape.
All of them couple the transmitting antenna directly or inductively to a capacity-inductive circuit serving as a storage of energy, and all of them create thereby electric waves of the same type moving over the earth's surface with the magnetic force of the wave parallel to it.
Duddell discovered in 1900 that if a continuous current carbon arc had its carbon electrodes connected by a condenser in series with an inductance, then under certain conditions oscillations were excited in this condenser circuit which appeared to be continuous.
Across the arc is a transverse or radial magnetic field, and the electrodes are connected by an oscillatory circuit consisting of a condenser and inductance.
At the receiving end are a similar antenna and resonant circuit, and a telephone is connected across one part of the latter through an automatic interrupting device called by Poulsen a " ticker."
Instruments for doing this are called wave meters and are of two kinds, open circuit and closed circuit.
The capacity of the condenser is then altered until the maximum current, as indicated by a hot wire ammeter, is produced in the circuit.
5 He proposed to introduce into the circuit a cell containing carbon powder, the pressure on which could be varied by the micro- vibrations of a diaphragm.
Hughes, while engaged in experiments upon a Bell telephone in an electric circuit, discovered that a peculiar noise was produced whenever two hard electrodes, such as two wires, were - drawn across each other, or were made to touch each other with a variable degree of firmness.
Acting upon this discovery, he constructed an instrument which he called a " microphone," 6 and which consisted essentially of two hard carbon electrodes placed in contact, with a current passing through the point of contact and a telephone included in the same circuit.
The line of circuit passed through the secondary of the induction coil I to the line, from that to the telephone T at the receiving station, 'See Journal of the Telegraph, New York, April 1877; Philadelphia Times, 9th July 1877; and Scientific American, August 181 This term was used by Wheatstone in 1827 for an acoustic apparatus intended to convert very feeble into audible sounds; see his Scientific Papers, p. 32.
Such multiple-electrode transmitters give a loud although somewhat harsh sound, and will bear being spoken to very strongly without breaking the circuit.
The telephone was switched out of circuit when not in use and the bell put in its place, a key being used for throwing the battery into circuit to make the signal.
This arrangement is still employed, a hook being attached to the switch lever so that the mere hanging up of the telephone puts the bell in circuit.
In some cases when a magneto-generator is employed for calling purposes the coil of the machine is automatically cut out of circuit when it is not in action, and is brought into circuit when the handle is turned by the operation of a centrifugal or other arrangement.
At first it was usual to join the microphone transmitter in the direct circuit.
It was soon found that it could only be used to advantage in this way when the total resistance of the circuit, exclusive of the microphone, was small compared with the resistance of the microphone - that is, on very short lines worked with FIG.
- Telephone Set with Transmitter in a Local Circuit.
7, the microphone, a battery and the primary of an induction coil in a local circuit, and putting the line in circuit with the secondary of the induction coil, which acted as the transmitter.
The resistance of the microphone can thus be made a large fraction of the total resistance of the circuit in which it is placed; hence by using considerable currents, small variations in its resistance can be made to induce somewhat powerful currents in the line wire.
Each connecting-cord circuit had associated with it a clearing-out drop connected between the cord and earth and a key by means of which the operator's speaking and ringing apparatus could be brought into circuit.
This attracted the attention of the attendant, who in response to the call inserted a plug into the spring-jack and connected the speaking apparatus to the circuit by means of the key.
Though many types of manually operated switchboards have been brought into use, differing from each other in respect of circuit and working arrangements, yet each of them may be placed in one or other of three main classes according as the system of working is magneto, call-wire, or common battery.
Each subscriber's circuit is further connected to another spring-jack directly associated with the calling-drop. These springjacks, known as answering jacks, are distributed along the switchboard, a certain number being terminated upon each position and placed in the care of the operator assigned to that position.
Operating mistakes also cause interruptions to conversations, as it is possible, by the insertion of a plug in a multiple jack, to disconnect the circuit between two talking subscribers.
In this arrangement, instead of the circuit being made through the jacks in series, each jack is connected to an independent branch from the main circuit.
This apparatus has two coils, one of which, connected across the line, is provided for the purpose of projecting the shutter, while the other is intended for its restoration and is joined in a local circuit arranged to be closed when a plug is inserted in any one of the associated jacks.
It is necessary that the operators working at a multiple board shall be able to ascertain without entering a subscriber's circuit whether the circuit be disengaged.
This requirement is usually met by connecting a third or " test " wire to each of the jacks associated with a subscriber's line, and by making the circuit arrangements such that this wire is either disconnected or at earth potential when the line is not in use, and at some potential above or below that of the earth, when the circuit is engaged.
With a proper arrangement of the operator's speaking set it is possible, by touching the socket of a jack with the tip of a peg or a special " test " thimble, to determine whether the circuit connected to the jack is in use.
Each subscriber was given the exclusive use of a circuit as in other systems, and shared a call-wire with a number of other subscribers.
8) a repeating coil is placed in the cord circuit, and when two subscribers are connected together the winding connected to the line of the subscriber who is talking for the time being acts as primary, and the other, which is in the line of the listening subscriber, as secondary.
- Subscriber's Circuit, Common Battery System.
other circuit to which it is connected for the time being.
50) embodies the idea of supplying current to the transmitters over the line wires in parallel instead of round the loop circuit, as in the other systems referred to.
is impressed upon the circuit through the medium of the induction coil.
At the subscriber's station when the receiver is on the hook switch the circuit is through the call-bell and a condenser.
The conditions permit of the circulation of the alternating currents of low periodicity, which are used for operating the bells, but in respect of the battery the circuit is open until the subscriber lifts the receiver, when the hook switch, thus released, joins the transmitter with one winding of an induction coil in series across the circuit.
A current then flows and in passing round the circuit operates the line relay, with the result that the calling-lamp is lighted.
The operator, whose attention is thus attracted, inserts a peg in the jack, then throws over the speaking key of the cord circuit, and having ascertained particulars of the requirement places the other peg of the pair in the nearest multiple jack of the wanted subscriber, whom she proceeds to ring up. In the meantime the callinglamp has darkened; and each subscriber's line being equipped with a cut-off relay whose function it is to disconnect tl, e calling apparatus while the circuit is in use, the insertion o r a peg is immediately followed by the disappearance of the calling signal.
The other supervisory lamp on the cord circuit is controlled in a similar manner by the subscriber who originated the call, and as that subscriber's telephone is off the hook when the peg is inserted, the lamp is not lighted at all until the subscriber replaces the receiver.
A cord circuit, similar in many respects, including the method .y.^9 Jr '' of operation, but equipped with condensers and impedance coils, in place of the repeating coil, is shown in fig.
The subscriber's meter is joined in multiple with the cut-off relay, and whenever a peg is connected to the circuit a current flows through the meter.
The latter names a disengaged junction circuit, then " tests " the line of the wanted subscriber, and if she finds it free, finally completes the connexion and rings the subscriber.
During the progress of these operations the A operator connects the originating subscriber to the junction circuit named by the B operator.
There is only one signal on the cord circuit at B, and that signal is controlled by exchange A.
A circuit which serves more than one subscriber is termed a " party line."
It was originally the practice to place the calling apparatus in series in the line circuit, but the effect of the large impedance introduced by the electromagnets of the call XXVI.
18 a bells was such that not more than two or three persons could be connected without seriously impairing the efficiency of the circuit for speech transmission.
An improvement was effected in this respect by the introduction of the " bridging " system, in which the bells possessing high inductance are placed in parallel between the two wires of the circuit.
Although the bells are constantly in circuit their high impedance prevents any appreciable interference with the telephonic currents.
In one arrangement, now in extensive use, each telephone set is fitted with a relay of high inductance which is bridged across the circuit in series with a condenser.
When the relay is operated it connects a bell between one of the wires of the circuit and earth, while the bell itself is arranged to respond to current pulsations in one direction only.
The four telephones on a circuit are so wired that the relays 9-- P ..,, connect two of the bells between each wire and fl-- 0 7-..9 *"y earth, and further that one of each pair of bells responds to positive and the other to negative o-- pulsations.
Of the four bells connected to a circuit each responds to a different frequency.
The system of the British Post Office is worked as follows: A subscriber desiring a long-distance connexion calls up his local exchange in the ordinary way, and the operator there, being informed that a trunk connexion is desired, extends the subscriber's line to the Post Office by means of a record circuit.
The record operator then removes her speaking apparatus from the circuit, and the local operator, receiving a disconnect signal, severs the connexion at the local exchange.
" Calculographs " are employed for stamping the time upon the tickets, and there is associated with each trunk circuit a device which lights a lamp as soon as the scheduled limit of the period of conversation is reached.
Each subscriber's circuit on this system terminates upon the incoming portion of a selector switch, called a first selector, and is multipled upon the outgoing portions of a number of similar switches called connector switches.
Only calls originated by a subscriber pass through the selector switch (first selector) provided for his sole use; the calls incoming to him pass through one or other of the various connector switches upon which his circuit is multipled.
By means of his first selector the circuit of a calling subscriber is connected to the outgoing end of a junction whose other end terminates upon the incoming portion of a second selector in the thousand group to which the wanted subscriber belongs.
This shaft, which carries a set of " wipers " connected to the incoming circuit, is susceptible of a vertical and a rotational movement, so that the wipers may be brought, first opposite any particular horizontal series of contacts, and then into actual contact with any particular set in the series.
Oliver Heaviside showed mathematically that uniformly-distributed inductance in a telephone line would diminish both attenuation and distortion, and that if the inductance were great enough and the insulation resistance not too high the circuit would be distortionless, while currents of all frequencies would be equally attenuated.
Pupin showed that by placing inductance coils in circuit, at distances apart of less than half the length of the shortest component wave to be transmitted, a non-uniform conductor could be made approximately equal to a uniform conductor.
Large as this progress was it would have been much greater if the Telephone Company had been granted adequate powers to put wires underground and thus instal a complete metallic circuit in place of the single wire, earthreturn, circuit which it was constrained to employ.
The average cost of constructing an exchange circuit in the metropolitan area (including the installation of telephone instruments and of exchange apparatus, but excluding the provision of spare plant) has been £33.
The cities, exposed to pillage by Huns in the north and Saracens in the south, and ravaged on the coast by Norse pirates, asserted their right to enclose themselves with walls, and taught their burghers the use of arms. Within the circuit of their ramparts, the bishops already began to exercise authority in rivalry with the counts, to whom, since the days of Theodoric, had been entrusted the government of the Italian burghs.
Secondly, he established deme law-courts to prevent people from having recourse to the city tribunals; it is said that he himself occasionally "went on circuit," and on one of these occasions was so struck by the plaints of an old farmer on Hymettus, that he remitted all taxation on his land.
It created a Commerce Court (composed of five judges nominated by the president of the United States from the Federal circuit judges), transferred to it jurisdiction in cases instituted to enforce or set aside orders of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, and made the United States instead of the Commission a party in all such actions.
Traces remain of the circuit wall, and of a sanctuary with copious terra-cotta offerings; the large necropolis yields constant loot to illicit excavation.
in circuit, but much of the enclosed space is occupied by gardens, mounds of refuse, and ruins.
(4) doms of Upper and Lower Egypt, to be read stni, " butcher(?)" and byti, " beekeeper(?)" The personal name of the king followed (4), and was enclosed in a cartouche OI apparently symbolizing the circuit of the sun which alone bounded the king's rule.
In 18 9 2 he was appointed a judge of the Sixth Circuit, United States Court, and became known as a fearless administrator of the law.
The site of the Samnite city, which in the 4th century B.C. had a coinage of its own, is not known; the Roman town lay in the valley of the Vulturnus, and its walls (4th century) enclose a circuit of 12 m., in which are preserved remains of large baths (Thermae Herculis) and a theatre.
His son Murkertagh, who gained a great victory over the Norse in 926, is celebrated for his triumphant march round Ireland, the Moirthimchell Eiream, in which, starting from Portglenone on the Bann, he completed a circuit of the island at the head of his armed clan, returning with many captive kings and chieftains.
Thirteen churches, including the Troitskiy (Trinity) and Uspenskiy cathedrals, a bell-tower, a theological academy, various buildings for monks and pilgrims, and a hospital stand within the precincts, which are two-thirds of a mile in circuit.
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of three judges, thirteen (1908) circuit courts, seven (1908) chancery courts, county courts and justice of thelpeace courts.
Under the constitution of 1890 the governor, with the consent of the senate, appoints supreme court judges for a term of nine years, and circuit and chancery judges for four years.
There is a supreme court consisting of a chief justice and four associates, elected by popular vote for eight years, and a superior or circuit court, composed of sixteen judges elected by the people in each of sixteen districts for a term of eight years.
The site is now covered with valonia oaks, and has been much plundered, e.g by Mahommed IV., who took columns to adorn his new Valideh mosque in Stambul; but the circuit of the old walls can be traced, and in several places they are fairly well preserved.
The county is in the Midland circuit, and assizes are held at Derby.
The entire circuit of the arsenal, about two miles in extent, is protected by a lofty wall with turrets.
The rivalries of the mainland cities were continued at closer quarters inside the narrow circuit of the lagoons, and there was, moreover, the initial schism between the indigenous fisher population and the town-bred refugees, and these facts constitute the first of the problems which now affronted the growing community: the internal problem of fusion and development.
The judicial department in 1910 was composed of a supreme court of six judges, eight circuit courts.'
The constitution provides that the terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number of years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - that of the judges of the common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, that of other judges such even number of years not exceeding six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - and that of justices of the peace such even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus prescribed - the statutory provision is four years.
The county and the township are the units of the rural, the city and the village the units of the urban local The provision for circuit courts was first made in the constitution by an amendment of 1883.
Let -I- B, - B, be two smaller trunnions which project out from the sides of the two strips connecting together a pair of rings CC. The rings and the connecting strips constitute the circuit which is to be rendered movable.
A current entering by the trunnion -}- B flows round the two halves of the circuit, as shown by the arrows, and comes out at the trunnion - B.
The movable circuit CC thus hangs by two ligaments which are formed of very fine copper wires.
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
The three judges of the Supreme Court and the seven of the circuit court serve for six years, those of the county courts for four years, and justices of the peace (one for each justice district, of which the county commissioners must form at least two in each county) hold office for four years.
Drew (1827-1900), the Democratic candidate for governor, then secured a mandamus from the circuit court restraining the board from going behind the face of the election returns; this was not obeyed and a similar mandamus was therefore obtained from the supreme court of Florida, which declared that the board had no right to determine the legality of a particular vote.
Opposition from a master potter of the district, who threatened to put the Conventicle Act in force, was overcome, but more serious difficulties were presented by the antagonism of the Wesleyan Methodist circuit authorities.
His personality drew a number of strong men after him, and a society meeting held in a kitchen and then in a warehouse became the nucleus of a circuit, a chapel being built at Tunstall in July 1811, two months after the fusion of the Bourne and Clowes forces.
It was a time of rapid expansion, marked by great missionary fervour, and may be called the Circuit Period, for even after the circuits were grouped into districts in 1821 they did not lose their privilege of missionary initiative.
But irrepressibles like John Benton broke through the "non-mission law," and pressed forward through the "Adam Bede" country to Derby (which became the 2nd circuit in 1816); Nottingham, where a great camp-meeting on Whit Sunday 1816 was attended by 12,000 people; Leicestershire, where Loughborough became the 3rd circuit, with extensions into Rutland, Lincolnshire and Norfolk; and ultimately to Hull, which became the 4th circuit, and where a meeting which deserves to be called the First Conference was held in June 1819.
The Hull circuit during the next five years, through its Yorkshire, Western, NorthWestern and Northern Missions, carried on a vigorous campaign with great success, especially among the then semi-savage colliers of Durham and Northumberland.
Simultaneously with this work in the north, Tunstall circuit, having thrown off its lethargy at the Wrine Hill camp-meeting on the 23rd of May 1819, was carrying on an aggressive evangelism.
In the Black Country, Darlaston circuit was formed in 1820, and John Wedgewood's Cheshire Mission, begun in 1819, led to work in Liverpool on the one hand and in Salop on the other.
From Macclesfield a descent was made on Manchester; from Oakengates in South Shropshire came extensions to Herefordshire, Glamorganshire and Wiltshire, where the famous Brinkworth circuit was established.
Clowes, indeed, had been free from circuit work since 1827, and he continued to pray and preach as he was able till his death in March 1851.
The famous Hull circuit long retained a number of powerful branches, a survival of the first period, but by 1853 it had come into line with what was by that time regarded as the normal organization.
This station is the centre of a polyglot circuit or district 150 m.
Remains of primitive polygonal walls which undoubtedly surrounded the entire area have been found at various points a little within the circuit of the existing parapet.
In view of the ancient law which forbade burial within the city, the tombs within the circuit of the city walls must either be earlier than the time of Themistocles or several centuries later; in the similar rocktombs on the neighbouring slopes of the Acropolis and Areopagus both Mycenaean and Dipylon pottery have been found.
The Phaleric wall, branching from the city circuit at some point farther east than the middle or south wall, may have followed the ridge of the Sikelia heights, where some traces of fortifications remain, and then traversed the Phalerum plain till it reached the Peiraeus defences at a point a little to the north-west of their junction with the middle wall..
a) ran round the outer shore of the western promontory of Eetionea, previously enclosed, with some space to the north-west, by the wider circuit of Themistocles.
The fine walls of the south and east sides were built by Cimon after the victory of the Eurymedon, 468 B.C.; they extend considerably beyond the old Pelasgic circuit, the intervening space being filled up with earth and the debris of the ruined buildings so as to increase the level space of the summit.
These, however, are sufficient to mark out the circuit of the ancient orchestra, on which the subsequently built proscenia encroached.
Besides completing the gigantic Olympieum he enlarged the circuit of the city walls to the east, enclosing the area now covered by the royal and the build- public gardens and the Constitution Square.
The circuit of the walls measures about 4 m., and scanty traces of them and of Roman buildings within them still exist.
in circuit, is never distant from the city more than five kos (7 m.); hence its name, Panch-kos road.
Hecataeus was probably the author of the " bronze tablets upon which was engraved the whole circuit of the earth, the sea and rivers " (Herod.
On the other hand there was the expression " circuit of the earth " (Isa.
One of the preachers in each circuit was the "assistant," who had general oversight of the work, the others were "helpers."
It was not until 1836 that he completed any apparatus that would work, and finally, on the 2nd of September 1837, the instrument was exhibited to a few friends in the building of the university of the City of New York, where a circuit of 1700 ft.
" When I was a boy," he writes, " receiving my education in Rome, I and my schoolfellows used, on Sundays, to make the circuit of the sepulchres of the apostles and martyrs.
Their circuit is a little over 22 m., and the area enclosed is divided by the river Ouse, the larger part lying on the left bank.
Several new public buildings have been erected along the circuit of the former walls.
When an electric current flows round a circuit, there is no accumulation of electricity anywhere in the circuit, hence the current strength is everywhere the same, and we may picture the current as analogous to the flow of an incompressible fluid.
Acting on this view, Faraday set himself to examine the relation between the flow of electricity round the circuit and the amount of chemical decomposition.
To pass a steady current in the direction opposite to this electromotive force of polarization, the applied electromotive force E must exceed that of polarization E', and the excess E - E' is the effective electromotive force of the circuit, the current being, in accordance with Ohm's law, proportional to the applied electromotive force and represented by (E - E')/ R, where R is a constant called the resistance of the circuit.
in circuit, built by a son of Tamerlane and destroyed by the Bokharians, and another kalah or walled inclosure known as Abdullah Khan.
WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN (1860-), American political leader, son of Silas Lillard Bryan, a native of Culpeper county, Virginia, who was a lawyer and from 1860 to 1897 a state circuit judge, was born at Salem, Marion county, Illinois, on the 19th of March 1860.
The total magnetic induction or flux corresponds to the current of electricity (practically measured in amperes); the induction or flux density B to the density of the current (number of amperes to the square centimetre of section); the magnetic permeability to the specific electric conductivity; and the line integral of the magnetic force, sometimes called the magnetomotive force, to the electro-motive force in the circuit.
For the elementary theory of the magnetic circuit see ELECTxoMAGNETISM.
du Bois (Magnetic Circuit, p. 33), the demagnetizing factor, and the ratio of the length of the ellipsoid 2c to its equatorial diameter 2a (=c/a), the dimensional ratio, denoted by the symbol nt.
C is a " compensating coil " consisting of a few turns of wire through which the magnetizing current passes; it serves to neutralize the effect produced upon the magnetometer by the magnetizing coil, and its distance from the magnetometer is so adjusted that when the circuit is closed, no ferromagnetic metal being inside the magnetizing coil, the ti, magnetometer needle undergoes no deflection.
If the conductor consists of a coil of wire the ends of which are connected with a suitable galvanometer, the integral electromotive force due to a sudden increase or decrease of the induction through the coil displaces in the circuit a quantity of electricity Q=SBns R, where SB is the increment or decrement of induction per square centimetre, s is the area of the coil, n the number of turns of wire, and R the resistance of the circuit.
Let s be the area of a single turn of the standard coil, n the number of its turns, and r the resistance of the circuit of which the coil forms part; and let S, N and R be the corresponding constants for a coil which is to be used in an experiment.
In the same circuit is also included the induction coil E, which is used for standardizing the galvanometer; this secondary coil is represented in the diagram by three turns of wire wound over a much longer primary coil.
For specimens of large sectional area it is necessary to apply corrections in respect of the energy dissipated by eddy currents and in heating the secondary circuit.
19 shows the apparatus by which the ends of the bar are prevented from exerting any material demagnetizing force, while the permeance of the magnetic circuit is at the same time increased.
In the magnetic balance of du Bois (Magnetic Circuit, p. 346) the uncertainty arising from the presence of a joint is avoided, the force measured being that exerted between two pieces of iron separated from each other by a narrow air-gap of known width.
The effective number of turns in the coil surrounding the test rod can be varied by means of three dial switches (for hundreds, tens and units), which also introduce compensating resistances as the number of effective turns in the coil is reduced, thus keeping the total resistance of the circuit constant.
The strength of the induced current is - HScosO/L, where 0 is the inclination of the axis of the circuit to the direction of the field, and L the coefficient of self-induction; the resolved part of the magnetic moment in the direction of the field is equal to - HS 2 cos 2 6/L, and if there are n molecules in a unit of volume, their axes being distributed indifferently in all directions, the magnetization of the substance will be-3nHS 2 /L, and its susceptibility - 3S 2 /L (Maxwell, Electricity and Magnetism, § 838).
du Bois, Magnetic Circuit, chs.
du Bois, The Magnetic Circuit (trans.
Campbell also devoted himself a good deal to criminal business, but in spite of his unceasing industry he failed to attract much attention behind the bar; he had changed his circuit from the home to the Oxford, but briefs came in slowly, and it was not till 1827 that he obtained a silk gown and found himself in that "front rank" who are permitted to have political aspirations.
On the other hand, at nisi prius and on the criminal circuit, he was accused of frequently attempting unduly to influence juries in their estimate of the credibility of evidence.
Chase and Judge John C. Underwood constituted the United States circuit court sitting for Virginia before which the case was brought in December 1868; the court was divided, the chief justice voting to sustain the motion and Underwood to overrule it.
in circuit with seven gates.
The administration of justice is conducted by magistrates' courts, circuit courts and the provincial division of the supreme court.
Appeals can be made from the magistrates' decisions to the provincial or circuit court.
The judges also hold circuit courts at Durban and other places.
Appeals from the circuit courts can be made to the provincial court; and from the provincial court appeals lie to the appellate division of the Supreme Court of South Africa, sitting at Bloemfontein.
There is no jury in this tribunal and single judges may hold circuit courts.
The circuit of the town walls, well built of squared blocks of travertine, and 16 ft.
Circuit courts are held as occasion requires.
At a later date, Chief Justice Kotze, when on circuit, warned the Boers that in its retrogressive action the government was undermining the grondwet or constitution of the state.
The cavalry established contact on the 15th in the neighbourhood of Tobitschau and Rochetinitz (action of Tobitschau, July 15th), and the Austrians finding their intention discovered, and their men too demoralized by fear of the breechloader to risk a fresh battle, withdrew their troops and endeavoured to carry out their concentration by a wide circuit down the valley of the Waag and through Pressburg.
Thus the digestive function, in its largest sense, is now seen to consist, not only in preparation and supply, but in no small measure also of protective and antidotal conversions of the matters submitted to it; coincidently with agents of digestion proper are found in the circuit of normal digestion "anti-substances" which neutralize or convert peptones in their poisonous phases; an autochthonous ferment, such as rennet for instance, calling forth an anti-rennet, and so on.
On the one hand he worked out the general theory of the magnetic circuit in the dynamo (in conjunction with his brother Edward), and the theory of alternating currents, and conducted a long series of observations on the phenomena attending magnetization in iron, nickel and the curious alloys of the two which can exist both in a magnetic and non-magnetic state at the same temperature.
There can be no doubt that within the walls there was originally much unoccupied space, for with the single exception of the larger circuit south of Ludgate, up to where the river Fleet ran, made in 1276 for the benefit of the Black Friars, the line of the walls, planned by the later Romans, remained complete until the Great Fire (1666).
The circuit of the walls of London which were left by the Romans was never afterwards enlarged, and the population did not overflow into the suburbs to any extent until the Tudor period.
There are four commissioners of revenue and circuit, and nineteen deputy commissioners in Lower Burma, and four commissioners and seventeen deputy commissioners in Upper Burma.
By her preaching at Gateshead, where her husband was circuit minister, in 1860, she began the women's ministry which is so prominent a feature of the army's work.
If at any points of a vortex line the cross-section ABC, A'B'C' is drawn of the vortex filament, joined by the vortex line AA', then, since the flow in AA' is taken in opposite directions in the complete circuit ABC AA'B'C' A'A, the resultant flow in AA' cancels, and the circulation in ABC, A'B'C' is the same; this is expressed by saying that at all points of a vortex filament wa is constant where a is the cross-section of the filament and w the resultant spin (W.
= -dQ+1dg2, and integrating round a closed curve (udx+vdy+wdz) =0, and the circulation in any circuit composed of the same fluid particles is constant; and if the motion is differential irrotational and due to a velocity function, the circulation is zero round all reconcilable paths.
The local names in Nastasen's inscription, describing his royal circuit, are in many cases obscure.
Exclusive of extensive and flourishing suburbs, the city has a circuit of 12 m.; its streets are well paved and clean; and it possesses a large number of arches, public monuments, temples, hospitals and colleges.
According to this authority it had a circuit of 100 m., and no fewer than 12,000 bridges and 3000 baths.
A circuit of 84 kos around Gokul and Brindaban bears the name of the Braj-Mandal, and carries with it many associations of earliest Aryan times.
in circuit, and is defended by a citadel on the south-west.
north-west of Cerro Azul, and about a mile in circuit.
It had come to fill only part of its ancient circuit, but of recent years it has revived considerably, and, since the railway reached it, has acquired a semi-European quarter, with a German hotel, cafes and Greek shops, &c.
In 1782 he entered on the duties of the ministry, being appointed by Wesley to the Bradford (Wiltshire)circuit.
He served twice on the London circuit, the second period being extended considerably longer than the rule allowed, at the special request of the British and Foreign Bible Society, who had employed him in the preparation of their Arabic Bible.
It has been said with truth that an industrious collector of beetles, butterflies, neuroptera, &c., finds a greater number of species in a circuit of some miles near Tokyo than are exhibited by the whole British Isles.
in circuit, and of suburbs containing luxuriant gardens.
The county buildings, designed after the temple of Isis in Rome, accommodate the circuit and provincial courts and various local authorities.
It is surrounded by its ancient Etruscan walls, which for the greater part of the circuit are fairly well preserved.
The circuit of the justices in eyre, or their deputies, continued down to 1635; they were virtually ended by the Act for the Limitation of Forests (1640), though Charles II.
The city walls attained a circuit of 1 o m.
Called to the bar, he practised for some years on the Oxford circuit; but his tastes were literary, and when, on the death of his father in 1812, he inherited a small estate in Lincolnshire, he gave himself up wholly to the studies of his life.
Consequently the levy court of New Castle county was indicted in the United States circuit court in 1872, and one of its members was convicted.
Again in 1880 the circuit court, by virtue of the Federal statute of 1872 on elections, appointed supervisors of elections in Delaware.
1840), who from 187 9 to 1885 had been the attorney-general of the state and subsequently was a member of the Spanish-American Peace Commission at Paris in 1898 and became a judge of the United States circuit court, third judicial circuit, in 1899.
broad, pierced by six gates and two passages for ships in its circuit of 4 to 5 m.
It consists of three parts, which were formerly independent administrative units, the Altstadt (old town), to the west, Lobenicht to the east, and the island Kneiphof, together with numerous suburbs, all embraced in a circuit of 92 miles.
The kasbah, which forms the western side of the Suk-el-Islam, includes within the circuit of its walls a mosque built about A.D.
One of these coils is in series with the armature circuit and with the insulation or high resistance to be measured.
The alternate delay and acceleration of the eclipses are then merely apparent; they represent the changes in the length of the light-journey as the stars perform their wide circuit.
At the close of the colonial era there were a court of chancery, a supreme court, circuit courts and courts of oyer and terminer which were held in the several counties by the justices of the supreme court, a court of common pleas and a court of sessions in each county, and courts held by justices of the peace in the several towns.
Jackson made the circuit of it on foot in 1893 (see his Great Frozen Land, London, 1895;1895; also H.
When contact was made it completed an electric circuit which passed to a recording station, and there, by means of an electro-magnet, actuated a style writing a record on a band of travelling smoked paper.
The circuit was continued to the gun which served as a source, and stretched across its muzzle.
When the gun was fired, the circuit was broken, and the break was recorded on the paper.
The circuit was at once remade.
Its frontiers have a circuit of 760 m.
The judicial department consists of the supreme court, circuit courts, county courts, justices of the peace, and police Sioux Falls, 12,283; Lead, 8052; Aberdeen, 5841; Mitchell, 5719; Watertown, 5164;5164; Deadwood, 4364; Yankton, 4189; Huron, 3783;3783; Brookings, 3265.
The state is divided into ten circuits, and one judge is elected by the voters of each circuit for a period of four years.
The circuit courts have original jurisdiction of all actions and causes, both at law and in equity and such appellate jurisdiction as may be conferred by law.
Under an act of 1893 three-fourths of a jury may render a verdict in lesser civil cases in county and circuit courts.
If the difference of the number of oscillations made by the two pendulums in a given time is small compared to the number made by either of them separately, then it is easy to show that the power given to the circuit is measured by the gain or loss of one clock over the other in a given time, and can therefore be indicated on a counting mechanism or registering dials.
The current in the shunt coil lags 90 degrees behind the impressed electromotive force of the circuit to be measured; hence if the main current is in step with the potential difference of the terminals of the supply mains, which is the case when the supply is given wholly to electric lamps, then the field due to the main coil differs from that due to the shunt coil by 90 degrees.
The college of the decans was conceived as moving, by their annual risings and settings, in an " eternal circuit " between the infernal and supernal regions.
in circuit, enclosing an area which must have been larger than was actually needed for habitation.
Tombs of the pre-Etruscan or Villanova period have been found within its circuit, but only at the north-west extremity near S.
Within this circuit there are various open areas - the spacious Ippodromo in front of the citadel, the public gardens in the north-east of the city, the Piazza Grande in front of the cathedral, and the Piazza Reale to the south of the palace.
We may now, as is somewhat the more natural course in the terrestrial application, take axes (x,y,z) which move with the matter; but the current must be invariably defined by the flux across surfaces fixed in space, so that we may say that relation (i) refers to a circuit fixed in space, while (ii) refers to one moving with the matter.
Agades, the capital of the country, which has a circuit of 31 m., is built on the edge of a plateau 250o ft.
Within the circuit which they enclose, now under cultivation, are two summits, one occupied by a Roman amphitheatre [the other by a tower (?)(?) of uncertain date]: a Roman cistern also is visible.
He was arrested in 1807 on the charge of treason, was brought to trial before the United States circuit court at Richmond, Virginia, Chief-Justice Marshall presiding, and he was acquitted, in spite of the fact that the political influence of the national administration was thrown against him.
Justice, &c. - The administration of justice is entrusted to a court of appeals, circuit courts, special courts for the city of Baltimore, orphans' courts, and justices of the peace.
The three judges elected in each circuit constitute the circuit court of each of the several counties in such circuit.
The courts have both original and appellate jurisdiction and are required to hold at least two sessions to which jurors shall be summoned every year in each county of its circuit, and if only two such terms are held, there must be two other and intermediate terms to which jurors shall not be summoned.
The resistance in circuit with the fine wire is then altered until the galvanometer shows no deflexion.
The ramparts, which enclose the city on all sides except towards the port (where they were demolished in 1872), have a circuit of a little more than 4 m.
The principle on which the instrument works is as follows: Suppose any circuit, such as an electric motor, lamp or transformer, is receiving electric current; then the power given to that circuit reckoned in watts is measured by the product of the current flowing through the circuit in amperes and the potential difference of the ends of that circuit in volts, multiplied by a certain factor called the power factor in those cases in which the circuit is inductive and the current alternating.
Take first the simplest case of a non-inductive power-absorbing circuit.
The torque required to hold the coils in their normal position is proportional to the mean value of the product of the currents flowing through two coils respectively, or to the mean value of the product of the current in the power-absorbing circuit and the potential difference at its ends, that is, to the power taken up by the circuit.
The wattmeter can therefore be calibrated so as to give direct readings of the power reckoned in watts, taken up in the circuit; hence its name, wattmeter.
In those cases in which the power - absorbing circuit is inductive, the coil of the wattmeter connected across the terminals of the power-absorbing circuit must have an exceedingly small inductance, else a considerable correction may become necessary.
In order that a wattmeter shall be suitable for the measurement of power taken up in an inductive circuit certain conditions of construction must be fulfilled.
If the quadrants of an electrometer are con - nected to the ends of a non-inductive circuit in series with the power-absorbing circuit, and if the needle is connected to the end of this last circuit opposite to that at which the inductionless re - sistance is connected, then the deflexion of the electrometer will be proportional to the power taken up in the circuit, since it is pro - portional to the mean value of (A - B) IC - 1 (A ±B)}, where A and B are the potentials of the quadrants and C is that of the needle.
This expression, however, measures the power taken up in the power-absorbing circuit.
Sumpner in 1891, an electrostatic voltmeter is employed to measure the fall of potential V 1 down any inductive circuit in which it is desired to measure the power absorption, and also the volt-drop V2 down an inductionless resistance R in series with it, and also the volt-drop V3 down the two together.
Sumpner, "The Measurement of the Power given by an Electric Current to any Circuit," Proc. Roy.
The judiciary consists of a court of appeals, circuit courts, quarterly courts, county courts, justice of the peace courts, police courts and fiscal courts.
in extent, considerable portions yet remain, especially on the north and north-west, and almost the entire circuit can still be traced, affording the finest extant example of Greek fortification.
It was a flourishing city several miles in circuit when it was destroyed by the Afghans in 1722, but is now a decayed place, with crumbled walls and mouldering towers and a population of barely 15,000.
-The circuit of the city wall of Khorsabad (24) is minutely stated on a tablet as 24,740 ft.
The judicial branch of the government consists of a supreme court of justice, three circuit courts, and 32 district courts.
in circuit which was constructed in 1834.
The site is now occupied in part by the town of Budrum; but the ancient walls can still be traced round nearly all their circuit, and the position of several of the temples, the theatre, and other public buildings can be fixed with certainty.
If the needle is connected to one terminal of a circuit, and the fixed plates or cells to the other member of the circuit, and a difference of potential is created between them, then the movable needle is drawn in so that the aluminium blades are more included between the fixed plates.
Since there are 8760 hours in a year, if such an instrument were connected continuously to the circuit it would take up energy equal to 263,000 watt-hours, or 260 Board of Trade units per annum, If the cost of production of this energy was only one penny per unit, the working expenses of keeping such a voltmeter in connexion with a circuit would therefore be more than £i per annum, representing a capitalized value of, say, £io.
The circuit courts consist of twenty-nine circuit judges, acting iji nine judicial circuits, while to each circuit there is also allotted one of the justices of the Supreme Court.
The judges of each circuit, acting with or without the justice of the Supreme Court for the circuit, constitute a circuit court of appeals, established to relieve the Supreme Court.
Some cases may, however, be appealed to the Supreme Court from the circuit court of appeals, and others directly from the lower courts.
high, which was erected in 1863 and has a circuit of about 4 m.
The circuit of the city was reduced in 1567, under the direction of the Venetian engineer G.
in circuit; the lakes of Bederkesa and some others in the moorlands of the north; the Seeburger See, near Duderstadt; and the Oderteich, in the Harz, 2100 ft.
The effects may be varied by altering the capacity and self-induction of the circuit which contains the spark gap. The insertion of self-induction has the advantage of avoiding the lines due to the gas through which the spark is taken, but it introduces other changes in the nature of the spark, so that the results obtained with and without self-induction are not directly comparable.
The photographs taken by Royds show the separate oscillations of each spark discharge even when the circuit only contained the unavoidable capacity of the leads.
The quarterly or circuit meetings were in turn organized into twelve districts, eleven in England and one in China.
No barrister can be appointed who is of less than fifteen years' standing, or a member of parliament, or holder of any office of profit (other than that of recorder) under the crown; nor can any barrister try a petition in any borough in which he is recorder or in which he resides, or which is included in his circuit.
m.; the circuit of its walls, which are composed of a hard grey clinkstone much fissured, is 20 m.; its greatest depth is 2720 ft.
The judicial power is vested in a supreme court, 5 circuit courts, and 29 district courts, each having a jurisdiction corresponding to similar courts in each state in the Union; and, entirely distinct from these territorial courts, Hawaii has a United States district court.
As we see it to-day, it is an open space of ioo acres, set on a hill with a wide prospect east and south and west, in shape an irregular hexagon, enclosed in a circuit of a mile and a half by the massive ruins of a city wall which still stands here and there some 20 ft.
Outside, on the north-east, is the grassy hollow of a tiny amphitheatre; on the west a line of earthworks runs in wider circuit than the walls.
The circuit wall round the palace is more strongly constructed than the rest.
The Circuit Quarterly Meeting had to approve the arrangements for the support of the preachers.
Circuit stewards had attended the district meetings before 1817 but in that year their right to attend was established.
In 1892 the district meeting became known as the District Synod, and in 1893 the circuits began to choose representatives to the Synod in addition to the circuit stewards.
For on the one hand the electric current always forms a closed circuit, and on the other the two poles of the magnet have equal but opposite properties, and are inseparably connected, so that whatever tendency there is for one pole to circulate round the current in one direction is opposed by the equal tendency of the other pole to go round the other way, and thus the one pole can neither drag the other round and round the wire nor yet leave it behind.
He still persevered, and on the 29th of August 1831 he obtained the first evidence that an electric current can induce another in a different circuit.
p. 362) gives the following note from his laboratory book on the 10th of September 1822: "Polarized a ray of lamplight by reflection, and endeavoured to ascertain whether any depolarizing action (was) exerted on it by water placed between the poles of a voltaic battery in a glass cistern; one Wollaston's trough used; the fluids decomposed were pure water, weak solution of sulphate of soda, and strong sulphuric acid; none of them had any effect on the polarized light, either when out of or in the voltaic circuit, so that no particular arrangement of particles could be ascertained in this way."
The town walls, which can still be traced and indeed are partly standing, had a circuit of not more than 2 m., and the main street was less than half a mile in length; but remains of buildings on the road for fully a mile beyond the south gate, show that the town had outgrown the limit of its fortifications.
circuit was made to the north and west, across the Humboldt range, and by Hami, Urumchi, and Yarkand to Ladak again.
At this point Bower was stopped by some of the headmen of the Tibetan pastoral tribes (here under the rule of Lhasa), and obliged to make a long circuit to the north well out of Lhasa territory, and then eastward - till he struck the road to Chiamdo through Gyade or Chinese Tibet.
to the secondary terminals, and if necessary the force of the discharge is moderated by the insertion of resistance in the primary circuit.
The transformer working from a public supply should give about 6000 volts on open circuit, although when the electric flame is established the voltage on the platinums is only from 1600 to 2000.
In the following month he resigned to accept an appointment as United States Judge for the Seventh Judicial Circuit.
It has a circuit of 2 6 m.
As to the astronomical knowledge of Thales we have the following notices: - (1) besides the prediction of the solar eclipse, Eudemus attributes to him the discovery that the circuit of the sun between the solstices is not always uniform; 6 (2) he called the last day of the month the thirtieth (Diog.
The walls, both insular and continental, can be traced throughout their whole circuit; and in many places, especially round the acropolis, at the N.E.
The arches of Porta Nuova are almost the last trace of the inner circuit, constructed after the destruction of the city by Frederick Barbarossa, to which also belonged the Porta dei Fabbri, demolished in 1900.
The action of the machine is as follows: Suppose one paper armature to be charged positively, it acts by induction on the right hand comb, causing negative electricity to issue from the comb points upon the glass revolving disk; at the same time the positive electricity passes through the closed discharge circuit to the left comb and issues from its teeth upon the part of the glass disk at the opposite end of the diameter.
in circuit, by means of which the current is to some extent turned aside.
The molten metal in the Kjellin trough forms the " secondary " circuit.
in circuit), there are extensive suburbs, especially on the Zealand side (Osterbro, Ndrrebro and Vesterbro or Osterfolled, &c., and Frederiksberg), and Amagerbro to the south of Christianshavn.
misunderstood as if it referred to a city with a hundred gates in the circuit of its walls.
circuit, and from 25 to 30 ft.
Similar evidences of the addition of subsequent defences are to be traced also in the case of the gates, of which no less than eight are found in the existing circuit of the walls.
He would conceive an unintelligible aversion to a particular alley, and perform a great circuit rather than see the hateful place.
Judge David Davis, who knew Lincoln on the Illinois circuit and whom Lincoln made in October 1862 an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, said that he was "great both at nisi Arius and before an appellate tribunal."
In1781-1783he was a member of the Continental Congress, which in 1782 made him a judge of the court of appeals for admiralty cases; in 1784 he was one of the commissioners from Massachusetts to settle the boundary line between Massachusetts and New York; in1789-1801he was a judge of the U.S. District Court of Massachusetts; and from 1801 until his death in Roxbury on the 6th of May 1802 he was a justice of the U.S. Circuit Court for the First Circuit (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Rhode Island).
A portion of the inner line is attributed to the Visigoths of the 6th century; the rest, including the castle, seems to belong to the 11th or 12th century, while the outer circuit has been referred mainly to the end of the 13th.
After studying for two years (1843-1845) at Miami University, he practised law at Centerville, Indiana, and in 1852 was judge of the sixth judicial circuit of Indiana.
Even this second circuit, however, was of small compass, and it was not till 1320-1330 that a third line took in the greater part of the modern site of the city proper.
the Spur, on the summits of Monte Peraldo at a height of 1650 ft., - the circuit being little less than 12 m., and all the important points along the line being defended by forts or batteries.
Peck, led an unsuccessful movement to increase the number of Supreme Court judges and to relieve them of their circuit duties, and succeeded in defeating an attempt to repeal the twenty-fifth section of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which gave the Supreme Court appellate jurisdiction by writ of error to the state courts in cases where federal laws and treaties are in question.
The county forms part of the South Wales circuit, and the assizes are held at Brecon.
He recovered his health sufficiently to become (in 1827) a circuit judge in his own state, but died while on circuit, in Elberton, Georgia, on the 15th of September 1834.
5 The precise spot on which the city stood is marked by the great ruins of Boghaz Keui, probably the ancient Pteria, of which the wide circuit, powerful walls and wonderful rocksculptures make the site indisputably the most remarkable in Asia Minor.
The whole circuit of the walls extended for about 13 m.
of the duties of circuit judges, and advocated a Federal code;: in 1791 he considered Hamilton's scheme for a national bank unconstitutional; and in 1792-93, in the case Chisolm v.
The judiciary consists of a supreme court of 7 members elected for a term of 9 years; a circuit court of 54 judges, 3 for each of 18 judicial districts, elected for 6 years; and four appellate courts - one for Cook county (which has also a "branch appellate court," both the court and the branch court being presided over by three circuit judges appointed by the Supreme Court) and three other districts, each with three judges appointed in the same way.
In Cook county a criminal court, and the supreme court of Cook county (originally the supreme court of Chicago), supplement the work of the circuit court.
In 1903 the legislature authorized the municipal ownership of public service corporations, and in 1906 the city of Chicago took steps to acquire ownership of its street railways - a movement which seemed to have spent its force in 1907, when the municipal ownership candidates were defeated in the city's elections - and in 1902 the right of that city to regulate the price of gas was recognized by the United States Circuit Court of Appeals.
The delivering of this opinion, on circuit, in Baltimore, in May 1861, was one of the judge's last public acts.
Verus by the architect Zeno, for the heirs of a local Roman citizen (as an inscription repeated over both portals attests), its auditorium has a circuit of 313.17 feet.
He went the northern circuit, and attached himself to the local bar at Liverpool, where he rapidly obtained a considerable practice.
It is chiefly remarkable for its finely preserved fortifications constructed of tetrahedral and polygonal blocks of local limestone well jointed, with maximum dimensions of about 3 by i z ft.; the outer circuit of the city wall measures about 22 m.
The Assyrians were perhaps the most remarkable of all ancient nations for the colossal size and splendour of their works in metal; whole circuit walls of great cities, such as Ecbatana, are said to have been covered with metal plates, gilt or silvered.
The western heights, where is the foundation of another Roman lighthouse, form a further circuit of fortifications.
Ottumwa is the headquarters of the Ottumwa Division of the Southern Federal Judicial District of Iowa, and terms of United States District and Circuit courts are held there.
Here his reputation stood him in good stead, and he soon obtained a considerable practice both in London and on the Oxford circuit.
In 1882 he became a clerk in the U.S. Circuit Court of Chattanooga, read law, and three years later was admitted to the bar.
Baranasi, the modern Benares, had in the time of Megasthenes a circuit of 25 m.
in circuit, and pierced by 8 gateways with double-roofed gate towers, surrounds it.
The occupation of the pass of Furlo (Petra Pertusa) by the Goths prevented his marching by the Via Flaminia, but, taking a short circuit, he rejoined the great road near Cagli.
After Baxter had been a year in office Brooks received a judgment of ouster against him from a state circuit judge, and got possession of the public buildings (April 1874).
The state is divided into thirty judicial circuits and in each of these a circuit judge is chosen for a term of eight years by a joint vote of the Senate and the House of Delegates.
The jurisdiction of the circuit courts was extended by the present Constitution to include that which, under the preceding Constituticn, was vested in county courts, and the principal restriction is that they shall not have original jurisdiction in civil cases for the recovery of personal property amounting to less than $20.
Similar to the circuit court is the corporation court in each city having a population of to,000 or more; the judge of each of these corporation courts is chosen for a term of eight years by a joint vote of the Senate and the House of Delegates, and he may hold a circuit as well as a corporation court.
Circuit courts and corporation courts appoint the commissioners in chancery.
There are also justices of the peace (elected) and police justices (appointed) in cities, and in various minor cases a justice's court has original jurisdiction, either exclusive or concurrent, with the circuit and corporation courts.
Each district elects a supervisor for a term of four years, and the district supervisors constitute a county board of supervisors, which represents the county as a corporation, manages the county property and county business, levies the county taxes, audits the accounts of the county, and recommends for appointment by the circuit court a county surveyor and a county superintendent of the poor.
Ohm introduced the clear idea of current strength as an effect produced by electromotive force acting as a cause in a circuit having resistance as its quality, and showed that the current was directly proportional to the electromotive force and inversely as the resistance.
He found that at the moment the current in the battery circuit was started or stopped, transitory currents appeared in the galvanometer circuit in opposite directions.
In ten days of brilliant investigation, guided by clear insight from the very first into the meaning of the phenomena concerned, he established experimentally the fact that a current may be induced in a conducting circuit simply by the variation in a magnetic field, the lines of force of which are linked with that circuit.
In the 26th series (1850) he returned to a discussion of magnetic lines of force, and illuminated the whole subject of the magnetic circuit by his transcendent insight into the intricate phenomena concerned.
He discovered a function, which has been called the potential of one circuit on another, from which he deduced a theory of induction, completely in accordance with experiment.
Kirchhoff determined experimentally in a certain case the absolute value of the current induced by one circuit in another, and in the same year Erik Edland (1819-1888) made a series of careful experiments on the induction of electric currents which further established received theories.
He added definiteness to the idea of the self-induction or inductance of an electric circuit, and gave a mathematical expression for the current flowing out of a Leyden jar during its discharge.
Pixii, who invented the split tube commutator for converting the alternating current so produced into a continuous current in the external circuit, was followed by J.
Geissler (1815-1879) containing air, carbonic acid, hydrogen, &c., under a pressure of one or two millimetres, exhibit beautiful appearances when traversed by the high tension current produced by the secondary circuit of an induction coil.
still surrounded by walls with bastions and fosse in a circuit of 4 m.
Its total circuit is about 540 m., of which 390 consist of coastline.