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circle

circle Sentence Examples

  • The torches around the circle were lit.

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  • She absently drew a circle in the sand.

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  • She walked in a circle until she found the strongest of the energy patterns in the vicinity and paused above it.

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  • She drew a circle in the air.

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  • She held her hands up in a circle to demonstrate.

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  • The car made one more circle in the road and then lunged at the cliff.

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  • The man at the center of the circle shifted.

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  • It was a rough circle about four feet in diameter.

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  • The movements seemed to start there, circle around the lake then drop, as if there was an invisible wall.

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  • I made it to the circle park at the head of Main Street and drank in the sunshine on a park bench.

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  • She felt it circle her, prod her, and retreat.

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  • But this circle never attained to the unity of a philosophical school.

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  • She made a circle around the carcass looking for tracks and finally found one.

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  • In the middle of the circle was a large teardrop-shaped flower garden.

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  • Coming up behind her, he grasped her waist and pulled her into the circle of his arms.

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  • Turning in a full circle, Gabe waited for a sign the deity still sought him.

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  • The scent of sea was in the air, a rough circle of lighter darkness before her.

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  • Yet as the world began to open beyond her little circle, she realized that he had been open about his interest all along.

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  • In the French circle of Helene and Rumyantsev the reports of the cruelty of the enemy and of the war were contradicted and all Napoleon's attempts at conciliation were discussed.

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  • The partner, the younger of the two, began to circle to his left.

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  • Outside the circle of light lay a small form, and a sweep of the flashlight revealed fur with copper highlights.

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  • Propertius had a large number of friends and acquaintances, chiefly literary, belonging to the circle of Maecenas.

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  • It was a silver coin, warmed by his skin, with a circle of cuneiform symbols surrounding a star with two arrows.

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  • The two books mentioned remained unnoticed by the reading public, and Lotze first became known to a larger circle through a series of works which aimed at establishing in the study of the physical and mental phenomena of the human organism in its normal and diseased states the same general principles which had been adopted in the investigation of inorganic phenomena.

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  • What remains to be done is, not to explain how such a world manages to be what it is, nor how we came to form these notions, but merely this - to expel from the circle and totality of our conceptions those abstract notions which are inconsistent and jarring, or to remodel and define them so that they may constitute a consistent and harmonious view.

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  • On his return to Moscow from the army, Nicholas Rostov was welcomed by his home circle as the best of sons, a hero, and their darling Nikolenka; by his relations as a charming, attractive, and polite young man; by his acquaintances as a handsome lieutenant of hussars, a good dancer, and one of the best matches in the city.

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  • I drove slowly around the circle to make sure the site previously occupied by the California motor home was indeed vacant.

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  • She turned, doing a pirouette—a full circle, hand shading her eyes like an Indian scout.

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  • In that circle they discountenanced those who advised hurried preparations for a removal to Kazan of the court and the girls' educational establishments under the patronage of the Dowager Empress.

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  • Its publication placed him in the first rank of contemporary poets, and amongst other things procured him admission to the literary circle of Maecenas.

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  • She stared at the ground in the center of the circle, emotions building within her.

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  • As he drew her into the circle of his arms, she followed his steps, wrapping her arms around his neck.

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  • I'll be watching the wolves circle you.

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  • His hands skimmed her arms to circle her and rest at the small of her back.

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  • He took his stand on the forward deck, while the robber sailors stood in a half circle before him, anxious to listen to his song.

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  • "To-morrow to the chase!" was their good-night shout as the circle of merry friends broke up for the night.

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  • Drawing rooms, gossip, balls, vanity, and triviality--these are the enchanted circle I cannot escape from.

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  • At her entrance, those in the nearest circle with Ne'Rin ceased their activity and bowed, then stood in a line and waited.

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  • With his brain still churning from the phone conversation, it took sometime before his eyes focused on a penciled circle on one of the articles.

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  • He crouched next to the circle Jenn had drawn around the portal.

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  • Deidre and Toby stood.  Katie started forward, only for the rumbling ground to drive her to her knees.  Horrified, she saw the chasm form a rough circle around them, trapping them on a small island surrounded by football field wide trees and chasms too wide to jump.

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  • She blinked and stepped away as he began to circle the table.

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  • Sometimes one would circle round and round me in the woods a few feet distant as if tethered by a string, when probably I was near its eggs.

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  • Bordeaux stood and moved around the fire, careful to keep outside the circle of light.

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  • He led them within another but smaller circle of hedge, where grew one large and beautiful bush.

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  • The highest Petersburg society was assembled there: people differing widely in age and character but alike in the social circle to which they belonged.

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  • A little later when he went up to the large circle, Anna Pavlovna said to him: "I hear you are refitting your Petersburg house?"

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  • Under cover of obtaining help of this kind for another, which from pride he would never accept for himself, he kept in touch with the circle which confers success and which attracted him.

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  • In the third circle, Naryshkin was speaking of the meeting of the Austrian Council of War at which Suvorov crowed like a cock in reply to the nonsense talked by the Austrian generals.

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  • The vicomte was a nice-looking young man with soft features and polished manners, who evidently considered himself a celebrity but out of politeness modestly placed himself at the disposal of the circle in which he found himself.

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  • Sitting on a secluded site at the far side of the circle, on the outside, sat a mid-sized Pace Arrow motor home with California Plates!

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  • She reached the circle where A'Ran fought and joined the observers.

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  • Bilibin was a man of thirty-five, a bachelor, and of the same circle as Prince Andrew.

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  • We learned that those outside of this circle are less likely to be concerned about the appearance of the child.

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  • "Now, Princess," exclaimed the Wizard, "those of your advisors who wished to throw us into the Garden of Clinging Vines must step within this circle of light.

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  • The whistle of the locomotive penetrates my woods summer and winter, sounding like the scream of a hawk sailing over some farmer's yard, informing me that many restless city merchants are arriving within the circle of the town, or adventurous country traders from the other side.

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  • The largest of these was the French circle of the Napoleonic alliance, the circle of Count Rumyantsev and Caulaincourt.

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  • She was visited by the members of the French embassy and by many belonging to that circle and noted for their intellect and polished manners.

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  • Prince Andrew, in the white uniform of a cavalry colonel, wearing stockings and dancing shoes, stood looking animated and bright in the front row of the circle not far from the Rostovs.

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  • All the domestic circle, tutors, governesses, and guests, were already at the tea table.

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  • The bees circle round a queenless hive in the hot beams of the midday sun as gaily as around the living hives; from a distance it smells of honey like the others, and bees fly in and out in the same way.

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  • He looked attentively around at the circle of officers, recognizing several of them.

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  • They each went to their assigned wagon and lit a match, tossing it inside the wagon and moving away from the circle almost in unison.

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  • Get those mules inside the circle of wagons and be ready for trouble.

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  • As the camper was on the wooded side of the circle, there was no simple access to the rear.

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  • Lines had been drawn on the grass, large squares like those used for wrestling, with a circle in the center.

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  • Everything that reminded him of his past was repugnant to him, and so in his relations with that former circle he confined himself to trying to do his duty and not to be unfair.

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  • There was no way for her to measure the size of the chamber, for the darkness inside was more impenetrable than night, with the exception of a circle of light ten meters from the door.

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  • Darkyn waited for her in the circle that stretched about five meters across.

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  • Eyes on the ground, she retraced their steps until she found the circle she'd drawn.

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  • Then circle 'round them and come back again.

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  • Thus they circle until they fall upon the recent trail of a fox, for a wise hound will forsake everything else for this.

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  • Having talked for a little while in the general circle, Speranski rose and coming up to Prince Andrew took him along to the other end of the room.

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  • Moreover, his whole attention was engrossed by watching the family circle--separated from all else-- formed by the men in the battery.

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  • Pierre again went up onto the knoll where he had spent over an hour, and of that family circle which had received him as a member he did not find a single one.

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  • And at once, as a clock begins to strike and chime as soon as the minute hand has completed a full circle, this change was shown by an increased activity, whirring, and chiming in the higher spheres.

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  • Zhilinski evidently did not receive this new Russian person very willingly into his circle and did not speak to Rostov.

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  • She watched him circle the table and twisted to see where he went.

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  • Two men populated each circle, sparring with each other, while the other two or three watched.

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  • The prince's house did not belong to what is known as fashionable society, but his little circle--though not much talked about in town-- was one it was more flattering to be received in than any other.

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  • Pierre went up to the circle that had formed round the speaker and listened.

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  • In Helene's circle the war in general was regarded as a series of formal demonstrations which would very soon end in peace, and the view prevailed expressed by Bilibin--who now in Petersburg was quite at home in Helene's house, which every clever man was obliged to visit--that not by gunpowder but by those who invented it would matters be settled.

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  • The twenty-four sharpshooters with discharged muskets, standing in the center of the circle, ran back to their places as the companies passed by.

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  • Anna Pavlovna's circle on the contrary was enraptured by this enthusiasm and spoke of it as Plutarch speaks of the deeds of the ancients.

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  • Willarski felt dull in Orel and was pleased to meet a man of his own circle and, as he supposed, of similar interests.

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  • The wild dogs were gathering around the circle of light now, and two of them boldly began to devour Penny.

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  • I'm going to circle back to see what might be there.  Rest for a few minutes.

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  • To the former he owes his appreciation of exact investigation and a complete knowledge of the aims of science, to the latter an equal admiration for the great circle of ideas which had been diffused by the teaching of Fichte, Schelling and Hegel.

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  • She bristled, feeling as if she'd been sentenced to nothing more than a sewing circle for good little wives.

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  • Tables and pillows stretched as far as she could see to create a massive circle she assumed was large enough to seat the crowd.

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  • As she emerged from the barn, one of the forms was nearing the circle of light.

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  • I always wondered if that was why Mom and Dad split up for a while - because Mom was used to a different lifestyle and social circle.

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  • The car spun around at the bottom of the hill, spraying gravel in a wild circle.

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  • The long drive detoured around several large oak trees before it ended in a circle.

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  • An immaculate lawn stopped abruptly at the circle.

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  • If I holler, fan out and make a circle.

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  • The pace increased until a horse leaped over the wagon tongue and into the circle.

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  • He fired at another figure trying to force its way into the circle.

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  • The environment in the Arctic Circle is very hostile.

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  • When we placed Toby with you, we altered the minds of those in your immediate family circle.

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  • As if on cue, the crowd began to break up, with cheerful groups moving to various positions around the circle.

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  • It appears to be common in the neighbourhood of Cape Town, while the recent Antarctic expeditions have shown that it occurs in various localities from the Falkland Islands to the Antarctic circle.

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  • An agreement was come to by which Francis received patronage for his circle of friends, while Hastings was to be unimpeded in the control of foreign affairs.

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  • By the public he was always regarded as reserved, but within his own inner circle he gave and received perfect confidence.

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  • When equatorial mountings for telescopes became more general, no filar micrometer was considered complete which was not fitted with a position circle.'

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  • The electric lamp a gives illumination of the webs in a dark field, nearly in the manner described for the Cape transit circle micrometer; the intensity of illumination is regulated by a carbon-resistance controlled by the screw b.

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  • An important modern application of the micrometer, which is not dealt with in the article Transit Circle, is that which is now called " the travelling wire micrometer."

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  • Nach., 3377, for an illustrated account of the original Repsolds instrument and to the History and Description of the Cape Observatory for a complete description of the most modern form of its application to the Cape transit circle, with and without clockwork.

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  • Except on the south side all the streets debouch on the promenade, which forms a circle round the town on the site of the old ramparts.

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  • In forehand play the bowl as it courses to the jack describes its segment of a circle on the right, in backhand play on the left.

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  • In seeking ultimate reality in the circle of "active conscious sensation," he rules out all "metaphysic."

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  • Scarcely any member of the Arabian circle of the sciences, including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music, was left untouched by the treatises of Avicenna, many of which probably varied little, except in being commissioned by a different patron and having a different form or extent.

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  • We may observe that the asymptotes intersect this circle in the same points as the directrices.

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  • Also the auxiliarly circle is the locus of the feet of the perpendiculars from the foci on any tangent.

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  • The document is entitled "Secrett Inventionis, proffitabill and necessary in theis dayes for defence of this Iland, and withstanding of strangers, enemies of God's truth and religion," a and the inventions consist of (1) a mirror for burning the enemies' ships at any distance, (2) a piece of artillery destroying everything round an arc of a circle, and (3) a round metal chariot, so constructed that its occupants could move it rapidly and easily, while firing out through small holes in it.

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  • the order in which they occur in the triangle) round a circle.

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  • Having been taught that there is no absolutely true religion, Mendelssohn's own descendants - a brilliant circle, of which the musician Felix was the most noted - left the Synagogue for the Church.

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  • Within the northern circle of the 8 lie the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the Paris basin, dipping inwards; within the southern circle lie the ancient rocks of the Central Plateau, from which the later beds dip outwards.

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  • Outside the northern circle lie on the west the folded Palaeozoic rocks of Brittany.

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  • Outside the southern circle lie on the west the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the basin of the Garonne, with the Pyrenees beyond, and on the east the Mesozoic and Tertiary beds of the valley of the Rhne, with the Alps beyond.

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  • The cheek-teeth strongly curved, forming from the base to the summit about a quarter of a circle, the concavity being directed outwards in the upper and inwards in the lower teeth.

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  • - As the Sabbath was originally a religious feast, the question of the origin of the Sabbath resolves itself into an inquiry why and in what circle a festal cycle of seven days was first established.

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  • What is certain is that the origin of the Sabbath must be sought within a circle that used the week as a division of time.

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  • A circle of stones in the Iron Market of Linkoping marks the spot where Sigismund's adherents were beheaded in 1600.

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  • In reality, however, it experiences fewer climatic variations than the other great continents, owing to its distance (28°) from the Antarctic circle and (11°) from the equator.

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  • In 1548 Charles laid before the states a scheme for making the Netherlands an integral part of the empire under the name of the Circle of Burgundy; but the refusal of the German Electors to make his only son Philip king of the Romans led him to abandon the project, which was never renewed.

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  • In 1520 he went to Rome, where he entered the brilliant literary circle of Leo X.

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  • mountains of Europe and North America they grow only at moderate elevations, and none approach the arctic circle.

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  • In 1602 he made his second visit to the French capital, when his transcendent qualities brought him into the closest relations with the court of Henry IV., and made him the spiritual father of that circle of select souls who centred round Madame Acarie.

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  • This result created a great sensation, and proved that Transatlantic electric wave telegraphy was quite feasible and not inhibited by distance, or by the earth's curvature even over an arc of a great circle 3000 m.

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  • There are small detached portions in Waldeck, Thuringia, &c.; on the other hand the province enclaves the province of Oberhessen belonging to the grand-duchy of Hesse, and the circle of Wetzlar belonging to the Rhine Province.

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  • Rome is plotected by a circle of forts from a coup de main from the sea, the coast, only 12 m.

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  • Stephen accuses Butler of reasoning in a circle.

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  • The reduction of the tentacles in all these forms may be correlated with their mode of life, and especially with living in a constant current of water, which brings foodparticles always from one direction and renders a complete whorl or circle of tentacles unnecessary.

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  • The sub-umbrella invariably shows a velum as an inwardly projecting ridge or rim at its margin, within the circle .of tentacles; hence the medusae of this sub-class are termed craspedote.

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  • The Auronectae are peculiar deep-sea forms, little known except from Haeckel's descriptions, in which the large pneumatophore has a peculiar duct, termed the aurophore, placed on its lower side in the midst of a circle of swimming-bells.

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  • The cloisters connect the cathedral with the church of Our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche), a beautiful building in the form of a circle intersected by a cross, with a lofty vault, built 1127-1143, and said to be the oldest Gothic church in Germany.

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  • A similar doctrine of emanation is to be found in the writings of Bernhard of Chartres, who conceives the process of the unfolding of the world as a movement in a circle from the most general to the individual, and from this back to the most general.

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  • Slaves were continually escaping from their masters, and were harboured, on their way to Canada, by the circle in which Mrs Stowe lived.

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  • A large circle of Talmudists lived there; at their head Joseph Qaro, then over eighty years of age.

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  • Sometimes the original cambial ring is broken into several arcs, each of which is completed into an independent circle, so that several independent secondary vascular cylinders are formed.

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  • The habit of forming mycorhizas is found more frequently in warm climates than cold; indeed, the percentage of the flora exhibiting this peculiarity seems to increase with a certain regularity from the Arctic Circle to the equator.

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  • The apex in this case will describe a circle, or rather a spiral, as it is elongating all the time, pointing to all points of the compass in succession.

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  • The passage of the maximum turgidity round the stem may vary in rapidity in different places, causing the circle to be replaced by an ellipse.

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  • It is continuous round the pole and roughly is bounded by the arctic circle.

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  • Beyond the arctic circle some 200, or more than a quarter, are confined to the mountains of the northern hemisphere and of ~still more southern regions.

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  • circare, to go round in a circle, to explore), the act of searching into a matter closely and carefully, inquiry directed to the discovery of truth, and in particular the trained scientific investigation of the principles and facts of any subject, based on original and first-hand study of authorities or experiment.

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  • Aristotle defined the temperate zone as extending from the tropic to the arctic circle, but there is some uncertainty as to the precise meaning he gave to the term " arctic circle."

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  • Cook's second voyage was mainly intended to settle the question of the existence of such a continent once for all, and to define the limits of any land that might exist in navigable seas towards the Antarctic circle.

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  • On a second cruise from the Society Islands, in 1773, he, first of all men, crossed the Antarctic circle, and was stopped by ice in 71° 10' S.

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  • Having passed some time in the court circle, Sunderland was successively ambassador at Madrid, at Paris and at Cologne; in 1678 he was again ambassador at Paris.

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  • In 1800 he settled at Westbury near Bristol, and began to determine star-places with a fine altitude and azimuth circle of 22 ft.

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  • Before long a mural circle was installed, and regular observations were instituted with it in 1833.

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  • At the end of 1850 the great transit circle of 8 in.

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  • Four principal avenues radiate from points near a central circle to the four corners of the city.

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  • The Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, erected by the state, stands in the circle in the centre of the city, rises to a height of 284.5 ft.

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  • The ducal dignity rarely passed out of a circle of specially old and distinguished families.

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  • In Novaya Zemlya and the Taimyr peninsula, it projects within the Arctic Circle as far as 77° 6' and 77° 40' N.

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  • in Finland and on the Arctic Circle about Archangel, 68° N.

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  • When the results proved unsatisfactory, remedies were sought in increased administrative supervision, draconian legislation and severe punishment, and no attempt was made to get out of the vicious circle.

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  • The curves on railways are either simple, when they consist of a portion of the circumference of a single circle, or compound, when they are made up of portions of the circumference of two or more circles of different radius.

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  • The inner circle B has a radius of 12 in.

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  • the only permitted method of kindling it, (b) the tracing on the ground of the vedi, or magical circle, to destroy impurities, (c) the digging of the hole which constituted the real altar, (d) the preparation of the post which represented the sacrificer and to which the victim was tied, and other minor details.

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  • Great Circle >>

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  • On the central stone, which is a perfect circle, the emperor kneels.

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  • He renewed former acquaintance, however, with the " poet " Mallet, and through him gained access to Lady Hervey's circle, where a congenial admiration, not to say affectation, of French manners and literature made him a welcome guest.

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  • It ought to be added that in each of the twentyfive years of his subsequent acquaintance with London " the prospect gradually brightened," and his social as well as his intellectual qualities secured him a wide circle of friends.

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  • He first visited Paris, where he saw a good deal of d'Alembert, Diderot, Barthelemy, Raynal, Helvetius, Baron d'Holbach and others of that circle, and was often a welcome guest in the saloons of Madame Geoffrin and Madame du Deffand.

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  • The worship of Baal of Tyre roused a small circle of zealots, and again the Phoenician marriage was the cause of the evil.

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  • Geography The northern boundary of Asia is formed by the Arctic Ocean; the coast-line falls between 70° and 75° N., and so lies within the Arctic circle, having its extreme northern point in Cape Sivero-Vostochnyi (i.e.

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  • Turning, therefore, to a globe, Asia, viewed as a whole, will be seen to have the form of a great isosceles spherical triangle, having its north-eastern apex at East Cape (Vostochnyi), in Bering Strait; its two equal sides, in length about a quadrant of the sphere, or 6500 m., extending on the west to the southern point of Arabia, and on the east to the extremity of the Malay peninsula; and the base between these points occupying about 60° of a great circle, or 4 500 m., and being deeply indented by the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal on either side of the Indian peninsula.

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  • A great circle, drawn through East Cape and the southern point of Arabia, passes nearly along the coast-line of the Arctic Ocean, over the Ural Mountains, through the western part of the Caspian, and nearly along the boundary between Persia and Asiatic Turkey.

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  • Asia Minor and the north-western half of Arabia lie outside such a great circle, which otherwise indicates, with fair accuracy, the north-western boundary of Asia.

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  • In like manner a great circle drawn through East Cape and the extremity of the Malay peninsula, passes nearly over the coasts of Manchuria, China and Cochin-China, and departs comparatively little from the eastern boundary.

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  • The southern group of the Malay Archipelago, from Sumatra to Java and Timor, extends in the arc of a circle between 95° and 127° E., and from 5° to 10° S.

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  • Throughout its northern portion the winter is long and of extreme severity; and even down to the circle of 35° N.

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  • He was certainly not the Jew of Prussian Poland which his enemies declared him to be, and he has to this day a circle of devoted adherents.

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  • It was perhaps after this that David made a last attempt to find a place of refuge in the prophetic circle of Samuel at Ramah (xix.

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  • On the other hand, in certain Polychaeta the bundles of setae are so extensive that they nearly form a complete circle surrounding the body; and in the Oligochaet genus Perichaeta (=Pheretima), and some allies, there is actually a complete circle of setae in each segment broken only by minute gaps, one dorsal, the other ventral.

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  • The prostomium bears often processes, both dorsal and ventral, which in the Sabellids are split into the circle of branchial plumes, which surround or nearly surround the mouth in those tube-dwelling Annelids.

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  • In some genera the setae are in vertical rows, and in certain Capitellidae these rows so nearly meet that an arrangement occurs reminiscent of the continuous circle of setae in the perichaetous Oligochaeta.

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  • Moreover, the Arthurian story was the popular story of the day, and Tristan did not belong to the magic circle, though he was ultimately introduced, somewhat clumsily, it must be admitted, within its bounds.

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  • It consisted of a graduated circle inside which another could slide, carrying two small tubes diametrically opposite, the instrument being kept vertical by a plumb-line.

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  • When the two brothers combined, Antiochus again invaded Egypt (168), but was compelled to retire by the Roman envoy C. Popillius Laenas (consul 172), after the historic scene in which the Roman drew a circle in the sand about the king and demanded his answer before he stepped out of it.

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  • The tree is very widely distributed, growing abundantly on most of the mountain ranges of northern and central Europe; while in Asia it occurs at least as far east as the Lena, and in latitude extends from the Altaic ranges to beyond the Arctic circle.

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  • Scurria, with pallial branchiae in a circle beneath the mantle.

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  • No ctenidia but pallial branchiae in a circle between mantle and foot.

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  • Patella, pallial branchiae forming a complete circle, no epipodial tentacles, British.

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  • Orthodox theology has never, in any of the confessions, ventured beyond the circle which the mind of Origen first measured out.

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  • Even then his attainments in the whole circle of the sciences were extraordinary.

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  • For the present their means were very scanty, and, as the ardent royalism of his brother officers limited his social circle, he plunged into work with the same ardour as before, frequently studying fourteen or fifteen hours a day.

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  • This is probably the sense in which we may interpret his tirade against Lord Whitworth at the diplomatic circle on the 13th of March.

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  • Opinions were divided in the emperor's circle between a Russian and an Austrian princess; but the marked coolness with which overtures for the hand of the tsar's sister were received at St Petersburg, and the skill with which Count Metternich, the Austrian chancellor, let it be known that a union with the archduchess, Marie Louise, would be welcomed at Schonbrunn, helped to decide the matter.

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  • The shaft-graves in the Mycenae circle are also a late type, paralleled in the later Cnossian cemetery.

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  • In the Mycenae circle an altar seems to have been erected over the graves, and perhaps slaves were killed to bear the dead chiefs company.

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  • 1-2 in Crete, the shaft-graves in the Mycenae circle, the Vaphio tomb, &c., to the 16th and 15th centuries B.C., and Period III.

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  • That the series of natural animals is continuous, forming, as it were, a circle; so that, upon commencing at any one given point, and thence tracing all the modifications of structure, we shall be imperceptibly led, after passing through numerous forms, again to the point from which we started.

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  • That there is a tendency in such groups as are placed at the opposite points of a circle of affinity ` to meet each other.'

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  • That one of the five larger groups into which every natural circle is divided ` bears a resemblance to all the rest, or, more strictly speaking, consists of types which represent those of each of the four other groups, together with a type peculiar to itself.'

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  • That every natural series of beings, in its progress from a given point, either actually returns, or evinces a tendency to return, again to that point, thereby forming a circle.

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  • Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's literary circle, and was the probable author of an epic, of which the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the palace and the meeting between Charlemagne and Leo III.

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  • The dome is the leading idea or motif in Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture; the domes are placed over square, not circular apartments, and their bases are brought to a circle by means of pendentives.

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  • The name of Catholic Epistles is given to those letters (two of Peter, three of John, one of James, one of Jude) incorporated in the New Testament which (except 2 and 3 John) are not, like those of St Paul, addressed to particular individuals or churches, but to a larger and more indefinite circle of readers.

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  • It covers an area of about one third of a circle and its radiating threads diverge from the mouth of a funnel-shaped tube resembling in every respect the tube of the last-mentioned genus.

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  • Pico's works cannot now be read with much interest, but the man himself is still interesting, partly from his influence on Reuchlin and partly from the spectacle of a truly devout mind in the brilliant circle of half-pagan scholars of the FlOrentine renaissance.

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  • Though never admitted into the inner circle of the king's associates, he found the king the most appreciative of readers and stimulating of companions, and the queen one of the most faithful of his friends; in biographical works and on other occasions he always defended the memory of the unfortunate monarch.

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  • The great charm of Maecenas in his relation to the men of genius who formed his circle was his simplicity, cordiality and sincerity.

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  • GREAT CIRCLE.

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  • The circle in which a sphere is cut by a plane is called a "great circle," when the cutting plane passes through the centre of sphere.

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  • Of the parallels of latitude, the equator only is a great circle.

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  • The shortest line joining any two points is an arc of a great circle.

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  • For "great circle sailing" see Navigation.

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  • in diameter, so that between railing and stupa there was an open circle round which visitors could walk; and the whole stood towards the east side of a paved quadrangle about 300 ft.

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  • He had already gained a reputation in his narrow circle as a keen debater and a jovial companion, and it is said that he had several smuggling adventures.

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  • of the Arctic Circle.

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  • Atlanta was laid out in the form of a circle, the radius being 14 m.

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  • and the centre the old railway station, the Union Depot (the new station is called the Terminal); large additions have been made beyond this circle, including West End, Inman Park on the east, and North Atlanta.

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  • a circle.

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  • m., a circle with radius of 15 m.

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  • Within this circle, besides the largest lake, Windermere, is the highest point in England, Scafell Pike; yet Windermere is but 102 m.

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  • The principal features of the district may be indicated by following this circle round from north, by west, south and east.

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  • He is not identical with any known Babylonian deity, but he is the god of a people belonging to the Babylonian culture circle, probably of the inhabitants of the Red Sea littoral.

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  • It has been supposed that in offering such worship the Greeks showed the effect of " Oriental " influence, but indeed we have not to look outside the Greek circle of ideas to explain it.

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  • He gathered round him a small circle of his immediate followers known as the Societe des Egaux, soon merged with the rump of the Jacobins, who met at the Pantheon; and in November 1795 he was reported by the police to be openly preaching "insurrection, revolt and the constitution of 1793."

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  • - The shortest distance between two places on the surface of a globe is represented by the arc of a great circle.

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  • Thus the distance between New York and Oporto, following the former (great circle sailing), amounts to 3000 m., while following the rhumb, as in Mercator sailing, it would amount to 3120 m.

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  • The shell thus formed is then cut along the line of the intended equator into two hemispheres, they are then again glued together and made to revolve round an axis the ends of which passed through the poles and entered a metal meridian circle.

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  • The appointment of one man to preach, to the exclusion of others, whether he feels a divine call so to do or not, is regarded as a limitation of the work of the Spirit and an undue concentration of that responsibility which ought to be shared by a wider circle.

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  • Only in familiar letters, prolegomena, and prefaces do we find the man Ficino, and learn to know his thoughts and sentiments unclouded by a mist of citations; these minor compositions have therefore a certain permanent value, and will continually be studied for the light they throw upon the learned circle gathered round Lorenzo in the golden age of humanism.

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  • The alga by its own peculiar movement will soon form a radiating circle, perfectly free from dirt, around the coin, which may then be removed.

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  • He was an enthusiastic and most useful leader of the volunteer movement from its beginning, and a writer, composer and singer of humorous and patriotic songs, some of which, as "The Three Foot Rule" and "They never shall have Gibraltar," became well known far beyond the circle of his acquaintance.

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  • Exegesis of this sort is not the characteristic of any single circle, people or century; unscientific methods of biblical interpretation have prevailed from Philo's treatment of the Pentateuch to modern apologetic interpretations of Genesis, ch.

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  • For the subjects under this heading see the articles CONIC SECTIONS; CIRCLE; CURVE; GEOMETRICAL CONTINUITY; GEOMETRY, Axioms of; GEOMETRY, Euclidean; GEOMETRY, Projective; GEOMETRY, Analytical; GEOMETRY, Line; KNOTS, MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF; MENSURATION; MODELS; PROJECTION; Surface; Trigonometry.

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  • He became one of the famous circle of the transcendentalists, always keenly preserving his own individuality amongst such more or less potent natures as Emerson, Hawthorne and Margaret Fuller.

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  • The terminal circle, whose longest diameter is 300 ft., is somewhat difficult to make out, as it is broken by the houses and gardens of a little hamlet.

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  • Still further in the same direction is a third system at Kerlescan (Place of Burning), composed of 262 stones, which are distributed into thirteen lines, terminated by an irregular circle, and altogether extend over a distance of 1000 ft.

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  • All this, and the almost mutinous discontent of his generals and his enemies of the court circle, shook his resolution of acting as anvil for the Russians, of whose delay also he was aware, and about the 8th of Octoberhedetermined to march out north-eastward across the French lines of communication and save his sovereign's army by taking refuge if necessary in Saxony.

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  • Leonardo certainly was in relation with some persons belonging to that circle when he published in 1220 another more extensive work, De practica geometriae, which he dedicated to the imperial astronomer Dominicus Hispanus.

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  • GREENLAND (Danish, &c., Gronland), a large continental island, the greater portion of which lies within the Arctic Circle, while the whole is arctic in character.

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  • The surface of the inland ice forms in a transverse section from the west to the east coast an extremely regular curve, almost approaching an arc of a wide circle, which along Nansen's route has its highest ridge somewhat nearer the east than the west coast.

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  • In Cathays Park there is also a "gorsedd" or bardic circle of huge monoliths erected in connexion with the eisteddfod of 1899.

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  • The whole plan is drawn from three centres, the outer portion of the curves being arcs of a larger circle than the one used for the central portion; the complete circle of the orchestra is marked by a sill of white limestone, and greatly enhances the effect of the whole.

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  • They consist of a long rectangular building, with a proscenium or column front which almost forms a tangent to the circle of the orchestra; at the middle and at either end of this proscenium are doors leading into the orchestra, those at the end set in projecting wings; the top of the proscenium is approached by a ramp, of which the lower part is still preserved, running parallel to the parodi, but sloping up as they slope down.

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  • He soon changed his mind, however, and, admitting them to the circle of his intimates, loaded them with favours.

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  • That he was the most attractive figure of a man of letters in his generation is admitted; and the acknowledged fascination of his character was deepened, and was extended over an extremely wide circle of readers, by the publication in 1899 of his Letters, which have subdued even those who were rebellious to the entertainment of his books.

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  • No doubt it is still by his romances that Stevenson keeps the wider circle of his readers.

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  • The literary life of "Lewis Carroll" became familiar to a wide circle of readers, but the private life of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson was retired and practically uneventful.

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  • They may be traced from the Tian-shan to the Arctic Circle, and have an east-north-easterly direction in lower latitudes and a north-easterly direction farther north.

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  • After holding minor educational posts, he obtained in 1791, through the influence of Herder, the appointment of rector of the gymnasium at Weimar, where he entered into a circle of literary men, including Wieland, Schiller, and Goethe.

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  • His lucid style and the perfection of his experimental demonstrations drew to his lectures a crowd of enthusiastic scholars, on whom he impressed the importance of applied science by conducting them round the factories and workshops of the city; and he further found time to hold weekly "colloquies" on physical questions at his house with a small circle of young students.

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  • Within a certain small area in the Arctic Circle (about 97° W.

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  • South of the magnetic equator the south end of the needle is always inclined downwards, and there is a spot within the Antarctic Circle (148° E.

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  • The stories of a scorpion stinging itself to death when placed in a circle of burning coals are due to erroneous observation.

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  • According to his view, all mountain ranges parallel to the same great circle of the earth are of strictly contemporaneous origin, and between the great circles a relation of symmetry exists in the form of a pentagonal reseau.

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  • From Heaven and Earth sprang the remaining members of a circle analogous to the Olympic gods.

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  • Mithras was the most important member of the circle.

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  • The whole country is divided into the following counties: (a) The circle on the left bank of the Danube contains eleven counties: (1) Arva, (2) Bars, (3) Esztergom, (4) Hont, (5) Lipto, (6) Nograd, (7) Nyitra, (8) Pozsony (Pressburg), (9) Trencsen, (to) Turocz and (I I) Zolyom.

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  • (b) The circle on the right bank of the Danube contains eleven counties: Baranya, Fejer, Gyor, Kornai-0m, Moson, Somogy, Sopron, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem and Zala.

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  • (c) The circle between the Danube and Theiss contains five counties: Bacs-Bodrog, Csongrad, Heves, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok and Pest-Pilis-Solt-Kiskun.

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  • (d) The circle on the right bank of the Theiss contains eight counties: Abauj-Torna, Bereg, Borsod, Gomor-es Kis-Hont, Saros, Szepes, Ung, Zemplen.

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  • (e) The circle on the left bank of the Theiss contains eight counties: Bekes, Bihar, Hajdu, Maramaros, Szabolcs, Szatmar, Szilagy and Ugocsa.

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  • (f) The circle between the Theiss and the Maros contains five counties: Arad, Csanfid, Krasso-Szoreny, Temes and Torontal.

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  • LORENZO MASCHERONI (1750-1800), Italian geometer, was professor of mathematics at the university of Pavia, and published a variety of mathematical works, the best known of which is his Geometria del compasso (Pavia, 1797), a collection of geometrical constructions in which the use of the circle alone is postulated.

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  • The determination of the side of a regular heptagon which can be inscribed or circumscribed to a given circle was reduced to a more complicated equation which was first successfully resolved by Abul Gud.

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  • These works possess considerable originality, and contain many new improvements in algebraic notation; the unknown (res) is denoted by a small circle, in which he places an integer corresponding to the power.

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  • The component vibrations at P due to the successive zones are thus nearly equal in amplitude and opposite in phase (the phase of each corresponding to that of the infinitesimal circle midway between the boundaries), and the series which we have to sum is one in which the terms are alternately opposite in sign and, while at first nearly constant in numerical magnitude, gradually diminish to zero.

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  • The question is thus reduced to that of finding the effect of the first zone, or central circle, of which the area is 7rXr.

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  • The phase of the resultant is midway between those of the extreme elements, that is to say, a quarter of a period behind that due to the element at the centre of the circle.

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  • For the complete circle, C=p2 ('rltJo(2)zdz 27s p2R2 p4R4 p6R°.

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  • 12 -7r2R4 x2 f 2 The roots of Jo(z) after the first may be found from We may compare this with the corresponding result for a rectangular aperture of width a, tlf = X/a; and it appears that in consequence of the preponderance of the central parts, the compensation in the case of the circle does not set in at so small an obliquity as when the circle is replaced by a rectangular aperture, whose side is equal to the diameter of the circle.

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  • Again, if we compare the complete circle with a narrow annular aperture of the same radius, we see that in the latter case the first dark ring occurs at a much smaller obliquity, viz.

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  • We will now investigate the total illumination distributed over the area of the circle of radius r.

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  • In any case the proportion of the whole illumination to be found outside the circle of radius r is given by J02(z)+J12(z).

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  • circle.

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  • This disposition is adopted in Rowland's instrument; only, in addition to the central image formed at the angle 4' =4), there are a series of spectra with various values of 4', but all disposed upon the same circle.

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  • But if we now suppose that Q lies on the circle u= a cos 0, the middle term vanishes, and we get, correct as far as w4, QP= (u+a sin 4) sin w) 1 ' 3 1 {- a sin2c?sin4w V 4u so that QP - u=asin0sinw -Ft asin¢tanOsin 4 w..

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  • 17 APQ is the arc of the circle representative of the wavefront of resolution, the centre being at 0, and the radius OA being equal to a.

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  • For the osculating circle at any point includes the whole of the y curve which lies beyond; and the successive convolutions envelop one another without intersection.

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  • A year later they strangled fifty youths of the dead man's servants (all Scyths born) and fifty of the best horses, stuffed them and mounted them in a circle about the tomb.

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  • In the German Mercury he published, in the years 1786-87, his Briefe fiber die Kantische Philosophie, which were most important in making Kant known to a wider circle of readers.

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  • The circle of spearmen around the king grew less and less, and in the end James and a few of his nobles were alone left standing.

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  • Within this nearly complete circle of crystalline rocks several geological formations have been determined, of which the age cannot be more definitely fixed than that they are vastly older than the Karroo formation and newer than the Swaziland schists.

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  • This phenomenon is known as the "white rainbow" or "Ulloa's Ring or Circle," after Antonio de Ulloa.

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  • A third hypothesis is that advanced by Karl Rieder (Der Gottesfreund von Oberland, Innsbruck, 1905), who thinks that not even Merswin himself wrote any of the literature, but that his secretary and associate Nicholas of Lowen, head of the House of St John at Griinenworth, the retreat founded by Merswin for the circle, worked over all the writings which emanated from different members of the group but bore no author's names, and to glorify the founder of the house attached Merswin's name to some of them and out of his imagination created "the Friend of God from the Oberland," whom he named as the writer of the others.

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  • According to Stolba, beautiful crystals of pure tin can be obtained as follows: A platinum basin, coated over with wax or paraffin outside, except a small circle at the very lowest point, is placed on a plate of amalgamated zinc, lying on the bottom of a beaker, and is filled with a solution of pure stannous chloride.

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  • Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.

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  • The toga was a piece of woollen cloth in the form of a segment of a circle, 2 the chord of the arc being about three times the height of the wearer, and the height a little less than one-half of this length.

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  • He belonged to the circle of Peisistratus at Athens, and was the founder of an Orphic community.

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  • In the circle of Scipio he doubtless met the historian Polybius, who was brought to Italy in 167.

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  • Like his brother Isaac, Jacob Abendana had a circle of Christian friends, and his reputation led to the appreciation of Jewish scholarship by modern Christian theologians.

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  • Haller occupied in the new university of Gottingen (founded 1737) a position corresponding to that of Boerhaave at Leiden, and in like manner influenced a very large circle of pupils, The appreciation of his work in physiology belongs to the history of that science; we are only concerned here with its influence on medicine.

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  • Though a prominent member of the inner Liberal circle and a stanch party man, it was not supposed by the public at this time that any ambition for the highest place could be associated with Sir Henry CampbellBannerman; but the divisions among the Liberals, and the rivalry between Lord Rosebery and Sir William Harcourt, made the political situation an anomalous one.

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  • He was now introduced to a less questionable and even more distinguished coterie than Vendome's, to the famous "court of Sceaux," the circle of the beautiful and ambitious duchesse du Maine.

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  • In the parish of Lochrutton, a few miles south-west of Maxwelltown, there is a good example of a stone circle, the "Seven Grey Sisters," and an old peel-tower in the Mains of Hills.

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  • This company combines with the Metropolitan District to form the Inner Circle line, which has stations close to all the great railway termini north of the Thames.

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  • For the special supervision and encouragement of indigenous primary education in monastic and in lay schools, each circle of inspection is divided into sub-circles corresponding with one or more of the civil districts, and each sub-circle is placed under a deputyinspector or a sub-inspector of schools.

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  • There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the Mawnaing circle of the Kathra district, where the quartz is crushed by machinery and treated by chemical processes.

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  • He was a staunch supporter of Charlemagne's principles of government and educational reforms; he established schools, and by his own literary achievements showed himself a worthy member of the learned circle which graced the Carolingian court.

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  • Thus the core of a circle or an ellipse is a concentric circle or ellipse of one quarter the size.

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  • The varying direction of the inclining couple Pc may be realized by swinging the weight P from a crane on the ship, in a circle of radius c. But if the weight P was lowered on the ship from a crane on shore, the vessel would sink bodily a distance P/wA if P was deposited over F; but deposited anywhere else, say over Q on the water-line area, the ship would turn about a line the antipolar of Q with respect to the confocal ellipse, parallel to FF', at a distance FK from F FK= (k2-hV/A)/FQ sin QFF' (2) through an angle 0 or a slope of one in m, given by P sin B= m wA FK - W'Ak 2V hV FQ sin QFF', (3) where k denotes the radius of gyration about FF' of the water-line area.

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  • For instance, in a uniplanar flow, radially inward towards 0, the flow across any circle of radius r being the same and denoted by 27rm, the velocity must be mfr, and 0=m log r,, y=m0, +4,i =m log re ie, w=m log z.

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  • (7) Thus with g=o, the cylinder will describe a circle with angular velocity 2pw/(a+p), so that the radius is (a+p)v/2pw, if the velocity is v.

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  • (to) Integrating over the base, to obtain one-third of the kinetic energy T, 3T = 2 pf '3 4R2(3x4-h4)dx/h 3 = pR2h4 / 1 35 V 3 (II) so that the effective k 2 of the liquid filling the trianglc is given by k 2 = T/Z p R 2 A = 2h2/45 = (radius of the inscribed circle) 2, (12) or two-fifths of the k 2 for the solid triangle.

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  • Thus for m =2, the spheres are orthogonal, and it can be verified that a13 a2 3 aY3 i f /' = ZU (I - 13 - 7.2 3 + 3) ' (8) where a l, a2, a =a l a 2 /J (a 1 2 +a 2 2) is the radius of the spheres and their circle of intersection, and r 1, r 2, r the distances of a point from their centres.

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  • Sometimes the cells are erected in a circle, so that the spout below the slicing machine revolving above them with a corresponding radius can discharge the slices into the centre of any of the cells.

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  • The erection of the cells in straight lines may cause some little complication in charging, but it allows the hot spent slices to be discharged upon a travelling band which takes them,to an elevator, an arrangement simpler than any which is practicable when the cells are disposed in a circle.

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  • Tschirnhausen, which are both related to the circle.

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  • Dinostratus, a Greek geometer and disciple of Plato, discussed the curve, and showed how it effected a mechanical solution of squaring the circle.

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  • on the circle, and let M be another point on the circle so related to P that the ordinate PQ moves from A to 0 in the same time as the vector OM describes a quadrant.

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  • The intercept on the axis of y is 2a/7r; therefore, if it were possible to accurately construct the curve, the quadrature of the circle would be effected.

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  • Gaston Paris endeared himself to a wide circle of scholars outside his own country by his unfailing urbanity and generosity.

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  • 6) speaks of part of a circle of roughly shaped stones taken from the adjacent limestone mountains in the Nejd.

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  • He was, it is true, again elected to the Chamber of Baden by the circle of Thiengen, but the government, no longer willing to respect his immunity as a deputy, refused its ratification.

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  • The blackbird is found in every country of Europe, even breeding - although rarely - beyond the arctic circle, and in eastern Asia as well as in North Africa and the Atlantic islands.

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  • The inner city, or Vienna proper, was formerly separated from the other districts by a circle of fortifications, consisting of a rampart, fosse and glacis.

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  • 20 a special letter addressed to some inner circle of the apostle's friends (in spite of iv.

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  • While in exile he was elected supreme commander of the Knights of the Golden Circle in Ohio and received the Democratic nomination for governor of Ohio, but was defeated.

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  • Even within the Arctic Circle they are in many localities abundant and excessively bloodthirsty during the short summer.

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  • Creevey was a Whig and a follower of Fox, and his active intellect and social qualities procured him a considerable intimacy with the leaders of this political circle.

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  • The building is a circle loo ft.

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  • Her innate humanity and sound sense, however, led her gradually to return to her place in the family circle, and she began also to seek out and help the poor and the sick.

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  • During the following years she became known to an increasingly wide circle, especially as a peacemaker, and entered into correspondence with many friends.

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  • There is no need to doubt the reality of Catherine's exaltation, but it should be remembered that she and her circle were Dominicans, and that the stigmata of St Francis of Assisi were considered the crowning glory of the saint, and hitherto the exclusive boast of the Franciscans.

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  • To this year, 1376, belongs the admission to Catherine's circle of disciples of Stefano di Corrado Maconi, a Sienese noble distinguished by a character full of charm and purity, and her healing of the bitter feud between his family and the Tolomei.

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  • He was forced to resign office, but still continued to advise Louis, and was one of the inner circle of the king's friends, called by the revolutionists "the Austrian Committee."

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  • long, with a narrow space between, had been erected in front of the palace, and five hundred soldiers kept a wide circle clear of the crowd.

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  • The lophophore is a simple circle in all Polyzoa except in the Phylactolaemata, where it typically has the form of a horse shoe outlined by the bases of the tentacles.

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  • discipulus, from discere, to learn, and root seen in pupillus), but chiefly used of the personal followers of Jesus Christ, including the inner circle of the Apostles.

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  • Madame Comte conceived a dislike to the circle she found there, and this was the too early beginning of disputes which lasted for the remainder of their union.

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  • It was true that the bent of his genius was slightly altered, in a direction which seemed less purely and austerely that of the highest art; but his concessions to public taste vastly added to the width of the circle he now addressed.

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  • In 1857 two Arthurian poems had been tentatively and privately printed, as Enid and Nimue, or the True and the False, to see how the idyllic form would be liked by the inner circle of Tennyson's friends.

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  • Verona, which is the chief military centre of the Italian province of Venetia, is now being surrounded with a circle of forts far outside the obsolete city walls.

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  • The bishops of Eichstatt were princes of the Empire, subject to the spiritual jurisdiction of the archbishops of Mainz, and ruled over considerable territories in the Circle of Franconia.

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  • If the box be round, they will seek to lead the eye away from the naked regularity of the circle by a pattern distracting attention, as, for example, by a zigzag breaking the circular outline, and supported by other ornaments.

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  • Down to the end of this era painting was entirely in the hands of a patrician castecourtiers, priests, feudal nobles and their military retainers, all men of high education and gentle birth, living in a polished circle.

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  • But it is impossible to admit within the circle of high-art productions these wooden figures of everyday men and women, unrelieved by any subjective element, and owing their merit entirely to the fidelity with which their contours are shaped, their muscles modelled, and their anatomical proportions preserved.

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  • KNIGHTS OF THE GOLDEN CIRCLE, a semi-military secret society in the United States in the Middle West, 1861-1864, the purpose of which was to bring the Civil War to a close and restore the "Union as it was."

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  • After the outbreak of the Civil War many of the Democrats of the Middle West, who were opposed to the war policy of the Republicans, organized the Knights of the Golden Circle, pledging themselves to exert their influence to bring about peace.

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  • The great importance of the Knights of the Golden Circle and its successors was due to its opposition to the war policy of the Republican administration.

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  • /n==Authorities== - An Authentic Exposition of the Knights of the Golden Circle (Indianapolis, 1863); J.

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  • The demolition of the ramparts of Old Calais was followed by the construction of a new circle of defences, embracing both the old and new quarters, and strengthened by a deep moat.

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  • "In the beginning of my mathematical studies, when I was perusing the works of the celebrated Dr Wallis, and considering the series by the interpolation of which he exhibits the area of the circle and hyperbola (for instance, in this series of curves whose common base 0 or axis is x, and the ordinates respectively (I -xx)l, (i (I &c), I perceived that if the areas of the alternate curves, which are x, x 3x 3, x &c., could be interpolated, we should obtain the areas of the intermediate ones, the first of which (I -xx) 1 is the area of the circle.

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  • And since, in the series for the circle, the second term was 2 3 3, I put m=?„....

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  • See also Lloyd Sanders, The Holland House Circle (1908).

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  • limit approaches that of the permanently frozen subsoil, going into the arctic circle in Scandinavia, elsewhere sinking to about 54° N.; in the S.

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  • He returned to Paris before the end of the year, was well received by his family, and mixed in the cultivated circle which frequented the salon of his mother, among them Lebrun-Pindare, Lavoisier, Lesueur, Dorat, Parmy, and a little later the painter David.

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  • The domestic dog would be brought into the sacred circle through the increased veneration for animals, and the more pronounced view in later times of Anubis as servant, messenger and custodian of the gods.

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  • By looking at them together we understand how much the comedy of Terence was able to do to refine and humanize the manners of Rome, but at the same time what a solvent it was of the discipline and ideas of the old republic. What makes Terence an important witness of the culture of his time is that he wrote from the centre of the Scipionic circle, in which what was most humane and liberal in Roman statesmanship was combined with the appreciation of what was most vital in the Greek thought and literature of the time.

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  • But in the last years during which this circle kept together a new spirit appeared in Roman politics and a new power in Roman literature, the revolutionary spirit evoked by the Gracchi in opposition to the long-continued ascendancy of the senate, and the new power of Roman satire, which was exercised impartially and unsparingly against both the excesses of the revolutionary spirit and the arrogance and incompetence of the extreme party among the nobles.

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  • Roman satire, though in form a legitimate development of the indigenous dramatic satura through the written satura of Ennius and Pacuvius, is really a birth of this time, and its author was the youngest of those admitted into the intimacy of the Scipionic circle, C. Lucilius of Suessa Aurunca (c. 180-103).

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  • One or two of the circle of Catullus survived into that age; but an entirely new spirit came over the literature of the new period, and it is by new men, educated indeed under the same literary influences, but living in an altered world and belonging originally to a different order in the state, that the new spirit was expressed.

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  • Amboyna Island lies off the south-west of Ceram, on the north side of the Banda Sea, being one of a series of volcanic isles in the inner circle round the sea.

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  • Like his father, he was nowhere happier than in the family circle, and he was particularly attached to his -sister, the grand-duchess Xenia, who was seven years younger than himself.

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  • The etiquette of the imperial circle, scenes from the law-courts and the recitationroom, the reunions of dilettanti and philosophers, the busy life of the capital or of the municipal town, the recreations of the seaside and of the country - all these he brings vividly before our eyes.

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  • Lord Ashley now retired into Holland, where he became acquainted with Le Clerc, Bayle, Benjamin Furly, the English Quaker merchant, at whose house Locke had resided during his stay at Rotterdam, and probably Limborch and the rest of the literary circle of which Locke had been a cherished and honoured member nine or ten years before.

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  • the fortress was strengthened by a circle of detached forts, which, after 1870, were modified and completed by the Germans, who treated the fortress as the principal pivot of offensive operations against France.

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  • The Copenhagen post gave him, as well as some other diplomats, an exceptional opportunity of watching the principal moving powers of European politics from a point of vantage, as the matrimonial alliances of the Danish royal family occasionally brought together in a friendly family circle the widow of Alexander III, Nicholas II and the Prince of Wales who was to become King Edward VII.

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  • But as the orbits are not centred on the sun, which is in a focus of each, the displacement of the seeming circle would be readily seen in the case of Mercury and of Mars.

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  • Sca, through,, u rpov, measure), in geometry, a line passing through the centre of a circle or conic section and terminated by the curve; the "principal diameters of the ellipse and hyperbola coincide with the "axes" and are at right angles; " conjugate diameters " are such that each bisects chords parallel to the other.

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  • to the N., where the hill is honeycombed with chambers in three storeys (now, however, much ruined and inaccessible), partly connected by a system of passages, and supported at the base by a stone wall which forms a circle and not a square - a fact which renders impossible its identification with the tomb of Porsena, the description of which Pliny (Hist.

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  • His influence on literature, which he encouraged after the manner of Maecenas, was considerable, and the group of literary persons whom he gathered round him - including Tibullus, Lygdamus and the poet Sulpicia - has been called "the Messalla circle."

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  • In order that no other settlements should encroach upon his centre of government, New Castle, the northern boundary was determined by drawing an arc of a circle, 12 m.

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  • 4), and covering all except the portion indicated by the unshaded circle.

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  • focus, would correspond with 2" of arc. But, after all, this is no practical difficulty, for screws can be used to separate the lenses, and, by these screws, as in a Gascoigne micrometer, the separation of the lenses can be measured; or we can have scales for this purpose, read by microscopes, like the Troughton 1 circles of Piazzi or Pond, or those of the Carey circle, with almost any required accuracy.

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  • The measurement of position angles is provided for by a graduated circle attached to the head.

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  • There is also a position circle, attached at m to the eye-end, provided with a slide to move the eye-piece radially from the axis of the telescope, and with a micrometer to measure the distance of an object from that axis.

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  • Complete rotation of the head is obviously impossible because of the interference of the declination axis with the rods, and therefore, in some angles, objects cannot be measured in two positions of the circle.

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  • 4) that Bessel had indicated, by notes in his handbooks, the following points which should be kept in mind in the construction of future heliometers: (I) The segments should move in cylindrical slides; b (2) the screw should be protected from dust; 6 (3) the zero of the position circle should not be so liable to change; 7 (4) the distance of the optical centres of the segments should not change in different position angles or otherwise; 8 (5) the points of the micrometer screws should rest on ivory plates; 9 (6) there should be an apparatus for changing the screen.'° Wilhelm Struve, in describing the Pulkowa heliometer,' 1 made The distances of the optical centres of the segments from the eye-piece are in this method as I; secant of the angle under measurement.

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  • It permits complete rotation of the tube and measurement of all angles in reversed positions of the circle; the handles that move the slides can be brought down to the eye-end, inside the tube, and consequently made to rotate with it; and the position circle may be placed at the end of the cradle next the eyeend where it is convenient of access.

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  • The hour circle is also read by microscopes, and the instrument can be used in both positions (tube preceding and following) for elimination of the effect of flexure on the position angles.

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  • These, Swete holds, "create a strong presumption of affinity" between the two books, while Bousset infers that they "justify the assumption that the entire circle of Johannine writings spring from circles which stood under the influence of the John of Asia Minor."

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  • Thus it was that a great South Land appeared on the maps, the belief in the prodigious extension of which certainly received a severe shock by Abel Tasman's voyage of circumnavigation, but was only overthrown after Cook's great voyages had proved that any southern land which existed could not extend appreciably beyond the polar circle.

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  • A great circle can be drawn upon a terrestrial globe in such a way as to divide it into two hemispheres, one of which contains the greatest amount of land and the other the greatest amount of sea of any possible hemispheres.

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  • A simple, practical boundary between the three oceans can be obtained by prolonging the meridian of the southern extremity of each of the three southern continents to the Antarctic circle.

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  • We now know, however, that the Antarctic circle runs so close to the coast of Antarctica that the Antarctic Ocean may be left out of account.

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  • It has been found more convenient to take as northern boundaries the narrowest part of the straits near the Arctic circle, Bering Strait on the Pacific side, and on the Atlantic side the narrowest part of Davis Strait, and of Denmark Strait, then the shortest line from Iceland to the Faeroes, thence to the most northerly island of the Shetlands and thence to Cape Statland in Norway.

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  • Sir John Herschel took as the northern boundary of the southern ocean the greatest circle which could touch the southernmost extremities of the three southern continents.

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  • Such a circle, however, runs so near the coast of Antarctica as to make the southern ocean very small.

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  • The mycelium produced from the spores dropped by the fungus or from the "spawn" in the soil, radiates outwards, and each year's successive crop of fungi rises from the new growth round the circle.

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  • The fungus was never found growing within the circle during the time the ring was under observation, the decaying vegetation necessary for its growth having become exhausted.

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  • A small hole is left in the centre of each segment, which is kept open during the fitting to prevent undue pressure upon any one, but is stopped as soon as the circle is completed.

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  • At the same time her undisguised impatience of the cumbrous court etiquette shocked many people, and her taste for pleasure led her to seek the society of the comte d'Artois and his young and dissolute circle.

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  • Esri, upon, and icbsXos, circle), in ancient astronomy, a small circle the centre of which describes a larger one.

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  • In his domestic relations he was exemplary, and he lived on terms of mutual affection with a wide circle of friends.

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  • the relative angular displacement is proportional to the radius of the circle described by the end of a light lever operated by mechanism between the spring-connected parts.

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  • When a shaft is driven by means of gearing the driving torque is measured by the product of the resultant pressure P acting between the wheel teeth and the radius of the pitch circle of the wheel fixed to the shaft.

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  • Mrs Parsons' Garrick, and his Circle and Some unpublished Correspondence of David Garrick, ed.

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  • SODOM AND GOMORRAH, in biblical geography, two of five cities (the others named Admah, Zeboiim and Bela or Zoar) which were together known as the "cities of the Kikkar" (circle), somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea.

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  • The use of a coronet by the barons dates from the coronation of Charles II., and by letters patent of the 7th of August 1661 their coronet is described as a circle of gold with six pearls on it.

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  • 12 times the area of the generating circle; the length of the curve is 8a.

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  • for "circle" of sacred stones), the name of several places in Palestine, mentioned in the Old Testament.

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  • Ptolemy Soter (reigned 323-285 B.C.), to whom, in the general distribution of Alexander's conquests, this kingdom had fallen, began to draw around him from various parts of Greece a circle of men eminent in literature and philosophy.

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  • Their works are never national, never addressed to a people, but to a circle of learned men.

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  • To perform their task adequately required from the critics a wide circle of knowledge; and from this requirement sprang the sciences of grammar, prosody, lexicography, mythology and archaeology.

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  • LUTZEN, a town in Prussian Saxony, in the circle of Merseburg (pop. in 3981), chiefly famous as the scene of a great battle fought on the 6/16th of November 1632 between the Swedes, under King Gustavus Adolphus, and the Imperialists, under Wallenstein.

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  • In 1848 he removed to London to fill a post in the board of health, under Edwin Chadwick, and became a prominent member of the brilliant circle which included George Grote and John Stuart Mill.

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  • In the circle of his family and intimate friends, away from the great world in which he made so poor a figure, he was greatly esteemed.

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  • The Antarctic circle is drawn at 66° 30' S., but polar conditions of climate, &c., extend considerably north of the area thus enclosed.

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  • A few months later Thomas Cranmer, who had been one of those to discuss sympathetically Luther's works in the little circle at Cambridge, and who believed the royal supremacy would tend to the remedying of grave abuses and that the pope had acted ultra vires in issuing a dispensation for the king's marriage with Catherine, was induced by Henry to succeed Warham as archbishop of Canterbury.

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  • On the other hand he insisted on the synthetic character of this activity without which it was impossible to get beyond the circle of our own thoughts.

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  • If there be any truth in this suggestion it seems likely that the last word of idealism, like the first, will prove to be that the type of the highest reality is to be sought for not in any fixed Parmenidean circle of achieved being but in an ideal of good which while never fully expressed under the form of time can never become actual and so fulfil itself under any other.

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  • The defences consist of an inner line of works which preserve the place against surprise, and of an outlying chain of detached forts of fairly modern construction, forming roughly two-thirds of a circle of three miles radius.

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  • With regard to the jurisdiction of the council in cases of homicide, the procedure, so far as it may be gathered from the orators and other sources, was as follows: - accusations were brought by relatives within the circle of brothers' and sisters' children, supported by the wider kin and the phratry (Demosth.

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  • Their arms comprise two short swords, a longer spear, a round shield, and they sometimes wear a coat of mail; a curious feature is their tactics of fighting in a circle of protecting shields.

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  • There is some ground for believing that it was the third-abbot of Monte Cassino who began to spread a knowledge of the Rule beyond the circle of St Benedict's own foundations.

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  • the east and west widening of North America forms more than a third of the almost continuous land ring around a zone of sub-Arctic climate, through the middle of which runs the Arctic circle.

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  • Probably the original tradition goes back to a time when Yahweh was recognized as a deity of a circle of connected tribes of which the Israelite tribes formed a part.

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  • He places himself in a sense within the dogmatic circle by his declaration that guidance is to be expected from developments - in a " free Protestant evangelical spirit " - out of the old confessions of the Protestant churches.

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  • His chief works are: Astronomical History of Observations of Heavenly Motions and Appearances (1634); Ecliptica prognostica (1634); Controversy with Longomontanus concerning the Quadrature of the Circle (1646?); An Idea of the Mathematics, 12m0 (1650); A Table of Ten Thousand Square Numbers (fol.; 1672).

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  • The word is used also to designate the supporting frame or arms carrying the microscopes or verniers of a graduated circle.

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  • From the Porte electric trams run to the harbour and also in a circle round the native city.

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  • If a .JP solid circle be fixed in any one position and a tube be pivoted on its centre so as to move; and if the line C D be drawn upon the circle pointing towards any object Q in the heavens which lies in the plane of the circle, by turn ing the tube A B towards any other object P in the plane of the circle, the angle B 0 D will be the angle subtended by the two objects P and Q at the eye.

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  • A collection of circles such as is the armillary sphere, if each circle were fitted with a view-tube, might be considered a complete astrolabe.

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  • In fact the modern equatorial, and the altitude and azimuth circle are astrolabes in the strictest and oldest meaning of the term; and Tycho in one of his astrolabes came so near the modern equatorial that it may be taken as the first of the kind.

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  • The term " mensuration " is therefore ordinarily restricted to the measurement of areas and volumes, and of certain simple curved lengths, such as the circumference of a circle.

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  • This is the simplest case of generation of a plane figure by a moving ordinate; the corresponding figure for generation by rotation of a radius vector is a circle.

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  • (i) The circle, and the solid figures allied to it, are of special importance.

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  • The ordinary definition of a circle is equivalent to definition as the figure generated by the rotation of a radius of constant length in a plane, and is thus essentially analytical.

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  • The ideas of the centre and of the constancy of the radius do not, however, enter into the elementary conception of the circle as a round figure.

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  • The ratio 47r would thus first appear as the ratio of the average breadth of a circle to the greatest breadth; the interpretation of 7 as the ratio of the circumference to the diameter being a secondary one.

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  • A collection of formulae relating to the circle, for instance, would comprise not only geometrical and trigonometrical formulae, but also approximate formulae, such as Huygens's rule (§ 91), which are the result of advanced analysis.

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  • For fuller discussion reference should be made to Geometry and Trigonometry, as well as to the articles dealing with particular figures, such as Triangle, Circle, &C.

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  • The length of the arc of a circle, for instance, is known if the length of the chord and its distance from the middle point of the arc are known; but it may be more convenient in such a case to use a formula such as Huygens's rule than to obtain a more accurate result by means of trigonometrical tables.

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  • The Circle and Allied Figures.

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  • - The mensuration of the circle is founded on the property that the areas of different circles are proportional to the squares on their diameters.

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  • Denoting the constant ratio by fir, the area of a circle is ira 2, where a is the radius, and ir=3.14159 approximately.

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  • The expression 27ra for the length of the circumference can be deduced by considering the limit of the area cut off from a circle of radius a by a concentric circle of radius a - a, when a becomes indefinitely small; this is an elementary case of differentiation.

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  • The lengths of arcs of the same circle being proportional to the angles subtended by them at the centre, we get the idea of circular measure.

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  • The figure Abdc is a sector of an annulus, which is the portion of a circle left after cutting out a concentric circle.

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  • By considering the circle as the limit of a polygon, it follows that the formulae (iii) and (v) of § 26 hold for a right circular cylinder and a right circular cone; i.e.

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  • - For elementary mensuration the ellipse is to be regarded as obtained by projection of the circle, and the ellipsoid by projection of the sphere.

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  • The circle, for instance, is regarded geometrically as a line described in a particular way, while from the point of view of mensuration it is a figure of a particular shape.

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  • Certain approximate formulae for the length of an arc of a circle are obtained by methods similar to those of §§ 71 and 79.

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  • Let a be the radius of a circle, and 0 (circular measure) the unknown angle subtended by an arc. Then, if we divide 0 into m equal parts, and L 1 denotes the sum of the corresponding chords, so that L i =2ma sin (0/2m), the true length of the arc is L1 +a9 3 - 5 + ..., where cp. =B/2m.

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  • In 1589 Greenwood and Barrow composed " A true Description out of the Word of God of the visible Church," which represents the ideal entertained in their circle.

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  • In 1848 he retired to Macon; but there, as in Paris, he was the centre of a brilliant circle, for he was a wonderful causeur, and an equally good listener, and had many interesting experiences to recall.

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  • It forms an arc of a circle of which the convexity turns slightly to the north; neither bay nor promontory breaks the regularity of its outline.

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  • As a straggler it has occurred within the Arctic Circle (as on the Varanger Fjord in Norway), as well as in Iceland and even Greenland; while it not unfrequently appears in Madeira and the Azores.

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