How to use Ciliated in a sentence
Praeoral ciliated ring, or prototroch.
The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."
Each such sporosac has two long tentacle-like processes thickly ciliated.
Rarely are these ciliated, and then only in limited tracts.
Ray Lankester to the members of a series of tubes, proved in some cases to be excretory in nature, which exist typically to the number of a single pair in most of the segments of the Chaetopod body, and open each by a ciliated orifice into the coelom on the one hand, and by a pore on to the exterior of the body on the other.Advertisement
In all these cases we have a duct which has a usually wide, always intercellular, lumen, generally, if not always, ciliated, which opens directly into the coelom on the one hand and on to the exterior of the body on the other.
Both series of organs consist essentially of a ciliated tube leading from the coelom to the exterior.
Quite independent of these are certain large dorsally situate funnel-like folds of the coelomic epithelium, ciliated, but of which no duct has been discovered leading to the exterior.
The body wall consists of an epidermis which secretes a delicate cuticle and is only ciliated in Aeolosoma, and in that genus only on the under surface of the prostomium.
The large prostomium is ciliated ventrally.Advertisement
The efferent ducts are ciliated, and there is a patch of cilia at the point where they communicate with the cavity of each testis.
Each renal organ is a sac lined with glandular epithelium (ciliated cell, with concretions) communicating with the exterior by its papilla, and by ce, Cerebral ganglia.
It has simply been traced as far as the formation of a diblastula which acquires a ciliated band, and becomes a nearly spherical trochosphere.
A well-marked trochosphere is formed by the development of an equatorial ciliated band; and subsequently, by the disproportionate growth of the lower hemisphere, the trochosphere becomes a veliger.
B, The diblastula has become a trochosphere by the development of the ciliated ring y r (optical section).Advertisement
This is a groove, the edges of which are raised and ciliated, lying near the branchial plume in the genera which possess that organ, whilst in Firoloida, which has no branchial plume, the osphradium occupies a corresponding position.
When the middle and hinder regions of the blastopore are closing in, an equatorial ridge of ciliated cells is formed, converting the embryo into a typical trochosphere.
The ciliated band of the left side of the velar area is indicated by a line extending from v to v; the foot f is seen between the pharynx ph and the pedicle of invagination pi.
To it belong (a) superficial grooves or deeper slits situated on the integument near the tip of the head, (b) nerve lobes in immediate connexion with the nervous tissue of the brain, and (c) ciliated ducts penetrating into the latter and communicating with the former.
Only in one species, Carinella inexpectata, a step in advance has been made, in so far as in connexion with the furrow just mentioned, which is here also somewhat more complicated in its arrangement, a ciliated tube leads into the brain, there to end blindly amidst the nervecells.Advertisement
No other intermediate stages have as yet been noticed between this arrangement and that of the Heteronemertini, in which a separate posterior brain-lobe receives a similar ciliated canal, and in which the oesophageal outgrowths have made their appearance and are coalesced with the nerve-tissue in the organ of the adult animal.
These posterior brain-lobes, which in all Heteronemertines are in direct continuity of tissue with the upper pair of principal lobes, cease to have this intimate connexion in the Metanemertini; and, although still constituted of (I) a ciliated duct, opening out externally, (2) nervous tissue surrounding it, and (3) histological elements distinctly different from the nervous, and most probably directly derived from the oesophageal outgrowths, they are nevertheless here no longer constantly situated behind the upper brain-lobes and directly connected with them, but are found sometimes behind, sometimes beside and sometimes before the brain-lobes.
These slits are continued into the ciliated duct, being at the same time themselves very strongly ciliated.
Two layers are specially obvious in its walls - the inner layer bordering the lumen being composed of smaller ciliated cells, the outer thicker one containing numerous granular cells and having a more glandular character.
Each consists of a more or less coiled, ciliated, longitudinal canal, which on its external surface gives origin to one or more transverse canals, which pass to the exterior and open a little way behind the mouth on the sides of the body.Advertisement
Two pairs of invaginations of B the skin, which originally are called the prostomial and metastomial disks, grow round the intestine, finally fuse together, and form the skin and mus- cular body-wall of the future Nemertine, which afterwards becomes ciliated, frees itself from the pilidium investment and develops into the adult worm without further metamorphosis.
Of these divisions of the coelom the first two communicate with the exterior by means of a pair of ciliated pore-canals placed at the posterior end of their respective segments.
In addition to this ciliated band the form of the Tornaria is quite characteristic and unlike the adult.
The head is produced into ciliated arms bearing tentacles.
In addition to these, there exists in the interior of the dorsal valve of some genera a variously modified, thin, calcified, ribbon-shaped skeleton for the support of the ciliated arms, and the form of this ribbon serves as one of the chief generic characters of both recent and extinct forms. This brachial skeleton is more developed in some genera than in others.Advertisement
Externally on two sides and on the inner surface the tentacles are ciliated, and the cilia are continued across the 5 gutter to the lip and even on the outer surface of the latter.
The great arm-sinus of each side of the lophophore lies beneath the fold or lip which together with the tentacles forms the ciliated groove in which the mouth opens.
The stomach, oesophagus and intestine are ciliated on their inner surface.
The ectodermal cells are large, ciliated, and amongst the ciliated cells glandular cells are scattered.
A large number of specimens of a species are usually found together, since their only mode of spreading is during the ciliated larval stage, which although it swims vigorously can only cover a few millimetres an hour; still it may be carried some little distance by currents.Advertisement
The egg gives rise to an oval larva, one half of which is ciliated and bears gland-cells, the opposite end carrying ten hooks.
The chief peculiarities that distinguish Trematodes from their free-living allies, the Turbellaria, are the development of adhering organs for attachment to the tissues of the host; the replacement of the primitively ciliated epidermis by a thick cuticular layer and deeply sunk cells to ensure protection against the solvent action of the host; and (in one large order) a prolonged and peculiar life-history.
The ciliated stage is only capable of free life for five or six hours, and if at the end of that time it has not encountered and attached itself to a minnow, it dies.
The life-history of Schistostomum haematobium is still unknown, but the difficulty in obtaining developmental stages in any of the numerous intermediate hosts that have been tried suggests that the ciliated larvae may develop directly in man and either gain access to him by the use of impure water for drinking or may perforate his skin when bathing.
The ciliated larva escapes from the egg into the water and enters an intermediate host (leech, mollusc, arthropod, batrachian or fish) where it undergoes a metamorphosis into a second stage in which most of the adult organs are present.Advertisement
They may be defined as aquatic animals, forming colonies by budding; with ciliated retractile tentacles and a U-shaped alimentary canal.
The polypide consists of a "lophophore" bearing a series of ciliated tentacles by which Diatoms and other microscopic bodies are collected as food, of a U-shaped alimentary canal, and of a central nervous system.
This is followed by the atrophy of many of the larval organs, including the brain, the sense-organ and the ciliated ring.
The principal differences are the complication of the ciliated band, the absence of the excretory organ, the great lateral compression of the body, the possession of a pair of shells protecting the sides, the presence of an organ known as the "pyriform organ," and the occurrence of a sucker in a position corresponding with the depression seen between (m) and (a) in fig.
A pair of pear-shaped, ciliated glands inside lie in the eighth segment and open on the ninth.Advertisement
A rotifer may be regarded as typically a hemisphere or half an oblate spheroid or paraboloid with a mouth somewhere on the flat end ("disk" or "corona"), which bears a usually double ciliated ring, the outer zone the "cingulum," and inner the "trochus".
A pair of coiled nephridial tubes (n) formed of a file of perforated `' drain-pipe "cells, with ciliated tag-like" flame "cells (f), open into a contractile bladder (bl), FIG.
This typically consists of two concentric zones, the trochus and cingulum, often separated by a groove or gutter which may be finely ciliated; but in several genera of no close affinity, where it is very oblique to the longitudinal axis of the body, it is represented by a general ciliation of the surface (Taphrocampa, Rattulus, Copeus, Adineta).
In most Ploima the dorsal gap is not well marked, and the trochus is broken up into a number of lobes, often furnished with vibratile styles, in front and at the sides, but ventrally passing into the uniformly ciliated oral funnel.
Other ciliated organs to be noticed are the proboscis cup of Bdelloidaceae, and the toes of Pedalion.Advertisement
The stomach is generally large; its wall consists of a layer of very large ciliated cells, which often contain fat globules and yellowish-green or brown particles, and outside these a connective tissue membrane; muscular fibrillae have also been described.
The intestine is lined by ciliated cells.
Most free rotifers swim by the corona, aided by the ciliated auricles when present.
Frequently the foot is ciliated at the tip, as in the young of tubicolous forms.
Its adhesive foot is paralleled by a cup-shaped ciliated depression, possibly nervous, found in all the larvae cited, except some Echinoderms, and which in Asterids and Crinoids actually serves as an organ of attachment.
Ploimoidaceae; subconical; corona bilobed; retractile foot absent or ciliated; motile appendages present in two families.
Illoricata, cuticle soft; ciliated exsertile auricles above the disk sometimes present.
The paired ctenidia are very greatly developed right and left of the elongated body, and form the most prominent organ of the group. Their function is chiefly not respiratory but nutritive, since it is by the currents produced by their ciliated surface that food-particles are brought to the feebly-developed mouth and buccal cavity.
The microscope shows that the neighbouring filaments are held together by patches of cilia, called " ciliated junctions," which interlock with one another just as two brushes may be made to do.
This is the condition seen in Arca and Mytilus, the so-called plates dividing upon the slightest touch into their constituent filaments, which are but loosely conjoined by their " ciliated junctions."
Nevertheless the filament is a complete tube formed of chitinous substance and clothed externally by ciliated epithelium, internally by endothelium and lacunar tissue - a form of connective tissue - as shown in fig.
A,Part of four filaments seen from the outer face in order to show the ciliated junctions c.j.
B,Diagram of the posterior face of a single complete filament with descending ramus and ascending ramus ending in a hook-like process;ep.,ep.,the ciliated junctions; il,j ., inter-lamellar junction.
The ciliated velar ring shell-gland sk.
No ciliated An extraordinary modification of the veliger occurs in the development of Nucula and Yoldia and probably other members of the same families.
The test is really a ciliated velum developed in the normal position at the apical pole but reflected backwards in such a way as to cover the original ectoderm except at the posterior end.
Order Filibranchia Gill-filament ventrally directed and reflected, connected by ciliated junctions.
B, The Gastrula has become a Trochosphere by the development of the ciliated ring vr (optical section).
Most remarkable is its resemblance to the adult form of the Wheel animalcules, or Rotifera, which retain the prae-oral ciliated band as their chief organ of locomotion and prehension throughout life.
It now passes to the veliger phase, a definitely molluscan form, in which the disproportion between the area in front of the ciliated circlet and that behind it is very greatly increased, so that the former is now simply an emarginated region of the head fringed with cilia.
The larva is seen in optical section, and its distinguishing feature is the ciliated lobed band (vl, sl, dl), which corresponds to the pre-oral ciliated band of a trochosphere-larva..
In effect (6) it traces the Turbellaria to small two-layered organisms consisting of an outer ciliated epidermis and a central syncytial tissue.
It leads into a straight alimentary canal whose walls consist of a layer of ciliated cells ensheathed in a thin layer of peritoneal cells.
They pass out through short vasa deferentia with internal ciliated funnels, sometimes an enlargement on their course - the seminal vesicles - and a minute external pore situated on the side of the tail.
The excretory organs are coelomoducts with an internal ciliated opening into the pericardium and an opening to the exterior.
By the development of a ciliated ring just in front of the mouth the embryo becomes a trochosphere.
Just behind the ciliated ring is a pair of larval eyes which disappear in the adult; these correspond to the cephalic eyes of Lamellibranchs.
The pericardium is ciliated internally on its dorsal and lateral walls.
The external surface of the trochosphere is formed of a number of ciliated test-cells.
The ectoderm behind the ciliated ring develops spicules, and the post-oral region of the larva elongates.
Later the ciliated ring or velum disappears and seven imbricated calcareous plates, made up of flattened spicules, are formed on the dorsal surface.
Polygordius and Protodrilus live in sand, but while the former moves by means of the contraction of its body-wall muscles, Protodrilus can progress by the action of the bands of cilia surrounding its segments, and of the longitudinal ciliated ventral groove.
On the surface of the funnel-shaped lophophore are numerous ciliated grooves, and each of the tentacles in the tentaculated forms has a similar groove directed towards the mouth.
On the inner surface is a layer of peritoneal epithelium, which is frequently ciliated, and at the bases of the retractor muscles is heaped up and modified into the reproductive organs.
All along one side is a microscopic ciliated groove, into which the mud does not seem to enter, and along which a continuous stream of water may be kept up. Possibly this is respiratory - there are no special respiratory organs.
The excretory organs are typical nephridia, with an internal ciliated opening into the body-cavity, and an external pore.
Fertilization is external; and in about three days a small ciliated larva, not unlike that of the Echiuroids, but with no trace of segmentation, emerges from the egg-shell.
The alimentary canal is a perfectly straight tube lined throughout by ciliated epithelium.
This becomes divided into two, the right half forming the cavity of the rostrum, while the left acquires an opening to the exterior, and forms the praeoral pit of the larva, which subsequently gives rise to special ciliated tracts in the vestibule of the mouth mentioned above.
The existence of ciliated micrococci together with the formation of endospores - structures not known in the Cyanophyceae - reminds us of the flagellate Protozoa, e.g.
They are ciliated, and their extremities are enlarged and have a small lateral depression in each.
It consists of ciliated epithelium, beneath which are two ganglia connected with the labial commissure by nerves.
The skin is ciliated.
Into this same cloacal chamber open ventrally a pair of ciliated tubes communicating by funnels with the coelom (Nansen and Wheeler); these are possibly nephridia, and excretory in function.
Cleavage leads to the formation of an epibolic gastrula and ciliated embryo which hatches as a free-swimming larva remarkably like that of a Polychaete worm (D).
The larva is provided with postoral and perianal ciliated bands, and on either side with a bunch of long provisional setae.
The pollen-grains when mature consist of three cells, two small and one large cell; the latter grows into the pollen-tube, as in the Coniferales, and from one of the small cells two large ciliated spermatozoids are eventually produced.
Webber, and more recent work enables us to assume that all cycads produce ciliated male gametes.
This thread gives rise to a spiral ciliated band lying in a depression on the body of each spermatozoid; the large spermatozoids eventually escape from the pollen-tube, and are able to perform ciliary movements in the watery liquid which occurs between the thin papery remnant of nucellar tissue and the archegonial necks.
The discovery by the Japanese botanist 'Erase of the development of ciliated spermatozoids in the pollen-tube of Ginkgo, in place of the non-motile male cells of typical conifers, served as a cogent argument in favour of separating the genus from the Coniferales and placing it in a class of its own.
There is only one ciliated groove, the sulcus, in the stomodaeum.
Externally they resemble ordinary sea-anemones, but there is only one ciliated groove, the sulcus, in the stomodaeum, and the mesenteries are arranged on a peculiar pattern.
They have two circlets of tentacles, a labial and a marginal, and there is only one ciliated groove in the stomodaeum, which appears to be the sulculus.
The larvae of corals are free swimming ciliated forms known as planulae, and they do not acquire a corallum until they fix themselves.
There was probably a nervous area, with a tuft of cilia, at the anterior end; while, at all events in forms that remained pelagic, the ciliated nervous tracts of the rest of the body may be supposed to have become arranged in bands around the body-segments.
The ciliated bands are not drawn.
The epithelium of the outer surface was probably ciliated, and a portion of it in the preoral lobe differentiated as a sense-organ, with longer cilia and underlying nerve-centre, from which two nerves ran back below the ventral surface.
The ciliated the brachioles.
Food is not conveyed by a subvective system of ciliated grooves, but is taken in directly by the mouth.
The Rotifera are characterized by the retention of what appears in Molluscs and Chaetopods as an embryonic organ, the velum or ciliated prae-oral girdle, as a locomotor and foodseizing apparatus, and by the reduction of the muscular parapodia to a rudimentary or non-existent condition in all present surviving forms except Pedalion.
The supposed occurrence of a pair of nephridia in certain Phylactolaemata, in a position corresponding with that of the nephridia of Phoronis, must also be mentioned, although it has been maintained that the "nephridia " of Phylactolaemata are merely ciliated portions of the body-cavity and not indeed nephridia at all.
An enlarged, frontal scale may cover the head, and a row of scales separates the ventral ciliated areas from one another, whilst two series of alternating rows cover the back and side.
As you go further up the nose, the lining becomes pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
More usually, and indeed in nearly every other case among the Oligochaeta and Hirudinea, the coelomic aperture of the nephridium consists of several cells, ciliated like the nephridium itself for a greater or less extent, forming a funnel.
The intestine is usually in the higher forms provided with a typhlosole, in which, in Pontoscolex, runs a ciliated canal or canals communicating with the intestine.
But in these epibolic forms, just as in the embolic Paludina, the embryo proceeds to develop its ciliated band and shellgland, passing through the earlier condition of a trochosphere to that of the veliger.
In the most primitive condition the genital duct is single throughout its length and has a single external aperture; it is therefore said to be monaulic. The hermaphrodite aperture is on the right side near the opening of the pallial cavity, and a ciliated groove conducts the spermatozoa to the penis, which is situated more anteriorly.
Hermaphrodite genital aperture, connected with the penis by a ciliated groove, except in Actaeon, Lobiger and Cavolinia longirostris, in which the spermiduct is a closed tube.
Genital duct monaulic; hermaphrodite duct connected with penis by a ciliated groove.
The inner surface of the intestinal caeca is ciliated, the caeca themselves are some times - especially in the UT hindermost portion of the body - of a considerably smaller lumen than the intermediate genital spaces; sometimes, however, the reverse is the case, and in both cases it is the smaller lumen that appears enclosed between and suspended by the transverse fibres constituting the muscular dissepiments above mentioned.
In these cases the larva, called Tornaria, is pelagic and transparent, and possesses a complicated ciliated seam, the longitudinal ciliated band, often drawn out into convoluted bays and lappets.
Some of the endothelial cells lining the coelom are ciliated, the cilia keeping the corpusculated fluid contents in movement.
All these spaces contain a similar coagulable fluid with sparse corpuscles, and all are lined by ciliated cells.
The Fallopian tubes, like many other tubes in the body, are made chiefly of unstriped muscle, the outer layer of which is longitudinal and the inner circular; deep to this are the submucous and mucous coats, the latter being lined with ciliated epithelium '(see' Epithelial Tissues), and thrown into longitudinal pleats.
Beneath the ciliated groove is placed an elongated ganglion (olfactory ganglion) connected by a nerve to the supraintestinal (therefore the primitively dextral) ganglion of the long h, k, m, Stomach.