Cilia sentence example
Neither here nor elsewhere are cilia found at any period of development.
Some, however, are wanderers, either swimming actively with the aid of cilia, or floating inertly as the result of a specific weight closely approaching that of the medium.
The epidermis has lost its connected epithelial character and its cilia, and the isolated cells have become sunk inwards retaining their S t- FIG.
By the aid of these cilia the larva swims actively, but owing to its minute size it covers very little distance, and this probably accounts for the fact that where brachiopods occur there are, as a rule, a good many in one spot.
In Nucula delphinodonta the test is uniformly covered with short cilia, and there is no flagellum.Advertisement
From each locule of a plurilocular sporangium there is set free an oosphere, which, being furnished with a pair of cilia, swarms for a time.
The head bears some especially large cilia.
At the end of each twig is a membrane pierced by pores, and a number of cilia depend into the lumen of the tube; these cilia maintain a constant motion.
The water which bears the oxygen for respiration and the minute organisms upon which the Brachiopod feeds is swept into the mantle cavity by the action of the cilia which cover the arms, and the eggs and excreta pass out into the same cavity.
Externally on two sides and on the inner surface the tentacles are ciliated, and the cilia are continued across the 5 gutter to the lip and even on the outer surface of the latter.Advertisement
These cilia pass on any diatoms and -_„ other minute organism which come within their range of action to the -_-„ capacious oval mouth, which appears as a mere 10 --- deepening of the gutter in the middle line.
The anterior segment broadens and becomes umbrella-shaped; it has a powerful row of cilia round the rim and smaller cilia on the general surface.
The cilia are lost, the eye-spots disappear, the digestive sac vanishes and the larva becomes a sac or "sporocyst" full of germ-cells.
In the development of the Hydrozoa, and indeed of the Cnidaria generally, the egg usually gives rise to an oval larva which swims about by means of a coating of cilia on the surface of the body.
In most rotifers, on the contrary, the trochus is stronger than the cingulum, often lobed, and with some of its cilia aggregated into vibratile styles homologous with the combplates of Ctenophora (q.v.) and the membranelles of ciliate Infusoria (q.v.).Advertisement
The current formed by the trochus is a gigantic vortex-ring, the down stroke of the cilia being directly outwards, brit the wave beats running round the organ in uniform succession in one direc tion.
The microscope shows that the neighbouring filaments are held together by patches of cilia, called " ciliated junctions," which interlock with one another just as two brushes may be made to do.
The branchial current is maintained by the cilia which cover the surface of the ctenidia, except in Cephalopoda, in which cilia are absent and the current is due to muscular action.
The peripheral paren chyma gives rise to protonephridia, that is to coiled tubes commencing in pyriform cells containing a flame-like bundle of cilia and provided with branched outgrowths, and communicating with the exterior by long convoluted canals which open at the surface of the body.
It was formerly the custom to include with the Fungi the Schizomycetes or Bacteria, and the Myxomycetes or Mycetozoa; but the peculiar mode of growth and division, the cilia, spores and other peculiarities of the former, and the emission of naked amoeboid masses of protoplasm, which creep and fuse to streaming plasmodia, with special modes of nutrition and spore-formation of the latter, have led to their separation as groups of organisms independent of the true Fungi.Advertisement
The hydroid Dicoryne 'is re- ' markable for the possession of gonophores, which are ciliate and become detached and swim away by means of their cilia.
In some cases both the nucleus and the chromatophores may be carried along in the rotating stream, but in others, such as T.Titeila, the chloroplasts may remain motionless iii a non-motile layer of the cytoplasm in direct contact with the cell wall.i Desmids, Diatoms and Oscillaria show creeping movements probably due to the secretion of slime by the cells; the swarmspores and plasmodium of the Myxomycetes exhibit amoehoid movements; and the motile spores of Fungi and Algae, the spermatozoids of mosses, ferns, &c., move by means of delicate prolongations, cilia or flagella cf the protoplast.
In Monoblepliaris, one of the lower Fungi, in some Algae, in the Vascular Cryptograms, in Cycads (Zamia and Cycas), and in Ginkgo, an isolated genus of Gymnosperms, the male cell is a motile spermatozoid with two or more cilia.
This body has been called a blepharoplast, and in the Pteridophytes, Cycads and Ginkgo it gives rise to the spiral band on which the cilia are formed.
Rarely the nephridium does not communicate with the coelom; in such cases the nephridium ends in a single cell, like the "flame cell" of a Platyhelminth worm, in which there is a lumen blocked at the coelomic end by a tuft of fine cilia projecting into the lumen.Advertisement
The chief modifications of this form are seen in the Mitraria larva of Ammochares with only the preoral band, which is much folded and which has provisional and long setae; the a.trochous larva, where the covering of cilia is uniform and not split into bands; and the polytrochous larva where there are several bands surrounding the body.
The efferent ducts are ciliated, and there is a patch of cilia at the point where they communicate with the cavity of each testis.
Small tufts of tactile hairs or papillae are sometimes observed in small number at the tip of the head; sometimes longer hairs, apparently rather stiff, are seen on the surface, very sparingly distributed between the cilia, and hitherto only in a very limited number of small specimens.
The excretory system consists of peculiar cells, each of which bears several"flames" or bunches of synchronously vibrating cilia.
Though not possessing eyes or cilia.
In Yoldia and Nucula proxima the test consists of five rows of flattened cells, the three median rows bearing circlets of long cilia.
It now passes to the veliger phase, a definitely molluscan form, in which the disproportion between the area in front of the ciliated circlet and that behind it is very greatly increased, so that the former is now simply an emarginated region of the head fringed with cilia.
It is a top-shaped, free-swimming organism provided with a preoral band of cilia,.
In the centre of the praeoral lobe is a tuft of cilia.
Polygordius and Protodrilus live in sand, but while the former moves by means of the contraction of its body-wall muscles, Protodrilus can progress by the action of the bands of cilia surrounding its segments, and of the longitudinal ciliated ventral groove.
A certain inequality in the character of the two cilia of the zoospores of some of the members of the group has earned for it the title Heterokontae, from the Greek xovros, a punting-pole.
The zoospore is usually a pyriform mass of naked protoplasm, the beaked end of which where the cilia arise is devoid of colouring matter.
The movement of the zoospore is effected by the lashing of the cilia and is in the direction of the beak, while the zoospore slowly rotates on its long axis at the same time.
Usually two cilia are present; in Botrydium and Hydrodictyon only one is present; in certain species of Cladophora four; in Dasycladus a chaplet, and in Oedogonium a ring of many cilia.
Thus, although isogamy consists in typical cases of a union of naked motile gametes by a fusion which begins at the beaked ends, and results in the formation of an immotile spherical zygote surrounded by a cell-wall, in Leptosira it is noticeable that the fusion begins at the blunt end; in a species of Chlamydomonas the two gametes are each included in a cell-wall before fusion; and in many cases the zygote retains for some time its motility with the double number of cilia.
The antherozoid is a spirally-coiled thread of protoplasm, furnished at one end with a pair of cilia.
As food particles pass in through the mouth they become enveloped in a slimy substance (secreted by the endostyle) and conveyed down the gut by the action of the vibratile cilia as a continuous food-rope, the peristaltic movements of the gut-wall being very feeble.
After escaping from the genital aperture they find their way into the infra-branchial part of the mantle cavity of the parent, probably by passing through the suprabranchial chamber to the posterior extremity of the gills, and then being conducted by the inhalent current caused by the cilia of the gills into the infra-branchial chamber.
Long before any clear ideas as to the relations of Schizomycetes to fermentation and disease were possible, various thinkers at different times had suggested that resemblances existed between the phenomena of certain diseases and those of fermentation, and the idea that a virus or contagium might be something of the nature of a minute organism capable of spreading and 1 Cladothrix dichotoma, for example, which is ordinarily a branched, filamentous, sheathed form, at certain seasons breaks up into a number of separate cells which develop a tuft of cilia and escape from the sheath.
Independent movement is effected by special motile or- gans, the cilia or flagella.
These cilia appear to be attached to the cell-wall, being unaffected by plasmolysis, but Fischer states that they really are derived from the central protoplasm and pass through minute pores in cfl,8 the wall.
The cilia may be present during a short period only in the life of a Schizomycete, and their number may vary according to the medium on which the organism is growing.
Nevertheless, there is more or less constancy in the type of distribution, &c., of the cilia for each species when growing at its best.
It is found, however, that strict reliance cannot be placed on the distinction between the Monotrichous, Lophotrichous and Amphitrichous conditions, since one and the same species may have one, two or more cilia at one or both poles; nevertheless some stress may usually be laid on the existence of one or two as opposed to several - e.g.
In these Vegetative cases no cilia have been observed, and there is a state.
The velum is peculiar, being reflected backwards over the body and bearing, besides an apical tuft, three or four rings of cilia.
At each end of the oval there is a groove lined by specially long vibratile cilia.
In these the tentacles are stunted or suppressed and the mesenteries are ill-developed, but the sulcus is unusually large and has long cilia.
There was probably a nervous area, with a tuft of cilia, at the anterior end; while, at all events in forms that remained pelagic, the ciliated nervous tracts of the rest of the body may be supposed to have become arranged in bands around the body-segments.
The epithelium of the outer surface was probably ciliated, and a portion of it in the preoral lobe differentiated as a sense-organ, with longer cilia and underlying nerve-centre, from which two nerves ran back below the ventral surface.
The antheridia are deeply sunk in the tissue; the spermatozoids consist of a spiral of two or three coils, the numerous cilia being attached to the pointed anterior end.
They are of minute size varying from onesixtieth to one-three-hundredth of an inch, and they move by means of long cilia.
Two ventral bands composed of regular transverse rows of cilia are usually found.
The epithelium of the latter structure is clothed with actively moving cilia.
For this, a typical ciliate has the cilia arranged in rows.
It had a circlet of cilia very near its front end and what looked like tiny cilia on its protruding " nose.
Teaching Materials; Flagella; Cilia; Centrioles; endoplasmic reticulum Illustrated notes on the endoplasmic reticulum aimed at students.
Cilia Video - Click on the link to see a video of airway epithelium with beating cilia.
Normally, the flash exposure I would use with brightfield illumination would " freeze " the motion of the cilia.
Teaching Materials; Flagella; Cilia; Centrioles; Endoplasmic reticulum Illustrated notes on the endoplasmic reticulum aimed at students.
The ventral and lateral parts of the anterior margin of the collar constitute the so-called operculum (op.), a structure which not only acts as a lower lip, but must be important in separating the food-current produced by the cilia of the tentacles from the external apertures of the collar-canals and gill-slits.
The general ectoderm covering the surface of the body has entirely lost the cilia present in the earlier larval stages (planula), and may be naked, or clothed in a cuticle or exoskeleton, the perisarc (ps), which in its simplest condition is a chitinous membrane secreted by the ectoderm.
B, Trochosphere of an Opisthobranch (Pleurobranchidium) showing - shgr, the shell-gland or primitive shell-sac; v, the cilia of the velum; ph, the commencing stomodaeum or oral invagination; ot, the left otocyst; pg, red-coloured pigment spot.
Some of the endothelial cells lining the coelom are ciliated, the cilia keeping the corpusculated fluid contents in movement.
Nor is motility by means of cilia known in the group. In the unicellular forms, cell-division involves multiplication of the plant.
In these grooves lie two cilia, attached at the point of meeting on the dorsal surface.
The cilia sweep out particles in the respired air that are caught in the mucus secreted by the goblet cells.
At this point, improved cilia (small hairs responsible for pushing mucus out of the lungs) function means that the lungs are cleaner.
In the case of cigarette smokers, the nicotine present in the smoke paralyzes the hairs (cilia) that regularly flush mucus from the respiratory system.
Tiny hair like projections (cilia) from cells lining the respiratory tract beat constantly to move debris trapped by mucus upwards and out of the respiratory tract.
Cilia produce lashing or whipping movements to direct or cause motion of substances or fluids within the body.
Within the respiratory tract, the cilia act to move mucus along, in an effort to continually flush out and clean the respiratory tract.
Inside are thousands of tiny hairs called cilia.
As sound vibrates the fluid in the cochlea, the cilia move.
This skin has tiny little hairs projecting from it called cilia.
The cilia beat constantly to help move the mucus produced in the sinuses into the respiratory tract.
The beating cilia sweeping the mucus along the respiratory tract helps to clear the respiratory tract of any debris or of any organisms that may be present.
B. pertussis causes its most severe symptoms by attaching itself to those cells in the respiratory tract that have cilia.
Cilia are small, hair-like projections that beat continuously and serve to constantly sweep the respiratory tract clean of such debris as mucus, bacteria, viruses, and dead cells.
After the cilia and the cells bearing those cilia, are damaged, the process cannot be reversed.
This unique creature has eight rows of fused cilia that create a breathtaking rainbow glow when the sunlight reflects upon them.
Other sensory cells with long cilia cover a sort of cushion (n.c.) at the base of the club; the club may be long and the cushion small, or the...
In the spermatozoids of Chara, Vascular Cryptogams, and in those of Cycas, Zamia and Ginkgo, the cilia arise from a centrosome-like body which is found on one side of the nucleus of the spermatozoid mother-cell.
In the former case the larva creeps along the tadpole until it reaches the branchial opening into which it darts, fixes its sucker, and then throws off its cilia.
If successful, the larva throws off its cilia and develops a dorsal papilla, a median ventral sucker and an additional pair of lateral suckers.
The larva swims by a ri ig of cilia, which corresponds with the praeoral circlet of a Trochosphere.
The larva for a time swims freely in the sea-water, having a circlet of cilia round the body in front of the mouth, forming the velum.
The so-called zoospore of Vaucheria is a coenocyte covered over with paired cilia corresponding in position to nuclei lying below.
A circlet of cilia forms when the embryo is still nearly spherical in an equatorial position.
In consonance with this name, its authors propose to re-name the Conjugatae; Akontae and Oedogoniaceae with a chaplet of cilia become Stephanokontae, and the algae remaining over in the three series from which the Heterokontae and Stephanokontae are withdrawn become Isokontae.