Cicero is splendid, but his orations are very difficult to translate.
Aemilius Scaurus, praetor in 53 B.C. Cicero, speaking no doubt to his brief, gives them a very bad character, adding " ignoscent alii viri boni ex Sardinia; credo enim esse quosdam ".
Verres returned to Rome in 70, and in the same year, at the request of the Sicilians, Cicero prosecuted him.
Cicero (in Verr.
His name is Dr. Cicero.
p. 621; Cicero, De inventione, i.
When Cicero was quaestor in Sicily (75 B.C.), he found the tomb of Archimedes, near the Agrigentine gate, overgrown with thorns and briers.
It may work even in Cicero's determination that his daughter should enjoy "- as he writes to Atticus - or receive the "honour" of consecratio (fragment of his De Consolatione).
B.C. there were still traces of Phoenician influence (Cicero, Pro Scauro, 1 5, 4 2, 45).
Some light is thrown on the condition and administration of the island in the 1st century B.C. by Cicero's speech (of which a part only is preserved) in defence of M.
28-45, whose account differs in some respects from Livy's; Cicero, De finibus, ii.
Cicero and five others (amongst them the famous Q.
24; Cicero, Pro Sestio, 54, fragments of Pro Scauro, numerous references in the Letters; Asconius, Argumentum in Scaurum.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
He also published commentaries on portions of Cicero (especially the De finibus), on Ausonius, Juvenal, Curtius Rufus, and other classical authors.
The metaphysics of Aristotle, the ethics of Spinoza, the philosophical works of Cicero, and many kindred works, were also frequent subjects of study.
During his term of office he aided Publius Clodius in bringing about the exile of Cicero.
Nothing but Cicero's wish to do a favour to Pompey could have induced him to take up what must have been a distasteful task; indeed, it is hinted that the half-heartedness of the defence materially contributed to Gabinius's condemnation.
24.59; Cicero, ad Att.
§ 186), furnishing the date (274 B.C.) when the examination of the heart was for the first time introduced by the side of the liver as a means of divining the future, while the lungs are not mentioned till we reach the days of Cicero (de Divinatione, i.
Cicero may have had villas both at Portus Caietae and at Formiae' proper, and the emperors certainly possessed property at both places.
It was among the towns that had the right of coinage, and it manufactured carts, baskets, &c. Cicero speaks of it as a place of some importance.
The date of his death was 184 B.C. (Cicero, Brutus, xv.
Cicero, though he found fault with the iambics of the Latin comedians generally as abiecti, " prosaic" (Orator, lv.
1.108; Cicero, Pro Balbo, 14.
to) declared to be worthy of Sophocles, and a prose history of the civil wars of his time from the first triumvirate (60) down to the death of Cicero (43) or later.
to) and Cicero (Quintilian, Inst.
frag., 1842), and three letters addressed to Cicero (Ad.
2, p. 20 (2nd ed., 1899); Cicero, Letters, ed.
Cicero (De Oratore, ii.
Having been convicted of extortion, he committed suicide (Cicero, De Legibus, i.
2, Brutus, 67; Plutarch, Cicero, 9).
He was regarded as the most careful writer on the war with Hannibal, and one who did not allow himself to be blinded by partiality in considering the evidence of other writers (Cicero, De Oratore, ii.
Cicero remarks upon his fondness for archaisms (Brutus, 74.259).
Both jus naturale and lex naturalis are as early as Cicero, and the jus gentium of the Roman lawyers is earlier still.
From Socrates, in Xenophon's Memorabilia, downwards, the argument is tolerably common; it is notable in Cicero; in the modern discussion it dominates the 18th-century mode of thought, is confidently appealed to though not worked out by Butler, and is fully stated by Paley.
Perhaps the most important of these popular thinkers was Marcus Tullius Cicero - no great philosopher, but a graceful and effective man of letters.
It has been truly observed' that the lineaments of Cicero intuitionalism are very clear in him.
Formally, Cicero adhered to the Academic 3 philosophy during its " middle " or almost sceptical period.
(The senses are so far from truth that we must be content with reaching probability.) In Cicero's De Natura Deorum the burden of theism rests mainly on the Stoic interlocutor.
Cicero) of an intuitive or - innate knowledge of God.
trans.), § 197; see also Cicero, Letters, ed.
According to Cicero (Timaeus, r), Figulus endeavoured with some success to revive the doctrines of Pythagoreanism.
See Cicero, Ad Fam.
Jerome, Priscian and others attributed the work to Cicero (whose De inventione was called Rhetorica prima, the Auctor ad Herennium, Rhetorica secunda), while the claims of L.
The question of the relation of Cicero's De inventione to the Rhetorica has been much discussed.
Marx, puts forward the theory that Cicero and the Auctor have not produced original works, but have merely given the substance of two r xvai (both emanating from the Rhodian school); that neither used the 'r xvat directly, but reproduced the revised version of the rhetoricians whose school they attended, the introductions alone being their own work; that the lectures on which the Ciceronian treatise was based were delivered before the lectures attended by the Auctor.
Friedrich (1889), in the Teubner edition of Cicero's works, and separately by F.
Cicero, who entertained a high opinion of Deiotarus, whose acquaintance he had made when governor of Cilicia, undertook his defence, the case being heard in Caesar's own house at Rome.
In his speech Cicero briefly dismisses the charge of assassination, the main question being the distribution of the provinces, which was the real cause of the quarrels between DeIotarus and his relatives.
See Cicero, Philippica, ii.
civ.; for the references in Cicero see Orelli's Onomasticon Tullianum.
Sulla was defended by Cicero and Hortensius, and acquitted.
He died 45 See Cicero, Pro Sulla, passim (ed.
Of Creuzer's other works the principal are an edition of Plotinus; a partial edition of Cicero, in preparing which he was assisted by Moser; Die historische Kunst der Griechen (1803); Epochen der griech.
To judge, however, from the insignificant remains of his writings, and from the opinions of Cicero and Horace, he can have had no pretension either to original genius or to artistic accomplishment.
Before silver coinage was introduced (269 B.C.) the value of the as was about 6d., in the time of Cicero less than a halfpenny.
Later constitutional theory held that the repression of civil discord was also one of the motives for the institution of a dictatorship. Such is the view expressed by Cicero in the De legibus (iii.
In the second, which took place in the Church of St John and St Paul, and lasted three days, he undertook to refute innumerable errors in Aristotelians, mathematicians and schoolmen, to conduct his dispute either logically or by the secret doctrine of numbers, &c. According to Aldus, who attended the debate and published an account of it in his dedication to Crichton prefixed to Cicero's "Paradoxa" (1581), the young Scotsman was completely successful.
Aldus in his edition of Cicero's De universitate (1583), dedicated to Crichton, laments the 3rd of July as the fatal day; and this account is apparently confirmed by the Mantuan state papers recently unearthed by Mr. Douglas Crichton (Proc. Soc. of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1909).
Milo was tribune of the plebs in 57 B.C. He took a prominent part in bringing about the recall of Cicero from exile, in spite of the opposition of Clodius.
Cicero was afraid to speak, and the extant Pro Milone is an expanded form of the unspoken defence.
The proposal was supported by Cicero in his speech, Pro lege Manilia, and carried almost unanimously.
Manilius was later accused by the aristocratical party on some unknown charge and defended by Cicero.
On the danger of privilegia in general see Cicero, de Legibus, iii.
He is said to have written the history of his consulship and the Cimbrian War after the manner of Xenophon; two epigrams by him have been preserved, one on Roscius the celebrated actor (Cicero, De Nat.
13; Cicero, De Oratore, iii.
Cicero remarks on the existence among the Gauls of augurs or soothsayers, known by the name of Druids, with one of whom, Divitiacus, an Aeduan, he was acquainted.
At Langres he discovered Cicero's Oration for Caecina, at Monte Cassino a MS. of Frontinus.
The Gaius Maecenas mentioned in Cicero (Pro Cluentio, 56) as an influential member of the equestrian order in 91 B.C. may have been his grandfather, or even his father.
His taste, however, was curious; he preferred Cato the elder, Ennius and Caelius Antipater to Cicero, Virgil and Sallust, the obscure poet Antimachus to Homer and Plato.
The fragments indicate the great 'variety of subjects discussed: the origin of the appeal to the people (provocatio); the use of elephants in the circus games; the wearing of gold rings; the introduction of the olive tree; the material for making the toga; the cultivation of the soil; certain details as to the lives of Cicero and Terence.
The work was very much used (mention is made of an abridged edition) by Pliny the elder, Asconius Pedianus (the commentator on Cicero), Nonius, and the philologists.
2) and from Cicero (Acad.
Cicero's evidence is the less valuable in that he always assumed that Menedemus was a follower of the Megarians.
17; Cicero, Pro Balbo, 21, 48, Brutus, 62, De oratore, ii.
As an orator he was the leader of the opponents of the florid Asiatic school, who took the simplest Attic orators as their model and attacked even Cicero as wordy and artificial.
For Cicero's opinion see Brutus, 82; Quintilian x.
We learn from Cicero, Vitruvius, Seneca, Suetonius, Pliny and others, that the Romans had both general and topographical maps.
13 shows his map of the world reduced from a MS. at Wolfenbiittel, to which is added a diagram of the zones from a MS. at Ghent, which illustrates Macrobius' commentary on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis.
The members of the commission were to be invested with powers so extensive that Cicero spoke of them as ten "kings."
Cicero delivered four speeches against the bill, of which three are still extant, although the first is mutilated at the beginning.
See the orations of Cicero De lege agraria, with the introduction in G.
His radical scepticism is seen in the first sentence of his IIEpi 01)o€ws, quoted by Cicero in the Academics ii.
Metrodorus of Lampsacus was the disciple and intimate friend of Epicurus, and is described by Cicero (de Fin.
It is explained by Cicero as being due to his theory that the scepticism of Carneades was merely a means of attacking the Stoics on their own ground.
Cicero and Livy bear testimony to the disappearance of a free plebs from the country districts and its replacement by gangs of slaves working on great estates.
Clodius and Milo used bands of gladiators in their city riots, and this action on the part of the latter was approved by Cicero.
This of course presupposes the recognition of the right of the slave to his peculium; and the same is implied in Cicero's statement that a diligent slave could in six years purchase his freedom.
Tiro, the amanuensis of Cicero; Hyginus, the librarian of Augustus; Livius Andronicus, Caecilius, Statius, Terence, Publilius Syrus, Phaedrus and Epictetus.
It was used by Cicero (Ep. ad Attic. xiii.
14; Cicero, De nat.
HECATO OF RHODES, Greek Stoic philosopher and disciple of Panaetius (Cicero, De q, ficiis, iii.
The first, dedicated to Tubero, is eulogized by Cicero in the De officiis, and Seneca refers to him frequently in the De beneficiis.
Cicero shows that he was much interested in casuistical questions, as, for example, whether a good man who had received a coin which he knew to be bad was justified in passing it on to another.
Their funerals were as much under the protection of the law, which not only invested the tomb itself with a sacred character, but included in its protection the area in which it stood, and the cella memoriae or chapel connected with it, as those of their heathen fellow-citizens, while the same shield would be thrown over the burial-clubs, which, as we learn from Tertullian 2 Cicero is our authority for the burial of Marius, and for Sulla's being the first member of the Gens Cornelia whose dead body was burnt (De Legg.
Cicero speaks of it as a prcsperous country town, which had not as yet fallen into the hands of large proprietors; and inscriptions show that under the empire it was still flourishing.
9), based on the best extant authorities; in Latin, the imitation of Apollonius (a free translation or adaptation of whose Argonautica was made by Terentius Varro Atacinus in the time of Cicero) by Valerius Flaccus.
39), and several Latin writersconfirm this (Cicero, Pro Flacco, § 28; Juvenal xiv.
His reputation was helped by several clever if somewhat wrong-headed publications, including a satirical pamphlet entitled The Theology and Philosophy of Cicero's Somnium Scipionis (1751), a defence of the Hutchinsonians in A Fair, Candid and Impartial State of the Case between Sir Isaac Newton and Mr Hutchinson (1753), and critiques upon William Law (1758) and Benjamin Kennicott (1760).
Cicero's De Officiis abounds in the kind of question afterwards so warmly discussed by Dr Johnson and his friends.
But, then, Cicero and Seneca took common-sense as their guide.
Quite in the great doctor's spirit is Cicero's counsel to his son, to hear what the philosophers had to say, but to decide for himself as a man of the world.
CLODIUS AESOPUS, the most eminent Roman tragedian, flourished during the time of Cicero, but the dates of his birth and death are not known.
Cicero was on friendly terms with both him and Roscius, the equally distinguished comedian, and did not disdain to profit by their instruction.
Plutarch (Cicero, 5) mentions it as reported of Aesopus, that, while representing Atreus deliberating how he should revenge himself on Thyestes, the actor forgot himself so far in the heat of action that with his truncheon he struck and killed one of the servants crossing the stage.
Aesopus made a last appearance in 55 B.C. - when Cicero tells us that he was advanced in years - on the occasion of the splendid games given by Pompey at the dedication of his theatre.
Cicero, De Divinatione, i.
About this time the influence of the equestrian order reached its height, and Cicero's great object was to reconcile it with the senate.
The first of these charges cannot be denied; but it is hard to see why a lawyer of the 6th century, himself born in a Greek-speaking part of the empire, should be expected to write Latin as pure as that of the age of Cicero, or even of the age of Gaius and the Antonines.
Cicero was in friendly relations with it, and exerted influence that it might retain its property in Gaul, so that it is obvious that it had then recovered municipal rights.
36; Cicero, Tusc. iii.
Some general information as to the Platonic doctrines (chiefly in a Neoplatonic garb) was obtainable from the commentary with which Chalcidius (6th century) accompanied his translation, from the work of Apuleius (2nd century) De dogmate Platonis, and indirectly from the commentary of Macrobius (c. 400) on the Somnium Scipionis of Cicero, and from the writings of St Augustine.
On account of the classic purity of his style in prose, Faludi was known as the " Magyar Cicero."
ZENO OF SIDON, Epicurean philosopher of the first century B.C., and contemporary of Cicero.
34), Cicero states that he was contemptuous of other philosophers and even called Socrates "the Attic Buffoon."
Diogenes Laortius and Cicero both speak of him with respect and describe him as an accurate and polished thinker.
Both Cicero and Sallust express a high opinion of Bestia's abilities, but his love of money demoralized him.
He was tribune elect in 63, and it had been arranged that, after entering upon his office, he should publicly accuse Cicero of responsibility for the impending war.
He was accused of bribery during his candidature, and, in spite of Cicero's defence, was condemned.
3; Cicero, Ad Q.
His pupil Richer has left us a detailed account of his system of teaching at Reims. So far as the trivium is concerned, his text-books were Victorinus's translation of Porphyry's Isagoge, Aristotle's Categories, and Cicero's Topics with Manlius's Commentaries.
It is close to the site of the ancient Aquinum, a municipium in the time of Cicero, and made a colony by the Triumviri, the birthplace of Juvenal and of the emperor Pescennius Niger.
Several Roman inscriptions are built into it, and many others that have been found indicate the ancient importance of the place, which, though it does not appear in early history, is vouched for by Cicero and Strabo.'
He was credited with having originated the doctrine of metempsychosis, while Cicero and Augustine assert that he was the first to teach the immortality of the soul.
But the gossip, not discouraged by Terence, lived and throve; it crops up in Cicero and Quintilian, and the ascription of the plays to Scipio had the honour to be accepted by Montaigne and rejected by Diderot.
His great characteristics are humanity and urbanity, and to this may be attributed the attraction which he had for the two chief representatives of these qualities in Roman literature - Cicero and Horace.
Cicero frequently reproduces his expressions, applies passages in his plays to his own circumstances, and refers to his personages as typical representations of character.'
LUCIUS ACCIUS, Roman tragic poet, the son of a freedman, was born at Pisaurum in Umbria, in 170 B.C. The year of his death is unknown, but he must have lived to a great age, since Cicero (Brutus, 28) speaks of having conversed with him on literary matters.
1, 56; Cicero, Pro Plancio, 24).
He came to Rome in the reign of Hadrian, and soon gained such renown as an advocate and orator as to be reckoned inferior only to Cicero.
There was a fierce 1 The laws of Hiero are often mentioned with approval in Cicero's speeches against Verres.
Cicero often speaks of it as a particularly splendid and beautiful city, as still in his own day the seat of art and culture (Tusc. v.
The most eminent of these earlier Greek physicians at Rome was Asclepiades, the friend of Cicero (born 124 B.C. at Prusa in Bithynia).
According to this account the poet was born in 95 B.C.; he became mad in consequence of the administration of a love-philtre; and after composing several books in his lucid intervals, which were subsequently corrected by Cicero, he died by his own hand in the forty-fourth year of his age.
A single mention of his poem, the De rerum natura (which from the condition in which it has reached us may be assumed to have been published posthumously) in a letter of Cicero's to his brother Quintus, written early in S4 B.C., confirms the date given by Donatus as that of the poet's death.
Cicero, by his professed antagonism to the doctrines of Epicurus, by his inadequate appreciation of Lucretius himself and by the indifference which he shows to other contemporary poets, seems to have been neither fitted for the task of correcting the unfinished work of a writer whose genius was so distinct from his own, nor likely to have cordially undertaken such a task.
Nor is there any great difficulty in believing that Cicero edited it; the word "emendavit," need not mean more than what we call "preparing for press."
It has been doubted whether Cicero,' in his short criticism in the letter already referred to, concedes to Lucretius both the gifts of genius and the accomplishment of art or only one of them.
But with Cicero it was different.
20, 21, where the supposed preface of Zaleucus and the collection of laws as a whole is spurious; Suidas, s.v., who makes him a native of Thurii; Cicero, De Legibus, ii.
Further, it is certain that Hero used physical and mathematical writings by Posidonius, the Stoic, of Apamea, Cicero's teacher, who lived until about the middle of the 1st century B.C. The positive arguments for the more modern view of Hero's date are (1) the use by him of Latinisms from which Diels concluded that the 1st century A.D.
A native of Apamea in Syria and a pupil of Panaetius, he spent after his teacher's death many years in travel and scientific researches in Spain (particularly at Gades), Africa, Italy, Gaul, Liguria, Sicily and on the eastern shores of the Adriatic. When he settled as a teacher at Rhodes (hence his surname "the Rhodian") his fame attracted numerous scholars; next to Panaetius he did most, by writings and personal intercourse, to spread Stoicism in the Roman world, and he became well known to many leading men, such as Marius, Rutilius Rufus, Pompey and Cicero.
Cicero, who submitted to his criticism the memoirs which he had written in Greek of his consulship, made use of writings of Posidonius in De natura deorum, bk.
sacrilegium, which originally meant merely the theft of sacred things, although already in Cicero's time it had grown to include in popular speech any insult or injury to them.
SuIdas (s.v.), who mentions the second work, confounds the older Scylax with a much later author, who wrote a refutation of the history of Polybius, and is presumably identical with Scylax of Halicarnassus, a statesman and astrologer, the friend of Panaetius spoken of by Cicero (De div.
See Cicero, De Fato, 6, 7, 9; Aristotle, Metaphysica, 0 3; Sext.
The extracts from Cicero and Ovid, Origen and St John, Chrysostom, Augustine and Jerome are but specimens of a useful custom which reaches its culminating paint in book xxviii., which is devoted entirely to the writings of St Bernard.
His reading ranges from Arabian philosophers and naturalists to Aristotle, Eusebius, Cicero, Seneca, Julius Caesar (whom he calls Julius Celsus), and even the Jew, Peter Alphonso.
LACTANTIUS FIRMIANUS (c. 260 - c. 340), also called Lucius Caelius (or Caecilius) Lactantius Firmianus, was a Christian writer who from the beauty of his style has been called the "Christian Cicero."
The De re publica of Cicero is supposed to be founded on one of Dicaearchus's works.
The chief sources of information in regard to the annals of ancient Rome are two passages in Cicero (De Oratore, ii.
Cicero states that from the earliest period down to the pontificate of Publius Mucius Scaevola (c. 131 B.C.), it was usual for the pontifex maximus to record on a white tablet (album), which was exhibited in an open place at his house, so that the people might read it, first, the name of the consuls and other magistrates, and then the noteworthy events that had occurred during the year (per singulos dies, as Servius says).
These records were called in Cicero's time the Annales Maximi.
After the pontificate of Publius, the practice of compiling annals was carried on by various unofficial writers, of whom Cicero names Cato, Pictor and Piso.
The basis of discussion is furnished chiefly by the above-quoted passage from Cicero, and by the common division of the work of Tacitus into Annales and Historiae.
His commentary on Cicero's De Inventione (in Halm's Rhetores Latini Minores, 1863) is very diffuse, and is itself in need of commentary.
The fertility of the neighbourhood is celebrated both by Virgil and by Cicero.
It cannot be said, however, that Ramus's innovations mark any epoch in the history of logic. His rhetorical leaning is seen in the definition of logic as the "ars disserendi"; he maintains that the rules of logic may be better learned from observation of the way in which Cicero persuaded his hearers than from a study of the Organon.
is the church of San Domenico, erected in the 12th century, which probably marks the site of the villa of Cicero (see Arpino).
We are told by Cicero (De am.
A still nearer approach to literature was probably made in oratory, as we learn from Cicero that the famous speech delivered by Appius Claudius Caecus against concluding peace with Pyrrhus (280 B.C.) was extant in his time.
Cicero, who speaks of 150 of these speeches as extant in his day, praises them for their acuteness, their wit, their conciseness.
Pacuvius (c.220-132), the nephew of Ennius, called by Cicero the greatest of Roman tragedians; and, in the following generation, by L.
Sulpicius Galba and others, and along with it the development of prose composition, went on with increased momentum till the age of Cicero.
But the interval between the death of Ennius (169) and the beginning of Cicero's career, while one of progressive advance in the appreciation of literary form and style, was much less distinguished by original force than the time immediately before and after the end of the second Punic war.
Among the writers before the age of Cicero he alone deserves to be named with Naevius, Plautus Ennius and Cato as a great originative force in literature.
The only extant prose work which may be assigned to the end of this period is the treatise on rhetoric known by the title Ad Herennium (c. 84) a work indicative of the attention bestowed on prose style and rhetorical studies during the last century of the republic, and which may be regarded as a precursor of the oratorical treatises of Cicero and of the work of Quintilian.
Yet Cicero denies to Rome the existence, before his own time, of any adequate historical literature.
The five chief representatives of this age who still hold their rank among the great classical writers are Cicero, Caesar and Sallust in prose, Lucretius and Catullus in verse.
Thus the speeches of M.Tullius Cicero (106-43) belong to the domain of literature quite as much as to that of forensic or political oratory.
And, although Demosthenes is a Cicero.
master of style unrivalled even by Cicero, the literary interest of most of Cicero's speeches is stronger than that of the great mass of Greek oratory.
The Roman oratory of the law courts had to deal not with petty questions of disputed property, of fraud, or violence, but with great imperial questions, with matters affecting the well-being of large provinces and the honour and safety of the republic; and no man ever lived who, in these respects, was better fitted than Cicero to be the representative of the type of oratory demanded by the condition of the later republic. To his great artistic accomplishment, perfected by practice and elaborate study, to the power of his patriotic, his moral, and personal sympathies, and his passionate emotional nature, must be added his vivid imagination and the rich and copious stream of his language, in which he had no rival among Roman writers or speakers.
But the Verres, Catiline, Antony of Cicero are living and permanent types.
The story told in the Pro Cluentio may be true or false, but the picture of provincial crime which it presents is vividly dramatic. Had we only known Cicero in his speeches we should have ranked him with Demosthenes as one who had realized the highest literary ideal.
The Letters of Cicero are thoroughly natural - colloquia absentium amicorum, to use his own phrase.
Cicero's letters to Atticus, and to the friends with whom he was completely at his ease, are the most sincere and immediate expression of the thought and feeling of the moment.
Of C. Julius Caesar (102-44) as an orator we can judge only by his reputation and by the testimony of his great rival and adversary Cicero; but we are able to appreciate the special praise of perfect taste in the use of language attributed to him.'
Like Varro, he survived Cicero by some years, but the tone and spirit in which his works are written assign him to the republican era.
Satire, debarred from comment on political action, turned to social and individual life, and combined with the newly-developed taste for ethical analysis and reflection introduced by Cicero.
The hexameter no longer, as in Lucilius, moves awkwardly as if in fetters, but, like the language of Terence, of Catullus in his lighter pieces, of Cicero in his letters to Atticus, adapts itself to the everyday intercourse of life.
Self-culture rather than the fulfilment of public or social duty, as in the moral teaching of Cicero, is the aim of his teaching; and in this we recognize the influence of the empire in throwing the individual back on himself.
As Cicero tones down his oratory in his moral treatises, so Horace tones down the fervour of his lyrical utterances in his Epistles, and thus produces a style combining the ease of the best epistolary style with the grace and concentration of poetry - the style, as it has been called, of "idealized common sense," that of the urbanus and cultivated man of the world who is also in his hours of inspiration a genuine poet.
We know him in the intense liveliness of his feeling and the human weakness of his nature more intimately than any other writer of antiquity, except perhaps Cicero.
Aelius Stilo Praeconinus, who was the teacher of Varro and Cicero, much interest had been taken in literary and linguistic problems at Rome.
Ambrosius Macrobius Theodosius (c. 400) wrote a treatise on Cicero's Somnium Scipionis and seven books of miscellanies (Saturnalia); and Martianus Capella (c. 430), a native of Africa, published a compendium of the seven liberal arts, written in a mixture of prose and verse, with some literary pretensions.
37; Plutarch, Consolatio ad Apollonium, 14; Cicero, Tusc. Disp. i.
PUBLIUS CORNELIUS DOLABELLA, Roman general and son-in-law of Cicero, was born about 70 B.C. He was by far the most important of the Dolabellae, a family of the patrician gens Cornelia.
See Cicero's Letters (ed.
Boissier, Cicero and his Friends (Eng.
Domenico, which marks the site of the villa in which Cicero was born and frequently resided.
In 54 B.C. the people of Reate appealed to Cicero to plead their cause in an arbitration which had been appointed by the Roman senate to settle disputes about the river, and in connexion with this he made a personal inspection of Lake Velinus and its outlets.
Interamna is also mentioned in Cicero's time as being the place where Clodius wished to prove that he was on the night when he was caught in Caesar's house at the celebration of the rites of the Bona Dea.
14, 9), and modelled his own oratorical style on that of Demosthenes, Cicero and Calvus (i.
He takes as his models Cicero and Tacitus (vii.
The Romans did not treat the Maltese as conquered enemies, and at once gave them the privileges of a municipium; Cicero (in Verrem) refers to the Maltese as " Socii."
There is evidence from Cicero (in Verrem) that a very high stage of manufacturing and commercial prosperity, attained in 1 See T.
When forced to select a place of exile, Cicero was at first (ad Att.
Cicero follows the account of Varro, which is also in general adopted by Pliny.
Cicero took lessons from him.
In 76 B.C. he was sued by C. Fannius Chaerea for 50,000 sesterces (about 400), and was defended by Cicero in a famous speech.
Pfluger, Cicero's Rede pro Q.
He was educated partly at Athens, together with Horace and the younger Cicero.
As an orator, he followed Cicero instead of the Atticizing school, but his style was affected and artificial.
Later critics considered him superior to Cicero, and Tiberius adopted him as a model.
Cicero, Ad Fam.
The reputation which Lucilius enjoyed in the best ages of Roman literature is proved by the terms in which Cicero and Horace speak of him.
In 1 744 he published another translation of Logan's, Cicero On Old Age, which Franklin thought typographically the finest book he had ever printed.
Appietas) is coined by Cicero (Ad Fam.
When Catiline left Rome after Cicero's first speech In Catilinam, Lentulus took his place as.
In conjunction with C. Cornelius Cethegus, he undertook to murder Cicero and set fire to Rome, but the plot failed owing to his timidity and indiscretion.
Fabius Sanga, their "patron" in Rome, who in his turn acquainted Cicero.
20; Plutarch, Cicero, 17; Sallust, Catilina; Cicero, In Catilinam, iii., iv.; Pro Sulla, 25; also Catiline.
In 63 B.C. he was curule aedile, assisted Cicero in the suppression of the Catilinarian conspiracy, and distinguished himself by the splendour of the games he provided.
Lentulus played a prominent part in the recall of Cicero from exile, and although a temporary coolness seems to have arisen between them, Cicero speaks of him in most grateful terms. From 56-53 Lentulus was governor of the province of Cilicia (with Cyprus) and during that time was commissioned by the senate to restore Ptolemy XI.
After the battle of Pharsalus, Lentulus escaped to Rhodes, where he was at first refused admission, although he subsequently found an asylum there (Cicero, Ad Att.
14, 4; many letters of Cicero, especially Ad _Earn.
It is pretty clear that the common accounts of the Renaissance and of the revival of learning grossly exaggerate the influence of the writers of Greece and Rome, for they produced no obvious rationalistic movement, as would have been the case had Plato and Cicero, Lucretius and Lucian, been taken really seriously.
23) relating to the death of Cicero, are characterized by an affected style.
76; Lucian, Scytha; Cicero, Tusc. Disp. v.
Cicero, Seneca and others).
The strongest statement regarding the inviolability of such dogmas is in Cicero's Academics, ii.
It is certain that originally each household had only one Lar; the plural was at first only used to include other classes of Lares, and only gradually, after the time of Cicero, ousted the singular.
Cicero calls his style "copious and polished," Quintilian, "sweet, pure and flowing"; Longinus says he was "the most Homeric of historians"; Dionysius, his countryman, prefers him to Thucydides, and regards him as combining in an extraordinary degree the excellences of sublimity, beauty and the true historical method of composition.
Cicero (Academics, ii.
Cicero, who frequently quotes from him with great admiration, appears (De optimo genere oratorum, i.) to rank him first among the Roman tragic poets, as Ennius among the epic, and Caecilius among the comic poets.
The fragments of Pacuvius quoted by Cicero in illustration or enforcement of his own ethical teaching appeal, by the fortitude, dignity, and magnanimity of the sentiment expressed in them, to what was noblest in the Roman temperament.
He read also the older Church Fathers and soon won for himself fame as a student, whilst his skill in the classics led his friends to hail him as "the undoubted Cicero of our age."
After this it does not appear in history, and in the time of Cicero and Strabo was almost entirely deserted if not destroyed.
erecting a temple to his memory on the site of Cicero's villa, instituted sacred games to be held in the city every five years.
About this time Agrippa married Pomponia, daughter of Cicero's friend Pomponius Atticus.
i i,' 16; Plutarch, Dion, '11 -36; Cicero, Brutus, 17, De oratore, ii.
Aristotle, however, discerned Theramenes' real policy, and, like Cicero and Caesar, in later years ranked him among the greatest Athenian statesmen.
See also Plutarch, Cicero, chap. 59; Cicero, de Oratore, iii.
In the time of Cicero it was flourishing, though not of great importance.
On this occasion the defence was undertaken by Cicero in the extant speech Pro Cluentio.
Cicero afterwards boasted openly that he had thrown dust in the eyes of the jury (Quintilian, Instil.
The speech delivered by Cicero on this occasion is considered one of his best.
318; Hunter, Roman Law (1897), p. 48; and see Cicero pro Rosc. Com.
Ameria is not mentioned in the history of the Roman conquest of Umbria, but is alluded to as a flourishing place, with a fertile territory extending to the Tiber, by Cicero in his speech in defence of Sextus Roscius Amerinus, and its fruit is often extolled by Roman writers.
2, 139; Cicero, ad Fam.
An attack on Quintus Cicero (brother of the orator), then quartered with a legion in the territory of the Nervii, failed owing to the timely appearance of Caesar.
For the life of Marius the original sources are numerous passages in Cicero's works, Sallust's Jugurtha, the epitomes of the lost books of Livy, Plutarch's Lives of Sulla and Marius, Velleius Paterculus, Florus and Appian's Bellum civile.
He studied rhetoric with Cicero, and accompanied him to Rhodes in 78 B.C. Finding that he would never be able to rival his teacher he gave up rhetoric for law (Cic. Brut.
Two excellent specimens of Sulpicius's style are preserved in Cicero (Ad.
(Leipzig, 1885); the chief ancient authority is Cicero.
Cicero defended one of its members in an extant speech.
Etienne Dolet calls him "enemy of Cicero, and jealous detractor of the French name."
He writes from himself, and not out of Cicero.
He was the author of a collection of aphorisms in verse mentioned by Cicero (of which a few fragments remain), and of a legal work entitled De Usurpationibus.
49; Cicero, De Divinatione, i.
Through the intervention of Pompey, he became reconciled to Cicero, who had been greatly offended because Claudius had indirectly opposed his return from exile.
During this period he carried on a correspondence with Cicero, whose letters to him form the third book of the Epistolae ad Familiares.
Claudius resented the appointment of Cicero as his successor, avoided meeting him, and even issued orders after his arrival in the province.
This led him to make advances to Cicero, since it was necessary to obtain witnesses in his favour from his old province.
He wrote a work on augury, the first book of which he dedicated to Cicero.
1-35; Cicero, de Republica, ii.
But the authors whom he quotes most frequently are Virgil, and, next to him, Terence, Cicero, Plautus; then Lucan, Horace, Juvenal, Sallust, Statius, Ovid, Livy and Persius.
Aelius Stilo (c. 1 54 - c. 74), who is described by Cicero as profoundly learned in Greek and Latin literature, and as an accomplished critic of Roman antiquities and of ancient authors.
His most famous pupil was Varro (116-27), the six surviving books of whose great work on the Latin language are mainly concerned with the great grammatical controversy on analogy and anomaly - a controversy which also engaged the attention of Cicero and Caesar, and of the elder Pliny and Quintilian.
His contemporary Asconius is best known as the author of an extant historical commentary on five of the speeches of Cicero.
420), the most scholarly representative of Christianity in the 4th century, the student of Plautus and Terence, of Virgil and Cicero, the translator of the Chronology of Eusebius, and the author of the Latin version of the Bible now known as the Vulgate.
430) confesses to his early fondness for Virgil, and also tells us that he received his first serious impressions from the Hortensius of Cicero, an eloquent exhortation to the study of philosophy, of which only a few fragments survive.
In his survey of the " liberal arts " St Augustine imitates (as we have seen) the Disciplinae of Varro, and in the greatest of his works, the De Civitate Dei (426), he has preserved large portions of the Antiquitates of Varro and the De Republica of Cicero.
He frequently quotes from the speeches of Cicero, and it has been surmised that the survival of those speeches may have been due to the influence of Gerbert.
His favourite author is Cicero, and in all the Latin literature accessible to him he is the best-read scholar of his age.
His standard authors in Latin prose are Cicero, Livy, Pliny, Frontinus and Orosius.
Petrarch had discovered Cicero's Speech pro Archia at Liege (1333) and the Letters to Atticus and Quintus at Verona (1345).
Boccaccio had discovered Martial and Ausonius, and had been the first of the human'sts to be familiar with Varro and Tacitus, while Salutati had recovered Cicero's letters Ad Familiares (1389).
Thirteen of Cicero's speeches were found by him at Cluny and Langres, and elsewhere in France or Germany; the commentary of Asconius, a complete Quintilian, and a large part of Valerius Flaccus were discovered at St Gallen.
A complete MS. of Cicero, De Oratore, Brutus and Orator, was found by Bishop Landriani at Lodi (1421).
He here urges that the foundation of all true learning is a " sound and thorough knowledge of Latin," and draws up a course of reading, in which history is represented by Livy, Sallust, Curtius, and Caesar; oratory by Cicero; and poetry by Virgil.
The Latin poets to be studied include Virgil, Lucan, Statius, Ovid's Metamorphoses, and (with certain limitations) Horace, Juvenal and Persius, as well as Plautus, Terence and the tragedies of Seneca; the prose authors recommended are Cicero, Livy and Sallust.
Among the Latin authors studied were Virgil and Lucan, with selections from Horace, Ovid and Juvenal, besides Cicero and Quintilian, Sallust and Curtius, Caesar and Livy.
At Subiaco and at Rome they had produced in 1465-1471 the earliest editions of Cicero, De Oratore and the Letters, and eight other Latin authors.
Petrarch was not only the imitator of Virgil, who had been the leading name in Latin letters throughout the middle ages; it was the influence of Petrarch that gave a new prominence to Cicero.
We have already seen that a strict imitation of Cicero was one of the characteristics of the Italian humanists.
They did much, however, for the cultivation of original composition modelled on Cicero and Virgil.
(1484-1535), surnamed Nestor, elector of Brandenburg, elder son of John Cicero, elector of Brandenburg, was born on the 21st of February 1484.
In Rome he lectured on rhetoric and philosophy, and collected around him many eminent pupils, amongst whom Cicero was the most famous and the most enthusiastic. None of his works is extant; our knowledge of his views is derived from Numenius, Sextus Empiricus and Cicero.
This writer also aptly compares the infant Samuel with the child who drew the lots at the temple of Fortuna at Praeneste (Cicero, De divin.
See Cicero, De Div.
Antonius Gnipho, a native of Gaul (by which Cisalpine Gaul may be meant), who is said to have been equally learned in Greek and Latin literature, and to have set up in later years a school of rhetoric which was attended by Cicero in his praetorship 66 B.C. It is possible that Caesar may have derived from him his interest in Gaul and its people and his sympathy with the claims of the Romanized Gauls of northern Italy to political rights.
The bill was defeated by Cicero, consul in 63 B.C. In the same year the conspiracy associated with the name of Catiline came to a head.
He returned to Rome in 60 B.C. to find that the senate had sacrificed the support of the capitalists (which Cicero had worked so hard to secure), and had finally alienated Pompey by refusing to ratify his acts and grant lands to his soldiers.
He even made a generous, though unsuccessful, endeavour to enlist the support of Cicero.
At Aduatuca (near Aixla-Chapelle) a newly-raised legion was cut to pieces by the Eburones under Ambiorix, while Quintus Cicero was besieged in the neighbourhood of Namur and only just relieved in time by Caesar, who was obliged to winter in Gaul in order to check the spread of the rebellion.
With respect to the first moves made in the struggle, and the negotiations for peace at the outset of hostilities, Caesar's account sometimes conflicts with the testimony of Cicero's correspondence or implies movements which cannot be reconciled with geographical facts.
1.114) says that had he practised at the bar he would have been the only serious rival of Cicero.
manding genius, and few have failed to do justice to his personal charm and magnanimity,which almost won the heart of Cicero, who rarely appealed in vain to his clemency.
He increased the number of senators to goo and introduced provincials into that body; but instead of making it into a grand council of the empire, representative of its various races and nationalities, he treated it with studied contempt, and Cicero writes that his own name had been set down as the proposer of decrees of which he knew nothing, conferring the title of king on potentates of whom he had never heard.
/n==Authorities== - The principal ancient authorities for the life of Caesar are his own Commentaries, the biographies of Plutarch and Suetonius, letters and speeches of Cicero, the Catiline of Sallust, the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the histories of Appian, Dio Cassius and Velleius Paterculus (that of Livy exists only in the Epitome).
In the time of Cicero it had lost all importance; Strabo names it as a mere village, in private hands, while for Pliny it was one of the lost cities of Latium.
To the period of his residence at Milan belong: Fragments of Cicero's Pro Scauro, Pro Tullio, Pro Flacco, In Clodium et Curionem, De aere alieno Milonis, De rege (Alexandrino (1814); M.
During his residence in Rome Niebuhr discovered and published fragments of Cicero and Livy, aided Cardinal Mai in his edition of Cicero De Republica, and shared in framing the plan of the great work on the topography of ancient Rome by Christian C. J.
According to Cicero, P. Sulpicius Rufus and Cotta were the best speakers of the young men of their time.
He is introduced by Cicero as an interlocutor in the De oratore and De natura deorum (iii.), as a supporter of the principles of the New Academy.
See Cicero, De oratore, iii.
After the suppression of the Catilinarian conspiracy, Cotta proposed a public thanksgiving for Cicero's services, and after the latter had gone into exile, supported the view that there was no need of a law for his recall, since the law of Clodius was legally worthless.
See Cicero, Orelli's Ononiasticon; Sallust, Catiline, 18; Suetonius, Caesar, 79; Livy, Epit.
His writings are lost, and we are indebted for information to Cicero (Acad.
The works of Nicander were praised by Cicero (De oratore, i.
36-45; Cicero, De Republica, ii.
But this arrangement soon gave way before the ambition of one of these tetrarchs, Deiotarus, the contemporary of Cicero and Caesar, who made himself master of the other two tetrarchies and was finally recognized by the Romans as king of Galatia.
Not long afterwards we find the citizens receiving the present of a gymnasium from Ptolemy, and building in his honour a stoa or portico; but the city never recovered altogether from the disasters of the siege, and Cicero describes it as almost deserted.
For the purpose of passing the lex curiata, and probably for its other purposes as well, this comitia was in Cicero's day represented by but thirty lictors (Cic. de Lege Agraria, ii.
According to the principle laid down in the Twelve Tables (Cicero, de Legibus, iii.
He retired to Mytilene, and afterwards to Smyrna, where he spent the rest of his life, and where Cicero saw him as late as the year 78.
See Cicero, Pro Fonteio, 17, Brutus, 22, 30; Livy, edit.
It was originally a Latin colony, but became a municipium probably in 90 B.C. The customs boundary of Italy was close by in Cicero's day.
In the unique MS. of Cicero's treatise De Republica, 2, 33, 57, secutus appears as "secututus secutus."
Thus in one speech of Cicero, pro Caelio, some thirty conjectures of critics were found to be attested by a single recently discovered MS. Such readings it is now commonly the practice to transfer to the credit of the MS. and to suppress the fact that they were originally discovered by emendation.
The elements of this Christian Latin language may be enumerated as follows: - (i.) it had its origin, not in the literary language of Rome as developed by Cicero, but in the language of the people as we find it in Plautus and Terence; (ii.) it has an African complexion; (iii.) it is strongly influenced by Greek, particularly through the Latin translation of the Septuagint and of the New Testament, besides being sprinkled with a large number of Greek words derived from the Scriptures or from the Greek liturgies; (iv.) it bears the stamp of the Gnostic style and contains also some military expressions; (v.) it owes something to the original creative power of Tertullian.
He also attacked Isocrates, according to Cicero, and perhaps even set up a rival school of rhetoric. At any rate he had pupils of his own, such as Eudemus of Cyprus, Theodectes and Hermias, books of his own, especially dialogues, and even to some extent his own philosophy, while he was still a pupil of Plato.
According to Cicero (De Oratore, iii.
Here we can read the young Aristotle, writing in the form of the dialogue like Plato, avoiding hiatus like Isocrates, and justifying the praises accorded to his style by Cicero, Quintilian and Dionysius.
This perhaps is one reason why Cicero, who had Aristotle's early writings, saw no difference between the Academy and the Peripatetics (Acad.
Nicomachean means " addressed to Nicomachus," and Eudemian " addressed to Eudemus "; but, as Cicero thought that the Nicomachean Ethics was written by Nicomachus, so the author of the Scholium thought that the Eudemian Ethics, at least so far as the first account of pleasure goes, was written by Eudemus.
Therefore his contemporary, Cicero, who knew the early dialogues on Philosophy, the Eudemus and the Protrepticus, and also among the mature scientific writings the Topics, Rhetoric, Politics, Physics and De Coelo, to some extent, was justified by Aristotle's example and precept in drawing the line between two kinds of books, one written popularly, called exoteric, the other more accurately (Cic. De Finibus, v.
Cicero says of him that he was no orator, but a careful writer.
See Cicero, Acad.
Cicero, Pompey and Crassus all spoke on his behalf, and he was acquitted.
During the civil war he endeavoured to get Cicero to mediate between Caesar and Pompey, with the object of preventing him from definitely siding with the latter; and Cicero admits that he was dissuaded from doing so, against his better judgment.
Subsequently, Balbus became Caesar's private secretary, and Cicero was obliged to ask for his good offices with Caesar.
Cicero, Letters (ed.
51; Cicero, ad Att.
His doctrine is a kind of utilitarianism, with a strong leaning on the speculative side to the modified literary scepticism of Cicero, for whom he had unbounded admiration.
He was a humanist before the Renaissance, surpassing all other representatives of the school of Chartres in his knowledge of the Latin classics, as in the purity of his style, which was evidently moulded on that of Cicero.
Under Napoleon, of whom in 1806 he made a nude statue now at Dijon, Houdon received little employment; he was, however, commissioned to execute the colossal reliefs intended for the decoration of the column of the "Grand Army" at Boulogne (which ultimately found a different destination); he also produced a statue of Cicero for the senate, and various busts, amongst which may be cited those of Marshal Ney, of Josephine and of Napoleon himself, by whom Houdon was rewarded with the legion of honour.
Cicero, De fin.
Cicero says in the Tusculans that the goods of the soul entirely outweighed for him the other goods ("tantum propendere illam bonorum animi lancem").
From Cicero (Acad.
This is in accordance with Cicero's account (de Orat.
But in Cicero's time they were elected by the Comitia Tributa.
Tigerstrom, De Judicibus apud Romanos (Berlin, 1826); Greenidge, Legal Procedure of Cicero's Time, pp. 4 o ff., 58 ff., 182 ff., 264 (Oxford, 1901); Bethmann-Hollweg, Der romische Civilprozess, ii.
They are as follow: HEpi Tov KatvKovTos (On Duty), in three books, the original of the first two books of Cicero's De oficiis; HEpi lrpovoias (On Providence), used by Cicero in his De divinatione (ii.) and probably in part of the second book of the De Deorum natura; a political treatise (perhaps called HEpi 1roXCTG6S), used by Cicero in his De republica; HEpi €bOvµias (On Cheerfulness); Hcpi aipEVECwv (On Philosophical Schools); a letter to Q.
Aelius Tubero, De dolore patiendo (Cicero, De finibus, iv.
Mommseni (1877); on the use made of him by Cicero, R.
As tribune of the people in 61 B.C., he was chiefly instrumental in securing the acquittal of the notorious Publius Clodius when charged with having profaned the mysteries of Bona Dea (Cicero, Ad.
When Catiline left Rome in 63 B.C., after Cicero's first speech, Cethegus remained behind as leader of the conspirators with P. Lentulus Sura.
He himself undertook to murder Cicero and other prominent men, but was hampered by the dilatoriness of Sura, whose age and rank entitled him to the chief consideration.
Sallust, Catilina, 46-55; Cicero, In Cat.
Cicero (De fato, 5) describes him as a man of the highest character.
His doctrines, which must be gathered from the writings of others (Cicero, Acad.
On the other hand, it has been recorded by Cicero" that a certain physiognomist, Zopyrus, who professed to know the habits and manners of men from their bodies, eyes, face and forehead, characterized Socrates as stupid, sensual and dull (bardus), " in quo Alcibiades cachinnum dicitur sustulisse."
In 1600 he edited the remains of Aratus, with the versions of Cicero, Germanicus and Avienus.
In literature he assigns the highest place to Homer and to Cicero (xvii.
2; Cicero, De Officiis, iii.
He was a passionate Ciceronian, and perhaps his chief contributions to scholarship are the corrected editions of Cicero's letters and orations, his own epistles in a Ciceronian style, and his Latin version of Demosthenes.
Cicero calls Ahala's deed a glorious one, but, whether Maelius entertained any ambitious projects or not, his summary execution was an act of murder, since by the Valerio-Horatian laws the dictator was bound to allow the right of appeal.
13; Cicero, De senectute 16, De amicitia 8, De republics, ii.
His acquaintance with Cicero is clearly proved by the form in which he cast some of the most important of his speculations.
On the other hand, it is argued that the authority of Galen and Cicero (pro Cluentio) place it beyond a doubt that, so far from being allowed to pass with impunity, the offence in question was sometimes punished by death; that the authority of Lysias is of doubtful authenticity; and that the speculative reasonings of Plato and Aristotle, in matters of legislation, ought not to be confounded with the actual state of the laws.
Among them was Cicero, whose letters abound with allusions to his Pompeian villa.
Porcius (the former the fatherin-law of that P. Servilius Rullus, in opposition to whose bill relating to the distribution of the public lands Cicero made his speech, De lege agraria), at a period when no permanent edifice of a similar kind had yet been erected in Rome itself, and is indeed the oldest structure of the kind known to us.
We know from Cicero that Capua was remarkable for its broad streets and widespread buildings, and it is probable that the Campanian towns in general partook of the same character.
Cicero pondered over the fact; Arcesilaus explained the secession to the Epicurean camp, compared with the fact that no Epicurean was ever known to have abandoned his school, by saying that, though it was possible for a man to be turned into a eunuch, no eunuch could ever become a man.
3), we find the names of Phaedrus (who became scholarch at Athens c. 70 B.C.) and Philodemus (originally of Gadara in Palestine) as distinguished Epicureans in the time of Cicero.
- The chief ancient accounts of Epicurus are in the tenth book of Diogenes Laertius, in Lucretius, and in several treatises of Cicero and Plutarch.
In the previous century Cicero's learned friend P. Nigidius Figulus (d.
In Cicero's judgment (De Oral.
All the persons spoken of by Cicero have Greek names save - a most speaking exception - Gaius Heius of Mamertina civitas.
(Vitruvius names Cicero and Lucretius as post nostram memoriam nascentes.) The subjects of the eight chapters are - (1) the signs of the zodiac and the seven planets; (2) the phases of the moon; (3) the passage of the sun through the zodiac; (4) and (5) various constellations; (6) the relation of astrological influences to nature; (7) the mathematical divisions of the gnomon; (8) various kinds of sundials and their inventors.
Greenidge, Legal Procedure of Cicero's Time, p. 40 et seq., 263 (Oxford, 1901); J.
Through the influence of Nobilior's son, Ennius subsequently obtained the privilege of Roman citizenship (Cicero, Brutus, 20.79).
Several of the more important fragments are found in Cicero, who expresses a great admiration for their manly fortitude and dignified pathos.
But the work which gained him his reputation as the Homer of Rome, and which called forth the admiration of Cicero and Lucretius and frequent imitation from Virgil, was the Annales, a long narrative poem in eighteen books, containing the record of the national story from mythical times to his own.
He as well as Cicero speaks of him with pride and affection as "Ennius poster."
Writing in 50 B.C., Cicero speaks of him with the highest respect (cf.
He helped Cicero in the composition of the De Officiis.
to the three districts of Cibyra, Apamea and Synnada, which were added to Cilicia in Cicero's time (between 56 and 50 B.C.).
The word is here equivalent to "assize-districts" (Tyrrell and Purser's edition of Cicero Epist.
It enjoyed a great reputation for letters and the arts (Cicero pro Archia, 3); but the only names of distinction in these pursuits during the Seleucid period, that have come down to us, are Apollophanes, the Stoic, and one Phoebus, a writer on dreams. The mass of the population seems to have been only superficially Hellenic, and to have spoken Aramaic in non-official life.
He is said to have made an epitome of the Tactica of Aeneas, probably referred to by Cicero, who speaks of a Cineas as the author of a treatise De Re Militari.
12; Cicero, Ad Fam.
Cicero finely observes that, in Athens, the glorious architecture caused him less pleasure than did the thought of the great men whose work was done in its midst - "how here one had lived, and there fallen asleep; how here another had disputed, and there lay buried" (De Legg.
Cicero had already compared the sites consecrated by the memory of some illustrious name with those hallowed by recollections of a loved one.
During the times of the republic, a victorious general, who had been saluted by the title of imperator by his soldiers, had his fasces crowned with laurel (Cicero, Pro Ligario, 3).
As an orator he well deserved the epithet of "the Hungarian purple Cicero."
And yet it is singular that no mention of them occurs in Cicero or Livy, and that altogether literary allusions to them are very scarce.
In due course it passed from Pergamene to Roman dominion, and according to Cicero, was plundered of many artistic treasures by Verres.
Cicero uses the name vicarius to describe an under-slave kept by another as part of his private property.
Astura was the site of a favourite villa of Cicero, whither he retired on the death of his daughter Tullia in 45 B.C. It appears to have been unhealthy even in Roman times; according to Suetonius, both Augustus and Tiberius contracted here the illnesses which proved fatal to them.
In Cicero's time it was a municipium, and continued in this position throughout the imperial period.
In the first of his Dialogues (fair models of Cicero), Severus puts into the mouth of an interlocutor (Posthumianus) a pleasing description of the life of coenobites and solitaries in the deserts bordering on Egypt.
CICERO, the name of two families of ancient Rome.
Of one family, of the plebeian Claudian gens, only a single member, Gaius Claudius Cicero, tribune in 454 B.C., is known.
Tullius Cicero, the great orator.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.), Roman orator and politician, was born at Arpinum on the 3rd of January 106 B.C. His mother, Helvia, is said to have been of good family.
Cicero spent his boyhood partly in his native town and partly at Rome.
Cicero also, according to Roman practice, received military training.
Cicero then left Rome on account of his health, and travelled for two years in the East.
Cicero seldom prosecuted, but it was the custom at Rome for a rising politician to 1 Brutus, § 316 " (Molon) dedit operam ...
The public career of Cicero henceforth is largely covered by the general article on Rome: History, II.
Cicero, therefore, was fully aware of the danger which would threaten himself from his execution of the Catilinarian conspirators.
Caesar had made every possible effort to conciliate Cicero,' but, when all overtures failed, allowed Publius Clodius to attack him.
Cicero found himself deserted, and on the advice of Cato went into exile to avoid bloodshed.
Cicero was again deserted by his supporters and threatened with fresh exile.
Cicero took an active part in the trials which followed, both as a defender of Milo and his adherents and as a prosecutor of the opposite faction.
Cicero's legate was his brother Quintius Cicero (below), an experienced soldier who had gained great distinction under Caesar in Gaul.
The fears of Parthian invasion were not realized, but Cicero, after suppressing a revolt in Cappadocia, undertook military operations against the hill-tribes of the Amanus and captured the town of Pindenissus after a siege of forty-six days.
Under Caesar's dictatorship Cicero abstained from politics.
'She was married in 63 B.C. to C. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, whom Cicero found a model son-in-law.
Cicero returned to Rome on the 9th of December, and from that time forward led the republican party in the senate.
Cicero pledged his credit for the loyalty of Octavian, who styled him " father " and affected to take his advice on all occasions (Epp. ad Brut.
Cicero, an incurable optimist in politics, may have convinced himself of Octavian's sincerity.
The breach, however, was bound to come, and the saying, maliciously attributed to Cicero, that Octavian was an " excellent youth who must be praised and - sent to another place," neatly expresses the popular view of the situation.'
Cicero was sharply criticized by M.
Whether Cicero was right or wrong, none can question his amazing energy.
The literary works of Cicero may be classed as (1) rhetorical; (2) oratorical; (3) philosophical and political; (4) epistolary.
Cicero says of this work in a letter (Fam.
Brutus, sketching a portrait of the perfect and ideal orator, Cicero's last word on oratory.
Cicero says of this work that he has " concentrated in it all his taste " (Fam.
Cicero preferred the cretic -, which he says is the metrical equivalent of the paean.
3 If the order were changed, Cicero says, the effect would be lost.
Cicero gives various clausulae which his ears told him to be good or bad, but his remarks are desultory, as also are those of Quintilian, whose examples were largely drawn from Cicero's writings.
Other investigators had shown that Cicero's clausulae are generally variations of some three or four forms in which the rhythm is trochaic. Dr Thaddaeus Zielinski of St Petersburg, after examining all the clausulae in Cicero's speeches, finds that they are governed by a law.
Cicero's juvenile work de Inventione appears to be drawn partly from this and partly from a treatise by Hermagoras.
Other minor works written in later life, such as the Partitiones Oratoriae, a catechism of rhetoric, in which instruction is given by Cicero to his son Marcus; the Topica, and an introduction to a translation of the speeches delivered by Demosthenes and Aeschines for and against Ctesiphon, styled de optimo genere oratorum, also need only be mentioned.
Livy's practice is exactly opposite to that of Cicero, since he has a marked preference for the S forms, "thereby exemplifying Cicero's saying that long syllables are more appropriate to history than to oratory.'
Cicero's speech for Milo at his trial was not a success, though, as Quintilian (ix.
The extant speech was written by Cicero at his leisure.
Cicero's method was to construct a commentaries or skeleton of his speech, which he used when speaking.
Cicero in his speeches must be given all the privileges of an advocate.
Cicero had a perfect mastery of all weapons wielded by a pleader in Rome.
Thus Cicero frequently speaks as if his client were to be put to death, though a criminal could always evade capital consequences by going into exile.
Caesar used to have a collection of Cicero's bon-mots brought to him.
Cicero complains that all the jokes of the day were attributed to himself, including those made by very sorry jesters (Fam.
There is no reason to suppose that the speakers held the views with which Cicero credits them, or had such literary powers as would make them able to express such views (ib.
Cicero as a philosopher belonged to the New Academy.
Cicero set himself to supply this want.
The only merits, therefore, which can be claimed for Cicero are that he invented a philosophical terminology for the Romans, and that he produced a series of manuals which from their beauty of style have had enduring influence upon mankind.
Porcius Cato sets forth the doctrine of the Stoics which is shown by Cicero to agree with that of Antiochus of Ascalon; in v.
Tusculanae Disputationes, so called from Cicero's villa at Tusculum in which the discussion is supposed to have taken place.
Cicero here draws from a work of Theophrastus on the same subject and from Aristotle.
consists entirely of letters from Caelius to Cicero when in Cilicia.
When writing to Atticus Cicero frequently sent copies of letters which he had received.
There is a great variety in the style not only of Cicero's correspondents, but also of Cicero himself.
Caelius writes in a breezy, school-boy style; the Latinity of Plancus is Ciceronian in character; the letter of Sulpicius to Cicero on the death of Tullia is a masterpiece of style; Matius writes a most dignified letter justifying his affectionate regard for Caesar's memory.
Antony writes bad Latin, while Cicero himself writes in various styles.
Cassius to Cicero; Quintus to Tiro, and subsequently in those of Augustus to Tiberius.
Other letters of Cicero, especially those written to persons with whom he was not quite at his ease or those meant for circulation, are composed in his elaborate style with long periods, parentheses and other devices for obscuring thought.
We know from Cicero's own statement (Att.
It is obvious that Cicero could not have meant to publish his private letters to Atticus in which he makes confessions about himself, or those to Quintus in which he sometimes outsteps the limits of brotherly criticism, but was thinking of polished productions such as the letters to Lentulus Spinther or that to Lucceius which he describes as "very pretty" (Att.
That Cicero kept copies of his letters, or of many of them, we know from a passage in which, when addressing a friend who had inadvertently torn up a letter from him, he says that there is nothing to grieve about; he has himself a copy at home and can replace the loss (Fam.
Cicero ad V arronem e pistula Paeti.
Cicero is telling Appius, his predecessor in Cilicia, of the measures which he is taking on his behalf.
In the letters to Atticus, on the other hand, we have Cicero's private journal, his confessions to the director of his conscience, the record of his moods from day to day, without alterations of any kind.
Cicero's letters are the chief and most reliable source of information for the period.
It is due to them that the Romans of the day are living figures to us, and that Cicero, in spite of, or rather in virtue of his frailties, is intensely human and sympathetic. The letters to Atticus abound in the frankest selfrevelation, though even in the presence of his confessor his instinct as a pleader makes him try to justify himself.
The historical value of the letters, therefore, completely transcends that of Cicero's other works.
The value of the letters lies in the fact that in them we get behind Cicero and are face to face with the other dramatis personae; also that we are admitted behind the scenes and read the secret history of the times.
We hear of the extraordinary agreement made by two candidates for the consulship in Caesar's interest with the sitting consuls of 54 B.C., which Cicero says he hardly ventures to put on paper.
It is not necessary to dwell upon the other forms of literary composition attempted by Cicero.
Nepos thought that he would have been an ideal historian, but as Cicero ranks history with declamation and on one occasion with great naiveté asks Lucius Lucceius, who was embarking on this task, to embroider the facts to his own credit, we cannot accept this criticism (Fam.
- The genuineness of certain works of Cicero has been attacked.
There is a " controversy " between Cicero and Sallust which is palpably a forgery, though 1 Markland and F.
After Cicero's death his character was attacked by various detractors, such as the author of the spurious Controversia put into the mouth of Sallust, and the calumniator from whom Dio Cassius (xlvi.
At a later period his style fascinated Christian writers, notably Lactantius, the " Christian Cicero," Jerome and S.
- In the middle ages Cicero was chiefly known as a writer on rhetoric and morals.
The works which were most read were the de Inventione and Topica - though neither of these was quite so popular as the treatise ad Herennium, then supposed to be by Cicero - and among the moral works, the de Officiis, and the Cato Maior.
5 We have an interesting series of excerpts made by a priest named Hadoard, in the 9th century, taken from all the philosophical writings now preserved, also from the de Oratore.6 The other works of Cicero are seldom mentioned.
containing " Letters of Cicero," but those to Atticus are only mentioned once, in the catalogue of Cluny written in the 12th century.
8 Letters of Cicero were known to Wibald of Corvey, also to Servatus Lupus, abbot of Ferrieres (805-832), who prosecuted in the 9th century a search for MSS.
A good deal of textual criticism must have been devoted to Cicero's works during this period.
Thus, writing to Ansbald of Prum, he says, " I will collate the letters of Cicero which you sent with the copy 3 Quintil.
Petrarch says that among his countrymen Cicero was a great name, but was studied by few.
of Cicero with peculiar ardour.
He found the speech pro Archia at Liege in 1333, and in 1345 at Verona made his famous discovery of the letters to Atticus, which revealed to the world Cicero as a man in place of the " god of eloquence " whom they had worshipped.
Petrarch was under the impression in his old age that he had once possessed Cicero's lost work de Gloria, but it is probable that he was misled by one of the numerous passages in the extant writings dealing with this subject.'
He brought back no less than ten speeches of Cicero previously unknown to the Italians, viz.
The second book of Cicero's letters to Brutus was first printed by Cratander of Basel in 1528 from a MS. obtained for him by Sichardus from the abbey of Lorsch.3 All these MSS.
manu ejusdem Bosii.4 The oldest evidence now existing for any works of Cicero is to be found in palimpsests written in the 4th or 5th century.
StrachanDavidson, Life of Cicero (Heroes of the Nations); G.
Boissier, Ciceron et ses amis; Suringar, Cicero de vita sua (Leiden, 18 54); W.
Greenidge, The Legal Procedure of Cicero's Time (Oxford, 1901).
- An excellent account of Cicero as a philosopher is given in the preface to Reid's edition of the Academica.
Quintus Tullius Cicero, brother of the orator and brother-in-law of T.
Cicero in several of his Letters (ed.
Boissier, Cicero and His Friends (Eng.
Marcus Tullius Cicero, only son of the orator and his wife Terentia, was born in 65 B.C. At the age of seventeen he served with Pompey in Greece, and commanded a squadron of cavalry at the battle of Pharsalus.
He had the satisfaction of carrying out the decree which ordered that all the statues of Antony should be demolished, and thus " the divine justice reserved the completion of Antony's punishment for the house of Cicero" (Plutarch).
See Plutarch, Cicero, Brutus; Appian, Bell.
19; Cicero's Letters (ed.
Quintus Tullius Cicero (c. 67-43 B.C.), son of Quintus Tullius Cicero (brother of the orator).
See Cicero, ad Att.
This is perhaps fortunate for the history of doctrine, for it produces the commentator, your Aspasius or Alexander of Aphrodisias, and the substitute for the critic, your Cicero, or your Galen with his attempt at comprehension of the Stoic categories and the like while starting from Aristotelianism.
Gaius Octavius was born in Rome on the 23rd of September 63 B.C.,the year of Cicero's consulship and of Catiline's conspiracy.
Cicero, much charmed at the attitude of Antonius, hoped to make use of him, and flattered him to the utmost, with the expectation, however, of getting rid of him as soon as he had served his purpose.
Cicero was murdered at the demand of Antonius.
LUCIUS LUCCEIUS, Roman orator and historian, friend and correspondent of Cicero.
This was nearly completed, when Cicero earnestly requested him to write a separate history of his (Cicero's) consulship. Cicero had already sung his own praises in both Greek and Latin, but thought that a panegyric by Lucceius, who had taken considerable interest in the affairs of that critical period,_.
Cicero offered to supply the material, and hinted that Lucceius need not sacrifice laudation to accuracy.
Cicero's Letters (ed.
Cicero, De oratore, i.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.