Are you all going to church this morning?
You heard her talk about the million dollar reward that rag of a newspaper is offering and she's poor as a church mouse on food stamps.
As they passed near a church in the Khamovniki (one of the few unburned quarters of Moscow) the whole mass of prisoners suddenly started to one side and exclamations of horror and disgust were heard.
Light spilled across the church as a door leading to the chambers in the rear opened.
Once someone from church came by to see if she needed help.
Again, as at the church in Khamovniki, a wave of general curiosity bore all the prisoners forward onto the road, and Pierre, thanks to his stature, saw over the heads of the others what so attracted their curiosity.
The church was hot and loud, the scents that overwhelmed her outside stifling.
They ate breakfast and arrived at church promptly.
The interior of the church was packed with bodies writhing to the deafening, throbbing music.
So, Bordeaux had coerced her to meet him at the church after all.
Alex had been taking her to church for a long time, so they were greeted together warmly and everyone asked how repairs were coming along on her house.
How could people go to church on Sunday with one set of morals and spend the rest of the week with another?
Three weeks later, baby Claire Elizabeth LeBlanc was baptized at St. Bernard's Catholic Church with Betsy and Ben Gustefson as godparents.
He continued through the streets and slowed when he reached a dilapidated, boarded-up church on a corner.
I had to stop at the church to make arrangements.
While Cynthia didn't explain her decision to fit God and church into their busy Sunday morning schedule, once again she dressed for church and Dean dutifully followed suit.
I like going to church with you.
Their social life was church, they had no television and even when Carmen had attended college, they had requested that she stay at home every night instead of living in a dorm.
Someone from the church or clinic must have been by and brought it for Alex.
As she was dressing for church one Sunday, she was having zipping up her dress.
It was a good thing they didn't change after church, because everyone at the table was dressed as if going to church.
Since they were all dressed up, she assumed they were going to church together.
The small undated photo was quite dark but showed a couple, perhaps in their thirties, standing before a church window.
And here we are, acting like two heavies from the Church of Yesterday's Morals giving him a hard time.
Dean added, "Maybe you're just hoping someone will fall down the front steps of the church and break their neck so you can be Johnny-on-the-spot."
After church they all met at Katie and Bill's house for lunch.
When it was time for the church service to begin, she was in such a state of excitement that I thought it best to take her away; but Captain Keller said, "No, she will be all right."
Pierre too drew near the church where the thing was that evoked these exclamations, and dimly made out something leaning against the palings surrounding the church.
After church, he rode out alone on Ed and she cried some more.
They hadn't seen her in church for a while and they were worried about her.
Dusty surveyed the blackened ruins of the church in the grainy light of dawn.
After the phone call, she finished getting ready for church and faxed the form.
Each instrument--now resembling a violin and now a horn, but better and clearer than violin or horn--played its own part, and before it had finished the melody merged with another instrument that began almost the same air, and then with a third and a fourth; and they all blended into one and again became separate and again blended, now into solemn church music, now into something dazzlingly brilliant and triumphant.
They were at church camp with Katie today.
Dusty smiled faintly as Toni walked towards the back of the church, whistling.
After they dragged Jen off to confession, the Calvias would stick around and rent the church for the wedding—if Randy was still alive.
He quickly agreed and the two strolled, for the first time since Christmas, to St. Daniel's Catholic Church, a few blocks away.
Bird Song was as quiet as an empty church with none of the remaining guests in evidence, nor was there any sign the police had returned.
It seemed like only a few minutes before they were at church, making the last minute checks before she walked down the isle.
It might be something handy to know next time the church had a bake sale.
The next morning at church, Carmen said something to Alex and he leaned down to hear her answer.
Around the farm and at school, he rolled his left sleeve up to make all available use of the deformed appendage, but when he dressed for church he always wanted it covered.
And the priest from the church where Jeff and I sometimes go came by.
Cynthia and Randy discovered the break-in when they returned from church shortly after lunch.
St. Thomas the Apostle Church was a scrubbed-white structure looking like a New England calendar except for its city location.
Dean stepped to the sidewalk and waited for Cynthia to emerge from the church, but when she did, a crowd of friends and well wishers surrounded her, with the Mayer-the-leech encircling her shoulder with his scummy arm.
"They are still short-handed in the nursery at church," she said.
If you don't want to go to church, I guess it's alright.
The next morning, after church, they doubled up on Ed and rode into the hills.
On Sunday after church they were feeding the horses when they began a friendly frolic.
Carmen had invited Katie, Bill and a few friends from church that morning.
He knew where the old North Church stood, but he could not see much in the darkness.
Other than catching sight of Howie, together with Julie and Molly entering church on Sunday morning, we saw nothing more of our associate's Boston visitors.
He's singing like the choir lead at a church revival.
The commander-in-chief was putting up there, but just when Pierre arrived he was not in and hardly any of the staff were there--they had gone to the church service.
The moon rose, and by its light he could see the dim form of the church tower, far away.
In the United States, de Tocqueville's voluntary associations still do the job and anyone willing to make her way to a church or food pantry and say she is hungry will not leave empty handed.
They married a month later at a small church in Bartlesville and Adrienne moved to the farm.
After church, they talked to Katie and Bill about the situation with Lori.
I and teacher did go to church sunday mr. lane did read in book and talk Lady did play organ.
Some years ago, the State met me in behalf of the Church, and commanded me to pay a certain sum toward the support of a clergyman whose preaching my father attended, but never I myself.
At church Sunday, the subject that she was staying at his house was avoided.
And yet, she was reluctant to say anything to church members - even family members.
She finished her breakfast with little conversation and saw Sarah and Tammy off to church.
Her heart quickening, she started towards the entrance of the church.
She didn't notice until she'd jostled her way into the center of the church.
There are fourteen-ish bodies towards the back of the church.
"I found a cell phone!" another shouted as he scoured the gutters around the church.
It must be someone from the church.
It's Easter morning and we're on our way to church.
More than one church attendee went beyond polite disdain and glared to the point of hostility.
They're going to hold a memorial service for Byrne at the Catholic Church.
There were no heavily veiled figures lurking in the wings of the church.
I thought it looked interesting and might come in handy when I bake for the church.
You'd be in the nursery while I was in church?
Surely he understood the importance – both to her and the church.
I didn't know you felt that way about church.
I see that look in your eyes when you watch a baby in church.
Princess picked Sunday to foal, and Carmen found her in heavy labor when they came home from church.
Even Lori and Katie noticed their coolness toward each other at church.
They were supposed to get up early so that Alex could help her scout out a trail before church.
We'd better get up if we're going to scout out that trail before we go to church.
She and Bill were taking them to a birthday party at church.
She avoided church because she was too embarrassed to face everyone.
Katie visited after church to check on her and demanded to know the entire story.
He took her to church on Sunday, complimented her attire and fussed over her as if her injured shoulder was a disabling factor.
Their greatest social obligation had been the local church fund raiser.
Though the controversy went on, its most important result had already been achieved in the silencing of Convocation, for that body, though it had just "seemed to be settling down to its proper work in dealing with the real exigencies of the church" when the Hoadly dispute arose, did not meet again for the despatch of business for nearly a century and a half.
Of the numerous churches in the city the most interesting are the Stiftskirche, with two towers, a fine specimen of 15th-century Gothic; the Leonhardskirche, also a Gothic building of the 15th century; the Hospitalkirche, restored in 1841, the cloisters of which contain the tomb of Johann Reuchlin; the fine modern Gothic church of St John; the new Roman Catholic church of St Nicholas; the Friedenskirche; and the English church.
Having taken holy orders his advancement in the Church was very rapid, mainly through the influence of his brother Andrew.
A love disappointment, however, turned his thoughts to the church, and in 1624 he entered the Society of Jesus.
He died at Paris on the 27th of September 1660, and was buried in the church of St Lazare.
The Society of St Vincent de Paul was founded by Frederic Ozanam and others in 1833, in reply to a charge brought by some free-thinking contemporaries that the church no longer had the strength to inaugurate a practical enterprise.
In February 1532 he protested against all acts concerning the church passed by the parliament which met in 1529, but this did not prevent the important proceedings which secured the complete submission of the church to the state later in the same year.
to that of Henry II., and urged Magna Carta in defence of the liberties of the church.
(1899), and The English Church in the 16th Century (1902); J.
The church of St Lawrence has Norman portions, and an arch and window apparently of pre-Conquest date.
Finally the canons of the cathedral, together with the professors, buried the body in the church of the Gerolimini.
The church of All Saints is mentioned in Domesday, and tradition ascribes the building of its nave to King John, while the western side of the tower must be older still.
The Church has always exercised a dominating influence in this region, and the city has many churches and religious establishments.
Eadberht showed considerable independence in his dealings with the church, and his brother Ecgberht, to whom the well-known letter of Bede is addressed, was from 734 to 766 archbishop of York.
The cruciform church of St Mary, with a central tower and short spire, is in great part Early English, with Perpendicular additions; but considerable traces of a Norman building were revealed during a modern restoration.
On the 13th of April 1396 he obtained ratification of the parsonage of St Stephen's, Walbrook, presented on the 30th of March by the abbot of Colchester, no doubt through his brother Robert, who restored the church and increased its endowment.
Chicheley and the other envoys were received on their return as saviours of the world; though the result was summed up by a contemporary as trischism instead of schism, and the Church as giving three husbands instead of two.
The struggle between them has been represented as one of a patriotic archbishop resisting the encroachments of the papacy on the Church of England.
Delaware is the seat of the Ohio Wesleyan University (co-educational), founded by the Ohio Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1841, and opened as a college in 1844; it includes a college of liberal arts (1844), an academic department (1841), a school of music (1877), a school of fine arts (1877), a school of oratory (1894), a business school (1895), and a college of medicine (the Cleveland College of Physicians and Surgeons, at Cleveland, Ohio; founded as the Charity Hospital Medical College in 1863, and the medical department of the university of Wooster until 1896, when, under its present name, it became a part of Ohio Wesleyan University).
His first known occupation was that of a glass-painter; in 1522 he painted windows for the church at Enkhuizen, North Holland (the birthplace of Paul Potter).
He was buried, with all religious honours, in the church of St Leonard, Basel.
The church of St Andrew retains some ornate Norman work, but is mainly a Perpendicular reconstruction.
The massive and elaborately ornamented cathedral was built in the Renaissance style between 1746 and 1774; a Dominican church in Subtiaba is little less striking.
He did not, however, succeed in obtaining a call to any church, and for some little time his future was unsettled.
Maurice, gradually approached more and more to those of the Church of England, which he ultimately joined.
the church, but also their refusal to re-establish that "centre of political unity," the Holy Roman Empire.
The rest of Consalvi's life was devoted to the work of reorganizing the States of the Church, and bringing back the allegiance of Europe to the papal throne.
Thus began the seventy years "Babylonian captivity of the Church."
Destined from his birth for the church, he received the tonsure at the age of seven and was soon loaded with rich benefices and preferments.
Its three main objects, the peace of Christendom, the crusade and the reform of the church, could be secured only by general agreement among the powers, and Leo or the council failed to secure such agreement.
Against the attendant abuses the Augustinian monk Martin Luther posted (31st October 1517) on the church door at Wittenberg his famous ninety-five theses, which were the signal for widespread revolt against the church.
Christian approved a plan by which a formal state church should be established in Denmark, all appeals to Rome should be abolished, and the king and diet should have final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes.
Leo was now anxious to unite Ferrara, Parma and Piacenza to the States of the Church.
His bull of the 1st of July 1519, which regulated the discipline of the Polish Church, was later transformed into a concordat by Clement VII.
On the other hand, in spite of his worldliness, Leo was not an unbeliever; he prayed, fasted, and participated in the services of the church with conscientiousness.
He failed to recognize the pressing need of reform within the church and the tremendous dangers which threatened the papal monarchy; and he unpardonably neglected the spiritual needs of the time.
The church of St Just, founded in the 10th century, has good wood-carving.
An Ursuline convent, built in 1764, serves as hotel de ville and law court, and a church of the 14th century is used as a market.
Galen showed himself anxious to reform the church, but his chief energies were directed to increasing his power and prestige.
The church of the Holy Trinity, the oldest part of which dates from about 1 200, is a Gothic building with five aisles and a square tower.
In October 1847 he wrote to Pius IX., offering his services to the Church, whose cause he for a moment believed to be that of national liberty.
The site of the church of St Peter has long been occupied by a parish church (there was one in the 12th century, if not earlier), but the existing building dates only from 1870.
Douglas was buried in the church of the Savoy, where a monumental brass (removed from its proper site after the fire in 1864) still records his death and interment.
The church of St Luke is Perpendicular, enlarged in modern times.
Under the influence of Archbishop Chicheley, who had himself founded two colleges in imitation of Wykeham, and Thomas Bekynton, king's secretary and privy seal, and other Wyke - hamists, Henry VI., on the 11th of October 1440, founded, in imitation of Winchester College, "a college in the parish church of Eton by Windsor not far from our birthplace," called the King's College of the Blessed Mary of Eton by Windsor, as "a sort of first-fruits of his taking the government on himself."
On the 13th of July 1447 he was consecrated in Eton church, when the warden and fellows and others of his old college gave him a horse at a cost of £6, 13s.
From 1448 to 1450 £3336 or some £i oo,000 of our money was spent on the church, of which Waynflete with the marquis of Suffolk and the bishop of Salisbury contributed £700 or £21,000.
When Jack Cade's rebellion occurred in 1450 Waynflete was employed with Archbishop Stafford, the chancellor, to negotiate with the rebels at St Margaret's church, Southwark, close to Winchester House.
In the earliest Audit Rolls after the restoration of the college in 1467 there are many entries of visits of Provost Westbury to "the lord of Winchester," which in January1468-1469were for "beginning the work of the church" "and providing money for them."
In the years1471-1472to 1474 Waynflete was largely engaged in completing the church, now called chapel, at Eton, his glazier supplying the windows, and he contracted on the 15th of August 1475 for the rood-loft to be made on one side "like to the rode lofte in Bishop Wykeham's college at Winchester," and on the other like that "of the college of St Thomas of Acres in London."
A memorial in Church Square commemorates the Franklin expedition to the discovery of the North-West Passage, and in particular Captain Francis Crozier, who was born at Banbridge in 1796 and served on the expedition.
The exterior of the choir, with its four radiating chapels, its jutting cornices supported by modillions and columns with carved capitals, and its mosaic decoration of black and white stones, is the most interesting part of the exterior The rest of the church comprises a narthex surmounted by a tower, three naves and a transept, over which rises another tower.
Montferrand has several interesting houses of the 15th and 16th centuries, and a church of the 13th,14th and 15th centuries.
Romani" on a stone in the church Teampull Brecain on Inishmore, attributed to disciples from Rome.
The church of St John the Baptist, though largely altered by modern restoration, retains Early English to Perpendicular portions, and some early monuments and brasses.
Through the columns of the Independent Reflector, which he established in 1752, Livingston fought the attempt of the Anglican party to bring the projected King's College (now Columbia University) under the control of the Church of England.
The old church of Mortlach, though restored and almost renewed, still contains some lancet windows and a round-headed doorway, besides monuments dating from 1417.
alba, from albus, white), a liturgical vestment of the Catholic Church.
These "apparelled albs" (albae paratae) continued in general use in the Western Church till the 16th century, when a tendency to dispense with the parures began, Rome itself setting the example.
At the present time, so far as the Roman Catholic Church is concerned, apparelled albs are only in regular use at Milan (Ambrosian Rite), and, partially, in certain churches in Spain.
In the Roman Church the alb is now reckoned as one of the vestments proper to the sacrifice of the Mass.
In England at the Reformation the alb went out of use with the other "Mass vestments," and remained out of use in the Church of England until the ritual revival of the 19th century.
The equivalent of the alb in the ancient Churches of the East is the sticharion (art bpeov) of the Orthodox Church (Armenian shapik, Syrian Kutina, Coptic stoicharion or tuniah).
The colour of the vestment is usually white for bishops and priests (this is the rule in the Coptic Church); for the other orders there is no rule, and all colours,.
In the Armenian and Coptic rites the vestment is often elaborately embroidered; in the other rites the only ornament is a cross high in the middle of the back, save in the case of bishops of the Orthodox Church, whose sticharia are ornamented with two vertical red stripes (7rorayof, " rivers").
The churches are numerous and some are particularly handsome; such as the First church, which overlooks the harbour, and is so named from its standing on the site of the church of the original settlers; St Paul's, Knox church and the Roman Catholic cathedral of St Joseph.
On the continent of Europe they often lead out of the interior of the church and are enclosed with tracery, as at Rouen or Strassburg.
He died on the 22nd of August 1818, in his 86th year, and lies buried behind the chancel of the parish church, which he had recently restored at his own charges.
Though the bishop's see was removed to Christiansand in 1685, the Romanesque cathedral church of St Swithun, founded by the English bishop Reinald in the end of the 11th century, and rebuilt after being burned down in 1272, remains, and, next to the cathedral of Trondhjem, is the most interesting stone church in Norway.
In the old town of Bridlington the church of St Mary and St Nicholas consists of the fine Decorated and Perpendicular nave, with Early English portions, of the priory church of an Augustinian foundation of the time of Henry I.
A Congregational society was founded in 1662, and its old church, dating from 1702, stood until 1906.
At the general elections of 1881 after the fall of the Ferry cabinet he was returned to the chamber on a programme which included the separation of Church and State, a policy of decentralization, and the imposition of an income-tax.
In his initial declaration to the chamber the new premier had declared his intention of continuing the policy of the late cabinet, pledging the new ministry to a policy of conciliation, to the consideration of old age pensions, an income-tax, separation of Church and State.
Of its numerous islands the best-known is Inishail, containing ruins of a church and convent, which was suppressed at the Reformation.
In the modern town, on the other hand, the remains of one temple are to be seen in the church of S.
It should be noted that their traditional names, with the exception of that of Zeus and that of Asclepius, have no foundation in fact, while the attribution of the temple in antis, into the cella of which the church of S.
The other remains within the city walls are of surprisingly small importance; near the picturesque church of S.
The consecrated wafer shared by Lohengrin and the swan on their voyage is one of the more obvious means taken by the poet to give the tale the character of an allegory of the .relations between Christ, the Church and the human soul.
In 1208 he destroyed the ancestral castle of Wittelsbach, the site of which is now marked by a church and an obelisk.
In the language of the Christian Church the word " infallibility " is used in a more absolute sense, as the freedom from all possibility of error guaranteed by the direct action of the Spirit of God.
Some see the guarantee, or at least the indication, of infallibility in the consensus of the Church (quod semper, ubique, et ab omnibus) expressed from time to time in general councils; others see it in the special grace conferred upon St Peter and his successors, the bishops of Rome, as heads of the Church; others again see it in the inspired Scriptures, God's Word.
The substance of the claim to infallibility made by the Roman Catholic Church is that the Church and the pope cannot err when solemnly enunciating, as binding on all the faithful, a decision on a question of faith or morals.
The infallibility of the Church, thus limited, is a necessary outcome of the fundamental conception of the Catholic Church and its mission.
of the consent of the Church."
(a) As the Council expressly says, the infallibility of the pope is not other than that of the Church; this is a point which is too often forgotten or misunderstood.
it in person, but solely qua head of the Church, and as the authorized organ of the ecclesiastical body.
The pope when teaching ex cathedra acts as head of the whole episcopal body and of the whole Church.
(b) If the Divine constitution of the Church has not changed in its essential points since our Lord, the mode of exercise of the various powers of its head has varied; and that of the supreme teaching power as of the others.
(c) As a matter of fact the infallibility of the pope, when giving decisions in his character as head of the Church, was generally admitted before the Vatican Council.
The only reservation which the most advanced Gallicans dared to formulate, in the terms of the celebrated declaration of the clergy of France (1682), had as its object the irreformable character of the pontifical definitions, which, it was claimed, could only have been acquired by them through the assent of the Church.
This doctrine, rather political than theological, was a survival of the errors which had come into being after the Great Schism, and especially at the council of Constance; its object was to put the Church above its head, as the council of Constance had put the ecumenical council above the pope, as though the council could be ecumenical without its head.
These professors formed the " Committee of Bonn," which organized the new Church.
He had a share in an attempt made towards union with the Greek Church.
No one now questions the profound distinction that exists between the two powers, spiritual and temporal, between the church and the state.
For the purposes of a concordat the state recognizes the official status of the church and of its ministers and tribunals; guarantees it certain privileges; and sometimes binds itself to secure for it subsidies representing compensation for past spoliations.
And reciprocally, whatever may be the absolute rights of the ecclesiastical society over the appointment of its dignitaries, the administration of its property, and the government of its adherents, the exercise of these rights is limited and restricted by the stable engagements and concessions of the concordatory pact, which bind the head of the church with regard to the nations.
The rupture of the concordat at once terminates the obligations which resulted from it on both sides; but it does not break off all relation between the church and the state, since the two societies continue to coexist on the same territory.
One of the most important subjects is that of church property.
After having been the law of the Church of France for a century, it was denounced by the French government in 1905.
It must be observed that the denunciation of a concordat by a nation does not necessarily entail the separation of the church and the state in that country or the rupture of diplomatic relations with Rome.
On the relations between the church and the state in various countries see Vering, Kirchenrecht, §§ 30-53.
But he is chiefly famous for his History of the Church of Rome to the Pontificate of Innocent III.
He also contributed largely to the Internationale theologische Zeitschrift, a review started in 1893 by the Old Catholics to promote the union of National Churches on the basis of the councils of the Undivided Church, and admitting articles in German, French and English.
Among the notable buildings are the weigh-house (17th century), the bell-tower (1591), formerly attached to the town-hall before this was destroyed in the 18th century, and the church of St.
Mention is made of this church in a document of 1356, but it was not completed until the beginning of the 15th century.
It is the seat of the New York State Agricultural Experiment Station and of Hobart College (nonsectarian), which was first planned in 1812, was founded in 1822 (the majority of its incorporators being members of the Protestant Episcopal church) as successor to Geneva Academy, received a full charter as Geneva College in 1825, and was renamed Hobart Free College in 1852 and Hobart College in 1860, in honour of Bishop John Henry Hobart.
The town has wide streets and contains several old churches, one of which, a Roman Catholic church, built in the 14th century, has a tower 33 o ft.
In the neighbourhood is a model village, with an elementary school, an industrial school for whites, a hospital and a church, maintained by Mr Vanderbilt.
He has been designated the "Restorer of Protestantism in France," and was the organizer of the "Church of the Desert."
The Seminary of Lausanne sent forth all the pastors of the Reformed Church of France till the days of the first French Empire.
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He was destined by his family for the church, but entered business, and became a partner in a firm at Lyons for which he travelled in the Levant, in Italy, Spain and Portugal.
It is from the particular application of the word to sheep that "flock" is used of the Christian Church in its relation to the "Good Shepherd," and also of a congregation of worshippers in its relation to its spiritual head.
The collegiate church (Stiftskirche) dates from about 1340, and contains a number of fine ducal monuments.
Another church is the Annexkirche, formerly a convent of the Minorites; this dates from the middle of the 15th century.
It was the first mission station of the church of England in the Punjab.
The struggle of the Bohemians against Rome continued uninterruptedly, and the position of Podébrad became a very difficult one when the young king Ladislas, who was crowned in 1453, expressed his sympathies for the Roman Church, though he had recognized the compacts and the ancient privileges of Bohemia.
A truce was concluded in 1317, but as the Sicilians helped the north Italian Ghibellines in the attack on Genoa, and Frederick seized some Church revenues for military purposes, the pope (John XXII.) excommunicated him and placed the island under an interdict (1321) which lasted until 1 335.
The church of St Mary is mainly Perpendicular, and contains a Norman font and monuments of the 8th century.
The principal church is that of S.
The fine campanile of the church is 246 ft.
(a journey of 21hours) is the pilgrimage church of the Madonna del Monte (2885 ft.), approached by a path which passes fourteen chapels adorned with 17th-century frescoes and groups in stucco illustrating the mysteries of the rosary.
He soon took the field, but after his failure to capture Padua the league broke up; and his sole ally, the French king, joined him in calling a general council at Pisa to discuss the question of Church reform.
He was buried in the church of St George in Vienna Neustadt, and a superb monument, which may still be seen, was raised to his memory at Innsbruck.
The parish church of Greenwich, in Church Street, is dedicated to St Alphege, archbishop, who was martyred here by the Danes in 1012.
In the church Wolfe, who died at Quebec (1759), and Tallis, the musician, are buried.
The church offered the richest field for exploitation, and in spite of his dissolute life he impudently prayed the regent to give him the archbishopric of Cambray, the richest in France.
to the older church.
The consequence of these reports of the hostility of the church led him to abandon all thoughts of publishing.
Descartes was not disposed to be a martyr; he had a sincere respect for the church, and had no wish to begin an open conflict with established doctrines.
But his undue haste to arrange matters with the church only served to compromise him more deeply.
Thereupon the power of church and state enforced by positive enactments the passive resistance of old institutions to the novel theories.
There were other obstacles besides the mild persecutions of the church.
The church of the Holy Trinity, mainly Perpendicular, was also partly demolished during the Civil War, but was restored by the countess of Pembroke.
Of the church in Ostia there is no authentic record before the 4th century A.D., though there are several Christian inscriptions of an earlier date; but the first bishop of Ostia of whom we have any certain knowledge dates from A.D.
In 1268 he was lecturing now in Rome and now in Bologna, all the while engaged in the public business of the church.
In 1271 he was again in Paris, lecturing to the students, managing the affairs of the church and consulted by the king, Louis VIII., his kinsman, on affairs of state.
Such rewards as the church could bestow had been offered to him.
No theologian save Augustine has had an equal influence on the theological thought and language of the Western Church, a fact which was strongly emphasized by Leo XIII.
Revelation is not Scripture alone, for Scripture taken by itself does not correspond exactly with his description; nor is it church tradition alone, for church tradition must so far rest on Scripture.
Revelation is a divine source of knowledge, of which Scripture and church tradition are the channels; and he who would rightly v.
Reason and revelation are separate sources of knowledge; and man can put himself in possession of each, because he can bring himself into relation to the church on the one hand, and the system of philosophy, or more strictly Aristotle, on the other.
He began with Peter of Lombardy (who had reduced to theological order, in his famous book on the Sentences, the various authoritative statements of the church upon doctrine) in his In Quatuor Sententiarum P. Lombardi libros.
His Catena Aurea next appeared, which, under the form of a commentary on the Gospels, was really an exhaustive summary of the theological teaching of the greatest of the church fathers.
Fortified by this exhaustive preparation, Aquinas began his Summa Theologiae, which he intended to be the sum of all known learning, arranged according to the best method, and subordinate to the dictates of the church.
Practically it came to be the theological dicta of the church, explained according to the philosophy of Aristotle and his Arabian commentators.
The church of St James dates from 1763, and the other numerous places of worship and public buildings are all modern.
It excited the admiration of Gonzales Clavijo, the Spanish envoy, when he passed through it on his way to visit the court of Timur at Samarkand (Clavijo, Historia del gran Tamorlan, p. 84); and Cardinal Bessarion, who was a native of the place, in the latter part of his life, when the city had passed into the hands of the Mahommedans, and he was himself a dignitary of the Roman Church, so little forgot the impression it had made upon him that he wrote a work entitled "The Praise of Trebizond" ('E-yac c uLovTpaire oiivros), which exists in manuscript at Venice.
the church of the Panaghia Chrysokephalos, or Virgin of the Golden Head, a large and massive but excessively plain building, which is now the Orta-hissar mosque.
On the farther side of the eastern ravine stands a smaller but very well proportioned structure, the church of St Eugenius, the patron saint of Trebizond, now the Yeni Djuma djami, or New Friday mosque.
Still more important is the church of Haghia Sophia, which occupies a conspicuous position overlooking the sea, about 2 m.
He graduated at Yale College in 1807, studied theology under Timothy Dwight, anfl in 1812 became pastor of the First Church of New Haven.
His father, Georg Karl Benjamin Ritschl (1783-1858), became in 1810 pastor at the church of St Mary in Berlin, and from 1827 to 1854 was general superintendent and evangelical bishop of Pomerania.
This did not last long with him, however, for the second edition (1857) of his most important work, on the origin of the old Catholic Church (Die Entstehung der alt-kathol.
He appears to have consolidated his power by the aid of the Church and by a series of judicious matrimonial alliances.
As a thank-offering he dedicated his daughter ZElfled to the Church, and founded the monastery of Whitby.
In 664 at the synod of Whitby, Oswio accepted the usages of the Roman Church, which led to the departure of Colman and the appointment of Wilfrid as bishop of York.
The church contains a monument to Lord Edward Bruce, killed in a duel with Sir Edward Sackville, afterwards earl of Dorset, in 1613.
The ruined church at Longpont (13th century) is the relic of an important Cistercian abbey; Urcel and Mont-Notre-Dame have fine churches, the first entirely in the Romanesque style, the second dating from the 12th and 13th centuries, to which period the church at Braisne also belongs.
The church of St Mary and St Modwen is classic in style, of the 18th century, but embodies some remains of an ancient Gothic building.
He further tells us this pitch was a tone, nearly a tone and a half, higher than a suitable church pitch (Chorton), for which he gives a diagram.
St Michael's church at Hamburg, built as late as 1762 and unaltered in 1880, had a 17th-century pitch, a' 407.9.
Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley's comparison of the church and chamber pitches of Orlando Gibbons (vide Ellis's lecture) clearly shows the minor third in Great Britain in the first half of the 17th century.
This lowering tendency towards the low church pitch, and the final adoption of the latter as a general mean pitch throughout the 18th century, was no doubt influenced by the introduction of the violin, which would not bear the high tension to which the lutes and viols had been strained.
1714 Seville Cathedral.1785-1790Old English tuning-fork' c. 1715 Imperial Russian Court Church Band..
Its church of St Mary is mainly Decorated, and a few old houses remain.
The church of St Mary and All Saints is a large and beautiful cruciform building principally of the Decorated period.
The church, which contains numerous interesting monuments, possesses also the unusual feature of an apsidal Decorated chapel.
Among public buildings, the Stephenson memorial hall (1879), containing a free library, art and science class-rooms, a theatre and the rooms of the Chesterfield Institute, commemorates George Stephenson, the engineer, who resided at Tapton House, close to Chesterfield, in his later life; he died here in 1848, and was buried in Trinity church.
The New Church, formerly the church of St Ursula (14th century), is the burial place of the princes of Orange.
It is remarkable for its fine tower and chime of bells, and contains the splendid allegorical monument of William the Silent, executed by Hendrik de Keyser and his son Pieter about 1621, and the tomb of Hugo Grotius, born in Delft in 1583, whose statue, erected in 1886, stands in the market-place outside the church.
The Old Church, founded in the 11th century, but in its present form dating from 1476, contains the monuments of two famous admirals of the 17th century, Martin van Tromp and Piet Hein, as well as the tomb of the naturalist Leeuwenhoek, born at Delft in 1632.
There are also a Roman Catholic church (1882) and a synagogue.
The Roman Catholic Ghegs appear to have abandoned the Eastern for the Western Church in the middle of the 13th century.
Their bishops and priests, who wear the moustache in deference to popular prejudice, are typical specimens of the church militant.
The Orthodox Church has metropolitans at Prizren, Durazzo, Berat, Iannina and Kortcha; the Bulgarian exarchate maintains a bishop at Dibra.
Of the Albanians in Sicily the great majority (4479 1) remain faithful to the Greek Church; in Italy 116,482 follow the Latin ritual, and 38,192 the Greek.
All the Albanians in Greece belong to the Orthodox Church.
The priests of the Greek Church, on whom the rural population depend for instruction, are often deplorably ignorant.
The church of St Peter is Perpendicular, with a lofty tower and spire.
Visitors are shown the "Church of the Annunciation" with caves (including a fragment of a pillar hanging from the ceiling, and said to be miraculously supported) which are described as the scene of the annunciation, the "workshop of Joseph," the "synagogue," and a stone table, said to have been used by Christ.
The parish church, with its two lofty towers, is substantially a Romanesque building of the 13th century, but the choir and transepts are Gothic additions of a later date.
A picturesque avenue leads to the church of St Mary, principally Early English and Perpendicular, with remains of Norman work, having a lofty tower surmounted by a spire, and containing several fine monuments, tombs and brasses.
The cathedral church, dedicated to its founder St Colman, a disciple of St Finbar of Cork, is a plain cruciform building mainly of the 14th century, with an earlier oratory in the churchyard.
The Roman Catholic church is a spacious building of the early 19th century.
The idea of these meetings was first suggested in a letter to the archbishop of Canterbury by Bishop Hopkins of Vermont in 1851, but the immediate impulse came from the colonial Church in Canada.
In 1865 the synod of that province, in an urgent letter to the archbishop of Canterbury (Dr Longley), represented the unsettlement of members of the Canadian Church caused by recent legal decisions of the Privy Council, and their alarm lest the revived action of Convocation "should leave us governed by canons different from those in force in England and Ireland, and thus cause us to drift into the status of an independent branch of the Catholic Church."
They therefore requested him to call a "national synod of the bishopsof the Anglican Church at home and abroad," to meet under his leadership. After consulting both houses of the Convocation of Canterbury, Archbishop Longley assented, and convened all the bishops of the Anglican Communion (then 144 in number) to meet at Lambeth in 1867.
Many Anglican bishops (amongst them the archbishop of York and most of his suffragans) felt so doubtful as to the wisdom of such an assembly that they refused to attend it, and Dean Stanley declined to allow Westminster Abbey to be used for the closing service, giving as his reasons the partial character of the assembly, uncertainty as to the effect of its measures and "the presence of prelates not belonging to our Church."
Archbishop Longley said in his opening address, however, that they had no desire to assume "the functions of a general synod of all the churches:in full communion with the Church of England," but merely to "discuss matters of practical interest, and pronounce what we deem expedient in resolutions which may serve as safe guides to future action."
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
The chief subjects of discussion were: the relations of faith and modern thought, the supply and training of the clergy, education, foreign missions, revision and "enrichment" of the Prayer-Book, the relation of the Church to "ministries of healing" (Christian Science, &c.), the questions of marriage and divorce, organization of the Anglican Church, reunion with other Churches.
The fifth Lambeth conference, following as it did close on the great Pan-Anglican congress, is remarkable mainly as a proof of the growth of the influence and many-sided activity of the Anglican Church, and as a conspicuous manifestation of her characteristic principles.
The resolutions on questions of marriage and divorce (37-43) reaffirm the traditional attitude of the Church; it is, however, interesting to note that the resolution (40) deprecating the remarriage in church of the innocent party to a divorce was carried only by eighty-seven votes to eighty-four.
It was decided to send a deputation of bishops with a letter of greeting to the national council of the Russian Church about to be assembled (60) and certain conditions were laid down for intercommunion with certain of the Churches of the Orthodox Eastern Communion (62) and the "ancient separated Churches of the East" (63-65).
So far as the organization of the Anglican Church is concerned, the most important outcome of the conference was the reconstruction of the Central Consultative Body on representative lines (54-56); this body to consist of the archbishop of Canterbury and seventeen bishops appointed by the various Churches of the Anglican Communion throughout the world.
A notable feature of the conference was the presence of the Swedish bishop of Kalmar, who presented a letter from the archbishop of Upsala, as a tentative advance towards closer relations between the Anglican Church and the Evangelical Church of Sweden.
In 1890 changes in the school system unfavourable to the Roman Catholic Church led to a constitutional struggle, to which was due the defeat of the Federal ministry in 1896.
He fully accepted the recognized teaching of the Church of England, and publicly appealed to the Prayer Book and the Thirty-nine Articles in justification of the doctrines he preached.
Membership in the church depends solely upon being enrolled as a member of one of these meetings for Christian fellowship, and thus placing oneself under pastoral oversight.
The Welsh Calvinistic Methodists are now a branch of the Presbyterian Church.
These bodies have separated solely on matters of Church government and not on points of doctrine.
The Primitive Methodists in Ireland were a small body who in 1817 seceded because they wished to maintain that close connexion with the Church of England which existed at the time of Wesley's death, but in 1878 they rejoined the parent body.
The statistics presented at the last showed that the Church during the preceding decade had gained about a million members and three million adherents.
At the same time there has been a steadily These first three were joined in 1907 under the name of the United Methodist Church.
Canada and Australasia led the way, for in these countries the Methodist Church was undivided, and the sentiment was greatly strengthened by the formation in the United Kingdom of the United Methodist Church in 1907.
The intention was to make American Methodism a facsimile of that in England, subject to Wesley and the British Conference-a society and not a Church.
It has been usually supposed that John Napier was buried in St Giles's church, Edinburgh, which was certainly the burialplace of some of the family, but Mark Napier (Memoirs, p. 426) quotes Professor William Wallace, who, writing in 1832, gives strong reasons for believing that he was buried in the old church of St Cuthbert.
The church of St Mary and St German belonged to a Benedictine abbey founded under a grant from William the Conqueror in 1069 and raised to the dignity of a mitred abbey by Pope Alexander II.
The monastic buildings have practically disappeared, but the church was a splendid building of various dates from Norman to Decorated, the choir and Lady chapel representing the later period.
Schemes for the collection of funds and the complete restoration of the church were immediately set on foot, the architect being Mr Oldrid Scott.
His father was one of a Yorkshire family who, for three generations, had been supporters of the Evangelical movement in the Church of England.
Freeman and Charles Elton discovered by historical research that a breach of the conditions of the professorship had occurred, and Christ Church raised the endowment from Loo a year to £50o.
PRESBYTERIANISM, a highly organized form of church government in which presbyters or elders occupy a prominent place.
As one of the three principal systems of ecclesiastical polity known to the Christian Church, Presbyterianism occupies an intermediate position between episcopacy and congregationalism.
In episcopacy the supreme authority is a diocesan bishop; in congregationalism it is the members of the congregation assembled in church meeting; in Presbyterianism it is a church council composed of representative presbyters.
In episcopacy the control of church affairs is almost entirely withdrawn from the people; in congregationalism it is almost entirely exercised by the people; in Presbyterianism it rests with a council composed of duly appointed office-bearers chosen by the people.
The ecclesiastical unit in episcopacy is a diocese, comprising many churches and ruled by a prelate; in congregationalism it is a single church, self-governed and entirely independent of all others; in Presbyterianism it is a presbytery or council composed of ministers and elders representing all the churches within a specified district.
THE System Described As compared with the Church of England (Episcopal) in which there are three orders of clergy - bishops, priests and deacons, Order.
the Presbyterian Church recognizes but one spiritual order, viz.
The membership of a Presbyterian Church consists of all who are enrolled as communicants, together with their children.
The ordination and induction of elders in some branches of the Church is the act of the kirk-session; in others it is the act of the presbytery.
The kirk-session is the first of a series of councils or church courts which are an essential feature of Presbyterianism.
The kirk-session has oversight of the congregation in regard to such matters as the hours of public worship, the arrangements for administration of the sacraments, the admission of new Members and the exercise of church discipline.
The former are received of ter special instruction and profession of faith; the latter on presenting a certificate of church membership from the church which they have left.
The synod hears appeals and references from presbyteries; and by its discussions and decisions business of various kinds, if not settled, is ripened for consideration and final settlement by the general assembly, the supreme court of the Church.
The general assembly is representative of the whole Church, either, as in the Irish General Assembly, by a minister and elder sent direct to it from every congregation, or, as in the Scottish General Assemblies, by a proportion of dele- Assembly.
He takes precedence, Primus inter pares, of all the members, and is recognized as the official head of the Church during his term of office.
The general assembly reviews all the work of the Church; settles controversies; makes administrative laws; directs and stimulates missionary and other spiritual work; appoints professors of theology; admits to the ministry applicants from other churches; hears and decides complaints, references and appeals which have come up through the inferior courts; and takes cognizance of all matters connected with the Church's interests or with the general welfare of the people.
Though the jus divinum of presbytery is not now insisted upon as in some former times, Presbyterians claim that it is the church polity set forth in the New Testament.
With the sanction and under the guidance of the Apostles, officers called elders and deacons were appointed in every newly-formed church.'
Just as in the synagogue there was a plurality of rulers called elders, so there was in every Christian church a plurality of elders.
17, 28; "he sent and called for the elders of the church....
Probably the recognition and appointment of elders was simply the transfer from the synagogue to the Church of a usage which was regarded as essential among Jews; and the Gentile churches naturally followed the example of the Jewish Christians.
13 The elders thus chosen by the people and inducted to their office by the Apostles acted as a church court.
The latter would have required that the question should have been settled by the church at Antioch instead of being referred to Jerusalem.
But it shall not be so among you."From the foregoing outline it will be seen that Presbyterianism may be said to consist in the government of the Church by representative assemblies composed of the two classe s of presbyters, ministers and elders, and so p ?'
elders or bishops, are the highest permanent officers in the Church and are of equal rank; (3) that an outward and visible Church is one in the sense that a smaller part is controlled by a larger and all the parts by the whole.'9 Though Presbyterians are unanimous in adopting the general system of church polity as here outlined, and in claiming New 1 Phil.
When ministers and elders are associated in the membership of a church court their equality is admitted; no such idea as voting by orders is ever entertained.
Yet even in a church court inequality, generally speaking, is visible to the extent that an elder is not usually eligible for the moderator's chair.
The duty of teaching and of administering the sacraments and of always presiding in church courts being strictly reserved to him invests his office with a dignity and influence greater than that of the elder.
But in everything which concerns what is called discipline - the exercise of that jurisdiction over the people with which the office-bearers of the church are conceived to be invested, he is assisted by lay-elders.
They are laymen in that they have no right to teach or to dispense the sacraments, and on this account they fill an office in the Presbyterian Church inferior in rank and power to that of the pastors.
It is consistent with this view to argue the absolute parity of ministers and elders, conceding to all presbyters" equal right to teach, to rule, to administer the sacraments, to take part in the ordination of ministers, and to preside in church courts."The practice of the Presbyterian churches of the present day is in accord with the first-named theory.
In the initial stages of the Apostolic Church it was no doubt sufficient to have a plurality of presbyters with absolutely similar duties and powers.
of teaching, administering the sacraments, visiting the flock pastorally, and taking oversight, with his fellow elders, of all the interests of the church.
Another subject upon which there is a difference of opinion in the Presbyterian churches is the question of Church Establishments.
The lawfulness of Church Establishments with due qualifications is perhaps generally recognized in theory, but there is a growing tendency to regard connexion with the state as inexpedient, if not actually contrary to sound Presbyterian principle.
That principle is Spiritual in- equally opposed to Erastianism and to Papacy, to the civil power dominating the Church, and to the ecclesiastical power dominating the state.
Before the Reformation the Church would have had the last word; since that event the right and the duty of the civil power have been generally recognized.
By some it is said to have begun at the Reformation; by some it is traced back to the days of Israel in O Egypt; 2 by most, however, it is regarded as of later Jewish origin, and as having come into existence in its present form simultaneously with the formation of the Christian Church.
Ireland, Iona, the Culdees, &c.) from the early centuries of church history and throughout the medieval ages down to the Reformation of the 16th century.
The study of it shed floods of light upon all church questions.
He had no dream or vision of the Church's spiritual independence and prerogative.
In no sense can his" consistorial "system of church government be regarded as Presbyterian.
One is struck by the unanimity with which, working individually and often in lands far apart, Church.
They did not get their ideas of church polity from one another, but drew it directly from the New Testament.
They were unanimous in rejecting the episcopacy of the Church of Rome, the sanctity of celibacy, the sacerdotal character of the ministry, the confessional, the propitiatory nature of the mass.
They were unanimous in adopting the idea of a church in which all the members were priests under the Lord Jesus, the One High Priest and Ruler; the officers of which were not mediators between men and God, but preachers of One Mediator, Christ Jesus; not lords over God's heritage, but ensamples to the flock and ministers to render service.
They were unanimous in regarding ministerial service as mainly pastoral; preaching, administering the sacraments and visiting from house to house; and, further, in perceiving that Christian ministers must be also spiritual rulers, not in virtue of any magical influence transmitted from the Apostles, but in virtue of their election by the Church and of their appointment in the name of the Lord Jesus.
When the conclusions thus reached by many independent investigators were at length reduced to a system by Calvin, in his famous Institutio, it became the definite ideal of church government for all the Reformed, in contradistinction to the Lutheran, churches.
Yet we do not find that the leaders of the Reformed Church succeeded in establishing at once a fully-developed Presbyterian polity.
municipal jealousy of church power.
Any attempt on the part of the Church to exercise discipline was resented as an intrusion.
Even, therefore, where people desired the Reformation there were powerful influences opposed to the setting up of church government and to the exercise of church discipline after the manner of the apostolic Church; and one ceases to wonder at the absence of complete Presbyterianism in the countries which were forward to embrace and adopt the Reformation.
Its evolution and the thorough application of its principles to actual church life came later, not in Saxony or Switzerland, but in France and Scotland; and through Scotland it has passed to all English-speaking lands.
There is nothing in the standards of the Presbyterian Church against liturgical worship.
The psalms rendered into metre were formerly the only vehicle of the Church's public praise, but hymns are now also used in most Presbyterian churches.'
Choirs of male and female voices now lead the church praise.
A code of instructions for the guidance of church courts when engaged in cases of discipline is in general use, and bears witness to the extreme care taken not only to have things done decently and in order, but also to prevent hasty, impulsive and illogical procedure in the investigation of charges of heresy or immorality.
Scotland, as the history is fully covered under the separate headings of Church of Scotland, and allied articles.
management of their church affairs.
The first reforms he wished to see introduced concerned the Lord's Supper, church praise, religious instruction of youth and the regulation of marriage.
In 1538 the ministers took upon themselves to refuse to administer the Lord's Supper in Geneva because the city, as represented by its council, declined to submit to church discipline.
It may be convenient at this point to consider Calvin's ideal church polity, as set forth in his famous Christianae religionis institutio, the first edition of which was published in 1536.
His system, while preserving the democratic theory by recognizing the congregation as holding the church power, was in practice strictly aristocratic inasmuch as the congregation is never allowed any direct use of power, which is invested in the whole body of elders.
With regard to the relations between the Church and the civil power, Calvin was opposed to the Zwinglian theory whereby all ecclesiastical power was handed over to the state.
It was felt to be a political necessity that he should return, and in 1541, somewhat reluctantly, he returned on his own terms. These were the recognition of the Church's spiritual independence, the division of the town into parishes, and the appointment (by the municipal authority) of a consistory or council of elders in each parish for the exercise of discipline.
By them he was to be ordained, after vowing to be true in office, faithful to the church system, obedient to the laws and to the civil government, and ready to exercise discipline without fear or favour.
They were the bond of union between Church and state.
The early Presbyterianism of Switzerland was defective in the following respects: (1) It started from a wrong definition of the Church, which, instead of being conceived as an organized community of believers in the Lord Jesus Christ, was made to depend upon the preaching of the gospel and the administration of the sacraments.
He gave its Church a trained ministry, its homes an educated people who could give a reason for their faith, and the whole city an heroic soul which enabled the little town to stand forth as the citadel and city of refuge for the oppressed Protestants of Europe."
After prayer the company constituted themselves into a church: chose Jean le Macon to be their minister, and others of their number to be elders and deacons.
In 1558 a further stage in the development of Presbyterian church polity was reached.
Some doctrinal differences having arisen in the church at Poitiers, Antoine de Chandieu, First minister at Paris, went to compose them, and, as the General .
It was the first general synod of the French Protestant Church, and consisted of representatives from, some say sixty-six, others, twelve churches.
It was based on a short confession drafted by Calvin in 1557, and may still be regarded, though once or twice revised, as the confession of the French Protestant Church.
The various church courts, familiar to us now as Presbyterian, are explained.
Next in order was the provincial synod which consisted of a minister and an elder or deacon from each church in the province.
When a church was first formed the office bearers were elected by the people, but there the power of the congregation ceased.
When the ministry of a church became vacant the choice of a successor rested with the colloque or with the provincial synod.
The president or moderator of each church court was Primus inter pares.
The remarkable feature of French church polity was its aristocratic nature, which it owed to the system of co-optation; and the exclusion of the congregation from direct and frequent interference in spiritual matters prevented many evils which result from too much intermeddling on the part of the laity.
Up to 1565 the national synod consisted of a minister with one or two elders or deacons from every church; after that date, to avoid overcrowding, its numbers were restricted to representatives from each provincial synod.
` It is interesting to see how in a country whose civil rule was becoming gradually more absolutist, this ` Church under the cross' framed for itself a government which reconciled, more thoroughly perhaps than has ever been done since, the two principles of popular rights and supreme control.
Under the protection of the edict the Huguenot Church of France flourished.
The history of the Church from the passing of the edict of Nantes till its revocation in 1685 cannot be given here.
In momentary peril of death for fifteen years, he restored in the Vivarais and the Cevennes Presbyterian church polity in all its integrity.
In 1562 the Confessio belgica was publicly acknowledged, and in 1563 the church order was arranged.
The Reformed churches had established themselves in independence of the state when that state was Catholic; when the government became Protestant the Church had protection and at the same time became dependent.
It was a state church.
In most cases it was insisted on as necessary that church discipline should remain with the civil authority.
These articles, however, never came into operation; and the decisions of the synod of Dort in 1578, which made the Church independent were equally fruitless.
In 1581 the Middelburg Synod divided the Church, created provincial synods and presbyteries, but could not shake off the civil power in connexion with the choice of church officers.
The congregation chooses all the officers, and these form a church council.
In 1570 Presbyterian views found a distinguished exponent in Dr Thomas Cartwright at Cambridge; and the temper of parliament was shown by the act of 1571, for the reform of disorders in the Church, in which, while all mention of doctrine is omitted, the doctrinal articles alone being sanctioned, ordination without a bishop is implicitly recognized.
Cartwright and Edmund Snape were ministers there; and from 1576 to 1625 a completely appointed Presbyterian Church existed, under the rule of synods, and authorized by the governor.
In 1640 Henderson, Baillie, Blair and Gillespie came to London as commissioners from the General Assembly in Scotland, in response to a request from ministers in London who desired to see the Church of England more closely modelled after the Reformed type.
The West minster Assembly, through its Confession, Directory and Catechisms, has become so associated with the Presbyterian Church that it is difficult to realize that it was not a church court at all, much less a creation of Presbyterianism.
It was a council created by parliament to give advice in church matters at a great crisis in the nation's history; but its acts, though from the high character and great learning of its members worthy of deepest respect, did not per se bind parliament or indeed anyone.
The ministers were mostly Puritans; by their ordination, &c., Episcopalian; and for the most part strongly impressed with the desirability of nearer agreement with the Church of Scotland, and other branches of the Reformed Church on the Continent.
Episcopacy, Erastianism and Independency, though of little account in the assembly, were to bulk largely in England's future; while the church polity which the assembly favoured and recommended was to be almost unknown.
Then with the Restoration came Episcopacy, and the persecution of all who were not Episcopalians; and the dream and vision of a truly Reformed English Church practically passed away.
In 1876 the union of the Presbyterian Church in England with the English congregations of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland gathered all English Presbyterians (with some exceptions) into one church, "The Presbyterian 1876.
Church of England."
1 Since the union the growth of the Church has been considerable.
To English people, therefore, the Presbyterian is still the "Scotch Church," and they are as a whole slow to connect themselves with it.
Efforts have been made to counteract this feeling by making the Church more distinctly English.
Following the lead of the Independents, who set up Mansfield College at Oxford, the Presbyterian Church has founded Westminster College at Cambridge as a substitute for its Theological Hall in London.
In common with the general Presbyterianism of the British Isles, the Presbyterian Church of England has in recent years been readjusting its relation to the Westminster Confession of Faith.
Without setting aside the Confession as the church's standard, twenty-four "Articles of the Faith" have been adopted.
There are in England fourteen congregations in connexion with the Church of Scotland, six of them in London and the remainder in Berwick, Northumberland, Carlisle and Lancashire.
The infusion of a considerable Scottish element into the population necessitated the formation of a congenial church.
The immigrants from England took with them, in like manner, their attachment to the Episcopal Church.
Within the Episcopal Church and supported by its endowments, Robert Blair, John Livingstone and other ministers maintained a Scottish Presbyterian communion.
By the end of 1643 the Ulster Church was fairly established.
Entire conformity with the Scottish Church was maintained, and strict discipline was enforced by pastoral visitations, kirk-sessions and presbyteries.
Under Ormonde, in 1665, ministers were again permitted to revive Presbyterian worship and discipline, and for several years the Church.
Under the leadership of Dr Henry Cooke, a minister of rare ability and eloquence, the evangelical party triumphed in the church courts, and the Unitarians seceded and became a separate denomination.
In 1840 the Synod of Ulster and the Secession Synod united to form the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.
The Presbyterian Church in Ireland is the most conservative of the great Presbyterian churches in the United Kingdom.
The Church Act of 186g which disestablished and disendowed the Irish Episcopal Church took away the Presbyterian regium donum.
The ministers with all but absolute unanimity decided to commute their life-interest and form therewith a great fund for the support of the Church.
The Irish Presbyterian Church has set an example to all her sister churches by her forwardness to care for the poor.
Her "Presbyterian Orphan Society" undertakes the support of every poor orphan child throughout the Church.
the Reformed Presbyterian Church, with thirty-six; the Eastern Reformed, with six; and the Secession.
Church, with ten congregations.
The Presbyterian Church of Wales, commonly known as the "Calvinistic Methodist," had its origin in the great evangelical revival of the 18th century.
As far as the difference in language will permit, there is cordial fellowship and co-operation with the Presbyterian Church of England.
The Charleston church alone of these early churches maintains its independence of any American denomination.
English Puritans emigrated under the auspices of the Virginia Company to the Bermudas in 1612; and in 1617 a Presbyterian Church, governed by ministers and four elders, was established there by Lewis Hughes, who used the liturgy of the isles of Guernsey and Jersey.