According to Maass, he was a chthonian deity, the counterpart of Dionysus, with whom he is closely connected; J.
Various interpretations have been given of the horse-headed form of the Black Demeter: (I) that the horse was one of the forms of the corn-spirit in ancient Greece; (2) that it was an animal " devoted " to the chthonian goddess; (3) that it is totemistic; (4) that the form was adopted from Poseidon Hippios, who is frequently associated with the earth-goddess and is said to have received the name Hippios first at Thelpusa, in order that Demeter might figure as the mother of Areion (for a discussion of the whole subject see Farnell, Cults, iii.
As a chthonian divinity she is accompanied by a snake; the myrtle, asphodel and narcissus (which Persephone was gathering when carried off by Hades) also are sacred to her.
The cult of the heroes exhibits points of resemblance with that of the chthonian divinities and of the dead, but differs from that of the ordinary gods, a further indication that they were not " depotentiated " gods.
The chthonian aspect of the hero is further shown by his attribute the snake, and in many cases he appears under that form himself.
The conductor of souls was naturally a chthonian god; at Athens there was a festival.
He is a god of storms; a god of light or a solar god; a chthonian god, one of the deities of the subterranean world, who could bring prosperity as well as ruin upon men, although in time his destructive qualities obscured the others.
385) points to the conquest of this chthonian destroyer of the fields by the arts of peace, especially agriculture, of which the grain-fed sons of Aloeus (the thresher) are the personification.
Fougeres, Mantinee et l'Arcadie orientate (1898), according to whom Odysseus is an Arcadian chthonian divinity and Penelope a goddess of flocks and herds, akin to the Arcadian Artemis; S.
As a chthonian power, she is worshipped at the Samothracian mysteries, and is closely connected with Demeter.
Black puppies and she-lambs (black victims being offered to chthonian deities) were also sacrificed (Schol.
nameless, is the symbol of the old chthonian divinity whose home was the place of "enquiry" (irvOEuOac).
His chief attribute as a chthonian god was a snake, the symbol of the yearly renovation of the life of nature.
Those joining in the procession wore garlands of hyacinth, which seems to attribute a chthonian character to the ceremony, although it may also have been connected with agriculture (see S.
Some regard the legend as a chthonian myth, Aea (Colchis) being the under-world in the Aeolic religious system from which Jason liberates himself and his betrothed; others, in view of certain resemblances between the story of Jason and that of Cadmus (the ploughing of the field, the sowing of the dragon's teeth, the fight with the Sparti, who are finally set fighting with one another by a stone hurled into their midst), associate both with Demeter the corn-goddess, and refer certain episodes to practices in use at country festivals, e.g.
Farnell, who regards Artemis as originally an earth-goddess, while recognizing a "genuine lunar element" in Hecate from the 5th century, considers her a chthonian rather than a lunar divinity (see also Warr in Classical Review, ix.
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