The chronology is not absolutely certain.
The chronology of the last part of his reign is uncertain.
1 - The later chronology of Assyria has long been fixed, thanks to the lists of limmi, or archons, who gave their names in succession to their years of office.
Inconsistencies, its errors of chronology and topography, its poetical colour, and its living descriptions of battles.
We are quite ignorant as to the date of Zoroaster; King Vishtaspa does not seem to have any place in any historical chronology, and the Gathas give no hint on the subject.
Though little is known of his life and the chronology is uncertain, yet Aristodemus may fairly be regarded as a historical character.
Thorpe gives, without explanations, the insertions of an ill-informed Gloucester monk who has obscured the accurate chronology of the original.
He soon learned to call to his aid the subsidiary sciences of geography and chronology, and before he was quite capable of reading them had already attempted to weigh in his childish balance the competing systems of Scaliger and Petavius, of Marsham and Newton.
Like that of other Byzantine writers, Chalcondyles' chronology is defective, and his adherence to the old Greek geographical nomenclature is a source of confusion.
Swan's measurements, which had misled Bent into accepting a chronology based on a supposed orientation of the "temple," had been shown to be inexact.
The chronology of his period is uncertain: the usual date, 1055-1015 B.C., is probably 1 See further the third edition of Schrader's Keilinschr.
The ordinarily received chronology makes Alexander reach the Kabul valley in the winter of 330-329.
In 1622, however, he was appointed professor of rhetoric and chronology, and subsequently of Greek, in the university.
To the latter category it is now possible to refer with certainty only the Etruscans (for the chronology and limits of their occupation of Italian soil see ETRURIA: section Language).
In this section an attempt is made to indicate briefly the causes which have led to so great a diversity of opinion, and to describe in outline the principles underlying the chief schemes of chronology that have been suggested; a short account will then be given of the latest discoveries in this branch of research, and of the manner in which they affect the problems at issue.
About this time (the exact chronology is uncertain) Ethelstan expelled Sihtric's brother Guthfrith, destroyed the Danish fortress at York, received the submission of the Welsh at Hereford, fixing their boundary along the line of the Wye, and drove the Cornishmen west of the Tamar, fortifying Exeter as an English city.
Even for northern affairs his chronology is faulty; from 1140 onwards his dates are uniformly one year too late.
The date of the conquest by Carthage may perhaps be fixed at about 500-480 B.e., following the chronology of Justin Martyr (xviii.
This is a pure supposition inconsistent with chronology, and based only on a misinterpretation of a passage in an old book.
To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories which even before, though especially after, the appearance of the Constitution of Athens have been propounded as to the chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible.
The eleven years which elapsed between the murder of Amnon and the revolt would seem to disprove any connexion between the two; the chronology may rest upon the tradition that Solomon was twelve years old when he came to the throne.
It is known that before the Opus Majus Bacon had already written some tracts, among which an unpublished work, Computus Naturalium, on chronology, belongs probably to the year 1263; while, if the dedication of the De Secretis Operibus be authentic, that short treatise must have been composed before 1249.
For the chronology of the controversy see Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II.
The first class comprises works on grammar, one on natural phenomena, and two on chronology and the calendar.
Sometimes Clement discusses chronology, sometimes philosophy, sometimes poetry, entering into the most minute critical and chronological details; but one object runs through all, and this is to show what the true Christian Gnostic is, and what is his relation to philosophy.
He devoted his youth to the study of history, chronology, mathematics, astronomy, philosophy and medicine.
Parker, Landmarks of Albany County (Syracuse, 1897); and Cuyler Reynolds, Albany Chronicles; or Albany Mayors and Contemporaneous Chronology (Albany, 1907).
Assyrian chronology is, therefore, certain from 911 B.C. to 666, and an eclipse of the sun which is stated to have been visible in the month Sivan, 763 B.C., is one that has been calculated to have taken place on the 15th of June of that year.
II.), by means of which Assyrian chronology is fixed from 911 B.C. to 666 B.C., the solar eclipse of June 15th, 763 B.C., which is recorded in the eponymy of Pur-Sagale, placing the dead reckoning for these later periods upon an absolutely certain basis.
By the lastnamed he finally exploded a fallacy which had up to that time vitiated the chronology of contemporary Egyptologists.
He died in 1658 (1068), having written a great number of learned works on history, biography, chronology, geography and other subjects.
(East Siberia); Scheglov, Chronology of Sib.
Yet another expedition in 839 would seem to 2 See for chronology, Babylonia And Assyria, §§ v.
On points of chronology, and on the relations between the crusaders and their Mahommedan neighbours, W.
Owing to the absence of dated records, the chronology of these invasions has not yet been set beyond dispute, but the most important was that of the Kushans, whose king Kanishka founded a state which comprised northern India and Kashmir.
These serve to fix the chronology, which is here as everywhere quite in accordance with the dates of the canon of Ptolemy.
His chronology is, for a contemporary, inexact; and he occasionally inserts duplicate versions of the same incident in different places.
This variety of opinion is due to the fact that the data available for settling the chronology often conflict with one another, or are capable of more than one interpretation.
As regards chronology he is not very trustworthy; on the other hand, his moderation towards opponents, not excepting Cyril, deserves recognition.
In the great majority of cases the chronology of their composition, as far as the year is concerned, presents no difficulties; more precise assignments are mainly conjectural.
For the chronology of the end of the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes and the Maccabaean revolt, see a paper by J.
Some contracts dating from his reign have been found in Babylonia, where his name is spelt Barziya (for the chronology cf.
Sachau (Leipzig, 1878), and a translation into English under the title The Chronology of Ancient Nations (London, 1879).
A papal diploma, still extant, shows that Count Borel and Bishop Octo or Otho of Ausona were at Rome in January 971, and, as all the other indications point to a corresponding year, enables us to fix the chronology of Gerbert's later life.
Chronology is against this hypothesis, since Louis and she lived on good terms together for two years after the Crusade.
From the Arabic point of view the life of Richard's rival, Saladin, is described by Beha-ud-din, a high official under Saladin, who writes a panegyric on his master, somewhat confused in chronology and partial in its sympathies, but nevertheless of great value.
On the chronology and genuineness of the works commonly ascribed to Bede, see Plummer's ed., i., cxlv-clix.
Thus all historians are agreed with regard to the Babylonian chronology back to the year 747 B.C., and with regard to that of Assyria back to the year 911 B.C. It is in respect of the periods anterior to these two dates that different writers have propounded differing systems of chronology, and, as might be imagined, the earlier the period we examine the greater becomes the discrepancy between the systems proposed.
" The subsidiary rays of medals and inscriptions, of geography and chronology, were thrown on their proper objects; and I applied the collections of Tillemont, whose inimitable accuracy almost assumes the character of genius, to fix and arrange within my reach the loose and scattered atoms of historical information."
There is considerable difference of opinion as to the chronology of the succeeding beds, and the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary systems is drawn at various horizons by different observers.
Kaerst and Beloch continue to give the ordinary chronology untroubled.