Chronology sentence example

chronology
  • The chronology is not absolutely certain.
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  • The chronology of the last part of his reign is uncertain.
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  • 1 - The later chronology of Assyria has long been fixed, thanks to the lists of limmi, or archons, who gave their names in succession to their years of office.
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  • Though little is known of his life and the chronology is uncertain, yet Aristodemus may fairly be regarded as a historical character.
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  • inconsistencies, its errors of chronology and topography, its poetical colour, and its living descriptions of battles.
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  • The chronology of his period is uncertain: the usual date, 1055-1015 B.C., is probably 1 See further the third edition of Schrader's Keilinschr.
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  • We are quite ignorant as to the date of Zoroaster; King Vishtaspa does not seem to have any place in any historical chronology, and the Gathas give no hint on the subject.
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  • In 1622, however, he was appointed professor of rhetoric and chronology, and subsequently of Greek, in the university.
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  • In this section an attempt is made to indicate briefly the causes which have led to so great a diversity of opinion, and to describe in outline the principles underlying the chief schemes of chronology that have been suggested; a short account will then be given of the latest discoveries in this branch of research, and of the manner in which they affect the problems at issue.
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  • He devoted his youth to the study of history, chronology, mathematics, astronomy, philosophy and medicine.
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  • Like that of other Byzantine writers, Chalcondyles' chronology is defective, and his adherence to the old Greek geographical nomenclature is a source of confusion.
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  • Thorpe gives, without explanations, the insertions of an ill-informed Gloucester monk who has obscured the accurate chronology of the original.
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  • The ordinarily received chronology makes Alexander reach the Kabul valley in the winter of 330-329.
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  • The first class comprises works on grammar, one on natural phenomena, and two on chronology and the calendar.
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  • He soon learned to call to his aid the subsidiary sciences of geography and chronology, and before he was quite capable of reading them had already attempted to weigh in his childish balance the competing systems of Scaliger and Petavius, of Marsham and Newton.
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  • For the chronology of the controversy see Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II.
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  • II.), by means of which Assyrian chronology is fixed from 911 B.C. to 666 B.C., the solar eclipse of June 15th, 763 B.C., which is recorded in the eponymy of Pur-Sagale, placing the dead reckoning for these later periods upon an absolutely certain basis.
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  • Swan's measurements, which had misled Bent into accepting a chronology based on a supposed orientation of the "temple," had been shown to be inexact.
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  • To the latter category it is now possible to refer with certainty only the Etruscans (for the chronology and limits of their occupation of Italian soil see ETRURIA: section Language).
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  • By the lastnamed he finally exploded a fallacy which had up to that time vitiated the chronology of contemporary Egyptologists.
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  • Even for northern affairs his chronology is faulty; from 1140 onwards his dates are uniformly one year too late.
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  • (East Siberia); Scheglov, Chronology of Sib.
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  • The eleven years which elapsed between the murder of Amnon and the revolt would seem to disprove any connexion between the two; the chronology may rest upon the tradition that Solomon was twelve years old when he came to the throne.
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  • On the chronology and genuineness of the works commonly ascribed to Bede, see Plummer's ed., i., cxlv-clix.
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  • The date of the conquest by Carthage may perhaps be fixed at about 500-480 B.e., following the chronology of Justin Martyr (xviii.
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  • Assyrian chronology is, therefore, certain from 911 B.C. to 666, and an eclipse of the sun which is stated to have been visible in the month Sivan, 763 B.C., is one that has been calculated to have taken place on the 15th of June of that year.
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  • To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories which even before, though especially after, the appearance of the Constitution of Athens have been propounded as to the chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible.
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  • It is known that before the Opus Majus Bacon had already written some tracts, among which an unpublished work, Computus Naturalium, on chronology, belongs probably to the year 1263; while, if the dedication of the De Secretis Operibus be authentic, that short treatise must have been composed before 1249.
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  • On points of chronology, and on the relations between the crusaders and their Mahommedan neighbours, W.
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  • This is a pure supposition inconsistent with chronology, and based only on a misinterpretation of a passage in an old book.
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  • He died in 1658 (1068), having written a great number of learned works on history, biography, chronology, geography and other subjects.
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  • Parker, Landmarks of Albany County (Syracuse, 1897); and Cuyler Reynolds, Albany Chronicles; or Albany Mayors and Contemporaneous Chronology (Albany, 1907).
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  • Thus all historians are agreed with regard to the Babylonian chronology back to the year 747 B.C., and with regard to that of Assyria back to the year 911 B.C. It is in respect of the periods anterior to these two dates that different writers have propounded differing systems of chronology, and, as might be imagined, the earlier the period we examine the greater becomes the discrepancy between the systems proposed.
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  • There is considerable difference of opinion as to the chronology of the succeeding beds, and the boundary between the Cretaceous and Tertiary systems is drawn at various horizons by different observers.
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  • Sometimes Clement discusses chronology, sometimes philosophy, sometimes poetry, entering into the most minute critical and chronological details; but one object runs through all, and this is to show what the true Christian Gnostic is, and what is his relation to philosophy.
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  • In the great majority of cases the chronology of their composition, as far as the year is concerned, presents no difficulties; more precise assignments are mainly conjectural.
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  • These serve to fix the chronology, which is here as everywhere quite in accordance with the dates of the canon of Ptolemy.
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  • About this time (the exact chronology is uncertain) Ethelstan expelled Sihtric's brother Guthfrith, destroyed the Danish fortress at York, received the submission of the Welsh at Hereford, fixing their boundary along the line of the Wye, and drove the Cornishmen west of the Tamar, fortifying Exeter as an English city.
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  • Yet another expedition in 839 would seem to 2 See for chronology, Babylonia And Assyria, §§ v.
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  • His chronology is, for a contemporary, inexact; and he occasionally inserts duplicate versions of the same incident in different places.
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  • For the chronology of the end of the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes and the Maccabaean revolt, see a paper by J.
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  • A papal diploma, still extant, shows that Count Borel and Bishop Octo or Otho of Ausona were at Rome in January 971, and, as all the other indications point to a corresponding year, enables us to fix the chronology of Gerbert's later life.
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  • Owing to the absence of dated records, the chronology of these invasions has not yet been set beyond dispute, but the most important was that of the Kushans, whose king Kanishka founded a state which comprised northern India and Kashmir.
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  • This variety of opinion is due to the fact that the data available for settling the chronology often conflict with one another, or are capable of more than one interpretation.
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  • Some contracts dating from his reign have been found in Babylonia, where his name is spelt Barziya (for the chronology cf.
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  • From the Arabic point of view the life of Richard's rival, Saladin, is described by Beha-ud-din, a high official under Saladin, who writes a panegyric on his master, somewhat confused in chronology and partial in its sympathies, but nevertheless of great value.
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  • Kaerst and Beloch continue to give the ordinary chronology untroubled.
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  • As regards chronology he is not very trustworthy; on the other hand, his moderation towards opponents, not excepting Cyril, deserves recognition.
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  • Sachau (Leipzig, 1878), and a translation into English under the title The Chronology of Ancient Nations (London, 1879).
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  • " The subsidiary rays of medals and inscriptions, of geography and chronology, were thrown on their proper objects; and I applied the collections of Tillemont, whose inimitable accuracy almost assumes the character of genius, to fix and arrange within my reach the loose and scattered atoms of historical information."
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  • Chronology is against this hypothesis, since Louis and she lived on good terms together for two years after the Crusade.
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  • At that time, the medieval monk who reconstructed the chronology got it slightly wrong.
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  • chronology compiled by Peter Todd.
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  • The chronology of these years down to 449 is not quite certain.
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  • Egyptian chronology is unfortunately imperfect; but Professor Petrie, who has paid particular attention to the subject, and who assigns the reign of Amen-hotep IV.
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  • On the whole no certain chronology of this period is at present attainable.'
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  • He writes about it sensitively, with due modesty and a sensible regard for the precise chronology, the details, the sensations.
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  • Tephra analysis was carried out in order to observe possible isochrones, which were then used to form a relative chronology.
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  • Frankly, it is suspicious and looks dishonorable, but the deceit supports the revised chronology even tho only by default.
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  • Firstly, establishing a chronology is essential to his argument.
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  • A charter - possibly spurious - contradicts the accepted chronology of the marriages of his wife, Eleanor de Vitré .
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  • John Garstang was the first to employ modern pottery chronology to explore this biblical site.
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  • Fortnight magazine's monthly chronology of ' the Troubles ' .
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  • chronology of events appeared in the Evening Mail of December 13th 1974.
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  • The chronology of these conflicts seems to be a chronology of these conflicts seems to be a chronology of the main works of Marx and Engels.
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  • chronology of human history is full of gaps.
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  • chronology of this period is not entirely new.
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  • cut-and-paste chronology style, gives you one event at a time sequentially.
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  • evolved from primate ancestors, the quest for the chronology of events was on.
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  • fortnight magazine 's monthly chronology of ' the Troubles ' .
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  • magazine's monthly chronology of ' the Troubles ' .
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  • Such interviews tend to be structured around the chronology of the life course, but are otherwise relatively open-ended.
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  • radiocarbon chronology obtained from wood charcoal recovered in two different shafts.
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  • It may be noted, in confirmation of this view, that the naval supremacy of Aegina is assigned by the ancient writers on chronology to precisely this period, i.e.
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  • In the same year he was deprived of his proconsulship and his property confiscated; subsequently (the chronology is obscure, see Mommsen, History of Rome, bk.
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  • He narrates that, when the Medes had rebelled against the Assyrians and gained their independence about 710 B.C., according to his chronology (cf.
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  • This is a pure supposition inconsistent with chronology, and based only on a misinterpretation of a passage in the De Consolatione.
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  • These figures speak for themselves, and the present chronology can be accepted only where it is independently proved to be trustworthy (see further W.
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  • in chronology and transliteration) by the work of other scholars (see, e.g.
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  • Nor was he (apart from his reception of legendary elements into his narrative) unworthy of the honour in which he was held; for he is really a great historian, in the form of his matter and in his conception of his subject - diligent, impartial, well-informed and interesting, if somewhat rhetorical in style and vague in chronology.
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  • He ordered Jerusalem to be rebuilt (see Jerusalem) under the name of Aelia Capitolina, and made his way through Arabia to Egypt, where he restored 1 The chronology of Hadrian's journeys - indeed, of the whole reign - is confused and obscure.
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  • In the administration of finance, in addition to the remission of arrears already mentioned, a revision of claims was ordered to be made every fifteen years, thereby anticipating the "indictions" (see Calendar; Chronology).
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  • Its chronology agrees frequently with the LXX.
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  • (See Bible, Old Testament, Chronology; the article "Chronology" in the Encyclopaedia Biblica; and cf.
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  • If the text were complete we should probably be in possession of the system of Babylonian chronology current in the NeoBabylonian period from which our principal classical authorities (see sect.
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  • closed by means of the synchronisms and certain of the later chronological references, have accepted the figures of the Kings' List for the earlier dynasties, ignoring their apparent inconsistencies with the system of Berossus and with the chronology of Nabonidus.
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  • A comparison of the principal schemes of chronology that have been propounded may be made by means of the preceding table.
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  • Perhaps no single statement could more vividly emphasize the change in the point of view from which scholars regard the chronology of ancient history than the citation of this indisputable fact.
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  • On the other hand, the ambiguity may be quite unintentional, for the Hebrew writers were notoriously lacking in the true historical sense, which shows itself in a full appreciation of the value of chronology.
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  • On the other hand, the discrepancies as to details, the confusion as to exact chronology, the manifest prejudice and partizanship, and the obvious limitations of knowledge make it clear that the writers partook in full measure of the shortcomings of other historians, and that their work must be adjudged by ordinary historical standards.
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  • In the article Calendar (q.v.), that part of chronology is treated which relates to the measurement of time, and the principal methods are explained that have been employed, or are still in use, for adjusting the lunar months of the solar year, as well as the intercalations necessary for regulating the civil year according to the celestial motions.
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  • It is demonstrable by various passages in the works and letters that he never looked upon the Wissenschaftslehre as containing the whole system; it is clear from the chronology of his writings that the modifications supposed to be due to other thinkers were from the first implicit in his theory; and if one fairly traces the course of thought in the early writings, one can see how he was inevitably led on to the statement of the later and, at first sight, divergent views.
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  • This catena of time-references is of course unique in the Gospels as a basis for a chronology of the ministry; and it is not reasonable to doubt (with Loisy, loc. cit., who suggests that the aim was to produce an artificial correspondence of a three and a half years' ministry with the half-week of Daniel; but many and diverse as are the early interpretations of Daniel's seventy weeks, no one before Eusebius thought of connecting the half-week with the ministry), that the evangelist intended these notices as definite historical data, possibly for the correction of the looser synoptic narratives and of the erroneous impressions to which they had given rise.
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  • and versions; but it has been argued by Hort (in Westcott's and Hort's New Testament in Greek, appendix, pp. 77-81) that four ancient authorities omitted the words, and that their omission simplifies the whole chronology, since " the feast " which was " near " in vi.
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  • Eusebius adopted and popularized this date, which fell in with his own system of Gospel chronology, but of the year 33 as the date of the Passion there is no vestige in Christian tradition before the 4th century.
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  • The rising of Sothis (Sirius) at the beginning of the inundation was a particularly important point to fix in the yearly calendar (see below, Chronology).
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  • Manetho indicates marvellous crowding for the XIIIth and XIVth Dynasties, but it seems better to suggest a total duration of ~oo or 400 years for the whole period than to adopt Meyers estimate of about 210 years (see above, Chronology).
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  • His birth coincided with the opening year of the 10th century of Mussulman chronology (A.H.
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  • From all periods of the world - from medieval piety and stoical pride, Kant and Sophocles, science and art, religion and philosophy - with disdain of mere chronology, Hegel gathers in the vineyards of the human spirit the grapes from which he crushes the wine of thought.
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  • With incredible patience, sometimes with a happy audacity of conjecture which itself is almost genius, he succeeded in reconstructing the lost Chronicle of Eusebiusone of the most precious remains of antiquity, and of the highest value for ancient chronology.
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  • Chronology and palaeography were placed on a new footing by Dom Bernard de Montfaucon's Palaeographia graeca (1708), the monumental Art de verifier les dates (3rd ed., 1818-1831, in 38 vols.), and the Nouveau Traite de diplomatique (175° - 1765) of Dom Tassin and Dom Toustain.
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  • On the whole, the scheme of Archbishop Usher, who computed that the earth and man were created in 4004 B.C., was the most popular (see Chronology).
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  • The most recent work of Egyptologists proves a systematic civilization to have existed in the valley of the Nile at least 6000 to 7000 years ago (see Chronology).
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  • The zodiacal constellations have an interest peculiarly their own; placed in or about the plane of the ecliptic, their rising and setting with the sun was observed with relation to weather changes and the more general subject of chronology, the twelve subdivisions of the year being correlated with the twelve divisions of the ecliptic (see Zodiac).
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  • A preliminary fluvial chronology has been established through the use of a simple thermoluminescence screening on sherds (Deckers et al.
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  • He is now writing Cassell 's Chronology of World History and its companion volume - A Short Guide to World history.
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  • The deluxe version of Legacy Family tree provides research guidance, extensive mapping, access to location databases and chronology reports.
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  • No deductions as to their chronology can be based on the silence regarding them in Moses' song, Exodus xv.
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  • Chronology.
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  • (See Crete.) (I) Chronology.
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  • His chronology is fantastic and incredible; William of Newburgh justly remarks that, if we accepted the events which Geoffrey relates, we should have to suppose that they had happened in another world.
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  • CHRONOLOGY (Gr.
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  • The compiler is strongly imbued with the spirit of Deuteronomy; and the object of his comments is partly to exhibit the chronology of the period as he conceived it, partly to state his theory of the religious history of the time.
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  • But the evidence of the Continental Chronicles makes it probable that the Saxon Chronicle is a year in advance of the true chronology in this part.
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  • Chronology of the Events In the IDF's Operation Summer Rains in the Gaza Strip following the abduction of Cpl.
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  • For some streets it has been possible to identify research material which allows a fairly accurate chronology to be developed.
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  • Once it was accepted that humans had evolved from primate ancestors, the quest for the chronology of events was on.
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  • This paper is a chronology of recent successes in producing artificial Aurora, which have features unique to high latitudes.
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  • The two men also shared a keen common interest in natural history, astronomy, and the history of religion -- particularly biblical chronology.
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  • Figure 4. Calibrated radiocarbon chronology obtained from wood charcoal recovered in two different shafts.
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  • chronology on date1, date2 and date3 when bruising was noted.
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  • It is time they were properly dated to the eighth century and the Egyptian chronology corrected to match.
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  • We cannot dismiss a priori biblical chronology simply by assuming genealogical gaps.
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  • The absolute chronology of this western chamber must wait upon the Oxford AMS dates currently in progress.
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  • In conventional chronology, the rebellion looks likely to have been that led by Jesus.
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  • In preparing this chronology we have encountered a number of difficulties.
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  • reconstructed the chronology got it slightly wrong.
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  • Topographical and geophysical survey, surface collection and geochemical sampling were used to further investigate the topography and chronology of the site.
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  • A similar type of chronology applies to the other pioneering area for thrust tectonics - the NW Highlands of Scotland.
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  • He is now writing Cassell's Chronology of World History and its companion volume - A Short Guide to World history.
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  • For the understanding of these great wars between Syria and Israel (which the traditional chronology spreads over eighty years), for the significance of the crushing defeats and inspiring victories, and for the alternations of despair and hope, a careful study of all the records of relations between Israel and the north is at least instructive, and it is important to remember that, although the present historical outlines are scanty and incomplete, some - if not all - of the analogous descriptions in their present form are certainly later than the second half of the 9th century B.C., the period in which these great events fa11.4 13.
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  • For the views of other writers on the chronology, see § viii., Chronological Systems. The Babylonian Dynasties from cir.
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  • II.) gives a list of the Babylonian, Assyrian and Persian kings who ruled in Babylon, together with the number of years each of them reigned, from the accession of Nabonassar in 747 B.C. to the conquest of Babylon by Alexander the Great in 331 B.C. The accuracy of this list is confirmed by the larger List of Kings and by the principal Babylonian Chronicle; the latter, like the Canon, begins with the reign of Nabonassar, who, it has been suggested, may have revised the calendar and have inaugurated a new epoch for the later chronology.
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  • When revising his scheme of chronology in 1900, Rost abandoned his suggested emendation of Sennacherib's figure, but by decreasing his reduction of the length of Dynasty III., he only altered his date for the beginning of Dynasty I.
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  • 3 In his revised scheme of chronology, published in 1903, 4 Lehmann-Haupt retained his emendation of Sennacherib's figure, and was in his turn influenced by Marquart's method of reconciling the dynasties of Berossus with the Kings' List.
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  • But even by postulating the highest possible dates for he Dynasties of Babylon and Ur, enormous gaps occurred in he scheme of chronology, which were unrepresented by any ro al name or record.
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  • (For the chronology see further under Babylonia And Assyria.) 4.
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  • The chronology of this expansion is entirely unknown, nor can we recover with certainty the names of the cities which constituted the two leagues of twelve founded in the conquered districts on the analogy of the original league in Etruria proper (below).
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  • The suggestion that it is corrupted from the Isle of Docks falls to the ground on the question of chronology; another, that there were royal kennels here, is improbable, though they were situated at Deptford in the 17th century.
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  • Apart from this his chief merits lie in his studies on the subject of the traditional authorities, the results of which are given by Ibn Sa`d, and in his chronology, which is often excellent.
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  • de Goeje in 1864 (Memoires sur la conquete de la Syrie, 2nd ed., aeiden, 1900), led to the conclusion that Wagidi's chronology is sound as regards the main events, and that later historians have gone astray by forsaking his guidance.
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  • For the chronology before the year ho of the Flight Wagidi did his best, but here, the material being defective, many of his conclusions are precarious.
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  • Yet we may have to correct the dubious chronology of the first Roman bishops by this datum, and prolong his life to about A.D.
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  • This legend is not incompatible with what is known of the chronology of Gondophares' reign.
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  • He bought and resided at the estate of La Source near Orleans, studied philosophy, criticized the chronology of the Bible, and was visited amongst others by Voltaire, who expressed unbounded admiration for his learning and politeness.
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  • The term "chronology" is also used of the order in time itself, as adopted, and of the system by which the order is fixed.
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  • For these reasons the attempt at an accurate chronology of the early ages of the world is only of recent origin.
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  • Of the more formal historical writings in which the first ineffectual attempts were made in the direction of systematic chronology we have no knowledge at first-hand.
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  • Of Hellanicus, the Greek logographer, who appears to have lived through the greater part of the 5th century B.C., and who drew up a chronological list of the priestesses of Here at Argos; of Ephorus, who lived in the 4th century B.C., and is distinguished as the first Greek who attempted the composition of a universal history; and of Timaeus, who in the following century wrote an elaborate history of Sicily, in which he set the example of using the Olympiads as the basis of chronology, the works have perished and our meagre knowledge of their contents is derived only from fragmentary citations in later writers.
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  • Eratosthenes, who in the latter half of the and century B.C. was keeper of the famous Alexandrian library, not only made himself a great name by his important work on geography, but by his treatise entitled Chronographia, one of the first attempts to establish an exact scheme of general chronology, earned for himself the title of "father of chronology."
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  • The absence or incompleteness of authentic records, however, is not the only source of obscurity and confusion in the chronology of remote ages.
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  • In the history of Babylonia, the fixed point from which time was reckoned was the era of Nabonassar, 747 B.C. Among the Greeks the reckoning was by Olympiads, the point of departure being the year in which Coroebus was victor in the Olympic Games, 776 B.C. The Roman chronology started from the foundation of the city, the year of which, however, was variously given by different authors.
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  • They are frequently, however, of very great use in fixing dates that have been otherwise imperfectly expressed, and consequently form important elements of chronology.
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  • It has now become obvious that the data afforded by the Hebrew writings should never have been regarded as sufficiently accurate for the purpose of exact historical computations: that, in short, no historian working along modern scientific lines could well have made the mistake of supposing that the genealogical lists of the Pentateuch afforded an adequate chronology of world-history.
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  • This changed point of view regarding the chronology of history may without hesitation be ascribed to the influence of evidence obtained in a single field of inquiry, the field, namely, of archaeology.
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  • There are, no doubt, gaps in the record; there are long periods for which the chronology is still uncertain.
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  • Tiglath-Pileser III., a usurper who came to the throne of Assyria in 745 B.C., and whose earlier name of Pul proved a source of confusion to the later Hebrew writers, left records that have served to clear up the puzzling chronology of a considerable period of the history of Samaria.
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  • One of the most striking instances of the way in which mistakes of chronology may lead to the perversion of historical records is shown in the Book of Daniel in connexion with the familiar account of the capture of Babylon by Cyrus.
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  • Various computations were made at different times, from Biblical sources, as to the age of the world; and Des Vignoles, in the preface to his Chronology of Sacred History, asserts that he collected upwards of two hundred different calculations, the shortest of which reckons only 3483 years between the creation of the world and the commencement of the vulgar era and the longest 6984.
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  • Each day of the cycle has a particular name, and as it is a usual practice, in mentioning dates, to give the name of the day along with that of the moon and the year, this arrangement affords great facilities in verifying the epochs of Chinese chronology.
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  • For Hindu Chronology, see the article under that heading.
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  • Among works on Chronology, the following, which are arranged in the order of their publication, have an historical interest, as leading up to the epoch of modern research: 1583.
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  • The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended, by Sir Isaac Newton, remarkable as an attempt to construct a system on new bases, independent of the Greek chronologers.
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  • Chronology and History of the World, by John Blair; new edition, much enlarged (1857).
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  • A System of Chronology, by Playfair.
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  • New Analysis of Chronology, by William Hales.
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  • The Chronology of History, by Sir Harris Nicolas.
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  • More modern works are the Encyclopaedia of Chronology, by B.
    1
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  • (Mystery, paragraph 12, p. 402.) When we add to these and other proofs the strange lists of memoranda in the middle of the pages of the letter, and the breach in internal chronology which was apparently caused by Mary's writing, on her second day, on the clean verso of a page on the other side of which she had written some lines during her first night in Glasgow; when we add the dramatic changes of her mood, and the heart-breaking evidence of a remorse not stifled by lawless love, we seem compelled to believe that she wrote the whole of Letter II.; that none of it is forged.
    1
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  • The chronology of this invasion and of the history of the Kushans in India must be regarded as uncertain, though we know the names of the kings.
    1
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  • pp. 30 seq., entitled "Zur Lebensgeschichte des jiingeren Plinius," is important for the chronology of Trajan's reign.
    1
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  • This episode, which bears the marks of popular heroic poetry, may well be the substance of a lost Carolingian cantilena.1 The legendary Charlemagne and his warriors were endowed with the great deeds of earlier kings and heroes of the Frankish kingdom, for the romancers were not troubled by considerations of chronology.
    1
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  • The more important are: Ordo Temporum, a treatise on the chronology of Scripture, in which he enters upon speculations regarding the end of the world, and an Exposition of the Apocalypse which enjoyed for a time great popularity in Germany, and was translated into several languages.
    1
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  • His date, according to Petrie, is 3969-3908 B.C., but in the shorter chronology of Meyer, Breasted and others he reigned (23 years) about a thousand years later, c. 2900 B.C.
    1
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  • A precise chronology and a pedigree have been supplied for Benedict, according to which he was born in 480, of the great family of the Anicii; but all we know is what St Gregory tells us, that he was born of good family in Nursia, near Spoleto in Umbria.
    1
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  • METONIC CYCLE, in chronology, a period of 19 years during which there are 235 lunations, so called because discovered by Meton.
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  • The chronology is still vague, since only a few very late inscriptions are dated by an era and the era itself is not certain.
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  • Schlosser Sudarabiens (2 parts, Vienna, 1879-1881) (especially for chronology and antiquities); Mordtmann and Muller, Sabdische Denkmdler (Vienna, 1883); Derenbourg, Etudes sur l'epigraphie du Yemen (Paris, 1884); Id., Nouv.
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  • xii.); the illness of Asa is preceded by a denunciation for relying upon Syria, and the chronology is changed to bring the fault near the punishment (2 Chron.
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  • They are interesting mainly as throwing light on the chronology of the reign.
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  • The chronology of all these events, as narrated by himself, is somewhat obscure, but they seem to have occupied about three years.
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  • The careful statement of the ages of the animals in the later instances, with the regnal dates for their birth, enthronization and death have thrown much light on the chronology from the XXIInd dynasty onwards.
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  • 161; Biruni, Chronology, trans.
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  • datte; distinguish "date," in chronology, from Lat.
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  • Apart from his special interest in the history of the Old Attic comedy, he was a man of vast and varied learning; the founder of astronomical geography and of scientific chronology; and the first to assume the name of 4aX6Xo a yos.
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  • 420), the most scholarly representative of Christianity in the 4th century, the student of Plautus and Terence, of Virgil and Cicero, the translator of the Chronology of Eusebius, and the author of the Latin version of the Bible now known as the Vulgate.
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  • from criticism devoted to the correction and elucidation of thetext, and (5) chronology.
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  • the Assyrian inscriptions have furnished independent evidence of the relations of certain Hebrew kings (Ahab, Jehu, Ahaz) with the Assyrians, and thus supported more or less completely the evidence of the Old Testament on these points: they have also served to clear up in part the confused chronology of the Hebrews as given in the books of Kings.
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  • Old Testament Chronology.
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  • A sense of the importance of a fixed standard of chronology was only acquired gradually in the history of the world.
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  • Biblical chronology is, unfortunately, in many respects uncertain.
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  • Prior to the establishment of the monarchy the conditions for securing an exact and consecutive chronology did not exist; the dates in the earlier period of the history, though apparently in many cases precise, being in fact added long after the events described, and often (as will appear below) resting upon an artificial basis, so that the precision is in reality illusory.
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  • And after the establishment of the monarchy, though the conditions for an accurate chronology now existed, errors by some means or other found their way into the figures; so that the dates, as we now have them, are in many cases at fault by as much as two to three decades of years.
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  • The exact dates of events in Hebrew history can be determined only when the figures given in the Old Testament can be checked and, if necessary, corrected by the contemporary monuments of Assyria and Babylonia, or (as in the post-exilic period) by the knowledge which we independently possess of the chronology of the Persian kings.
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  • - In the whole of this period the chronology, in so far as it consists of definite figures, depends upon that part of the Pentateuch which is called by critics the " Priestly Narrative."
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  • 2666 On these figures the following remarks may be made: (i.) In Genesis the chronology of the Priestly Narrative (" P ") is not consistent with the chronology of the other parts of the book (" JE ").
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  • From the facts" that have been here briefly noted it must be evident how precarious and, in parts, how impossible the Biblical chronology of this period is.
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  • The Books of Kings are a compilation made at about the beginning of the Exile, and one object of the compiler was to give a consecutive and complete chronology of the period embraced in his work.
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  • Now in some cases, perhaps, in the lengths of the reigns themselves, in other cases in the computations based upon them, errors have crept in, which have vitiated more or less the entire chronology of the period.
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  • The existence of these errors can be demonstrated in two ways: (1) The chronology of the two kingdoms is not consistent with itself; (2) the dates of various events in the history, which are mentioned also in the Assyrian inscriptions, are in serious disagreement with the dates as fixed by the contemporary Assyrian chronology.
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  • (I) That the chronology of the two kingdoms is inconsistent with itself is readily shown.
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  • 12-28) in the original narrative; and the figure was most probably arrived at by computation upon the basis of the present chronology of the book.
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  • See Egypt (Chronology).
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  • 93 -110; and the article Babylonia, Chronology.
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  • Thus from 893 B.C. the Assyrian chronology is certain and precise.
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  • Much has been written on the chronology of the kings and many endeavours have been made to readjust the Biblical figures so as to bring them into consistency with themselves and at the same time into conformity with the Assyrian dates.
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  • See, for further information on the subject, the article Chronology, and the same heading in the Encyclopedia Biblica, cols.
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  • Yew Testament Chronology.
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  • The subject of the chronology of the New Testament falls naturally into two distinct sections - the chronology of the Gospels, that is, of the life of Christ; and the chronology of the_Acts, that is, of the apostolic age.
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  • The Chronology of the Gospels.
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  • What may be called the received chronology during the last two centuries has pushed the date farther back to 4 B.C. But the considerations now to be adduced make it probable that the true date is earlier still.
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  • 25; or (ii.) St Luke has made here a second error in chronology, caused perhaps in this case by reckoning back from the Crucifixion, and only allowing one year to the ministry of Christ.
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  • So far the amount of possible latitude left is not so great as to obscure the main outline of the chronology.
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  • The former class of proposals will as a rule hardly affect the chronology of the Gospel; the latter will affect it vitally.
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  • The Chronology of the Apostolic Age, The chronology of the New Testament outside the Gospels may be defined for the purposes of this article as that of the period between the Crucifixion in A.D.
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  • But the book of Acts, our only continuous authority for the period, contains two synchronisms with secular history which can be dated with some pretence to exactness and constitute fixed points by help of which a more or less complete chronology can be constructed for at least the latter half of the apostolic age.
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  • 27), an event which, on this arrangement of the chronology of the missionary journeys, would therefore fall in A.D.
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  • - (a) Eusebius's Chronicle places the arrival of Festus in Nero 2, October 55-56, and Eusebius's chronology of the procurators goes back probably through Julius Africanus (himself a Palestinian) to contemporary authorities like the Jewish kings of Justus of Tiberias.
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  • There is, therefore, no reason at all to doubt that both apostles were martyred in 64-65, and the date serves as a confirmation of the chronology adopted above of the imprisonment, release and subsequent journeys of St Paul.
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  • Here we are dependent (i.) on general 1 This date appears to be satisfactorily established by Ramsay, " A Second Fixed Point in the Pauline Chronology," Expositor, August 1900.
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  • (ii.) A nearer attempt to date at least the chronology of St Paul's earlier years as a Christian could be made by the help of the Galatian Epistle if we could be sure from what point and to what point its reckonings are made.
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  • Now, if either of these visits to Jerusalem could be identified with any of the visits whose dates have been approximately settled in the chronology of A.D.
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  • The new view clears away some manifest difficulties in the reconciliation of the Epistle and the Acts, and the early date for Galatians in relation to the other Pauline epistles is not so improbable as it may seem; but the chronology still appears more satisfactory on the older view, which enables the conversion to be placed at least three years later than on the alternative theory.
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  • Among the latest German works may be cited the chapter on New Testament chronology in the Neutestamentliche Zeitgeschichte of Dr Oscar Holtzmann (2nd ed., 1906), pp. 117-147: regarded as a collection of historical material this deserves every praise, but the mass is undigested and the treatment of the evidence arbitrary.
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  • In England Robert Hooke (1635-1703) held to the theory of extinction of fossil forms, and advanced the two most fertile ideas of deriving from fossils a chronology, or series of time intervals in the earth's history, and of primary changes of climate, to account for the former existence of tropical species in England.
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  • The earlier chronology has been much disputed.
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  • Anticipating the order of chronology slightly, it may be mentioned here that in 1873 Prince Edward Island (q.v.), which had in 1865 decisively rejected proposals of the Quebec conference and had in the following year repeated its rejection of federation by a resolution of the legislature affirming that no terms Canada could offer would be acceptable, now decided to throw in its lot with the Dominion.
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  • The works of Tertullian, on the chronology of which a great deal has been written, and which for the most part do not admit of being dated with perfect certainty, fall into three classes - the apologetic, defending Christianity against paganism and Judaism; the polemical dogmatic, refuting heresies and heretics; and the ascetic or practical, dealing with points of morality and church discipline.
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  • THE Aristotelian Philosophy We have now (r) sketched the life of Aristotle as a reader and a writer from early manhood; (2) have watched him as a Platonist, partly imitating but gradually emancipating himself from his master to form a philosophy of his own; (3) have traced the gradual composition of his writings from Plato's time onwards; (4) have distinguished earlier, more Platonic and rudimentary, from later, more independent and mature, writings; (5) have founded the real order of his writings, not on chronology, nor on tradition, but on his classification of science and learning.
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  • Her chronology especially isdefective.
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  • The Civil Year Is That Which Is Employed In Chronology, And Varies Among Different Nations, Both In Respect Of The Season At Which It Commences And Of Its Subdivisions.
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  • No Account Is Taken Of This Blunder In Chronology; And It Is Tacitly Supposed That The Calendar Has Been Correctly Followed From Its Commencement.
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  • The Julian period, proposed by the celebrated Joseph Scaliger as an universal measure of chronology, is formed by taking the continued product of the three cycles of the sun, of the moon, and of the indiction,and is consequently 28 X 19X I 5= 7980 years.
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  • The Inconvenience, However, Of Using A Different Date From That Employed By The Greater Part Of Europe In Matters Of History And Chronology Began To Be Generally Felt; And At Length The Calendar (New P =24 E.
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  • I, see Bible: Chronology) place the former about the time of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III., and suppose that the hostile Habiri (Khabiri) who 1 There is a lacuna between the oldest traditions in Genesis and those in Exodus: the latter beginning simply "and there arose a new king over Egypt which knew not Joseph."
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  • Shortly afterwards he nearly perished during a storm in an adventurous voyage to the Solovetsky Islands in that Acts minimizes rather than exaggerates this Chronology of Peter's act i vity; the Antiochian tradition probably represents a period of missionary activity with a centre at Antioch; similarly the tradition of work in Asia the White Sea.
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  • On the chronology adopted in the article Paul, this would yield as probable date for the epistle A.D.
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  • 21 he lived 969 years (see Bible: Old Testament, § 5, "Chronology").
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  • Chronology is deficient for all that period.
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  • The story of the Creation in the book of Genesis is shown, from the point of view of chronology, to be a poetic or symbolic account by the discovery of civilizations of much greater antiguity.
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  • 22-24; but it is not a chronology of the last things Paul is here giving.
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  • Ginzberg, Geonica, ii.), and this is confirmed by Albiruni (Chronology, tr.
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  • Retiring to Shottesbrooke in Berkshire, and living on the produce of a small estate in Ireland, he devoted himself to the study of chronology and ecclesiastical polity.
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  • Dodwell's works on ecclesiastical polity are more numerous and of much less value than those on chronology, his judgment being far inferior to his power of research.
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  • His chief works on classical chronology are: A Discourse concerning Sanchoniathon's Phoenician History (1681); Annales Thucydidei et Xenophontei (1702); Chronologia GraecoRomana pro hypothesibus Dion.
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  • He at first intended to adopt the medical profession, and made some progress in anatomy, botany and chemistry, after which he studied chronology, geometry and astronomy.
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  • Unfortunately, Diodorus does not always quote his authorities, but his general sources of information were - in history and chronology, Castor, Ephorus and Apollodorus; in geography, Agatharchides and Artemidorus.
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  • But the whole question of the Eusebian chronology is very confused and difficult, and the text of the Chronicon is not certain.
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  • It is quite possible that an error of a few years has crept into the Eusebian chronology, which is probably largely based on early episcopal lists, and therefore many scholars are inclined to think that 64 is a more probable date than 67.
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  • If this view be, rejected and it is necessary to fall back on the choice between 64 and 67, the problem is perhaps insoluble, but 64 has somewhat more intrinsic probability, and 67 can be explained as due to an artificial system of chronology which postulated for Peter an episcopate of Rome of twenty-five years - a number which comes so often in the early episcopal lists that it seems to mean little more than "a long time," just as "forty years" does in the Old Testament.
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  • The worst feature is the confusion in the chronology, which, strange to say, is most hopeless in treating of the contemporaries of Moses himself.
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  • Not only has the development of the south differed from that of the north, and the west been subjected to other influences than those affecting the east, but even where the same influences have been at work the period of their operation has often varied widely in the different districts, so that in a general sketch of the whole country the chronology can only be a very rough approximation.
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  • It is the same with other allusions in the Meccan suras to occurrences whose chronology can be partially ascertained.
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  • A chronological arrangement was out of the question, because the chronology of the older pieces must have been imperfectly known, and because in some cases passages of different dates had been joined together.
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  • is subdivided into:(A) Exploration and Research; (B) The Country in Ancient Times; (C) Religion; (D) Language and Writing; (E) Art and Archaeology; (F) Chronology.
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  • Whether any earlier attempt was made to adjust the civil to the solar or Sothic year in order to restore the festivals to their proper places in the seasons temporarily or otherwise, is a question of great importance for chronology, but at present it remains unanswered.
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  • Historical.As to absolute chronology, the assigning of a regnal year to a definite date B.C. is clear enough (except in occasional detail) from the conquest by Alexander onwards.
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  • Before that time, in spite of successive efforts to establish a chronology, the problem is very obscure.
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  • The materials for reconstructing the absolute chronology are of several kinds:
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  • Records of the time that has elapsed between two regnal dates in the reigns of different kings are very helpful; thus stelae from the Serapeum recording the ages of the Apis bulls with the dates of their birth and death have fixed the chronology of the XXVIth Dynasty.
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  • For the chronology before the time of the XXVIth Dynasty Herodotuss history is quite worthless.
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  • Manetho alone of all authorities offers a complete chronology from the 1st Dynasty to the XXXth.
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  • history, cannot be employed as a serious guide to the early chronology, since they are faulty wherever we can check them, even in the XXVIth Dynasty whose kings were so celebrated among the Greeks.
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  • seems to offer a welcome ray, piercing the D t obscurity of early Egyptian chronology; ynas)~ guided by it the historian Ed.
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  • Sethe have framed systems of chronology XX:
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  • theless many Egyptologists are unwill- Orhus ing to accept the new chronology, the _________ chief obstacle being that it allows so short an interval for the six dynasties between the XIIth and the XVIIIth.
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  • To the present writer it seems that Meyers chronology provides a convenient working theory, but involves such an improbability in regard to the interval between the XIIth and the XVIIIth Dynasties that the interpretation of the Sothic date on which it is founded must be viewed with suspicion until clear facts are found to corroborate it.
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  • page 79 shows the chronology of the first nineteen dynasties, according to recent authorities, before and after the discovery of the Kahun Sothic date.
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  • In the absence of a strict chronology, the epochs of Pharaonic history are conveniently reckoned in dynasties according to Manethos scheme, and these dynasties are grouped into longer periods :the Old Kingdom (Dynasties I.
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  • Tethmosis, to judge by the evidence of his mummy and the chronology of his reign, was already a grown man, yet no sign of the immense powers which he displayed later has come down to us from the joint reign.
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  • The exact chronology and relationship of these kings it is impossible to determine, but we know that Healfdene died in Scotland in 877, while Godefridus was treacherously slain by Henry of Saxony in 885.
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  • It is impossible to draw up a detailed chronology of his life.
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  • What is chiefly sought by such revision is better evidence for the chronology and inter-relation of the different cultures, but much new information has been gained in regard to plan and structure of the palaces and fortifications of Mycenae and Tiryns.
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  • The chronology is very confused, but the events are placed after Rudolf's election to the empire in 1273.
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  • In the order of chronology we must give the first place to the earliest letters of St Paul.
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  • See Bible: Chronology.
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  • In spite of his scientific training in philology Lepsius left behind few translations of inscriptions or discussions of the meanings of words: by preference he attacked historical and archaeological problems connected with the ancient texts, the alphabet, the metrology, the names of metals and minerals, the chronology, the royal names.
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  • Although the work is uncritical, and shows the author's ignorance of geography, chronology and military matters, it is written in a picturesque style.
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  • The chronology of the conquests is in many points uncertain.
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  • He tendered his homage to the first Ming emperor of China, received from him his investiture as sovereign, and accepted from him the Chinese calendar and chronology, in itself a declaration of fealty.
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  • Though the chronology of the period is somewhat uncertain, the date must be in the first half of the 9th century B.C. It is to be remembered, however, that important as this monument is for the development of the alphabet, and because it can be dated with tolerable accuracy, the dialect and alphabet of Moab are not in themselves proof for the Phoenician forms which influenced the peoples of the Aegean, and through them Western Europe.
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  • There is a preliminary chapter of chronology from Adam to John Palaeologus I.
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  • Ambrose is surprisingly accurate in his chronology; though he did not complete his work before 1195, it is evidently founded upon notes which he had taken in the course of his pilgrimage.
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  • There is much that is uncertain in his reign, and with the exception of the great crisis of 701 B.C. its chronology has not been unanimously fixed.
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  • On the problems afforded by the chronology of Gerbert's (Pope Silvester II.) letters and by the notes in cipher in the MS. of his letters, he wrote L'Ecriture secrete de Gerbert (1877), which may be compared with his Notes tironiennes dans les dipldmes merovingiens (1885).
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  • The best attested date for his death is the 9th of June 373 It is clear that this chronology leaves no room for the visit to Egypt, and the eight years spent there in refuting Arianism, which are alleged by his biographer.
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  • He devoted his life chiefly to the examination of ancient systems of chronology.
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  • Chronology unfortunately forbids us to accept this little episode as true.
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  • He developed a taste for literature, and his miscellaneous works include The Savages of Europe (London, 1764), a satire on the English which he translated from the French, and Anecdotes Ancient and Modern (London, 1789), an amusing collection of gossip. His chief work was a History of Great Britain connected with the Chronology of Europe from Caesar's Invasion to Accession of Edward VI., in 2 vols.
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  • xviii.), who calls them Ashab al-Kahf, " the men of the cave.", According to Biruni (Chronology, tr.
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  • 8), written in 344, forms an appendix on the Messianic fulfilment of prophecy, together with a treatment of the chronology from Adam to Christ.
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  • On the chronology, cf.
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  • The chronology is exactly verified by the Ptolemaic canon, bI numerous Babylonian and a few Egyptian documents, and by thi evidence of the Greeks.
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  • with notes and excursuses chiefly on the chronology and organization of the empire).
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  • For general information and chronology see S.
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  • But these works, while proving Scaliger's right to the foremost place among his contemporaries as Latin scholar and critic, did not go beyond mere scholarship. It was reserved for his edition of Manilius (1579), and his De emendatione temporum (1583), to revolutionize all the received ideas of ancient chronology - to show that ancient history is not confined to that of the Greeks and Romans, but also comprises that of the Persians, the Babylonians and the Egyptians, hitherto neglected as absolutely worthless, and that of the Jews, hitherto treated as a thing apart, and that the historical narratives and fragments of each of these, and their several systems of chronology, must be critically compared, if any true and general conclusions are to be reached.
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  • In laying the foundations of a science of ancient chronology he relied sometimes upon groundless, sometimes even upon absurd hypotheses, frequently upon an imperfect induction of facts.
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  • Along with grammar, which had been a prominent branch of study under Chrysippus, philosophy, history, geography, chronology and kindred subjects came to be recognized as fields of activity no less than philology proper.
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  • The treatise on the Genealogy of the Roman People dealt mainly with the relation of Roman chronology to the chronology of Greece and the East.
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  • Porcius Cato (234-149 B.C.) widened the scope of Roman history so as to include that of the chief Italian cities, and made the first serious attempt to settle the chronology.
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  • His principal faults are his carelessness and inaccuracy in matters of chronology, his lack of artistic skill in the presentation of his material, his desultory method of treatment, and his failure to look below the surface and grasp the real significance and vital connexion of events.
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  • Among the many modern accounts in church histories, histories of Christian literature, encyclopaedias, &c., may be mentioned a monograph by Stein, Eusebius Bischof von Caesarea (Wiirzburg, 1859), meagre but useful as far as it goes; the magnificent article by Lightfoot in the Dictionary of Christian Biography; the account by McGiffert in his translation of the Church History; Erwin Preuschen's article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklop. (3rd ed., 1898); the treatment of the Chronology of Eusebius writings in Harnack's Alt - christliche Litteraturgeschichte, ii.
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  • But his contempt for the annalistic form makes him at times careless in his chronology and arbitrary in his method of arranging his material; he not infrequently flies off at a tangent to relate stories which have little or no connexion with the main narrative; his critical faculty is too often allowed to lie dormant.
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  • Herodotus of Heraclea struggled to rationalize mythology, and established chronology on a solid basis.
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  • The Alexandrian Eratosthenes placed chronology upon the scientific basis of astronomy, and Apollodorus drew up the most important chronica of antiquity.
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  • Through Jerome's translation and additions, this scheme of this world's chronology became the basis for all medieval world chronicles.
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  • Genealogy, heraldry and chronology run parallel with the wider subject.
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  • The slightness and slowness of variation in human races having become known, a great difficulty of the monogenist theory was seen to lie in the apparent shortness of the Biblical chronology.
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  • There have been recently no discoveries to rival in novelty those which followed the exploration of the bonecaves and drift-gravels, and which effected an instant revolution in all accepted theories of man's antiquity, substituting for a chronology of centuries a vague computation of hundreds of thousands of years.
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  • that the author of Daniel did not know the chronology between 537 and 312, the establishment of the Seleucid era, and consequently made the period too long.
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  • This whole prophecy, which is perhaps the most interesting in the Book of Daniel, presents problems which can never be thoroughly understood, first because the author must have been ignorant of both history and chronology, and secondly, because, in his effort to be as mystical as possible, he purposely made use of indefinite and vague expressions which render the criticism of the passage a most unsatisfactory task.
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  • The melancholy tale of Swift's attachment will be more conveniently narrated in another place, and is only alluded to here for the sake of chronology.
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  • 49-51) For the chronology see J.
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  • (2) Again our author uses the chronology of the Septuagint and in I, 4 follows the Septuagint text of Deuteronomy xxxii.
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  • By his T inatal (written between October 1854 and April 1855) he laid the foundations for the chronology of Icelandic history, in a series of conclusions that have not been displaced (save by his own additions and corrections), and that justly earned the praise of Jacob Grimm.
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  • The ideas of this passage belong to the eschatological outlook of later centuries, but afford no data for chronology.
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  • An account of the Passion, with a curiously perverted chronology, the object of which was to justify the length of the Passion-tide fast, is entirely revised for this reason (v.
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  • 1821), who wrote chiefly on ancient chronology and Greek festivals, were also prominent among German scholars in their day.
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  • Of his other works, the more important are the Roman Chronology to the Time of Caesar (1858), a work written in conjunction with his brother August; his editions of the Monumentum Ancyranum and of the Digest in the Corpus juris civilis, and of the Chronica of Cassiodorus in Monumenta Germaniae historica, the Auctores antiquissimi section of which was under his supervision.
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  • Having one day been told by Sir Isaac that he had composed a new system of chronology while he was still resident at Cambridge, she requested him to give her a copy.
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  • Father Souciet entered the field in defence of Freret; and in consequence of this controversy Sir Isaac was induced to prepare his larger work, which was published in 1728, after his death, and entitled The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms amended, to which is prefixed a short Chronicle from the First Memory of Kings in Europe to the Conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great.
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  • Parswa is said, in the Jain chronology, to have been born two hundred years before Maha-vira (that is, about 760 B.C.); but the only conclusion that it is safe to draw from this statement is that Parswa was considerably earlier in point of time than Mahavira.
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  • Its chronology is often one, two or three years wrong even when it seems to be a contemporary authority, and the value of its evidence on the conquest and the first two centuries after it is very uncertain.
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  • In these carefully written papers he treats a great variety of topics relating to astronomy, chronology, decimal coinage, life assurance, bibliography and the history of science.
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  • Ferguson, but the plan was developed by one who was an unrivalled master of all the intricacies of chronology.
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  • Kant's scheme, which in religious theory as well as in chronology may be regarded as a link between the 18th and 19th centuries, led on to the very different scheme of Hegel; and the latter system began almost at once to influence Church doctrine.
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  • He was the friend of Bishop John, the founder of the great Odd-Verjar family, and the author of a Book of Kings from Harald Fairhair to Magnus the Good, in which he seems to have fixed the exact chronology of each reign.
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  • In 1650-54 he published the work which was long accounted his most important production, the Annales Veteris et Novi Testamenti, in which he propounded a now disproved scheme of Biblical chronology, whose dates were inserted by some unknown authority in the margin of reference editions of the Authorized Version.
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  • The records of this period, regarded by many Croats as the golden age of their country, are often scanty, and its chronology is still unsettled.
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  • Though an annalist, Diceto is careless in his chronology; and the documents which he incorporates, while often important, are selected on no principle.
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  • Eighty years after the Trojan War, according to the traditional chronology, the Dorian migration took place.
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  • Only on the assumption that the book of Genesis is a composite work is it possible to explain the duplication of events, the varying use of the divine names Yahweh and Elohim, the linguistic and stylistic differences, the internal intricacies of the subject matter, and the differing standpoints as regards tradition, chronology, morals and religion.'
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  • 2 But the chronology is hopeless, and only ten years are allowed according to another and later scheme (xxv.
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  • Owing to imperfect and contradictory authorities, the chronology and details of this reign are very uncertain.
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  • In its careful chronology, based upon the Seleucid era, in the minuteness of its geographical knowledge, in the frankness with which it records defeat as well as victory, on the restraint with which it speaks of the enemies of the Jews, in its command of details, it bears on its face the stamp of genuineness.
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  • Early kings of the Christian north-west of Spain, of uncertain chronology and relationship:
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  • Eratosthenes was the founder of scientific chronology in his xpovoypacNa in which he endeavoured to fix the dates of the chief literary and political events from the conquest of Troy.
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  • At this period we find, among a mass of horses and mares in the Stud-Book without any dates against their names, many animals of note with the earliest chronology extant, from Grey Ramsden (1704) and Bay Bolton (1705) down to a mare who exercised a most important influence on the English blood-horse.
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  • The chronology, however, of Aurelian's reign is very confused, and the abandonment of Dacia is placed by some authorities towards its close.
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  • or Fasti Siculi), so called from being based upon the Easter canon, an outline of chronology from Adam down to A.D.
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  • The so-called Byzantine or Roman era (which continued in use in the Greek Church until its liberation from Turkish rule) was adopted in the Chronicum for the first time as the foundation of chronology, in accordance with which the date of the creation is given as the 21st of March, 5507.
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  • The very varied sources and the chronology of Aldhelm's work are discussed in "Zu Aldhelm and Baeda," by Max Manitius, in Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akad.
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  • Tiglath-Pileser invaded Syria, and in 732 succeeded in reducing Damascus (see also Babylonia And Assyria, Chronology, § 5, and Jews, §§ ro sqq.).
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  • 14) he praises highly his accuracy in matters of chronology; and Cicero's younger contemporary, Marcus Brutus, was a devoted student of Polybius, and was engaged on the eve of the battle of Pharsalia in compiling an epitome of his histories (Suidas, s.v.; Plutarch, Brut.
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  • Knobel, " Chronology of Star Catalogues."
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  • The original MS. is preserved at the Vatican; and the Escorial library possesses in MS. a treatise of some value by him on astronomical chronology.
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