How to use Chronicles in a sentence
In the English chronicles "French" is the only name used.
Unfortunately however it is impossible to date the book of Chronicles with certainty.
John Aubrey, the antiquary, chronicles that the sisters of Sir John Suckling, the courtier-poet, once went to the bowling-green in Piccadilly, crying, "for fear he should lose all their portions."
Besides the New Testament, the Pentateuch and Jonah, it is believed that he finished in prison the section of the Old Testament extending from Joshua to Chronicles.
Those in Israel who remembered the previous war between 1 Careful examination shows that no a priori distinction can be drawn between " trustworthy " books of Kings and " untrustworthy books " of Chronicles.Advertisement
His title of" the Catholic " itself may very well have been the invention of later chronicles.
Of the three first-mentioned chronicles Hungarian translations by Charles Szabo appeared at Budapest in 1860, 1861 and 1862.
On this hypothesis we are able to explain the presence of certain poetical pieces both in the book of Chronicles and in the Psalter.
A good deal is said about the musical services of the Levites in Chronicles, both in the account given of David's ordinances and in the descriptions of particular festival occasions.
His place as a master in critical scholarship and historical exposition is decided beyond debate by the nineteen volumes which he edited for the Rolls series of Chronicles and Memorials.Advertisement
The Anglo-Saxon Leechdoms 1 of the 11th century, published in the Rolls series of medieval chronicles and memorials, admirably illustrate the mixture of magic and superstition with the relics of ancient science which constituted monastic medicine.
Kaufbeuren is said to have been founded in 842, and is first mentioned in chronicles of the year 1126.
At this point their history ceases to be mentioned in the Western chronicles.
The thirty-second volume of the Histoire litteraire de la France, which was partly his work, is of great importance for the study of 13th and 14th century Latin chronicles.
Still more memorable was the expedition afterwards undertaken by the united forces of Pisa and Genoa against Mogahid, better known in the Italian chronicles as Mugeto.Advertisement
Other towns of Tunisia are, on the east coast, Nabeul, pop. about 5000, the ancient Neapolis, noted for the mildness of its climate and its pottery manufactures; Hammamet with 37 00 inhabitants; Monastir (the Ruspina of the Romans), a walled town with 5600 inhabitants and a trade in cereals and oils; Mandiya or Mandia (q.v.; in ancient chronicles called the city of Africa and sometimes the capital of the country) with 8500 inhabitants, the fallen city of the Fatimites, which since the French occupation has risen from its ruins, and has a new harbour (the ancient Cothon or harbour, of Phoenician origin, cut out of the rock is nearly dry but in excellent preservation); and Gabes (Tacape of the Romans, Qabis of the Arabs) on the Syrtis, a group of small villages, with an aggregate population of 16,000, the port of the Shat country and a depot of the esparto trade.
The statement still commonly repeated that it originated with Petrus 1 These details are scarcely the invention of the chronicler; see Chronicles, and Expositor, Aug.
Arrived at this stage of development, the Annals now began to lose their primitive character, and henceforward became more and more indistinguishable from the Chronicles.
This, added to ill-health, served to intensify a natural irritability of temperament, and the history of his later Weimar days is a rather dreary page in the chronicles of literary life.
Numerous places in the valley of the Main are mentioned in chronicles anterior to the time that Frankfort is first noticed.Advertisement
The name Frankfort is also found in several official documents of Charlemagne's reign; and from the notices that occur in the early chronicles and charters it would appear that the place was the most populous at least of the numerous villages of the Main district.
This volume was called the Nihongi (Chronicles of Japan).
Thenceforth the name of "magister Vacarius" is of very frequent occurrence, in papal letters and the chronicles of the period, as acting in these capacities.
An acquaintance with these various methods is indispensable to the student of the charters, chronicles and legal instruments of the middle ages.
In the chronicles of the middle ages much uncertainty frequently arises respecting dates on account of the different epochs assumed for the beginning of the Christian year.Advertisement
A knowledge of the different epochs which have been chosen for the commencement of the year in different countries is indispensably necessary to the right interpretation of ancient chronicles, charters and other documents in which the dates often appear contradictory.
It is not infrequently met with in the ancient chronicles of France and England.
Though for many centuries they have thus been treated as separate compositions, we have abundant evidence that they were anciently regarded as forming but one book, and a careful examination proves that together with the book of Chronicles they constitute one single work.
Their position in the Hebrew Bible before the book of Chronicles is, however, illogical.
The literary and historical criticism of EzraNehemiah is closely bound up with that of Chronicles, whose characteristic features it shares.
Thus other hands apart from the compiler of Chronicles may have helped to shape the narratives, either before their union with that book or after their separation.2 The present intricacy is also due partly to specific historical theories regarding the post-exilic period.
A story had gone about, even in the days of John of Gaunt, who, if we may trust the rhymer John Hardyng (Chronicle, pp. 290, 291), had got it inserted in chronicles deposited in various monasteries, that this Edmund, surnamed Crouchback, was really hump-backed, and that he was set aside in favour of his younger brother Edward on account of his deformity.
The only other surviving document of the 12th century bearing on this subject is a letter of which MS. copies are preserved in the Cambridge and Paris libraries, and which is also embedded in the chronicles of several English annalists, including Benedict of Peterborough, Roger Hovedon and Matthew Paris.
In February parliament discovered that " by divers sundry old authentic histories and chronicles " it was manifest that the realm of England was an empire governed by one supreme head, the king, to whom all sorts and degrees of people - both clergy and laity - ought to bear next to God a natural and humble obedience, and that to him God had given the authority finally to determine all causes and contentions in the realm, " without restraint, or provocation to any foreign princes or potentates of the world."
Similar groups are mentioned in the town chronicles of the early 16th century, and there is reason to assume that informal evangelical movements were no new things when Luther first began to preach.
That any such people as the Wilten existed there is little evidence, but Wiltaburg (or variants of it) occurs in chronicles as late as the 12th century, and it is still preserved in the name Wildenburg, given to a Roman camp near the city.
Rothenburg-ob-der-Tauber, mentioned in the chronicles in 804 as Rotinbure, was probably a residence of the dukes of Franconia.
Gera (in ancient chronicles Geraha) was raised to the rank of a town in the IIth century, at which time it belonged to the counts of Groitch.
The book of Chronicles begins with Adam and ends abruptly in the middle of Cyrus's decree of restoration, which reappears complete at the beginning of Ezra.
Hence Chronicles is the last book of the Hebrew Bible, following the book of EzraNehemiah, which properly is nothing else than the sequel of Chronicles.
Of the authorship of Chronicles we know only what can be determined by internal evidence.
It was the opinion of Bertheau, Keil and others, that the parallelisms of Chronicles with Samuel and Kings are sufficiently explained by the ultimate common source from which both narratives drew.
In particular, Chronicles agrees with Kings in those short notes of the moral character of individual monarchs which can hardly be ascribed to an earlier hand than that of the redactor of the latter book.2 For the criticism of the book it is important to institute a careful comparison of Chronicles with the parallel narratives in Samuel-Kings.
The minor variations of Chronicles from the books of Samuel and Kings are analogous in principle to the larger additions and omissions, so that the whole work has a consistent and well-marked character, presenting the history in quite a different perspective from that of the old narrative.
It is therefore probable that in other cases than those of Isaiah and Jehu the writings of, or rather, about the prophets which are cited in Chronicles were known only as parts of the great "book of the Kings."
That the lost source of the Chronicles was not independent of these works appears probable both from the nature of the case and from the close and often verbal parallelism between many sections of the two Biblical narratives.
But while the canonical book of Kings refers to separate sources for the northern and southern kingdoms, the source of Chronicles was a history of the two kingdoms combined, and so, no doubt, was a more recent work which in great measure was doubtless based upon older annals.
The typical speeches in Chronicles are of little value for the periods to which they relate, and where they are inconsistent with the evidence from earlier writings or contain inherent improbabilities are scarcely of historical worth.
Chronicles is the result of the development of earlier schemes, of which some traces are still preserved in Chronicles itself and in Ezra-Nehemiah.
But when allowance is made for all the above tendencies of the late post-exilic age, there remains a certain amount of additional matter in Chronicles which may have been derived from relatively old sources.
There can be little doubt that, as in the case of all the other kingdoms of Further India, complete and detailed chronicles were compiled from reign to reign by order of her kings, but of the more ancient of these, the wars and disturbances which continued with such frequency down to quite recent times have left no trace.
Of the many historians of the middle ages, besides the authors of biographies, chronicles, cloister annals, &c., may be mentioned Haymo, Anastasius, Adam of Bremen, Ordericus Vitalis, Honorius of Autun, Otto of Freising, Vincent of Beauvais and Antoninus of Florence.
The Poles call the period between 1548 and 1606 their golden The Latin have been a Frenchman or Walloon, and we must Chronicles.
It is related that Zobeideh, the wife of Harun-al-Rashid, founded the town in 791 after recovering there from fever, but the earlier chronicles give no support to this statement, and it is nowhere recorded that Zobeideh ever visited Azerbaijan, and the name Tabriz was known many centuries before her time.
Seth is named in the opening genealogy of Chronicles, I Chron.
The expansion of the Talmudic twenty-four to the thirty-nine Old Testament books of the English Bible is effected by reckoning the Minor Prophets one by one, by separating Ezra from Nehemiah, and by subdividing the long books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles.
These books form the second series of historical books referred to above, Ezra and Nehemiah carrying on the narrative of Chronicles, and forming its direct sequel.
These principles he applied to the Old Testament, firstly to the Books of Chronicles, and then to the Pentateuch.
The untrustworthiness of Chronicles - briefly admitted by Luther - he proved in detail, and so cleared the way for that truer view of the history and religion of Israel which the treatment of Chronicles as a trustworthy record of the past hopelessly obscured.
The religious significance of the past is dominant, and the past is idealized from a later standpoint; and whether the narratives in Chronicles are expressly styled Midrash or not, they are the fruit of an age which sought to inculcate explicitly those lessons which, it conceived, were implied in the events of the past.
There is literary critical evidence for late insertions by exilic or later compilers; 1 the compiler of Chronicles apparently refers to accessible works; and there is a close material relationship between the Old Testament and later literature.
We have several in the late literature of Chronicles.
The Thysian library occupies an old Renaissance building of the year 1655, and is especially rich in legal works and native chronicles.
The corrupt text in Chronicles of 3000 baths would need a still longer cubit; and, if a lesser cubit of 21.6 or 18 in, be taken, the result for the size of the bath would be impossibly small.
Turning now to the native chronicles of the Mexican nations, these are records going back to the 12th or 13th century, with some vague but not worthless recollections of national events from times some centuries earlier.
The Mexican chronicles, however, show instances of the king's son succeeding or of powerful chiefs being elected to the kingship. The term republic is sometimes used to describe the little state of Tlascala, but this was in fact a federation of four chiefs, with an assembly of nobles.
The laws and records of suits were set down in picture-writings, of which some are still to be seen; sentence of death was recorded by drawing a line with an arrow across the portrait of the condemned, and the chronicles describe the barbaric solemnity with which the king passed sentence sitting on a golden and jewelled throne in the divine tribunal, with one hand on an ornamented skull and the golden arrow in the other.
Compiegne, or as it is called in the Latin chronicles, Compendium, seems originally to have been a hunting-lodge of the early Frankish kings.
Both his chronicles, however, became very popular and found several continuators, Jean de Joinville being among those who made use of the Chronicon.
The Annales Waverlienses, published by Gale in his Scriptores and afterwards in the Record series of Chronicles, are believed to have suggested to Sir Walter Scott the name of his first novel.
The history of the dynasty of the Danishmand is still very obscure, notwithstanding the efforts of Mordtmann, Schlumberger, Karabacek, Sallet and others to fix some chronological details, and it is almost impossible to harmonize the different statements of the Armenian, Syriac, Greek and Western chronicles with those of the Arabic, Persian and Turkish.
The chief chronicles for the reign are Gervase of Canterbury's Gesta regum, Ralf of Coggeshall's Chronicon, Walter of Coventry's Memoriale, Roger of Wendover's Flores historiarum, the Annals of Burton, Dunstaple and Margan - all these in the Rolls Series.
Wolfe was already engaged in the preparation of a universal history, and Holinshed worked for some years on this undertaking; but after Wolfe's death in 1573 the scope of the work was abridged, and it appeared in 1578 as the Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
A second edition of the Chronicles, enlarged and improved but without illustrations, which appeared in 1587, contained statements which were offensive to Queen Elizabeth and her advisers, and immediately after publication some of the pages were excised by order of the privy council.
An edition of the Chronicles, in accordance with the original text, was published in six volumes in 1808.
The work contains a large amount of information, and shows that its compilers were men of great industry; but its chief interest lies in the fact that it was largely used by Shakespeare and other Elizabethan dramatists; Shakespeare, who probably used the edition of 1587, obtaining from the Chronicles material for most of his historical plays, and also for Macbeth, King Lear and part of Cymbeline.
But he appears to be tolerably accurate when dealing with the years 1188-1209; and sometimes he supplements the information provided by the more important chronicles.
The brilliant side comes out most clearly in Joinville, the Chronique de Du Guesclin, and the Histoire de Bayart; the darker side appears in the earlier chronicles of the crusades, and is especially emphasized by preachers and moralists like Jacques de Vitry, Etienne de Bourbon, Nicole Bozon and John Gower.
See the list of chronicles for the reign of John.
Native chronicles derive the Menangkabo princes from Alexander the Great; and the Achinese dynasty boasts its origin from a missionary of Islam.
The first was on Chronicles, then followed one on the Psalms, and finally his exegetical masterpiece - the commentary on the prophets.
Subsequently, as the central power of the German sovereign became weakened, the Rhineland followed the general tendency and split up into numerous small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes and special chronicles.
For he compiled the legends of the saints (Legendae sanctorum) in one volume, adding many things from the Historia tripartite et scholastica, and from the chronicles of many writers."
Of his many works the most important are his chronicles of the four kings of Castile during whose reigns he lived; they give a generally accurate account of scenes and events, most of which he had witnessed; he also wrote a long satirical and didactic poem, interesting as a picture of his personal experiences and of contemporary morality.
No definite conclusion can be drawn from the fact that the language stands in marked contrast to that of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, &c., since writings presumably more or less contemporary did not necessarily share the same characteristics (observe, for example, the prose parts of Job).
The Greeks do not mention him and the Brahmin books ignore him, but the Buddhist chronicles and legends tell us much about him.
Henry as its leader and a legate of the pope was the real "lord of England," as the chronicles call him.
The publication of collections of chronicles began in 1529, and the uncritical fashion in which these were reproduced made forgeries easy and frequent.
A curious fragment of Welsh dialogues, printed by Professor Rhys in his Studies on the Arthurian Legend, appears to represent Kay as the abductor, In the pseudo-Chronicles and the romances based upon them the abductor is Mordred, and in the chronicles there is no doubt that the lady was no unwilling victim.
It is usual to speak of "the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle"; it would be more correct to say that there are four Anglo-Saxon Chronicles.
It is true that these all grow out of a common stock, that in some even of their later entries two or more of them use common materials; but the same may be said of several groups of medieval chronicles, which no one dreams of treating as single chronicles.
B, as far as it goes (to 977), is identical with C, both having been copied from a common original, but A, C, D, E have every right to be treated as independent chronicles.
The present writer sees no reason to doubt that the idea of a national, as opposed to earlier local chronicles, was inspired by Alfred, who may even have dictated, or at least revised, the entries relating to his own campaigns; while for the earlier parts pre-existing materials, both oral and written, were utilized.
From 925 to 975 all the chronicles are very fragmentary; a few obits, three or four poems, among them the famous ballad on the battle of Brunanburh, make up the meagre tale of their common materials, which each has tried to supplement in its own way.
In the case of entries in the earlier part of the chronicles, which are peculiar to D, we cannot exclude the possibility that they may be late interpolations.
But both he and Gibson made the fatal error of trying to combine the disparate materials contained in the various chronicles in a single text.
Though not free from defects, this edition is absolutely indispensable for the study of the chronicles and the mutual relations of the different MSS.
In 1865 the Clarendon Press published Two Saxon Chronicles (A and E) Parallel, with supplementary extracts from the others, by the Rev. John Earle.
The later religious literature is much taken up with the mythical and semi-mythical dynasties of kings, and the priests compiled, with many newly-invented details, the chronicles of the wars they were supposed to have waged.
The process by which this state of affairs came about is somewhat obscure, owing to the want of good chronicles for the Turkish period of Egyptian history.
Of many of the Mameluke sultans there are special chronicles preserved in various European and Oriental libraries.
But the evidence of the Continental Chronicles makes it probable that the Saxon Chronicle is a year in advance of the true chronology in this part.
These belong unquestionably to the later part of his reign, not improbably to the last four years of it, during which the chronicles are almost silent.
His Recouvrement de Normandie, with other material on the same subject, was edited for the "Rolls" series (Chronicles and Memorials) by Joseph Stevenson in 1863.
Other authorities are the Chronicles of Walsingham and Otterbourne, the English Chronicle or Brut, and the various London Chronicles.
Flach gave them a solid basis by the wide range of his researches, utilizing charters and cartularies (published and unpublished), chronicles, lives of saints, and even those dangerous guides, the chansons de geste.
In the Christian chronicles the name of Ragnar is associated with an attack on Paris in A.D.
These are, as has been said, almost exclusively the chronicles of the lands visited by the vikings.
The facts of Owen's life must be pieced together from scattered references in contemporary chronicles and documents; perhaps the most important are Adam of Usk's Chronicle and Ellis's Original Letters.
Denis Godefroy (1615-1681), eldest son of Theodore, succeeded his father as historiographer of France, and re-edited various chronicles which had been published by him.
Then citing from Genesis and 2 Chronicles, the first and last books in the order of the Jewish Bible, He declared that all righteous blood from that of Abel to that of Zachariah should be required of that generation.
The fact that it stands in the third division of the Hebrew Canon, the Writings or Hagiographa, along with such late works as Job, Psalms, Chronicles, Daniel, Ecclesiastes and Esther, must be allowed weight; the presumption is that the arrangers of the Canonical books regarded it as being in general later than the Prophetical books.
The political history is relatively slight and uneven, and the framework is rehandled in Chronicles upon more developed lines and from a later ecclesiastical standpoint, which suggests that many traditions of the monarchy were extant in a late dress.
Chronicles, with the book of Ezra and Nehemiah, makes a continuity between the old Judah which fell in 586 and the return (time of Cyrus), the rebuilding of the temple (Darius), and the reorganization associated with Nehemiah and Ezra (Artaxerxes).
Genesis - Kings (incomplete; some further material in Jeremiah) and the later Chronicles - Nehemiah are in their present form posterior to Nehemiah's time.
The ecclesiastical rivalries have left their mark in the Pentateuch and (the later) Chronicles, and the Samaritan secession appears to have coloured even the book of Kings.
The narratives of the monarchy which are preserved only in Chronicles, on the other hand, illustrate the manner in which tradition was reshaped and rewritten under the influence of a later religious standpoint.
Ten emperors after Aurangzeb are enumerated in the chronicles, but none of them has left any mark on history.
The Jews quite early ceased to pronounce the Tetragrammaton, substituting (as the Books of Chronicles and the LXX translation already indicate) the word Lord ('Adonai).
The Barmecide family were endowed in the highest degree with those qualities of generosity and liberality which the Arabs prized so highly, and the chronicles never weary in their p raises.
See the memoirs and chronicles of l'Estoile, Villeroy, Ph.
In 1448-1450 Italy (Kircher), Germany (Lersch, from old chronicles), France and Spain, were ravaged by a plague supposed to have arisen in Asia, scarcely less destructive than the black death.
There is much in the imperial and papal histories that is merely spectacular and romantic; much that appeals to the imagination and lends itself to myth; and since the sources are abundant - the papal archives inexhaustible and the German chronicles easily accessible - an undue emphasis has been placed upon them.
The various annals and chronicles of the period, among which may be mentioned the Chronica regia Coloniensis and the Annales Magdeburgenses, are also important.
One authority alleges that his council thwarted him in his desire to relieve Montereau, because he had been discharged from his office (Chronicles of London, 143).
The first book, which is a mere compilation from the chronicles of St Jerome and Orosius, is of no value.
It is urged, indeed, that the author of Chronicles could not have imagined a prophet to have sympathized with such a king as Zedekiah so warmly as is implied by Lamentations iv.
See Two of the Saxon Chronicles, ed.
The fact that many of the names which occur in Russian chronicles seem to be peculiarly Swedish suggests that Sweden was the home of the settlers, and the best authorities consider that the original Scandinavian conquerors were Swedes who had settled on the east coast of the Baltic.
There are three rhyming chronicles in medieval Swedish, all anonymous.
His materials consisted of the Annales Maximi, Commentarii Consulares, and similar records; the chronicles of the great Roman families; and his own experiences in the Second Punic War.
But notwithstanding all its dependence on classical and foreign authors, Portuguese literature has a distinct individuality which appears in the romanceiro, in the songs named cantares de amigo of the cancioneiros, in the Chronicles of Fernao Lopes, in the Historia tragico-maritima, in the plays of Gil Vicente, in the bucolic verse and prose of the early 16th century, in the Letters of Marianna Alcoforado and, above all, in The Lusiads.
The first frankly literary prose documents appear in the 14th century, and consist of chronicles, lives of saints and genealogical treatises.
The age is noted for its chronicles, beginning with the anonymous life of the Portuguese Cid, the Holy Constable Nuno Alvares Pereira, told in charming infantile prose, the translated Chronica da fundirao do moesteyro de Sam Vicente, and the Vida Fernao Lopes (q.v.), the father of Portuguese history and author of chronicles of King Pedro, King Ferdinand and King John I., has been called by Southey the best chronicler of any age or nation.
Years of persevering toil in archives and editions of old chronicles prepared Herculano for his magnum opus, the Historia de Portugal.
The Book of Jubilees is the most advanced pre-Christian representative of the Midrashic tendency, which had already been at work in the Old Testament Chronicles.
Its real history commences with Srong Tsan Gampo, who was born a little after 600 A.D., and who is said in the Chinese chronicles to have entered, in 634, into diplomatic relationship with Tai Tsung, one of the emperors of the Tang dynasty.
He is described in the church chronicles as an incarnation of the evil spirit, and is said to have succeeded in suppressing Buddhism throughout the greater part of the land.
On the contrary, men of high rank and tried statesmanship were on that very account thought all the fitter to write the chronicles of the state they had served.
His successors carried still farther the practice of dressing up the rather bald chronicles of earlier writers with all the ornaments of rhetoric. The old traditions were altered, almost beyond the possibility of recognition, by exaggerations, interpolations and additions.
For some three months he eluded pursuit, hiding among friends and occupying himself by writing a history of Ireland (first published in Holinshed's Chronicles), a superficial work of no real value.
Wattenbach was distinguished by his thorough knowledge of the chronicles and other original documents of the middle ages, and his most valuable work was done in this field.
Achin literature, unlike the language, is entirely Malay; it includes poetry, a good deal of theology and several chronicles.
Next to the inscriptions, - sometimes identical with them, - are the early chronicles.
Family chronicles preserved the memory of heroic ancestors whose deeds in the earliest age would have passed into the keeping of the bards.
Chronicles of the Greek cities were commonly ascribed to mythical authors, as for instance that of Miletus, the oldest, to Cadmus the inventor of letters.
Through Jerome's translation and additions, this scheme of this world's chronology became the basis for all medieval world chronicles.
For a time there were even attempts to continue "imperial chronicles," but they were insignificant compared with the influence of Eusebius and Jerome.
Toward the close of the middle ages the vernacular literatures were adorned with Villani's and Froissart's chronicles.
Conrad Peutinger gathered all sorts of Chronicles in his room in Vienna, and published several, - among them Gregory of Tours.
Medieval archaeology has, since Quicherat, revealed how men were living while the monks wrote chronicles, and now cathedrals and castles are studied as genuine historic documents.
It was so in Herodotus and in medieval chronicles.
The most important contemporary sources are Stevenson's Wars of the English in France, Whethamstead's Register, and Beckington's Letters (all in Rolls Ser.), with the various London Chronicles, and the works of Waurin and Monstrelet.
Feats of arms, great battles, heroic virtues, devoted friendships and atrocious crimes make the chronicles of China in the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries before the birth of Christ as attractive as those of France and England in the 14th and some other centuries after it.
Lastly, chronicles and documentary records, taken in connexion with archaeological relics of the historical period, carry back into distant ages the starting-point of actual history, behind which lies the evidently vast period only known by inferences from the relations of languages and the stages of development of civilization.
The teaching of history, during the three to four thousand years of which contemporary chronicles have been preserved, is that civilization is gradually developed in the course of ages by enlargement and increased precision of knowledge, invention and improvement of arts, and the progression of social and political habits and institutions towards general well-being.
He also wrote a great number of letters, some of which are extant, and others embodied in the chronicles of Flodoard.
Early English chronicles, such as the Chronicon e chronicis of Florence of Worcester, who died in 1118, described minutely and without a suggestion of disbelief the flourishing state of Lyonnesse, and its sudden disappearance beneath the sea.
His title of the Catholic itself may very well have been the invention of later chronicles.
Beldiman copied a number of ancient chronicles, wrote a satire on the Greeks, and translated and adapted a number of French tragedies and dramas, in verse and prose.
Balcescu had undertaken the edition of the ancient Walachian chronicles, and had found in them admirable prose writers, that he ventured on a continuous history (1851-52) of the Rumanians under Michael the Brave, written not as a didactic treatise but as a poem in prose - full of colour and of energy.
Cogalniceanu published various reviews, some of a political, others of a more literary character, such as the Dacia literar y (1840) and Archiva romdneasca (1845-46); he has also the great merit of having published for the first time a collection of the Moldavian chronicles.
Khotan, known in Sanskrit as Kustana and in Chinese as Yu-than, Yu-tien, Kiu-sa-tan-na, and Khio-tan, is mentioned in Chinese chronicles in the 2nd century B.C. In A.D.
There is a generally accepted story, based on the chronicles of Jehan le Bel and Froissart, that she summoned the English forces to meet the Scottish invasion of 1346, and harangued the troops before the battle of Neville's Cross.
But following a custom which was by no means uncommon in the middle ages, a clumsy sequel, extending to 1516, was formed out of various chronicles and tacked on to his work.
His editions of Icelandic classics (1858-68), Biskopa Sogur, Bardar Saga, Forn Sbgur (with Mobius), Eyrbyggia Saga and Flateyar-bok (with Unger) opened a new era of Icelandic scholarship, and can only fitly be compared to the Rolls Series editions of chronicles by Dr Stubbs for the interest and value of their prefaces and texts.
The dates of these last are approximately known; and arguing from these dates the date of Asoka's accession has been fixed by various scholars (at dates varying only by a difference of five years more or less) at about 270 B.C. The second figure, the total interval between Asoka's accession and the Buddha's death, is given in the Ceylon Chronicles as 218 years.
Snow falls so rarely that its appearance in 1684 is reported in the native chronicles as a remarkable event.
No other mention has been found in any of the numerous Swiss or Austrian chronicles till we come to the book De Helvetiae origine, written in 1538 by Rudolph Gwalther (Zwingli's son-in-law), when the hero is still nameless, being compared to Decius or Codrus, but is said to have been killed by his brave act.
Lippspringe is mentioned in chronicles as early as the 9th century, and here in the 13th century the order of the Templars established a stronghold.
Barmen, although mentioned in chronicles in the 11th century, did not attain civic rights until 1808, when it was formed into a municipality by the grand-duke of Berg.
Yet since the 5th century they had been restricting their operations to their own shores, and are barely heard of in the chronicles of their southern.
Little can be gathered concerning them from chronicles or official records.
In nothing is the general stagnation of the church in the later 15th century shown better than by the gradual cessation of the monastic chronicles.
For the last two-thirds of the century the various London chronicles, the work of laymen, are much more important than anything which was produced in the religious houses.
The monasteries had ceased to be even the nurseries of literature; their chronicles had run dry, and secular priests or laymen had taken up the pens that the monks had dropped.
Some of them are mainly local chronicles; others are almost national histories.
For Richard and John the chronicles of Roger of Hoveden, Ralph de IDiceto (Diss), Gervase of Canterbury, Ralph of Coggeshall, and a later continuation of Hoveden, known under the name of Walter of Coventry, are the best narrative authorities.
A large number of French and Flemish chronicles illustrate the history of the Hundred Years War, by far the most important being Froissart (best edition by Luce, though Lettenhoves is bigger).
Chronicles, however, grow less important as sources of history as time goes on.
The chronicles; which in the I5th century are usually meagre productions like Warkworths (Camden Society), get fuller, especially those emanating from London.
Clarendons Great Rebellion and Burnets History of My Own Time are the first modern attempts at contemporary history, as distinct from chronicles and annals, in England, although it is difficult to exclude the work of Matthew Paris from the category.
The first erection is ascribed by the Saxon chronicles to King Ida of Northumberland.
The only noteworthy literary productions of this first period of Servian literature were zhivoti (biographies) and letopisi (chronicles).
The chronicles (letopisi) are without any literary value, although as historical material they are useful.
Except for these facts he is known to us only as the author of two metrical chronicles in the Norman-French language.
Amongst the numerous chronicles the Annals of Ulster, which commence with the year 441, are by far the most trustworthy.
His Prithiraj Rasau, a poem of some aoo,000 stanzas, chronicling his master's deeds and the contemporary history of his part of India, is valuable not only as historical material but as the earliest monument of the Western Hindi language, and the first of the long series of bardic chronicles for which Rajputana is celebrated.
Kajkavci had from about 1550 to 1830 a distinctive literature, consisting of chronicles and histories, poems of a religious or educational character, fables and moral tales.
In precision and fulness of detail the Ymagines are inferior to the chronicles of the so-called Benedict and of Hoveden.
For this reason, and on account of the details with which they supplement the more important chronicles of the period, the Ymagines are a valuable though a secondary source.
See Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I.
Innumerable similar cases appear in acts of synods and in chronicles during the 11th century.
According to this, Genesis is a post-exilic work composed of a post-exilic priestly source (P) and non-priestly earlier sources which differ markedly from P in language, style and religious standpoint, but much less markedly from one and another.6 These sources can be traced elsewhere in the Pentateuch and Joshua, and P itself is related to the post-exilic works Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah.
On internal grounds it appears that the Pentateuch and Joshua, as they now read, virtually come in between an older history by "Deuteronomic" compilers (easily recognizable in Judges and Kings), and the later treatment of the monarchy in Chronicles, where tie influence of the circle which produced P and the present Mosaic legislation is quite discernible.
Sixtus conjectures that it may have been a Greek translation of the " chronicles " of John Hyrcanus, alluded to in i Macc. xvi.
The parallel portions in Chronicles also sometimes preserve better readings, but must be used with caution as they may represent other recensions or the result of rewriting and reshaping.
The Quentaris Chronicles is a new fantasy adventure series - with a twist.
The chronicles mention the destruction of Dunbar, former Northumbrian bastion against the Picts, possibly as a naval base.
The otherworldly beings who appear in medieval chronicles are a varied lot.
Monks in England at the time wrote the " Anglo-Saxon Chronicles " - a history of England at the time.
Written and directed by Australian Greg McLean, Wolf Creek chronicles the fortunes of three backpackers as they travel in the remote outback.
The Arab revolt therefore ought to be excised from the chronicles of Arab nationalism.
David Fitzpatrick (Trinity College Dublin) chronicles the somewhat uneasy history of commemoration in the Free State, given the civil war context.
Haneke chronicles a family enslaved to the structures they have created, operating in a morass of emotional vacuity.
At a very early age he entertained an exalted idea of his own divine authority, and his studies were largely devoted to searching in the Scriptures and the Slavonic chronicles for sanctions and precedents for the exercise and development of his right divine.
But the department of the chronicles, the only 1 Journal of the Pali Text Society (1905), pp. 72, 86, one so far at all adequately treated, has thrown so much light on many points of the history of India that we may reasonably expect results equally valuable from the publication and study of the remainder.
There are, however, Targumim on the Psalms and Job, composed in the 5th century, on Proverbs, resembling the Peshitta version, on the five Meghilloth, paraphrastic and agadic (see below) in character, and on Chronicles - all Palestinian.
The striking differences between Samuel and Kings are due to differences in the writing of the history; independent Israelite records having been incorporated with those of Judah and supplemented (with revision) from the Judaean standpoint (see Chronicles; Kings; Samuel).
The inferiority of Chronicles as a historical source and its varied examples of " tendency-writing " must be set against its possible access to traditions of contact with those of Saul in i Samuel, and the relation is highly suggestive for the study of their growth, as also for the perspective of the various writers.
The " canonical " history in Kings is further embellished in Chronicles, but the gulf between them is not so profound as that between the former and the underlying and half-suppressed historical traditions which can still be recognized.
The Abyssinian chronicles, it may be noted, attribute the foundation of the kingdom to Menelek (or Ibn el-Hakim), son of Solomon and the queen of Sheba.
The Chronicles re-traversed much of the ground already gone over by the Record, preserving many of the songs in occasionally changed form, omitting some portions, supplementing others, and imparting to the whole such an exotic character as almost to disqualify the work for a place in Japanese literature.
Thus the fragmentary close of 2 Chronicles marks the disruption of a previously-existing continuity, - due, presumably, to the fact that in the gradual compilation of the Canon the necessity for incorporating in the Holy Writings an account of the establishment of the post-Exile theocracy was felt, before it was thought desirable to supplement Samuel and Kings by adding a second history of the period before the Exile.
A further task is to estimate the value of this literature as evidence for the history of Israel, to determine, as far as possible, whether such parts of the literature as are contemporary with the time described present correct, or whether in any respect one-sided or biased or otherwise incorrect, descriptions; and again, how far the literature that relates the story of long past periods has drawn upon trustworthy records, and how far it is possible to extract historical truth from traditions (such as those of the Pentateuch) that present, owing to the gradual accretions and modifications of intervening generations, a composite picture of the period described, or from a work such as Chronicles, which narrates the past under the influence of the conception that the institutions and ideas of the present must have been established and current in the past; all this falls under Historical Criticism, which, on its constructive side, must avail itself of all available and well-sifted evidence, whether derived from the Old Testament or elsewhere, for its presentation of the history of Israel - its ultimate purpose.
Thus it is to Luther a matter of indifference whether or not Moses wrote the Pentateuch; the books of Chronicles he definitely pronounces less credible than those of Kings, and he considers that the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Hosea probably owe their present form to later hands.
Don Jose Quintana has summarized the two chronicles in his life of Luna in the Vidas de Espanoles celebres; Biblioteca de Autores Espanoles (Madrid, 1846-1880), vol.
It is true that the nationalistic tinge is found in late writings (Chronicles, Psalms), and that its absence, therefore, is not merely a matter of date; but it is hardly conceivable that an author of any time before the 5th century could have ignored the nationalistic point of view so completely as Proverbs does.
Recent scholarship has absolutely disproved this legend, founded on a few trite phrases in monastic chronicles, and still to be heard in similar contexts.
Acsintie Uricariul, 1715, brings to a close the corpus of Moldavian Chronicles.
As a whole, Chronicles presents the period from a later ecclesiastical standpoint, presupposing (in contrast to Samuel) the fully developed " Mosaic " ritual (see Chronicles).
Their lives and careers are recorded in this 6th publication of the authoritative and highly popular Scots-Irish Chronicles.
The Lost Chronicles is the first official tie-in book to the worldwide hit TV series Lost.
Barack Levin, the author of The Diaper Chronicles and a stay-at-home dad, recently spoke with LoveToKnow Baby about his book and his life.
I decided to write my book, The Diaper Chronicles - A stay at home dad's quest for raising great kids, after I saw that many parents deal with situations that I found easily solvable.
Diary of a Worm, by Doreen Cronin, chronicles the life of a worm.
The Underland Chronicles series by Suzanne Collins begins with Gregor the Overlander, an adventure book about a boy who wanders through an inner-city underground world.
Although many people associate scrapbooking with chronicles of birthday parties and family vacations, the act of creating a layout has significant therapeutic value.
In 1989, he and fellow comedian Larry David created a sitcom for NBC called The Seinfeld Chronicles, a semi-autobiographical look at a stand-up comedian named Jerry Seinfeld.
If you want your eyes to shine and look freaky, try a pair of Chronicles of Riddick contact lenses to surprise those who dare to look you in the eye.
Made popular in 2004 in the film Chronicles of Riddick, these types of lenses appeal to people for many reasons.
The most common use for Chronicles of Riddick contacts is if you plan on dressing up as Riddick for Halloween or a costume party.
If you want to look like Riddick, try a pair of Chronicles of Riddick contact lenses.
If there's one word to sum up those famous Chronicles of Riddick goggles, it's black.
First of all, the Chronicles of Riddick movie has a huge fan base as it is in both the science fiction and action categories.
You can find Chronicles of Riddick goggles at Reel World Props.
No matter what your reason for looking for Chronicles of Riddick goggles, there are a few sites online where you can purchase a pair of replicas.
Mirror tinted contact lenses made their appearance in the movie Chronicles of Riddick.
Another popular character that has dramatic eyes is Riddick from the movie Chronicles of Riddick.
The first "Riddick goggles" were custom made for Vin Diesel to wear as Riddick in The Chronicles of Riddick movie.
People tend to look for Riddick goggles to buy if they are huge Chronicles of Riddick fans who enjoy collecting movie memorabilia, props, and so on.
These are a much cheaper alternative to the carefully designed replicas meant to look exactly like the goggles from the Chronicles of Riddick movie, down to the last crevice.
Much the content that you unlock as you complete levels chronicles the extensive research done by the development team towards making this game as realistic as possible, revealing the staggering level of attention to detail.
The game story, penned by former Hulk scribe Paul Jenkins, chronicles the struggle of Bruce Banner, the alter ego of the Hulk, to cope with and hopefully discover a cure for his destructive inner demons.
Two modes that go hand in hand are Character Creation mode and Chronicles of the Sword mode.
Once you get your fighter all squared away, take him or her into Chronicles of the Sword mode.
Despite the lackluster Chronicles of the Sword mode, you can find clean graphics, 3 excellent new characters, and the deep gameplay that has always been associated with Namco's premier weapon's based fighter.
The story is based on the first book of the Chronicles of Narnia series created by C.S.
The controls in Chronicles of Narnia are easy to use.
The graphics in Chronicles of Narnia are nice to look at.
This major video game maker produced major games like Baldur's Gate, MDK2 and Sonic Chronicles.
It's not the most innovative Wii accessory on the market, but it could prove to add some value to titles like Ghost Squad and Umbrella Chronicles.
The Cheryl Burke bio chronicles a stunning ballroom dancer who is best known for her stints on the popular ABC television show, Dancing with the Stars.
Walden Media - whether you're reading the Chronicles of Narnia or watching the Water Horse on DVD, this website has free teacher guides and class activities that are free to download.
This interesting and informative show from Discovery Health chronicles the activity inside Expecting Models, the world's only agency devoted to representing models during their pregnancies.
The authors of The Conception Chronicles are three friends, Patty Doyle Debano, Courtney Edgerton Menzel, and Shelly Dicken Sutphen, who have all had their own experiences getting pregnant.
Read this story out loud to your young child, or let your older child explore the entire Chronicles on their own.
The Chronicles of Riddick movie sequel is the third installment in this series of films.
As a result, movie executives decided to follow Pitch Black up with The Chronicles of Riddick in 2004.
Twhoy also announced that it would be an independent film more along the lines of Pitch Black than a huge production like The Chronicles of Riddick.
Over the course of the time that has passed between the Chronicles and The Underverse, apparently Diesel has been keeping die-hard Riddick fans abreast of what's been going on with the series while promising more movies to come.
Though many Riddick fans loved 2004's Chronicles, when it wasn't a huge box office blockbuster, everyone thought the series of films to be dead in the water.
An idea Diesel originally brought to Universal Studios while filming 2004's Chronicles, but the studio declined.
Until then, there is always the ever-so-popular Riddick series of video games, which some, say is better than The Chronicles of Riddick.
Hopefully, by going back to its Pitch Black roots, The Underverse will be much better received than The Chronicles of Riddick.
The Evolution of Dance is a great example of this as the video chronicles an interpretive version of dance that has made over 100 million viewers giggle.
A broader historical overview is offered in the month-by-month recap, which chronicles most (though not all) years from 1960 to 1999.
The show chronicles the lives of the Forrester and Logan families set amidst the lush fashion industry.
The film chronicles the Came So Far For Beauty Leonard Cohen tribute concert that happened earlier this year in Sydney, which also featured performances by Rufus Wainwright, Jarvis Cocker, and the McGarrigles, to name but a few.
Music is another source for downloading songs from As Cruel As Schoolchildren and The Papercut Chronicles.
The Chronicles of Narnia series of films were marketed as mainstream cinema but embraced by Christian cinema fans as one of their own.
As The Chronicles of Narnia films weren't strictly created to be Christian films, the accompanying soundtracks are not embraced by everyone interested in Christian music.
The show chronicles Kathy's everyday life from potty training her puppy to guest hosting on The View.
Little People Big World is a TLC reality show that chronicles the life of a family helmed by two little people, Matt and Amy Roloff.
The episode then chronicles his journey from the drop-off point back to civilization.
This reality show, formerly known as 17 Kids and Counting came to The Learning Channel in 2008 and chronicles the lives of Arkansas real estate agent Jim Bob Duggar, his wife Michelle and their 18 children.
Her show, Ruby, on cable's Style Network, chronicles her weight-loss journey, including all of the highs and lows that come along with this type of self-improvement.
Fantasia For Real is a VH1 reality show that chronicles the often chaotic life of American Idol winner Fantasia Barrino as she tries to relaunch her music career while also dealing with the demands of her family.
Kittie is aggressive and dates frequently but the show chronicles her search for someone to settle down with.
Instead of trying to keep quiet with his illegal behavior, he instead chose to star in a reality show that chronicles his polygamist lifestyle.
The Chronicles of Narnia are a series of seven books, all set in the magical kingdom of Narnia, where the animals and mythological beings talk and magic rules.
The first of the Chronicles is probably also the most 'perfect' of the form.
Classic and New Science and Fantasy Movies including Lord of the Rings, King Kong (1933) and The Chronicles of Narnia.
The Martian Chronicles is really a series of related short stories, and his gorgeous Dandelion Wine is assembled from segments that had been originally published as short stories.
The Martian Chronicles (1950) are considered by Bradbury to not be science fiction at all, but rather fantasy, since the tales of settlers colonizing Mars were impossible by the science of the day.
Per Box Office Mojo, The Chronicles of Narnia has grossed $244,839,000 as of January 2, 2006.
Set in a near-future of environmental collapse, it chronicles the fate of the human race as the effects of pollution lead to massive infertility in humans and in some animal species.
The Golden Compass along with other literary favorites like The Chronicles of Narnia as well as Lord of the Rings, specifically The Hobbit, can all be seen as having roots in politics and religion.
His strange title is given him in the chronicles on the strength of a story that he put two brothers of the name of Carvajal to death tyrannically, and was given a time, a plazo, by them in which to answer for his crime in the next world.
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
Skene's view is that it chronicles the struggle in 900 between Sigurd, earl of Orkney, and Maelbrigd, Maormor of Moray.
Like many Oriental works it is a compilation, as may be illustrated from a comparison of Chronicles with Samuel - Kings, and the representation of the past in the light of the present (as exemplified in Chronicles) is a frequently recurring phenomenon.
Both Israel and Judah had their own annals, brief excerpts from which appear in the books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles, and they are supplemented by fuller narratives of distinct and more popular origin.
The history of the two kingdoms is contained in Kings and the later and relatively less trustworthy Chronicles, which deals with Judah alone.
On the contrary, the statement that there was continual warfare is supplemented in Chronicles by the story of a victory over Israel by Abijah the son of Rehoboam.
To a certain extent it would seem that even as Chronicles (q.v.) has passed through the hands of one who was keenly interested in the Temple service, so the other historical books have been shaped not only by the late priestly writers (symbolized in literary criticism by P), but also by rather earlier writers, also of priestly sympathies, but of " southern " or half-Edomite affinity.
It is replaced by Chronicles, which, confining itself to Judaean history from a later standpoint (after the Persian age), includes new characteristic traditions wherein some recollection of more recent events may be recognized.
This is especially true of the history of the exilic and post-exilic periods, where the effort is made to preserve the continuity of Israel and the Israelite community (Chronicles - Ezra - Nehemiah).
An interest in the past is not necessarily confined to any one age, and the critical view that the biblical history has been compiled from relatively late standpoints finds support in the still later treatment of the events - in Chronicles as contrasted with Samuel-Kings or in Jubilees as contrasted with Genesis.'
Such notices as we have of the history of Strathclyde in the 7th and 8th centuries are preserved only in the chronicles of the surrounding nations and even these supply us with little more than an incomplete record of wars with the neighbouring Scots, Picts and Northumbrians.
See Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles, ii.
It cannot be doubted that the three types of David, represented by the books of Samuel, of Chronicles, and the superscriptions of the Psalms, are irreconcilable, and that they represent successive developments of the original traditions.
C. Brunet chronicles editions of 1488, 1494, 1513, 1520 and 1533 - of this last date there are two, one published by Jehan Petit, the other by Philippe Lenoire, this last by far the better, being printed from a much fuller manuscript.
Our earliest information about the Ephthalites comes from the Chinese chronicles, in which it is stated that they were originally a tribe of the great Yue-Chi, living to the north of the Great Wall, and in subjection to the Jwen-Jwen, as were also the Turks at one time.
By about the beginning of our era the Jews had given up Hebrew and wrote in Aramaic; the process of expulsion had been going on, doubtless, for some time; but comparison with the later extant literature (Chronicles, the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus or Ben-Sira, Esther) makes it improbable that such Hebrew as that of Koheleth would have been written earlier than the 2nd century B.C. (for details see Driver's Introduction).
The history of Athens for the next four centuries is almost a blank; the city is rarely mentioned by the Byzantine chronicles of this period.
Adhemar's life was mainly spent in writing and transcribing chronicles, and his principal work is a history entitled Chronicon Aquitanicum et Francicum or Historia Francorum.
As early as the 12th century B.C., Chinese chronicles, which are almost the only source for the history of Cambodia till the 5th century A.D., mention a region called Fou-nan, in later times appearing under the name of Tchin-la; embracing the basin of the Menam, it extended eastwards to the Mekong and may be considered approximately coextensive with the Khmer kingdom.
He is always worth comparing with the extant English Chronicles; and from 1106 he is an independent annalist, dry but accurate.
As regards the Philistines, it is impossible to lay much weight on the statement of Chronicles, unsupported as it is by the older history, and in Joel the Philistines plainly stand in one category with the Phoenicians, as slave dealers, not as armed foes.
Now it is true that those who take their view of the history from Chronicles, where the kingdom of Ephraim is always treated as a sect outside the true religion, can reconcile this fact with an early date.
It is only in the appendix to the Elohistic psalm-book that we find Heman and Ethan side by side with Asaph, as in the Chronicles; but this does not necessarily prove that the body of the collection originated when there were only two gilds of singers.
Three counties - Sobrarbe, situated near the headwaters of the Cinca, Aragon, to the west, and Ribagorza or Ribagorca, to the east - are indicated by tradition and the earliest chronicles as the cradle of the Aragonese monarchy.
As for the past two years people have amused themselves by finding husbands for me (most of whom I don't even know), the matchmaking chronicles of Moscow now speak of me as the future Countess Bezukhova.
Ulster (Uladh) was one of the early provincial kingdoms of Ireland, formed, according to the legendary chronicles, at the Milesian conquest of the island ten centuries before Christ, and given to the descendants of Ir, one of the sons of Mileadh.
Muratoris great collection, the Rerum Italicarum 5cr iptores in combination with his Dissertationes, the chronicles and other historical material published by the Archjvjo Storjco Italiano, and the woiks of detached annalists of whom the \Tjllanj are the most notable, take first rank.
On the other hand, Chronicles has a different story with a novel prelude.
The post-exilic priestly spirit represents a tendency which is absent from the Judaean Deuteronomic book of Kings but is fully mature in the later, and to some extent parallel, book of Chronicles (q.v.).
See further Chronicles, Psalms.
See the chronicles cited for the reigns of Henry II., Richard I.
Schwedt is mentioned in chronicles as early as 1138, and became a town in 1265.
Its value is considerably increased by the insertion of ancient chronicles and documents not easily accessible elsewhere.
This work, the Taj-ut-Tevarikh (Crown of Chronicles), is reckoned, on account of its ornate yet clear style, one of the masterpieces of the old school, and forms the first of an unbroken series of annals which are written, especially the later among them, with great minuteness and detail.
The royal chronicles of Cambodia, the historical veracity of which has often to be questioned, begin about the middle of the 14th century, at which period the Thais assumed the offensive and were able repeatedly to capture and pillage Angkor-Thom.
In the main this conclusion substantiates the verdict of Stubbs, who has published the Vita et mors in his Chronicles of the reigns of Edward I.
In the domain of history we have first the old Sienese chronicles, which down to the 14th century are so confused that it is almost impossible to disentangle truth from fiction or even to decide the personality of the various authors.