In the English chronicles "French" is the only name used.
John Aubrey, the antiquary, chronicles that the sisters of Sir John Suckling, the courtier-poet, once went to the bowling-green in Piccadilly, crying, "for fear he should lose all their portions."
" stores of instruction for the ignorant"), or chronicles, which were carefully written up from time to time.
The following is a list of kings whose names are mentioned in the chronicles: Rhydderch Hen.
Walsingham's Historia Anglicana (Rolls Series), Adam of Usk's Chronicle and the various Chronicles of London.
This work, the Taj-ut-Tevarikh (Crown of Chronicles), is reckoned, on account of its ornate yet clear style, one of the masterpieces of the old school, and forms the first of an unbroken series of annals which are written, especially the later among them, with great minuteness and detail.
Skene's view is that it chronicles the struggle in 900 between Sigurd, earl of Orkney, and Maelbrigd, Maormor of Moray.
It cannot be doubted that the three types of David, represented by the books of Samuel, of Chronicles, and the superscriptions of the Psalms, are irreconcilable, and that they represent successive developments of the original traditions.
Now it is true that those who take their view of the history from Chronicles, where the kingdom of Ephraim is always treated as a sect outside the true religion, can reconcile this fact with an early date.
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
Young's Chronicles of the Pilgrim Fathers (Boston, 1841); and E.
As for the past two years people have amused themselves by finding husbands for me (most of whom I don't even know), the matchmaking chronicles of Moscow now speak of me as the future Countess Bezukhova.
Danby was a statesman of very different calibre from the 1 Chronicles of London Bridge, by R.
Schwedt is mentioned in chronicles as early as 1138, and became a town in 1265.
Its value is considerably increased by the insertion of ancient chronicles and documents not easily accessible elsewhere.
refers to Agilmar, archbishop of Vienne, as archchancellor, and there are several other references to archchancellors in various chronicles.
Those in Israel who remembered the previous war between 1 Careful examination shows that no a priori distinction can be drawn between " trustworthy " books of Kings and " untrustworthy books " of Chronicles.
Kings and Chronicles).
Besides the New Testament, the Pentateuch and Jonah, it is believed that he finished in prison the section of the Old Testament extending from Joshua to Chronicles.
His title of" the Catholic " itself may very well have been the invention of later chronicles.
preserved in its entirety only in Ethiopic. Jubilees is the most advanced pre-Christian representative of the midrashic tendency, which was already at work in the Old Testament 1 and 2 Chronicles.
1453), in his continuation of Froissart's chronicles.
These and editions of two old chronicles, the Chronica de D.
Stubbs's Chronicles of Edward I.
Of the three first-mentioned chronicles Hungarian translations by Charles Szabo appeared at Budapest in 1860, 1861 and 1862.
See also Thomas Walsingham, Chronicon Angliae (Rolls series, 1814); Froissart, Chronicles (edited by G.
The truth that underlies the tradition is that the collection is essentially the hymn-book of the second Temple,' and it was therefore ascribed to David, because it was assumed, as we see clearly from Chronicles, that the order of worship in the second temple was the same as in the first, and had David as its father: as Moses completed the law of Israel for all time before the people entered Canaan, so David completed the theory and contents of the Temple psalmody before the Temple itself was built.
Unfortunately however it is impossible to date the book of Chronicles with certainty.
But when singers and Levites were fused the Asaphites ceased to be the only singers, and ultimately, as we see in Chronicles, they were distinguished from the Korahites and reckoned to Gershom (i Chron.
It is only in the appendix to the Elohistic psalm-book that we find Heman and Ethan side by side with Asaph, as in the Chronicles; but this does not necessarily prove that the body of the collection originated when there were only two gilds of singers.
On this hypothesis we are able to explain the presence of certain poetical pieces both in the book of Chronicles and in the Psalter.
A good deal is said about the musical services of the Levites in Chronicles, both in the account given of David's ordinances and in the descriptions of particular festival occasions.
which contain the Syriac Massorah or tradition of the reading of the text pass over Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, and in the case of the Nestorians also Esther.
His place as a master in critical scholarship and historical exposition is decided beyond debate by the nineteen volumes which he edited for the Rolls series of Chronicles and Memorials.
The Anglo-Saxon Leechdoms 1 of the 11th century, published in the Rolls series of medieval chronicles and memorials, admirably illustrate the mixture of magic and superstition with the relics of ancient science which constituted monastic medicine.
- lxvi.), in Jeremiah and in Chronicles, it represents the Hebrew lebonah, more usually rendered "frankincense"; elsewhere the original word is ketoreth (Ex.
The following are some of the Chronicles of London which have been printed, arranged in order of publication: R.
Arnold, London Chronicle (1811); A Chrcnicle of London from 1089 to 1483 written in the Fifteenth Century (1827); William Gregory's Chronicle of London,1189-1469 (1876); Historical Collections of a Citizen of London, edited by James Gairdner (Camden Society, 1876); Chronicles of London [1200-1516], edited by C. L.
Curante Thoma Stapleton (Camden Society, 1846); Chronicles of the Mayors and Sheriffs of London 1188-1274, translated from the Liber de Antiquis Legibus by H.
Parker, Landmarks of Albany County (Syracuse, 1897); and Cuyler Reynolds, Albany Chronicles; or Albany Mayors and Contemporaneous Chronology (Albany, 1907).
2 In addition to the chronological tables, works of a more ambitious and literary character were also attempted of the nature of chronicles.
King, " Chronicles concerning early Babylonian Kings " (Studies in Eastern History, vols.
King, Chronicles, i.
Arabia, and reducing that country to a state of vassalage: the king is styled in Ethiopian chronicles Caleb (Kaleb), in Greek and Arabic documents El-Esbaha.
See the lists of English chronicles for the reigns of John and Henry III.; also the Welsh chronicle Brut y Tywysogion (ed.
Kaufbeuren is said to have been founded in 842, and is first mentioned in chronicles of the year 1126.
At this point their history ceases to be mentioned in the Western chronicles.
The thirty-second volume of the Histoire litteraire de la France, which was partly his work, is of great importance for the study of 13th and 14th century Latin chronicles.
apoc in Byzantine writers, as Khazirs in Armenian and Khwalisses in Russian chronicles, and Ugri Bielii in Nestor), an ancient people who occupied a prominent place amongst the secondary powers of the Byzantine state-system.
Still more memorable was the expedition afterwards undertaken by the united forces of Pisa and Genoa against Mogahid, better known in the Italian chronicles as Mugeto.
Other towns of Tunisia are, on the east coast, Nabeul, pop. about 5000, the ancient Neapolis, noted for the mildness of its climate and its pottery manufactures; Hammamet with 37 00 inhabitants; Monastir (the Ruspina of the Romans), a walled town with 5600 inhabitants and a trade in cereals and oils; Mandiya or Mandia (q.v.; in ancient chronicles called the city of Africa and sometimes the capital of the country) with 8500 inhabitants, the fallen city of the Fatimites, which since the French occupation has risen from its ruins, and has a new harbour (the ancient Cothon or harbour, of Phoenician origin, cut out of the rock is nearly dry but in excellent preservation); and Gabes (Tacape of the Romans, Qabis of the Arabs) on the Syrtis, a group of small villages, with an aggregate population of 16,000, the port of the Shat country and a depot of the esparto trade.
The statement still commonly repeated that it originated with Petrus 1 These details are scarcely the invention of the chronicler; see Chronicles, and Expositor, Aug.
Stubbs's Chronicles and Memorials of the Reign of Richard I.
Arrived at this stage of development, the Annals now began to lose their primitive character, and henceforward became more and more indistinguishable from the Chronicles.
This, added to ill-health, served to intensify a natural irritability of temperament, and the history of his later Weimar days is a rather dreary page in the chronicles of literary life.
Numerous places in the valley of the Main are mentioned in chronicles anterior to the time that Frankfort is first noticed.
The name Frankfort is also found in several official documents of Charlemagne's reign; and from the notices that occur in the early chronicles and charters it would appear that the place was the most populous at least of the numerous villages of the Main district.
This volume was called the Nihongi (Chronicles of Japan).
And it was under the auspices of an ~lter~a,~e e empress that the Chronicles of Japan were composed (720).
Thenceforth the name of "magister Vacarius" is of very frequent occurrence, in papal letters and the chronicles of the period, as acting in these capacities.
by ChampollionFigeac, Paris, 1847, of doubtful authenticity); Relations des ambassadeurs venitiens, &c. Of the memoirs and chronicles, see the journal of Louise of Savoy in S.
Another small body of Shiites, the Isniailites (Assassins (q.v.) of the crusading chronicles), also said to be of Persian origin, live about Kadmus at the extreme N.
An acquaintance with these various methods is indispensable to the student of the charters, chronicles and legal instruments of the middle ages.
In the chronicles of the middle ages much uncertainty frequently arises respecting dates on account of the different epochs assumed for the beginning of the Christian year.
A knowledge of the different epochs which have been chosen for the commencement of the year in different countries is indispensably necessary to the right interpretation of ancient chronicles, charters and other documents in which the dates often appear contradictory.
It is not infrequently met with in the ancient chronicles of France and England.
Though for many centuries they have thus been treated as separate compositions, we have abundant evidence that they were anciently regarded as forming but one book, and a careful examination proves that together with the book of Chronicles they constitute one single work.
Their position in the Hebrew Bible before the book of Chronicles is, however, illogical.
22), and the use of the term "king of Persia," as a distinctive title after the fall of that empire (33 2 B.C.), are enough to show that, as a whole, they belong to the same age as the book of Chronicles.
That these books are the result of compilation (like the book of Chronicles itself) is evident from the many abrupt changes; the inclusion of certain documents written in an Aramaic dialect (Ezr.
The literary and historical criticism of EzraNehemiah is closely bound up with that of Chronicles, whose characteristic features it shares.
Thus other hands apart from the compiler of Chronicles may have helped to shape the narratives, either before their union with that book or after their separation.2 The present intricacy is also due partly to specific historical theories regarding the post-exilic period.
A story had gone about, even in the days of John of Gaunt, who, if we may trust the rhymer John Hardyng (Chronicle, pp. 290, 291), had got it inserted in chronicles deposited in various monasteries, that this Edmund, surnamed Crouchback, was really hump-backed, and that he was set aside in favour of his younger brother Edward on account of his deformity.
The only other surviving document of the 12th century bearing on this subject is a letter of which MS. copies are preserved in the Cambridge and Paris libraries, and which is also embedded in the chronicles of several English annalists, including Benedict of Peterborough, Roger Hovedon and Matthew Paris.
P. Ashe, Two Kings of Uganda (1889) and Chronicles of Uganda (1894), Sir H.
In February parliament discovered that " by divers sundry old authentic histories and chronicles " it was manifest that the realm of England was an empire governed by one supreme head, the king, to whom all sorts and degrees of people - both clergy and laity - ought to bear next to God a natural and humble obedience, and that to him God had given the authority finally to determine all causes and contentions in the realm, " without restraint, or provocation to any foreign princes or potentates of the world."
Similar groups are mentioned in the town chronicles of the early 16th century, and there is reason to assume that informal evangelical movements were no new things when Luther first began to preach.
That any such people as the Wilten existed there is little evidence, but Wiltaburg (or variants of it) occurs in chronicles as late as the 12th century, and it is still preserved in the name Wildenburg, given to a Roman camp near the city.
Rothenburg-ob-der-Tauber, mentioned in the chronicles in 804 as Rotinbure, was probably a residence of the dukes of Franconia.
Gera (in ancient chronicles Geraha) was raised to the rank of a town in the IIth century, at which time it belonged to the counts of Groitch.
BOOKS OF CHRONICLES, two Old Testament books of the Bible.
The book of Chronicles begins with Adam and ends abruptly in the middle of Cyrus's decree of restoration, which reappears complete at the beginning of Ezra.
Hence Chronicles is the last book of the Hebrew Bible, following the book of EzraNehemiah, which properly is nothing else than the sequel of Chronicles.
Of the authorship of Chronicles we know only what can be determined by internal evidence.
Now the writer of Chronicles betrays on every page his essentially Levitical habit.
It was the opinion of Bertheau, Keil and others, that the parallelisms of Chronicles with Samuel and Kings are sufficiently explained by the ultimate common source from which both narratives drew.
In particular, Chronicles agrees with Kings in those short notes of the moral character of individual monarchs which can hardly be ascribed to an earlier hand than that of the redactor of the latter book.2 For the criticism of the book it is important to institute a careful comparison of Chronicles with the parallel narratives in Samuel-Kings.
3 It is found that in the cases where Chronicles directly contradicts the earlier books there Treatment }' of history.
The minor variations of Chronicles from the books of Samuel and Kings are analogous in principle to the larger additions and omissions, so that the whole work has a consistent and well-marked character, presenting the history in quite a different perspective from that of the old narrative.
It is therefore probable that in other cases than those of Isaiah and Jehu the writings of, or rather, about the prophets which are cited in Chronicles were known only as parts of the great "book of the Kings."
That the lost source of the Chronicles was not independent of these works appears probable both from the nature of the case and from the close and often verbal parallelism between many sections of the two Biblical narratives.
But while the canonical book of Kings refers to separate sources for the northern and southern kingdoms, the source of Chronicles was a history of the two kingdoms combined, and so, no doubt, was a more recent work which in great measure was doubtless based upon older annals.
The typical speeches in Chronicles are of little value for the periods to which they relate, and where they are inconsistent with the evidence from earlier writings or contain inherent improbabilities are scarcely of historical worth.
3 "A careful comparison of Chronicles with Samuel and Kings is a striking object lesson in ancient historical composition.
Bennett, Chronicles,p.20 seq.).
Chronicles is the result of the development of earlier schemes, of which some traces are still preserved in Chronicles itself and in Ezra-Nehemiah.
But when allowance is made for all the above tendencies of the late post-exilic age, there remains a certain amount of additional matter in Chronicles which may have been derived from relatively old sources.
267-278 (Chronicles a late translation from the Aramaic).
C. Wheeler, Chronicles of Milwaukee (Milwaukee, 1861); E.
There can be little doubt that, as in the case of all the other kingdoms of Further India, complete and detailed chronicles were compiled from reign to reign by order of her kings, but of the more ancient of these, the wars and disturbances which continued with such frequency down to quite recent times have left no trace.
Of the many historians of the middle ages, besides the authors of biographies, chronicles, cloister annals, &c., may be mentioned Haymo, Anastasius, Adam of Bremen, Ordericus Vitalis, Honorius of Autun, Otto of Freising, Vincent of Beauvais and Antoninus of Florence.
Stubbs's prefaces to some of the chronicles in the Rolls series, and (more lately) F.
can glean from the scanty record of the early chronicles.
The Poles call the period between 1548 and 1606 their golden The Latin have been a Frenchman or Walloon, and we must Chronicles.
It is related that Zobeideh, the wife of Harun-al-Rashid, founded the town in 791 after recovering there from fever, but the earlier chronicles give no support to this statement, and it is nowhere recorded that Zobeideh ever visited Azerbaijan, and the name Tabriz was known many centuries before her time.
Seth is named in the opening genealogy of Chronicles, I Chron.
(c) The remaining books, Daniel, Ezra and Nehemiah (forming one book), Chronicles.'
The expansion of the Talmudic twenty-four to the thirty-nine Old Testament books of the English Bible is effected by reckoning the Minor Prophets one by one, by separating Ezra from Nehemiah, and by subdividing the long books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles.
1 The books of Samuel, Kings, Ezra and Nehemiah, and Chronicles, were by the Jews each treated (and written) as one book, and were not divided by them into two till the 16th century, through Christian influence.
The historical books of the Old Testament form two series: one, consisting of the books from Genesis to 2 Kings (exclusive of Ruth, which, as we have seen, forms in the Hebrew canon part of the Hagiographa), embracing the period from the Creation to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Chaldaeans in 586 B.C.; the other, comprising the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, beginning with Adam and ending with the second visit of Nehemiah to Jerusalem in 432 B.C. These two series differ from one another materially in scope and point of view, but in one respect they are both constructed upon a similar plan; no entire book in either series consists of a single, original work; but older writings, or sources, have been combined by a compiler - or sometimes, in stages, by a succession of compilers - in such a manner that the points of juncture are often clearly discernible, and the sources are in consequence capable of being separated from one another.
These books form the second series of historical books referred to above, Ezra and Nehemiah carrying on the narrative of Chronicles, and forming its direct sequel.
the Chronicles, place the old history in a new light; he invests it with the associations of his own day; and pictures pre-exilic Judah as already possessing the fully developed ceremonial.
i and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, and i and 2 Chronicles; 2 Kings xviii.
" As for Kings and Chronicles, " besides the places which mention such monuments as, the writer saith, remained till his own days " (Hobbes here cites thirteen from Kings, two from Chron.), " it is argument sufficient that they were written after the captivity in Babylon, that the history of them is continued till that time.
These principles he applied to the Old Testament, firstly to the Books of Chronicles, and then to the Pentateuch.
The untrustworthiness of Chronicles - briefly admitted by Luther - he proved in detail, and so cleared the way for that truer view of the history and religion of Israel which the treatment of Chronicles as a trustworthy record of the past hopelessly obscured.
In these chronological notices the lengths of the reigns were derived, there is every reason to suppose, either from tradition or from the state annals-the " book of the chronicles of Israel " (or " Judah "), so constantly referred to by the compiler as his authority (e.g.
King, Chronicles Concerning Early Bab.
7, &c.), and the Midrash of Iddo and other related works, it is clear that the Book of Chronicles (q.v.) marks a very noteworthy advance upon the records in the (canonical) Book of Kings (q.v.).
The religious significance of the past is dominant, and the past is idealized from a later standpoint; and whether the narratives in Chronicles are expressly styled Midrash or not, they are the fruit of an age which sought to inculcate explicitly those lessons which, it conceived, were implied in the events of the past.
But the tendency to reshape history for the edification of later generations was no novelty when Chronicles was first compiled (about 4th cent.
37, seq., and commentaries on Chronicles (q.v.).
There is literary critical evidence for late insertions by exilic or later compilers; 1 the compiler of Chronicles apparently refers to accessible works; and there is a close material relationship between the Old Testament and later literature.
2089 seq.), and this is found in the late chronicles of Jerahmeel and the Book of Jashar (cf.
We have several in the late literature of Chronicles.
The Thysian library occupies an old Renaissance building of the year 1655, and is especially rich in legal works and native chronicles.
The corrupt text in Chronicles of 3000 baths would need a still longer cubit; and, if a lesser cubit of 21.6 or 18 in, be taken, the result for the size of the bath would be impossibly small.
Turning now to the native chronicles of the Mexican nations, these are records going back to the 12th or 13th century, with some vague but not worthless recollections of national events from times some centuries earlier.
The Mexican chronicles, however, show instances of the king's son succeeding or of powerful chiefs being elected to the kingship. The term republic is sometimes used to describe the little state of Tlascala, but this was in fact a federation of four chiefs, with an assembly of nobles.
The laws and records of suits were set down in picture-writings, of which some are still to be seen; sentence of death was recorded by drawing a line with an arrow across the portrait of the condemned, and the chronicles describe the barbaric solemnity with which the king passed sentence sitting on a golden and jewelled throne in the divine tribunal, with one hand on an ornamented skull and the golden arrow in the other.
the books from Joshua to the end of Chronicles are traditionally, and lately also by external evidence,' assigned to Tyndale and were probably left by him in the hands of Rogers.
Vanderpoel, Chronicles of a Pioneer School (Cambridge, Mass., 1903).
Compiegne, or as it is called in the Latin chronicles, Compendium, seems originally to have been a hunting-lodge of the early Frankish kings.
Both his chronicles, however, became very popular and found several continuators, Jean de Joinville being among those who made use of the Chronicon.
The Annales Waverlienses, published by Gale in his Scriptores and afterwards in the Record series of Chronicles, are believed to have suggested to Sir Walter Scott the name of his first novel.
Aristotle'S Life This account is practically repeated by Diogenes Laertius in his Life of Aristotle, on the authority of the Chronicles of Apollodorus, who lived in the 2nd century B.C. Starting then from this tradition, near enough to the time, we can confidently divide Aristotle's career into four periods: his youth under his parents till his eighteenth year; his philosophical education under Plato at Athens till his thirty-eighth year; his travels in the Greek world till his fiftieth year; and his philosophical teaching in the Lyceum till his departure to Chalcis and his death in his sixtythird year.
Sprache, xxii.) - devotes considerable space to the elaboration of the material supplied by the chronicles, the beginning of Arthur's reign, his marriage and wars with the Saxons.
The history of the dynasty of the Danishmand is still very obscure, notwithstanding the efforts of Mordtmann, Schlumberger, Karabacek, Sallet and others to fix some chronological details, and it is almost impossible to harmonize the different statements of the Armenian, Syriac, Greek and Western chronicles with those of the Arabic, Persian and Turkish.
The chief chronicles for the reign are Gervase of Canterbury's Gesta regum, Ralf of Coggeshall's Chronicon, Walter of Coventry's Memoriale, Roger of Wendover's Flores historiarum, the Annals of Burton, Dunstaple and Margan - all these in the Rolls Series.
Howlett in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, &c. (" Rolls" series, 1884-1885), vols.
Brie (Geschichte and Quellen der mittelenglischen Prosachronik, The Brute of England or The Chronicles of England, Marburg, 1905).
Wolfe was already engaged in the preparation of a universal history, and Holinshed worked for some years on this undertaking; but after Wolfe's death in 1573 the scope of the work was abridged, and it appeared in 1578 as the Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
A second edition of the Chronicles, enlarged and improved but without illustrations, which appeared in 1587, contained statements which were offensive to Queen Elizabeth and her advisers, and immediately after publication some of the pages were excised by order of the privy council.
An edition of the Chronicles, in accordance with the original text, was published in six volumes in 1808.
The work contains a large amount of information, and shows that its compilers were men of great industry; but its chief interest lies in the fact that it was largely used by Shakespeare and other Elizabethan dramatists; Shakespeare, who probably used the edition of 1587, obtaining from the Chronicles material for most of his historical plays, and also for Macbeth, King Lear and part of Cymbeline.
English chronicles for the reign are scanty; the best are the Chronicles of London (ed.
For the French war the chief sources are the Chronicles of Monstrelet, D'Escouchy and T.
the Persian Gulf, which Sargon crossed (Chronicles concerning Early Bab.
But he appears to be tolerably accurate when dealing with the years 1188-1209; and sometimes he supplements the information provided by the more important chronicles.
The brilliant side comes out most clearly in Joinville, the Chronique de Du Guesclin, and the Histoire de Bayart; the darker side appears in the earlier chronicles of the crusades, and is especially emphasized by preachers and moralists like Jacques de Vitry, Etienne de Bourbon, Nicole Bozon and John Gower.
are Jordanes, Prosper's Chronicles, written in the 6th century, and the poet Apollinaris Sidonius.
Yet a keen sense of missionary duty marks many of the chronicles of English mariners.
See the list of chronicles for the reign of John.
A similar account is given in the chronicles of Philippe Mouskes (d.
The accounts of him in the books of Kings and Chronicles are very conflicting (compare 1 Kings xv.
Native chronicles derive the Menangkabo princes from Alexander the Great; and the Achinese dynasty boasts its origin from a missionary of Islam.
The first was on Chronicles, then followed one on the Psalms, and finally his exegetical masterpiece - the commentary on the prophets.
See Two Saxon Chronicles, edited by J.
Subsequently, as the central power of the German sovereign became weakened, the Rhineland followed the general tendency and split up into numerous small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes and special chronicles.
The book of Chronicles enumerates several Judaean cities fortified by Rehoboam (not necessarily connected with Sheshonk's campaign), and characteristically regards the invasion as a punishment (2 Chron.
For he compiled the legends of the saints (Legendae sanctorum) in one volume, adding many things from the Historia tripartite et scholastica, and from the chronicles of many writers."
Of his many works the most important are his chronicles of the four kings of Castile during whose reigns he lived; they give a generally accurate account of scenes and events, most of which he had witnessed; he also wrote a long satirical and didactic poem, interesting as a picture of his personal experiences and of contemporary morality.
No definite conclusion can be drawn from the fact that the language stands in marked contrast to that of Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, &c., since writings presumably more or less contemporary did not necessarily share the same characteristics (observe, for example, the prose parts of Job).
The only mention of Elijah's name in the book of Chronicles (2 Chronicles xxi.
The Greeks do not mention him and the Brahmin books ignore him, but the Buddhist chronicles and legends tell us much about him.
Henry as its leader and a legate of the pope was the real "lord of England," as the chronicles call him.
The publication of collections of chronicles began in 1529, and the uncritical fashion in which these were reproduced made forgeries easy and frequent.
See Leland, Collectanea; Holinshed, Chronicles of England; Duchesne, Historia Norm.
A curious fragment of Welsh dialogues, printed by Professor Rhys in his Studies on the Arthurian Legend, appears to represent Kay as the abductor, In the pseudo-Chronicles and the romances based upon them the abductor is Mordred, and in the chronicles there is no doubt that the lady was no unwilling victim.
See also the Chronicles of the Kings of Castile in the Biblioteca de Autores Espanoles de Riva deneyra (Madrid, 1846-1880, vols.
Monticolo have published many essays and editions of chronicles in the Archivio Veneto, and the "Fonti per la Storia d'Italia," in the Istituto storico italiano; H.
It is usual to speak of "the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle"; it would be more correct to say that there are four Anglo-Saxon Chronicles.
It is true that these all grow out of a common stock, that in some even of their later entries two or more of them use common materials; but the same may be said of several groups of medieval chronicles, which no one dreams of treating as single chronicles.
B, as far as it goes (to 977), is identical with C, both having been copied from a common original, but A, C, D, E have every right to be treated as independent chronicles.
The present writer sees no reason to doubt that the idea of a national, as opposed to earlier local chronicles, was inspired by Alfred, who may even have dictated, or at least revised, the entries relating to his own campaigns; while for the earlier parts pre-existing materials, both oral and written, were utilized.
From 925 to 975 all the chronicles are very fragmentary; a few obits, three or four poems, among them the famous ballad on the battle of Brunanburh, make up the meagre tale of their common materials, which each has tried to supplement in its own way.
In the case of entries in the earlier part of the chronicles, which are peculiar to D, we cannot exclude the possibility that they may be late interpolations.
of the Rev. C. Plummer's edition of Two of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel (Clarendon Press, 1892, 1899); to which the student may be referred for detailed arguments.
But both he and Gibson made the fatal error of trying to combine the disparate materials contained in the various chronicles in a single text.
Though not free from defects, this edition is absolutely indispensable for the study of the chronicles and the mutual relations of the different MSS.
In 1865 the Clarendon Press published Two Saxon Chronicles (A and E) Parallel, with supplementary extracts from the others, by the Rev. John Earle.
The later religious literature is much taken up with the mythical and semi-mythical dynasties of kings, and the priests compiled, with many newly-invented details, the chronicles of the wars they were supposed to have waged.
The process by which this state of affairs came about is somewhat obscure, owing to the want of good chronicles for the Turkish period of Egyptian history.
Of many of the Mameluke sultans there are special chronicles preserved in various European and Oriental libraries.
1138) in his chronicles of the abbey of St Trond (Gesta Abbatum Trudonensium) but this is no more than a rhetorical flourish, and the title of "archduke palatine" (Pfalz-Erzherzog) was, in fact, assumed first by Duke Rudolph IV.
But the evidence of the Continental Chronicles makes it probable that the Saxon Chronicle is a year in advance of the true chronology in this part.
These belong unquestionably to the later part of his reign, not improbably to the last four years of it, during which the chronicles are almost silent.
Stevenson, Clarendon Press, 1904); and the Saxon Chronicles (text and notes by Earle and Plummer, 2 vols., Clar.
His Recouvrement de Normandie, with other material on the same subject, was edited for the "Rolls" series (Chronicles and Memorials) by Joseph Stevenson in 1863.
Other authorities are the Chronicles of Walsingham and Otterbourne, the English Chronicle or Brut, and the various London Chronicles.
On the French side the most valuable are Chronicles of Monstrelet and St Remy (both Burgundian) and the Chronique du religieux de S.
The names occur in the titles of certain Psalms, and the writer of the Book of Chronicles makes Asaph a seer (2 Chron.
Flach gave them a solid basis by the wide range of his researches, utilizing charters and cartularies (published and unpublished), chronicles, lives of saints, and even those dangerous guides, the chansons de geste.
In the Christian chronicles the name of Ragnar is associated with an attack on Paris in A.D.
These are, as has been said, almost exclusively the chronicles of the lands visited by the vikings.
The facts of Owen's life must be pieced together from scattered references in contemporary chronicles and documents; perhaps the most important are Adam of Usk's Chronicle and Ellis's Original Letters.
Denis Godefroy (1615-1681), eldest son of Theodore, succeeded his father as historiographer of France, and re-edited various chronicles which had been published by him.
Then citing from Genesis and 2 Chronicles, the first and last books in the order of the Jewish Bible, He declared that all righteous blood from that of Abel to that of Zachariah should be required of that generation.
The fact that it stands in the third division of the Hebrew Canon, the Writings or Hagiographa, along with such late works as Job, Psalms, Chronicles, Daniel, Ecclesiastes and Esther, must be allowed weight; the presumption is that the arrangers of the Canonical books regarded it as being in general later than the Prophetical books.
The political history is relatively slight and uneven, and the framework is rehandled in Chronicles upon more developed lines and from a later ecclesiastical standpoint, which suggests that many traditions of the monarchy were extant in a late dress.
Chronicles, with the book of Ezra and Nehemiah, makes a continuity between the old Judah which fell in 586 and the return (time of Cyrus), the rebuilding of the temple (Darius), and the reorganization associated with Nehemiah and Ezra (Artaxerxes).
The late and composite book of Chronicles places at the head of the Israelite divisions, which ignore the exodus (I Chron.
Genesis - Kings (incomplete; some further material in Jeremiah) and the later Chronicles - Nehemiah are in their present form posterior to Nehemiah's time.
The ecclesiastical rivalries have left their mark in the Pentateuch and (the later) Chronicles, and the Samaritan secession appears to have coloured even the book of Kings.
The narratives of the monarchy which are preserved only in Chronicles, on the other hand, illustrate the manner in which tradition was reshaped and rewritten under the influence of a later religious standpoint.
Ten emperors after Aurangzeb are enumerated in the chronicles, but none of them has left any mark on history.
The Jews quite early ceased to pronounce the Tetragrammaton, substituting (as the Books of Chronicles and the LXX translation already indicate) the word Lord ('Adonai).
The Barmecide family were endowed in the highest degree with those qualities of generosity and liberality which the Arabs prized so highly, and the chronicles never weary in their p raises.
See the memoirs and chronicles of l'Estoile, Villeroy, Ph.
Her torture, disputed by Jardine, Lingard and others, is substantiated not only by her own narrative, but by two contemporary chronicles, and by a contemporary letter (ibid.; Narratives of the Reformation, p. 305; Ellis, Original Letters, 2nd Ser.
(2) Other accounts, especially old Russian chronicles, place the origin of the disease still farther east, in Cathay (or China), where, as is confirmed to some extent by Chinese records, pestilence and destructive inundations are said to have destroyed the enormous number of thirteen millions.
In 1448-1450 Italy (Kircher), Germany (Lersch, from old chronicles), France and Spain, were ravaged by a plague supposed to have arisen in Asia, scarcely less destructive than the black death.
Howlett in Chronicles, &c., of Stephen, Henry II.
There is much in the imperial and papal histories that is merely spectacular and romantic; much that appeals to the imagination and lends itself to myth; and since the sources are abundant - the papal archives inexhaustible and the German chronicles easily accessible - an undue emphasis has been placed upon them.
The various annals and chronicles of the period, among which may be mentioned the Chronica regia Coloniensis and the Annales Magdeburgenses, are also important.
One authority alleges that his council thwarted him in his desire to relieve Montereau, because he had been discharged from his office (Chronicles of London, 143).
See The Paston Letters with Dr Gairdner's Introduction; Three Fifteenth Century Chronicles, and Collections of a London Citizen (published by the Camden Society); Chronicles of London (ed.
The French chronicles of Matthieu d'Escouchy, T.
in the Pentateuch, Chronicles and Jubilees), was more suitable for popular exposition than for the academies.
The first book, which is a mere compilation from the chronicles of St Jerome and Orosius, is of no value.
It is urged, indeed, that the author of Chronicles could not have imagined a prophet to have sympathized with such a king as Zedekiah so warmly as is implied by Lamentations iv.
See Two of the Saxon Chronicles, ed.
The fact that many of the names which occur in Russian chronicles seem to be peculiarly Swedish suggests that Sweden was the home of the settlers, and the best authorities consider that the original Scandinavian conquerors were Swedes who had settled on the east coast of the Baltic.
There are three rhyming chronicles in medieval Swedish, all anonymous.
Editions of these chronicles and romances have been issued by the " Svenska Fornskrift Sallskapet " (Stockholm): Ivan Lejonriddaren (ed.
Medina's Coleccion de documentos Para la historia de Chile (Santiago, 1888), a collection of despatches and official documents; his Cosas de la colonia (Santiago, 1889), an accumulation of undigested information about life in the colonial period; and Historiadores de Chile (21 vols., Santiago, 1861), a collection of ancient chronicles and official documents up to the early part of the 17th century.
Buchelius, De Episcopis Ultrajectensibus, containing the chronicles of J.
His materials consisted of the Annales Maximi, Commentarii Consulares, and similar records; the chronicles of the great Roman families; and his own experiences in the Second Punic War.
- The chronicles of Jean le Bel, Adam Murimuth, Robert of Avesbury, Froissart and "Le Religieux de Saint Denis."
But notwithstanding all its dependence on classical and foreign authors, Portuguese literature has a distinct individuality which appears in the romanceiro, in the songs named cantares de amigo of the cancioneiros, in the Chronicles of Fernao Lopes, in the Historia tragico-maritima, in the plays of Gil Vicente, in the bucolic verse and prose of the early 16th century, in the Letters of Marianna Alcoforado and, above all, in The Lusiads.
The first frankly literary prose documents appear in the 14th century, and consist of chronicles, lives of saints and genealogical treatises.
The age is noted for its chronicles, beginning with the anonymous life of the Portuguese Cid, the Holy Constable Nuno Alvares Pereira, told in charming infantile prose, the translated Chronica da fundirao do moesteyro de Sam Vicente, and the Vida Fernao Lopes (q.v.), the father of Portuguese history and author of chronicles of King Pedro, King Ferdinand and King John I., has been called by Southey the best chronicler of any age or nation.
Though not a great chronicler or an artist like Lopes, Ruy de Pina is free from the rhetorical defects of Azurara, and his chronicles of King Edward and King Alphonso V.
gallery of epic poets is a large one, but most of their productions are little more than rhymed chronicles and have almost passed into oblivion.
Years of persevering toil in archives and editions of old chronicles prepared Herculano for his magnum opus, the Historia de Portugal.
The Book of Jubilees is the most advanced pre-Christian representative of the Midrashic tendency, which had already been at work in the Old Testament Chronicles.
Its real history commences with Srong Tsan Gampo, who was born a little after 600 A.D., and who is said in the Chinese chronicles to have entered, in 634, into diplomatic relationship with Tai Tsung, one of the emperors of the Tang dynasty.
He is described in the church chronicles as an incarnation of the evil spirit, and is said to have succeeded in suppressing Buddhism throughout the greater part of the land.
The most important of Skene's other works are: editions of John of Fordun's Chronica gentis Scotorum (Edinburgh, 1871-1872); of the Four Ancient Books of Wales (Edinburgh, 1868); of the Chronicles of the Picts and Scots (Edinburgh, 1867); and of Adamuan's Vita S.
On the contrary, men of high rank and tried statesmanship were on that very account thought all the fitter to write the chronicles of the state they had served.
His successors carried still farther the practice of dressing up the rather bald chronicles of earlier writers with all the ornaments of rhetoric. The old traditions were altered, almost beyond the possibility of recognition, by exaggerations, interpolations and additions.
For some three months he eluded pursuit, hiding among friends and occupying himself by writing a history of Ireland (first published in Holinshed's Chronicles), a superficial work of no real value.
Wattenbach was distinguished by his thorough knowledge of the chronicles and other original documents of the middle ages, and his most valuable work was done in this field.
But for the pre-Conquest period William had at his disposal the works of Bede, Ado of Vienne and William of Jumieges; one or more English chronicles similar to the extant " Worcester " and ' ` Peterborough " texts; Asser's life of Alfred, and a metrical biography of fEthelstan; the chronicles of S.
The Dalmatian chronicles, reproduced by G.
Achin literature, unlike the language, is entirely Malay; it includes poetry, a good deal of theology and several chronicles.
Next to the inscriptions, - sometimes identical with them, - are the early chronicles.
Family chronicles preserved the memory of heroic ancestors whose deeds in the earliest age would have passed into the keeping of the bards.
Chronicles of the Greek cities were commonly ascribed to mythical authors, as for instance that of Miletus, the oldest, to Cadmus the inventor of letters.
Through Jerome's translation and additions, this scheme of this world's chronology became the basis for all medieval world chronicles.
For a time there were even attempts to continue "imperial chronicles," but they were insignificant compared with the influence of Eusebius and Jerome.
Toward the close of the middle ages the vernacular literatures were adorned with Villani's and Froissart's chronicles.
Conrad Peutinger gathered all sorts of Chronicles in his room in Vienna, and published several, - among them Gregory of Tours.
Medieval archaeology has, since Quicherat, revealed how men were living while the monks wrote chronicles, and now cathedrals and castles are studied as genuine historic documents.
It was so in Herodotus and in medieval chronicles.
Gotha (in old chronicles called Gotegewe and later Gotaha existed as a village in the time of Charlemagne.
The most important contemporary sources are Stevenson's Wars of the English in France, Whethamstead's Register, and Beckington's Letters (all in Rolls Ser.), with the various London Chronicles, and the works of Waurin and Monstrelet.
Feats of arms, great battles, heroic virtues, devoted friendships and atrocious crimes make the chronicles of China in the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries before the birth of Christ as attractive as those of France and England in the 14th and some other centuries after it.
Lastly, chronicles and documentary records, taken in connexion with archaeological relics of the historical period, carry back into distant ages the starting-point of actual history, behind which lies the evidently vast period only known by inferences from the relations of languages and the stages of development of civilization.
The teaching of history, during the three to four thousand years of which contemporary chronicles have been preserved, is that civilization is gradually developed in the course of ages by enlargement and increased precision of knowledge, invention and improvement of arts, and the progression of social and political habits and institutions towards general well-being.
He also wrote a great number of letters, some of which are extant, and others embodied in the chronicles of Flodoard.
BIBLIOGRAPHY.-Of original authorities for Edward's reign the chief are the Continuation of the Croyland Chronicle in Fu/man's Scriptores; the various London Chronicles, especially for the early years Gregory's Chronicle; Warkworth's Chronicle, and the Arrivall of King Edward IV.
(a partisan account of events in 1470-1471), published by the Camden Society; the Paston Letters with Dr Gairdner's valuable Introduction; and for foreign affairs the Memoires of Philippe de Comines; the collection called Chronicles of the White Rose is useful.
Mention may also be made of the following: Hecataeus of Miletus (550-476); Acusilaus of Argos, 2 who paraphrased in prose (correcting the tradition where it seemed necessary) the genealogical works of Hesiod in the Ionic dialect; he confined his attention to the prehistoric period, and made no attempt at a real history; Charon of Lampsacus (c. 450), author of histories of Persia, Libya, and Ethiopia, of annals (a)pot) of his native town with lists of the prytaneis and archons, and of the chronicles of Lacedaemonian kings; Xanthus of Sardis in Lydia (c. 450), author of a history of Lydia, one of the chief authorities used by Nicolaus of Damascus (II.
Early English chronicles, such as the Chronicon e chronicis of Florence of Worcester, who died in 1118, described minutely and without a suggestion of disbelief the flourishing state of Lyonnesse, and its sudden disappearance beneath the sea.
His title of the Catholic itself may very well have been the invention of later chronicles.
Beldiman copied a number of ancient chronicles, wrote a satire on the Greeks, and translated and adapted a number of French tragedies and dramas, in verse and prose.
Balcescu had undertaken the edition of the ancient Walachian chronicles, and had found in them admirable prose writers, that he ventured on a continuous history (1851-52) of the Rumanians under Michael the Brave, written not as a didactic treatise but as a poem in prose - full of colour and of energy.
Cogalniceanu published various reviews, some of a political, others of a more literary character, such as the Dacia literar y (1840) and Archiva romdneasca (1845-46); he has also the great merit of having published for the first time a collection of the Moldavian chronicles.
Meyer, Israeliten, pp. 400 sqq.; and the commentaries on Chronicles (q.v.).
Khotan, known in Sanskrit as Kustana and in Chinese as Yu-than, Yu-tien, Kiu-sa-tan-na, and Khio-tan, is mentioned in Chinese chronicles in the 2nd century B.C. In A.D.
- The principal sources are the contemporary memoirs and chronicles of T.
There is a generally accepted story, based on the chronicles of Jehan le Bel and Froissart, that she summoned the English forces to meet the Scottish invasion of 1346, and harangued the troops before the battle of Neville's Cross.
But following a custom which was by no means uncommon in the middle ages, a clumsy sequel, extending to 1516, was formed out of various chronicles and tacked on to his work.
His editions of Icelandic classics (1858-68), Biskopa Sogur, Bardar Saga, Forn Sbgur (with Mobius), Eyrbyggia Saga and Flateyar-bok (with Unger) opened a new era of Icelandic scholarship, and can only fitly be compared to the Rolls Series editions of chronicles by Dr Stubbs for the interest and value of their prefaces and texts.
The dates of these last are approximately known; and arguing from these dates the date of Asoka's accession has been fixed by various scholars (at dates varying only by a difference of five years more or less) at about 270 B.C. The second figure, the total interval between Asoka's accession and the Buddha's death, is given in the Ceylon Chronicles as 218 years.
Theal, Chronicles of Cape Commanders ...
Snow falls so rarely that its appearance in 1684 is reported in the native chronicles as a remarkable event.
No other mention has been found in any of the numerous Swiss or Austrian chronicles till we come to the book De Helvetiae origine, written in 1538 by Rudolph Gwalther (Zwingli's son-in-law), when the hero is still nameless, being compared to Decius or Codrus, but is said to have been killed by his brave act.
Lippspringe is mentioned in chronicles as early as the 9th century, and here in the 13th century the order of the Templars established a stronghold.
Scharf, Chronicles of Baltimore (Baltimore, 1874).
Barmen, although mentioned in chronicles in the 11th century, did not attain civic rights until 1808, when it was formed into a municipality by the grand-duke of Berg.
See Froissart's Chronicles; Duc d'Aumale, Notes et documents relatifs a Jean, roi de France, eta sa captivite (1856); A.
Yet since the 5th century they had been restricting their operations to their own shores, and are barely heard of in the chronicles of their southern.
Little can be gathered concerning them from chronicles or official records.
In nothing is the general stagnation of the church in the later 15th century shown better than by the gradual cessation of the monastic chronicles.
For the last two-thirds of the century the various London chronicles, the work of laymen, are much more important than anything which was produced in the religious houses.
The monasteries had ceased to be even the nurseries of literature; their chronicles had run dry, and secular priests or laymen had taken up the pens that the monks had dropped.
Some of them are mainly local chronicles; others are almost national histories.
For Richard and John the chronicles of Roger of Hoveden, Ralph de IDiceto (Diss), Gervase of Canterbury, Ralph of Coggeshall, and a later continuation of Hoveden, known under the name of Walter of Coventry, are the best narrative authorities.
are Rishanger, Trokelowe and Blaneforde, Wykes, Walter of Hemingburgh, Nicholas Trevet, Oxnead and Bartholomew Cotton, and others contained in Stubbss Chronicles of Edward I.
we have also Malverne and the Monk of Evesham; for the early Lancastrians, Capgrave, Elmham, Otterbourne, Adam of Usk; and for Henry VI., Amundesham, Whethamstede, William of Worcester and John Hardyng, as well as a number of anonymous briefer chronicles, edited, though not in the Rolls series, by J.
A large number of French and Flemish chronicles illustrate the history of the Hundred Years War, by far the most important being Froissart (best edition by Luce, though Lettenhoves is bigger).
Chronicles, however, grow less important as sources of history as time goes on.
In the,first place, history ceases to be the exclusive province of th~ church; monastic chronicles shrink to a trickle and then dry up; the last of their kind in England is the Gre yfriars Chronicle (Camden Society), which ends in 1554.
The chronicles; which in the I5th century are usually meagre productions like Warkworths (Camden Society), get fuller, especially those emanating from London.
Clarendons Great Rebellion and Burnets History of My Own Time are the first modern attempts at contemporary history, as distinct from chronicles and annals, in England, although it is difficult to exclude the work of Matthew Paris from the category.
C(okayne)'s Complete Peerage; Jeayes's Descriptive Catalogue of the Charters and Muniments at Berkeley Castle (1892); Dictionary of National Biography; Transactions of Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 3 vols., viii., xlv., et passim; The Red Book of the Exchequer, Chronicles of Roger of Wendover, Matthew Paris, Adam of Murimuth, Robert of Gloucester, Henry of Huntingdon, &c. (Rolls Series); British Museum Charters, &c. (0.
The first erection is ascribed by the Saxon chronicles to King Ida of Northumberland.
The only noteworthy literary productions of this first period of Servian literature were zhivoti (biographies) and letopisi (chronicles).
The chronicles (letopisi) are without any literary value, although as historical material they are useful.
1194), abbot of Peterborough, whose name is accidentally connected with the Gesta Henrici Regis Secundi, one of the most valuable of English 12th-century chronicles.
Except for these facts he is known to us only as the author of two metrical chronicles in the Norman-French language.
Amongst the numerous chronicles the Annals of Ulster, which commence with the year 441, are by far the most trustworthy.
See also Richard Stanihurst's Chronicle, continued by John Hooker, which is included in Holinshed's Chronicles; E.
His Prithiraj Rasau, a poem of some aoo,000 stanzas, chronicling his master's deeds and the contemporary history of his part of India, is valuable not only as historical material but as the earliest monument of the Western Hindi language, and the first of the long series of bardic chronicles for which Rajputana is celebrated.
Kajkavci had from about 1550 to 1830 a distinctive literature, consisting of chronicles and histories, poems of a religious or educational character, fables and moral tales.
In precision and fulness of detail the Ymagines are inferior to the chronicles of the so-called Benedict and of Hoveden.
For this reason, and on account of the details with which they supplement the more important chronicles of the period, the Ymagines are a valuable though a secondary source.
See Chronicles of the Reigns of Edward I.
Innumerable similar cases appear in acts of synods and in chronicles during the 11th century.
According to this, Genesis is a post-exilic work composed of a post-exilic priestly source (P) and non-priestly earlier sources which differ markedly from P in language, style and religious standpoint, but much less markedly from one and another.6 These sources can be traced elsewhere in the Pentateuch and Joshua, and P itself is related to the post-exilic works Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah.
On internal grounds it appears that the Pentateuch and Joshua, as they now read, virtually come in between an older history by "Deuteronomic" compilers (easily recognizable in Judges and Kings), and the later treatment of the monarchy in Chronicles, where tie influence of the circle which produced P and the present Mosaic legislation is quite discernible.
The Book of Chronicles relates a story of a sensational defeat of Zerah the "Cushite," and a great religious revival in which Judah and Israel took part (2 Chron.
15) (see Chronicles).
Barnes, Cambridge Bible, Chronicles, p. xxxi.).
Sixtus conjectures that it may have been a Greek translation of the " chronicles " of John Hyrcanus, alluded to in i Macc. xvi.
Marshall, Early History of Woodstock Manor (Oxford, 1873); Adolphus Ballard, Chronicles of Royal Borough of Woodstock; Victoria County History, Oxfordshire.
The parallel portions in Chronicles also sometimes preserve better readings, but must be used with caution as they may represent other recensions or the result of rewriting and reshaping.
For notices of the principal chronicles of the time see A.
See Chronicles of Battle Abbey, 1066-1176, translated, &c., by M.
The Quentaris Chronicles is a new fantasy adventure series - with a twist.
The chronicles mention the destruction of Dunbar, former Northumbrian bastion against the Picts, possibly as a naval base.
chronicles the exploits of the Starship Excalibur, which patrols Thallonian space.
chronicles the evolution of Jesuit thinking from their earliest writings, which influenced no less than Descartes, to modern day contributions.
chronicles the many struggles, negotiations, lobbying, leading to the birth of this region.
chronicles the history of American art beginning with the early twentieth century.
chronicles the tragic, torn lives of a poor black family in 1940s Ohio.
The otherworldly beings who appear in medieval chronicles are a varied lot.
Monks in England at the time wrote the " Anglo-Saxon Chronicles " - a history of England at the time.
The Illuminati Chronicles Part 1 A historical countdown to the New World Order More.. .
otherworldly beings who appear in medieval chronicles are a varied lot.
Written and directed by Australian Greg McLean, Wolf Creek chronicles the fortunes of three backpackers as they travel in the remote outback.
The Arab revolt therefore ought to be excised from the chronicles of Arab nationalism.
David Fitzpatrick (Trinity College Dublin) chronicles the somewhat uneasy history of commemoration in the Free State, given the civil war context.
Haneke chronicles a family enslaved to the structures they have created, operating in a morass of emotional vacuity.
Withers, Chronicles of Border Warfare (1831, reprinted Cincinnati, 1905); J.
At a very early age he entertained an exalted idea of his own divine authority, and his studies were largely devoted to searching in the Scriptures and the Slavonic chronicles for sanctions and precedents for the exercise and development of his right divine.
Kittel's Handkommentar on Chronicles, pp. 90 sqq.
Gray) and Chronicles (E.
But the department of the chronicles, the only 1 Journal of the Pali Text Society (1905), pp. 72, 86, one so far at all adequately treated, has thrown so much light on many points of the history of India that we may reasonably expect results equally valuable from the publication and study of the remainder.
There are, however, Targumim on the Psalms and Job, composed in the 5th century, on Proverbs, resembling the Peshitta version, on the five Meghilloth, paraphrastic and agadic (see below) in character, and on Chronicles - all Palestinian.
The striking differences between Samuel and Kings are due to differences in the writing of the history; independent Israelite records having been incorporated with those of Judah and supplemented (with revision) from the Judaean standpoint (see Chronicles; Kings; Samuel).
The inferiority of Chronicles as a historical source and its varied examples of " tendency-writing " must be set against its possible access to traditions of contact with those of Saul in i Samuel, and the relation is highly suggestive for the study of their growth, as also for the perspective of the various writers.
The " canonical " history in Kings is further embellished in Chronicles, but the gulf between them is not so profound as that between the former and the underlying and half-suppressed historical traditions which can still be recognized.
Three 14th-century chronicles, attributed to Andrea Dei, Agnolo di Tura, called 11 Grasso, and Neri di Donati, are published in Muratori (vol.
The Abyssinian chronicles, it may be noted, attribute the foundation of the kingdom to Menelek (or Ibn el-Hakim), son of Solomon and the queen of Sheba.
The more important of the general chronicles are: the Gesta Henrici Secundi, ascribed to Benedict of Peterborough (Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1867); the Chronica of Roger of Hoveden (Rolls Series, 4 vols., 1868-71); the Chronica of Gervase of Canterbury (Rolls Series, 1879); the Imagines Historiarum of Ralph of Diceto (Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1876); the Historia Rerum Anglicarum of William of Newburgh (in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, '' &c., Rolls Series, 2 vols., 1884-85); the De rebus gestis Ricardi Primi of Richard of Devizes (in Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, &c., vol.
The Chronicles re-traversed much of the ground already gone over by the Record, preserving many of the songs in occasionally changed form, omitting some portions, supplementing others, and imparting to the whole such an exotic character as almost to disqualify the work for a place in Japanese literature.
sq.) overlap. The cause of the separation is probably to be found in the late reception of Chronicles into the Jewish canon.
Thus the fragmentary close of 2 Chronicles marks the disruption of a previously-existing continuity, - due, presumably, to the fact that in the gradual compilation of the Canon the necessity for incorporating in the Holy Writings an account of the establishment of the post-Exile theocracy was felt, before it was thought desirable to supplement Samuel and Kings by adding a second history of the period before the Exile.
For the period 1511-1595, the chief Portuguese authorities are the chronicles of Barros, Correa, Castanheda and Couto (see Portugal: History), with the letters of Xavier (q.v.), and the Tratado of A.
A further task is to estimate the value of this literature as evidence for the history of Israel, to determine, as far as possible, whether such parts of the literature as are contemporary with the time described present correct, or whether in any respect one-sided or biased or otherwise incorrect, descriptions; and again, how far the literature that relates the story of long past periods has drawn upon trustworthy records, and how far it is possible to extract historical truth from traditions (such as those of the Pentateuch) that present, owing to the gradual accretions and modifications of intervening generations, a composite picture of the period described, or from a work such as Chronicles, which narrates the past under the influence of the conception that the institutions and ideas of the present must have been established and current in the past; all this falls under Historical Criticism, which, on its constructive side, must avail itself of all available and well-sifted evidence, whether derived from the Old Testament or elsewhere, for its presentation of the history of Israel - its ultimate purpose.
Thus it is to Luther a matter of indifference whether or not Moses wrote the Pentateuch; the books of Chronicles he definitely pronounces less credible than those of Kings, and he considers that the books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and Hosea probably owe their present form to later hands.
Among Asiatic points of resemblance to which attention has since been called is the Mexican belief in the nine stages of heaven and hell, an idea which nothing in nature would suggest directly to a barbaric people, but which corresponds to the idea of successive heavens and hells among Brahmans and Buddhists, who apparently learnt it (in common with our own ancestors) from the Babylonian-Greek astronomical theory of successive stages or concentric planetary spheres belonging to the planets, &c. The Spanish chronicles also give accounts of a Mexican game called patolli, played at the time of the conquest with coloured stones moved on the squares of a cross-shaped figure, according to the throws of beans marked on one side; the descriptions of this rather complicated game correspond closely with the Hindu backgammon called pachisi (see Tylor in Jour.
The following is a partial list of his writings: The Diverting History of John Bull and Brother Jonathan (1812); The Lay of the Scottish Fiddle (1813), a good-natured parody on The Lay of the Last Minstrel; Letters from the South (1817); The Backwoodsman: a Poem (1818); Salmagundi (2nd series, 1819-1820); A Sketch of Old England, by a New England Man (1822); Koningsmarke, the Long Finne (1823), a quiz on the romantic school of Walter Scott; John Bull in America; or the New Munchausen (1824), a broad caricature of the early type of British traveller in America; The Merry Tales of the Three Wise Men of Gotham (1826); Chronicles of the City of Gotham, from the Papers of a Retired Common Councilman (183 0); The Dutchman's Fireside (1831); Westward Ho!
Kilbourne, Sketches and Chronicles of the Town of Litchfield, Connecticut (Hartford, Conn., 1859); George C. Boswell, The Litchfield Book of Days (Litchfield, 1900); and for an account of the Litchfield Female Seminary, Emily N.
Don Jose Quintana has summarized the two chronicles in his life of Luna in the Vidas de Espanoles celebres; Biblioteca de Autores Espanoles (Madrid, 1846-1880), vol.
contain a violent attack on the heathen mythology, in which he narrates with powerful sarcasm the scandalous chronicles of the gods, and contrasts with their grossness and immorality the pure and holy worship of the Christian.
It is true that the nationalistic tinge is found in late writings (Chronicles, Psalms), and that its absence, therefore, is not merely a matter of date; but it is hardly conceivable that an author of any time before the 5th century could have ignored the nationalistic point of view so completely as Proverbs does.
The tendency to make the exile an abrupt and complete change in life is based upon the theory underlying Chronicles - Nehemiah and is misleading (see Torrey, op. cit.
de Tocqueville, Systeme penitentiaire aux E tatsUnis (1837); Crawford, Report on Penitentiaries (U.S.A., 1838); Maconochie, Prison Discipline (1856); Dr Guillaurne, Progress of Prison Discipline in Switzerland (1872); Arthur Griffiths, Memorials of Millbank (1873), Chronicles of Newgate (1882); Armingol y Cornet, Prisons and Prison Discipline in Spain (1874); Stevens, Regime des etablissements pe'nitentiaires en Belgique (1875); F.
Recent scholarship has absolutely disproved this legend, founded on a few trite phrases in monastic chronicles, and still to be heard in similar contexts.
Beyond these facts, the Norse sagas and chronicles contribute little that is certain (cf.
and iv.; Ynglinga Saga, with the poem Ynglingatal contained in the Heimskringla; Olafs Sagan Tryggvasonar and Olafs Saga hins Helga, both contained in Heimskringla and in Fornmanna sogur; Saxo grammaticus, gesta Danorum; a collection of later Swedish Chronicles contained in Rerum suecicarum scriptores, vol.
Persian writers have given us, besides, an immense variety of universal histories of the world, with many curious and noteworthy data (see, among others, Mirkhonds and Khwandamirs works under MIRKHOND); histories of Mahomet and the first caliphs, partly translated from Arabic originals, which have been lost; detailed accounts of all the Persian dynasties, from the Ghaznevids to the still reigning Kajars, of Jenghiz Khan and the Moguls (in Juwainis and Wa~fs elaborate Tarlkhs), and of TImr and his successors (see an account of the Zafarnama under PETIS DE LA CRoIx); histories of sects and creeds, especially the famous Dohiistdn, or School of Manners (translated by Shea and Troyer, Paris 1843); and many local chronicles of Iran and Turan.
Up to that point the author compiles from Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, Nennius, Bede and the English chronicles, particularly that of Peterborough; in some cases he professes to supplement these sources from oral tradition; but most of his amplifications are pure rhetoric (see F.
Acsintie Uricariul, 1715, brings to a close the corpus of Moldavian Chronicles.
Robert Huntington Fletcher's "The Arthurian Matter in the Chronicles" (vol.
See the chronicles of Froissart, and of Pierre d'Orgemont (Grandes Chroniques de Saint Denis, Paris, vol.
As a whole, Chronicles presents the period from a later ecclesiastical standpoint, presupposing (in contrast to Samuel) the fully developed " Mosaic " ritual (see Chronicles).
Their lives and careers are recorded in this 6th publication of the authoritative and highly popular Scots-Irish Chronicles.
The Lost Chronicles is the first official tie-in book to the worldwide hit TV series Lost.
Barack Levin, the author of The Diaper Chronicles and a stay-at-home dad, recently spoke with LoveToKnow Baby about his book and his life.
I decided to write my book, The Diaper Chronicles - A stay at home dad's quest for raising great kids, after I saw that many parents deal with situations that I found easily solvable.
Diary of a Worm, by Doreen Cronin, chronicles the life of a worm.
The Underland Chronicles series by Suzanne Collins begins with Gregor the Overlander, an adventure book about a boy who wanders through an inner-city underground world.
Although many people associate scrapbooking with chronicles of birthday parties and family vacations, the act of creating a layout has significant therapeutic value.
In 1989, he and fellow comedian Larry David created a sitcom for NBC called The Seinfeld Chronicles, a semi-autobiographical look at a stand-up comedian named Jerry Seinfeld.
Fox has had an on-again off-again relationship with actor Brian Austin Green (Beverly Hills 90210, Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles) since 2004.
The History Channel's Steve Gillon chronicles many from this generation in Boomer Nation: The Largest and Richest Generation Ever, and How It Changed America.
RLTV also broadcasts documentaries and specials such as their Emmy winning documentary, Not Fade Away, which chronicles the lives of people diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease.
If you want your eyes to shine and look freaky, try a pair of Chronicles of Riddick contact lenses to surprise those who dare to look you in the eye.
Made popular in 2004 in the film Chronicles of Riddick, these types of lenses appeal to people for many reasons.
The most common use for Chronicles of Riddick contacts is if you plan on dressing up as Riddick for Halloween or a costume party.
If you want to look like Riddick, try a pair of Chronicles of Riddick contact lenses.
If there's one word to sum up those famous Chronicles of Riddick goggles, it's black.
First of all, the Chronicles of Riddick movie has a huge fan base as it is in both the science fiction and action categories.
You can find Chronicles of Riddick goggles at Reel World Props.
No matter what your reason for looking for Chronicles of Riddick goggles, there are a few sites online where you can purchase a pair of replicas.
Mirror tinted contact lenses made their appearance in the movie Chronicles of Riddick.
Another popular character that has dramatic eyes is Riddick from the movie Chronicles of Riddick.
The first "Riddick goggles" were custom made for Vin Diesel to wear as Riddick in The Chronicles of Riddick movie.
People tend to look for Riddick goggles to buy if they are huge Chronicles of Riddick fans who enjoy collecting movie memorabilia, props, and so on.
These are a much cheaper alternative to the carefully designed replicas meant to look exactly like the goggles from the Chronicles of Riddick movie, down to the last crevice.
Much the content that you unlock as you complete levels chronicles the extensive research done by the development team towards making this game as realistic as possible, revealing the staggering level of attention to detail.
The game story, penned by former Hulk scribe Paul Jenkins, chronicles the struggle of Bruce Banner, the alter ego of the Hulk, to cope with and hopefully discover a cure for his destructive inner demons.
The last Final Fantasy themed DS was Final Fantasy Chronicles: Ring of Fates.
Two modes that go hand in hand are Character Creation mode and Chronicles of the Sword mode.
Once you get your fighter all squared away, take him or her into Chronicles of the Sword mode.
Despite the lackluster Chronicles of the Sword mode, you can find clean graphics, 3 excellent new characters, and the deep gameplay that has always been associated with Namco's premier weapon's based fighter.
The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe is an action/adventure game that is a wondrous journey into a land filled with talking animals, Orcs, Elves, Dwarves, Minotaurs and an evil White Witch.
The story is based on the first book of the Chronicles of Narnia series created by C.S.
The controls in Chronicles of Narnia are easy to use.
The graphics in Chronicles of Narnia are nice to look at.
The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe is a simple single to two- player action/adventure game based on the first novel of the best selling series by C.S.
This major video game maker produced major games like Baldur's Gate, MDK2 and Sonic Chronicles.
The light gun for the Nintendo Wii adds a different element to shooting games like House of the Dead, Quantum of Solace and Resident Evil: The Umbrella Chronicles.
Examples of these games are Ghost Squad, Resident Evil: Umbrella Chronicles, and Medal of Honor Heroes 2.
It's not the most innovative Wii accessory on the market, but it could prove to add some value to titles like Ghost Squad and Umbrella Chronicles.
The Cheryl Burke bio chronicles a stunning ballroom dancer who is best known for her stints on the popular ABC television show, Dancing with the Stars.
Walden Media - whether you're reading the Chronicles of Narnia or watching the Water Horse on DVD, this website has free teacher guides and class activities that are free to download.
This interesting and informative show from Discovery Health chronicles the activity inside Expecting Models, the world's only agency devoted to representing models during their pregnancies.
The Conception Chronicles: The Uncensored Truth About Sex, Love & Marriage When You're Trying to Get Pregnant is a book that follows the journey of trying to conceive all the way until you become a mom.
The authors of The Conception Chronicles are three friends, Patty Doyle Debano, Courtney Edgerton Menzel, and Shelly Dicken Sutphen, who have all had their own experiences getting pregnant.
If you are struggling with the path to pregnancy, The Conception Chronicles: The Uncensored Truth About Sex, Love & Marriage When You're Trying to Get Pregnant is a great start.
Read this story out loud to your young child, or let your older child explore the entire Chronicles on their own.
In The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe (2005), how much of the filming of Aslan was real lion vs. computer graphics?
No real lions were used, shaved, or harmed during the shooting of The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe.
The Chronicles of Riddick movie sequel is the third installment in this series of films.
The Chronicles of Riddick series of films follows Richard B.
As a result, movie executives decided to follow Pitch Black up with The Chronicles of Riddick in 2004.
The Chronicles of Riddick movie sequel is tentatively named The Chronicles of Riddick 2: The Underverse.
Twhoy also announced that it would be an independent film more along the lines of Pitch Black than a huge production like The Chronicles of Riddick.
Over the course of the time that has passed between the Chronicles and The Underverse, apparently Diesel has been keeping die-hard Riddick fans abreast of what's been going on with the series while promising more movies to come.
Though many Riddick fans loved 2004's Chronicles, when it wasn't a huge box office blockbuster, everyone thought the series of films to be dead in the water.
An idea Diesel originally brought to Universal Studios while filming 2004's Chronicles, but the studio declined.
Until then, there is always the ever-so-popular Riddick series of video games, which some, say is better than The Chronicles of Riddick.
Hopefully, by going back to its Pitch Black roots, The Underverse will be much better received than The Chronicles of Riddick.
The Evolution of Dance is a great example of this as the video chronicles an interpretive version of dance that has made over 100 million viewers giggle.
More recently, Jackson appeared in The Sarah Connor Chronicles as another very recognizable genre character: Kyle Reese.
A broader historical overview is offered in the month-by-month recap, which chronicles most (though not all) years from 1960 to 1999.
The show chronicles the lives of the Forrester and Logan families set amidst the lush fashion industry.
The Girl Who Spoke with Pictures: Autism Through Art by Ellen Miller and Kim Miller: This is the an inspirational story by a mother who chronicles her daughter's experience with autism through art.
The film chronicles the Came So Far For Beauty Leonard Cohen tribute concert that happened earlier this year in Sydney, which also featured performances by Rufus Wainwright, Jarvis Cocker, and the McGarrigles, to name but a few.
MP3.com provides a complete list of available downloads from The Papercut Chronicles and As Cruel As Schoolchildren, along with other information on the band.