The chroniclers emphasize the fact that this king was not of royal descent.
We only know that he died, on the 17th of May 1050, as prior of Avellana, a monastery of the Camaldulians; such at least is the statement of the chroniclers of that order.
The chroniclers of the conquest of Apulia and Sicily use the Norman name in every page as the name of the followers of the conquerors from Hauteville.
Later chroniclers indulged in the fictitious and the marvellous, and it is almost exclusively from his own books that trustworthy information can be obtained.
About the origin and character of these terrible invaders we are much better informed than the early Russian chroniclers.
This story is open to grave suspicion, as, apart from the miracles recorded, there are wide discrepancies between the secular Portuguese histories and the narratives written or inspired by Jesuit chroniclers of the 17th century.
His graduation thesis, published in 1819, on the history of the Merovingian mayors of the palace, attracted the attention of Baron Stein, by whom he was engaged in 1820 to edit the Carolingian chroniclers for the newly-founded Historical Society of Germany.
Ã†thelflaed and her husband wielded almost kingly authority, and the royal title is often given them by the chroniclers.
The early chroniclers declare that St Aldhelm founded a church near Wareham about 701, and perhaps the priory, which is mentioned as existing in 876, when the Danes retired from Cambridge to a strong position in this fort.
The Arabic chroniclers record the names of many other writers on alchemy, among the most famous being Rhazes and Avicenna.
Since 737 there had been no king in the Frankish realm; in the diplomas the two brothers bear the title of majores palatii, while the chroniclers call them simply principes.
Some authorities hold that Walsingham himself only wrote the section between 1377 and 1392, but this view is controverted by James Gairdner in his Early chroniclers of Europe (1879).
The Historia, which from the beginning to 1377 is largely a compilation from earlier chroniclers, was published by Matthew Parker in 1574 as Historia Angliae brevis.
The names of Chulmia and Chelmo, applied to this region by later Latin and Italian chroniclers, are occasionally adopted by English writers.
Vukcic - or Cosaccia, as he is frequently called by the contemporary chroniclers, from his birthplace, Cosacwas the first and last holder of the title "Duke of St Sava," conferred on him by the emperor Frederick III.
Korybutovic, however, remained but a short time in Bohemia; after his departure civil war broke out, the Taborites opposing in arms the more moderate Utraquists, who at this period are also called by the chroniclers the "Praguers," as Prague was their principal stronghold.
Among the native poets, mostly mere rhyming chroniclers of the 1 6th century, were Csanadi, Tinodi, Nagy-Baczai, Bogâti, Ilosvay, Istvanfi, GOrgei, Temesvari and Valkai.
In this duke we may certainly recognize Borel, who, according to the Spanish chroniclers, was count of Barcelona from 967 to 993, while the bishop may probably be identified with Hatto, bishop of Vich or Ausona from about 060 to 971 or 972.
He applied himself to the study of the early French chroniclers, and proposed to publish extracts which would throw light on the first periods of the monarchy.
Dr Creighton points out that the number given by certain chroniclers of the deaths from the early pestilences in London are incredible; such for instance as the statement that forty or fifty thousand bodies were buried in Charterhouse churchyard at the time of the Black Death in 1348-1349.
The king's own legitimate brother Edwin made no attempt on the throne, but in 933 he was drowned at sea under somewhat mysterious circumstances; the later chroniclers ascribe his death to foul play on the part of the king, but this seems more than doubtful.
And, although the numerous legends and fables of the old chroniclers disguise the true history of this struggle, they serve to attest the importance of Pisa in those days.
The chroniclers ascribe the first war with Florence, which broke out in 1222, to a most ridiculous motive.
The chroniclers speak of 5000 killed and 1 i,000 prisoners; and, although these figures must be exaggerated, so great was the number of captives taken by the Genoese as to give rise to the saying - "To see Pisa, you must now go to Genoa."
It was said to have been founded by Megarians and Argives under Byzas about 6S7 B.C., but the original settlement having been destroyed in the reign of Darius Hystaspes by the satrap Otanes, it was recolonized by the Spartan Pausanias, who wrested it from the Medes after the battle of Plataea (479 B.C.) - a circumstance which led several ancient chroniclers to ascribe its foundation to him.
It undoubtedly stands in close connexion with the name of the province of Bessarabia, which oriental chroniclers gave in olden times to the whole of Walachia.
The Servian chroniclers connect its origin with their own nationality, basing this view upon the identification of Sarab with Sorb or Serbia.
Nevertheless it was by the work of a number of Roman chroniclers during this period that the materials of early Roman history were systematized, and the record of the state, as it was finally given to the world in the artistic work of Livy, was extracted from the early annals, state documents and private memorials, combined into a coherent unity, and supplemented by invention and reflection.
Amongst these chroniclers may be mentioned L.
Before his death the Historia Britonum had already become a model and a quarry for poets and chroniclers.
There were medieval chroniclers who did not fear to assert that Charles rose from the dead to take part in the Crusades.
Authorities.-(I) Principal Sources: The history of Anjou may be told partly with the aid of the chroniclers of the neighbouring provinces, especiall y those of Normandy (William of Poitiers, William of Jumieges, Ordericus Vitalis) and of Maine (especially Actus pontificum Cenomannis in urbe degentium).
about 314 insists, knew two Johns, and the apostle was to him a far-away figure; indeed early medieval chroniclers recount that Papias " in the second book of the Lord's sayings " asserted that both the sons of Zebedee were " slain by Jews," so that the apostle John would have died before 70.
The chief authority for the early history of Saxony is Widukind, whose Res gestae Saxonicae is printed, together with the works of other chroniclers, in the Monumenta Germanica historica, Scriptores.
The name Broeksele is mentioned by the chroniclers in the 8th century, and in the 10th the church.
He wrote full biographies of two chroniclers of Louis XI., one very obscure, Jean Castel (in the Bibliotheque de l'Ecole des Charles, 1840), the other, Thomas Basin, bishop of Lisieux, who was, on the contrary, a remarkable politician, prelate and chronicler.
The life was largely used by subsequent chroniclers, among others by Florence of Worcester, Simeon of Durham, Roger of Hoveden, and William of Malmesbury.
The earliest Polish chroniclers, from Gallus in the early 12th century to Janko of Czarnkow 1 in the 14th, are of little help to us.
The German chroniclers describe them as the most terrible of all the barbarians.
Unlike the people of other Slavonic countries, the Poles are comparatively poor in popular and legendary poetry, but such compositions undoubtedly existed in early times, as may be seen by the writings of their chroniclers; thus Gallus translated into Latin a poem written on Boleslaus the Brave, and a few old Polish songs are included in Wojcicki's Library of Ancient Writers.
For instance, there are no bilinf or legendary poems, such as are found among the Russians, although many passages in the ancient chroniclers from their poetical colouring seem to be borrowed from old songs or legends, and the first verses of some of these compositions have been preserved.
Mention may here be made of other chroniclers such as Martin the Pole (Polonus), who died in 1279 or 1280, and Jan of Czarnkow, who died in 1389; the latter was the historian and panegyrist of Casimir the Great.
Little as yet had been produced in Polish, as the chroniclers still adhered to Latin; and here mention must be made of Jan Dlugosz, who called himself Longinus.
Gairdner, Early Chroniclers of Europe; England (1879).
Matthew of Vendome, abbot of St Denis, an old servant of Louis IX., acted as Philip's counsellor, so the chroniclers state, throughout the reign; but he is only a shadowy figure, and it is difficult to reconcile the statement that "everything was done according to his will" with the known facts.
His name is regularly connected by the chroniclers with the ingenious methods of extortion from which all classes suffered between 1087 and i loo.
Not less remarkable was the palace of Tezcuco, surrounded with its groves and pleasure-gardens; and, though now hardly anything remains of the buildings above ground, the neighbouring hill of Tezcotzinco still has its stone steps and terraces; and the immense embankment carrying the aqueduct-channel of hewn stone which supplied water to basins cut in the solid rock still remains to prove that the chroniclers' descriptions, if highly coloured, were at any rate genuine.
Prayers and other formulas have been copied down by Sahagun and other chroniclers, of endless prolixity, but not without occasional touches of pathos.
Apart from modern European savants and historians, and the more strictly Oriental chroniclers who have written in Persian, Turkish or Arabic, the following authorities may be cited - Laonicus Chalcondylas, Joannes Leunclavius, Joachimus Camerarius, Petrus Perondinus, Lazaro Soranzo, Simon Mairlus, Matthew Michiovius.
After Evesham he is hardly mentioned by the chroniclers.
The general tendency seems to have been to accept too easily the accounts of the chroniclers of the east Frankish kingdom, which are favourable to Louis the German, and to accuse Charles of cowardice and bad faith.
- Pietro Verri, Storia di Milano; Corio, Storia di Milano; Cantu, Illustrazione grande del Lombardo Veneto; the Milanese chroniclers in Muratori's Rer.
The first view seems to be borne out by the language of contemporary chroniclers.
Floovant is obviously connected with the Gesta Dagoberti, and there are traces of the influence of popular songs on the Frankish heroes in Gregory of Tours and other chroniclers.
While the chroniclers were recording the deeds of Frederick I.
Among the early German chroniclers the Saxon Widukind, the author of the Res gestae Saxonicae, is worthy of mention.
is valuable, while another Carolingian courtier, Nithard, has a special interest as, almost alone among these early chroniclers, being a soldier and not a monk.
Several princes and other leading personages, foremost among whom was the emperor Maximilian I., had spent a good deal of time and money in collecting the manuscripts of the medieval chroniclers, and these now began to be printed.
The writings of the more important chroniclers have been published separately, and many of them have been translated into German.
The volumes of the Scri pi ores contain not only the domestic chroniclers, but also selections from the work of foreign writers who give information about the history of Germanyfor example, the Englishman Matthew Paris.
Raine in The Priory of Hexham, its Chroniclers, Endowments and Annals (Durham, 1864-65).
Howlett in the Chroniclers of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II.
The later story, with its episode of Peeping Tom, has been evolved by later chroniclers.
The security which he thereby gained gave him the opportunity to indulge his taste for costly buildings, parks and other luxuries, of which the chroniclers give accounts bordering on the fabulous.
His best work lies in his annotated editions of the older chroniclers.
He devoted, however, to this period three folio volumes (Gesta Francorum seu rerum francicarum tomi tres, 1646-1658), which form a critical commentary of much value, and in many points new, on the chroniclers of the Merovingian age.
With these must be considered the Burgundian chroniclers Enguerrand de Monstrelet, whose chronicle (ed.
The distinction between the Serbs of the more central region and the Croats of the north-west, was first drawn by the early Byzantine chroniclers, and was well established by the 12th century.
This view was accepted by Yorkist chroniclers and Tudor historians, who had no reason to speak well of a Pole.
The English chroniclers call Wallace latro, " a brigand," and he probably was a leader of broken men, discontented with English rule.
Although, outside the information we get from Christian chroniclers, this age is for the people of the north one of complete obscurity, it is evident that the Viking Age corresponds with some universal disturbance or unrest among the Scandinavian nations, strictly analogous to the unrest among more southern Teutonic nations which many centuries before had heralded the break-up of the Roman empire, an epoch known as that of the Folk-wanderings (V olkerwanderungen).
If we could know the Viking Age from the other, the Scandinavian side, it would doubtless present far more interest than in the form in which the Christian chroniclers present it.
This is, of course, what we should expect, that larger acquaintance gives to the Christian chroniclers more knowledge of their enemy.
Chroniclers lavish on him the titles of "archipirata," "vir flagitiosissimus et nequissimus," and poets made him an associate of the devil.
H.*) History The Afghan chroniclers call their people Beni-Israil (Arab.
Ala-ud-din had two nephews, Ghiyas-ud-din and Muiz-ud-din, the latter of whom, also called Shahab-ud-din by Mussulman chroniclers, and generally known in history as Mahommed Ghori, is the second of the great Mahommedan conquerors of India.
(from 1828 to 1835) is not signalized by any of those victories or extensions of territory by which chroniclers delight to measure the growth of empire.
They were in fact chroniclers or annalists - not historians.
Possibly its use was not confined to a single tribal section, occurring as it does in conjunction with the distinct dynastic names of Mokomba and Mambo, but the Karanga is the only tribe to which the Portuguese chroniclers attribute it.
The state and ceremony of his court, the number of his wives, and the order and organization of his officials, are described by several of the chroniclers.
She is called Marie by some of the chroniclers.
If the caliph then, as the chroniclers tell, sent a message to Moawiya for help, his messenger could not have accomplished half the journey to Damascus when the catastrophe took place.
He was so deeply affected by the death of Iiababa, that Maslama entreated him not to exhibit his sorrow to the eyes of the public. He died a few days later, on the 26th of January 724, according to the chroniclers from grief for her loss.
The chroniclers relate that on this occasion for the first time camels loaded with ice for the use of the caliph came to Mecca.
The chroniclers content themselves with recording that he himself wrote in the name of the caliph to the chief authorities in Bagdad and elsewhere that he was to be the successor.
The province occupies, roughly speaking, the upper basin of the Ganges and the Jumna, corresponding to the Hindostan proper of the Mahommedan chroniclers.
It appears to be completely ignored by the Byzantine chroniclers.
Extensive use has been made of Herodianus by later chroniclers, especially the "Scriptores historiae Augustae" and John of Antioch.
De Comines, the historian of Charles VIII.'s expedition to Naples, differs from the earlier French chroniclers in his way of French .
Two volumes of historical essays, Bilder aus Alt-England (Gotha, 1860 and 1876), and Aufsatze zur englischen Geschichte (Leipzig, 1869 and 1883), -and numerous historical articles in German periodicals came from his pen; and he edited several of the English chroniclers for the Monumenta Germaniae historica.
After this last feat of arms, which has perhaps been exaggerated by the Latin chroniclers, who compare him to Hector and the Maccabees, John died in the habit of a Franciscan friar.
Between 883 and 900 Hucbald went on several missions of reforming and reconstructing various schools of music, including that of Rheims, but in the latter year he re- turned to St Amand, where he remained to the day of his death on the 25th of June 930, or, according to other chroniclers, on the 20th of June 932.
Indeed, his identity seems to have been lost in the various modes of spelling his name adopted by the older chroniclers, who call him indiscriminately-4 Alymbeius, Asembeius, Asembec, Assimbeo, or Ussan Cassano.
But he was a drunkard and a debauchee, and chroniclers are divided in opinion as to whether he died from the effects of drink or licentious living.
The chroniclers Idatius, Prosper and Victor Tunnunensis supply some facts, and for the persecution of the Catholics Victor Vitensis and the Vita Augustini of Posidius may be consulted.
- There are separate articles on the Portuguese 15thand 16th-century chroniclers, G.
The next events that are recorded by the oldest chroniclers, such as Cosmas, refer to the foundation of a Bohemian principality by Krok (or Crocus) and his daughter Libussa.
Beginning with this semi-mythic ruler, the ancient chroniclers have constructed a continuous list of Pfemyslide princes.
We should, however, mention some chroniclers who were contemporaries and sometimes eye-witnesses of the events of the Hussite wars.
He is indeed the prince of chroniclers, and in this respect not unworthy to be classed even with Herodotus (Quintilian, x.
He has passed far beyond the bald and meagre diction of the early chroniclers.
And in the confused and contradictory accounts of his actions (for the story in Jordanes cannot be reconciled with the accounts in Olympiodorus and the chroniclers), we can see something of this principle at work throughout.
But they were continued and edited by men in whom the critical spirit was awakening, as when the chroniclers of Ionian towns began the criticism of Homer.
the old chroniclers may be trusted to have given a negusti.
as first given by the Moldavian chroniclers of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Dragosh the son of Bogdan, the founder of the Moldavian principality, emigrated with his followers from the Hungarian district of Marmaros in the northern Carpathians..
The so-called Chronicle of Hurul is a modern forgery, and up to the 14th century the only valid authorities are Slavonic, Hungarian and Byzantine chroniclers.
One by Pavel Danovici contains the history of the world told in the style of the Byzantine chroniclers; it includes the legend of Troy, the history of Pope Sylvester and the description of the various church councils; and it concludes at the year 1636.
In Moldavia, where the influence of Poland had been great and Western writings were accessible, we find the best chroniclers.
In Moldavia where the knowledge of the old chroniclers had not entirely died out and disturbing philological influences were not so acutely felt, we find the vigorous writings of Mihail Cogalniceanu - one of the leading spirits of the 19th century, the greatest mind and the real founder of Rumania.
This example was followed by lesser magnates, who styled themselves loosely, or were so styled by the chroniclers, " princes," even though they had little claim to independent sovereignty.
He brought out many editions of Latin and Byzantine chroniclers of the middle ages: Ennodius and Flodoard (16ri), Sidonius Apollinaris (1614), the life of St Leo IX.
(1) There is the total silence of all the old Swiss and Austrian chroniclers until 1538, with the solitary exception of the Zurich chronicle of 1476 (and this while they nearly all describe the battle in more or less detail).
Although the neighbourhood abounds in British earthworks and barrows, and there are traces of a Roman road leading from Poole to Wimborne, Poole (La Pole) is not mentioned by the early chroniclers or in Domesday Book.
And indeed we may note that the precise word parliament first appears in the chroniclers and in official documents about the middle of Henrys reign.
are mainly filled by contemporary chroniclers with details of the miserable strife between the king and his barons on the question of Pro2ress, Gavestons unconstitutional position.
The annals of the few contemporary chroniclers are so entirely devoted to the bickerings in the extreme north and west, that it is necessary to insist on the fact that from 1461 onwards the civil war was purely local, and nine-tenths of the realm enjoyed what passed for peace in.
A generation of copious chroniclers was, moreover, springing up, and among them were Florence of Worcester, Henry of Huntingdon, Simeon of Durham and William of Malmesbury.
In the i4th century there is a significant deterioration in the monastic chroniclers, and their place is taken by the works of secular clergy like Adam Murimuth, Geoffrey the Baker, Robert of Avesbury, Henry Knighton and the anonymous author of the Eulogium historictrum.
The political records of this energy are the State Papers, a class of document which soon dwarfs all others, and renders chroniclers, historians and the like almost negligible quantities as sources of history; but in another way their value is enhanced, for these hundreds of thousands of documents provide a test of the accuracy of modern historians which is imperfect in the case of medieval chroniclers and almost non-existent in that of ancient writers.
The chroniclers agree that Thomas of Berkeley had no part in the murder of the king, whom he treated kindly.
Becoming associated with Paul Lacroix ("le Bibliophile Jacob"), he planned with him a history of France, to consist of excerpts from the chief chroniclers and historians, with original matter filling up gaps in the continuity.
The data relating to his whole history are scanty and obscure, and his memory has suffered materially from the fact that the chief chroniclers of his deeds and misdeeds were ecclesiastics.
It will have been observed that Scythia had a peculiar attraction for medieval Irish chroniclers on account of its resemblance to the name Scotti, Scots.
The Croats formed the western division of the great migratory horde of Serbo-Croats which colonized the lands between Bulgaria and the Adriatic. Contemporary chroniclers called them Chrovati, Belochrobati (" White Croats"), Chrovati, Horvati, or by some similar Latin or Byzantine variant of the Slavonic Khrvaty.
The original authorities for the life and times of Charles the Bold are the numerous French, Burgundian and Flemish chroniclers of the latter part of the 15th century.
1342), grand-duke of Lithuania, was supposed by the earlier chroniclers to have been the servant of Witen, prince of Lithuania, but more probably he was Witen's younger brother and the son of Lutuwer, another Lithuanian prince.
But he gives us much invaluable information for which we should search the more methodical chroniclers in vain.
scorpion venom The sketch writers are the best read chroniclers of the passing parliamentary pageant.
Ãƒâ€ thelflaed and her husband wielded almost kingly authority, and the royal title is often given them by the chroniclers.
Among the native poets, mostly mere rhyming chroniclers of the 1 6th century, were Csanadi, Tinodi, Nagy-Baczai, BogÃ¢ti, Ilosvay, Istvanfi, GOrgei, Temesvari and Valkai.
Some chroniclers, who adhere to the day of the Annunciation as the commencement of the year, reckon from the 25th of March following our epoch, as the Florentines in the 10th century.
The literature of the first or Renaissance period gives us some good poets, who although occasionally imitators are not without national feeling, and a goodly array of chroniclers, most of whom made use of Latin.
The works of Lelewel have separate mention (see Lelewel); but here may be specified the labours of Narbutt, Dzieje starozytne arodu litewskiego (" Early History of the Lithuanian People"), published at Vilna in nine volumes, and the valuable Monumenta Poloniae historica, edited at Lemberg by Bielowski, of which several volumes have appeared, containing reprints of most of the early chroniclers.
In England it is used by many chroniclers and historians, the best known of whom are William of Malmesbury (d.
Numerous minor chroniclers fill up the gaps, but no one of them has the idiosyncrasy which distinguishes these three writers, who illustrate the three periods of the middle ages - adolescence, complete manhood, and decadence.
But in the Crusades we already see an event occupying its definite place in history and without which we cannot imagine the modern history of Europe, though to the chroniclers of the Crusades that event appeared as merely due to the will of certain people.
Scorpion venom The sketch writers are the best read chroniclers of the passing parliamentary pageant.
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