Christian sentence example

christian
  • The sultan sent him back to the Christian camp, and he passed on to the Holy Land.
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  • The mention of Christian theology may remind us that, for the majority of theists in medieval and modern times, theism proper has ranked only as a secondary wisdom.
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  • On the other hand, no Christian, and perhaps no theist, is interested in maintaining that Butler grasps the whole truth.
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  • As worked out by Ritschl, this is specially a basis for Christian belief.
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  • Of these St Matthias in the south, now represented by a 12th-century building, has a Christian cemetery of the Roman age.
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  • The speculations of the fathers respecting the origin and course of the world seek to combine Christian ideas of the Deity with doctrines of Greek philosophy.
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  • The cosmology of this period consists for the most part of the Aristotelian teleological view of nature combined with the Christian idea of the Deity and His relation to the world.
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  • Hilda exercised great influence in Northumbria, and ecclesiastics from all over Christian England and from Strathclyde and Dalriada visited her monastery.
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  • It would seem that, in the intervals of persecution, some rights of property were recognized in the Christian Church and its officers; although the Church was an illegal society.
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  • The edicts of Milan had only admitted the Christian Church among the number of lawful religions; but the tendency (except in the time of Julian) was towards making it the only lawful religion.
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  • A royal writ of the 16th century cited by Covarruvias (c. xxxv.) prohibits execution of the sentence of a Spanish court Christian pending an appeal to the pope.
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  • But as to personal property, the jurisdiction of the courts Christian became exclusive in England.
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  • Then, if the tenure were found free alms, the plea was to be heard in the court Christian.
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  • As to the title to present to benefices, the courts Christian at one time had concurrent jurisdiction with the temporal courts.
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  • Concerning " felonious " clerks the great questions discussed were whether the courts Christian had exclusive jurisdiction or the king's court, or whether there was a concurrent jurisdiction.
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  • In the year named the secular courts complained to the king, Philip of Valois, of the encroachments of the courts Christian.
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  • Questions in regard to the property in a benefice were for the courts Christian; in regard to its possession, for the king's courts.
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  • Clerks were punishable only in the court Christian, except in cases of grave crimes such as murder, mutilation (Fournier, p. 72), and cases called " royal cases " (vide infra).
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  • On the European continent the courts Christian often carried.
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  • The sentence of the court Christian had in all other cases to be enforced by the secular arm.
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  • But there was no sudden change in the position of the courts Christian till the French Revolution.
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  • In Spain causes of nullity and divorce a thoro, in Portugal causes of nullity between Catholics, are still for the court Christian.
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  • The Concordat of 1856 and consequent legislation restored matrimonial jurisdiction to the courts Christian over marriages between Roman Catholics.
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  • The subject matter of the jurisdiction of Hellenic courts Christian seems to be confined to strictly spiritual discipline, mainly in regard to the professional misconduct of the clergy.
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  • The establishment of The Atlantic Monthly in 1857 gave her a constant vehicle for her writings, as did also The Independent of New York, and later The Christian Union, of each of which papers successively her brother, Henry Ward Beecher, was one of the editors.
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  • The Orphic poems also played an important part in the controversies between Christian and pagan writers in the 3rd and 4th centuries after Christ; pagan writers quoted them to show the real meaning of the multitude of gods, while Christians retorted by reference to the obscene and disgraceful fictions by which the former degraded their gods.
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  • The " argument from design " had been a favourite form of reasoning amongst Christian theologians, and, as worked out by Paley in his Natural Theology, it served the useful purpose of emphasizing the fitness which exists between all the inhabitants of the earth and their physical environment.
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  • Payva died at Cairo; but Covilhao, having heard that a Christian ruler reigned in the mountains of Ethiopia, penetrated into Abyssinia in 1490.
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  • Kampen is the seat of a Christian Reformed theological school, a gymnasium, a higher burgher school, a municipal school of design, and a large orphanage.
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  • In 1537 he was invited to Denmark by Christian III., and remained five years in that country, organizing the church (though only a presbyter, he consecrated the new Danish bishops) and schools.
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  • In the narrower sense thus indicated the "fathers" of the Church are the great bishops and other eminent Christian teachers of the earlier centuries, who were conspicuous for soundness of judgment and sanctity of life; and whose writings remained as a court of appeal for their successors.
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  • Are all the Christian writers of a given period to be included among the "fathers," or those only who wrote on religious subjects, and of whose orthodoxy there is no doubt ?
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  • Migne, following the example of the editors of bibliothecae patrum who preceded him, swept into his great collection all the Christian writings which fell within his period; but he is careful to state upon his title-page that his patrologies include the ecclesiastical writers as well as the fathers and doctors of the Church.
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  • By the "fathers," then, we understand the whole of extant Christian literature from the time of the apostles to the rise of scholasticism or the beginning of the middle ages.
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  • Moreover, the great Christological controversies of the age tended to encourage in Christian writers and preachers an intellectual acuteness and an accuracy of thought and expression of which the earlier centuries had not felt the need.
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  • Next come the great Alexandrians, Clement, Origen, Dionysius; the Carthaginians, Tertullian and Cyprian; the Romans, Minucius Felix and Novatian; the last four laid the foundations of a Latin Christian literature.
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  • In this place it is enough to consider the general influence of the patristic writings upon Christian doctrine and biblical interpretation.
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  • The fathers of the first six or seven centuries, so far as they agree, may be fairly taken to represent the main stream of Christian tradition and belief during the period when the apostolic teaching took shape in the great creeds and dogmatic decisions of Christendom.
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  • But against these disadvantages may be set the unique services which the fathers still render to Christian scholars.
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  • Migne's texts are not always satisfactory, but since the completion of his great undertaking two important collections have been begun on critical lines - the Vienna edition of the Latin Church writers,' and the Berlin edition of the Greek writers of the ante-Nicene period .8 For English readers there are three series of translations from the fathers, which cover much of the ground; the Oxford Library of the Fathers, the Ante Nicene Christian Library and the Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers.
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  • Abrabanel often quotes Christian authorities, though he opposed Christian exegesis of Messianic passages.
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  • The Jews have always been, however, an intensely literary people, and the books ultimately accepted as canonical were only a selection from the literature in existence at the beginning of the Christian era.
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  • The last member of it, Simon the Just (either Simon I., who died about 300 B.C., or Simon II., who died about 200 B.C.), was the first of the next series, called Elders, represented in the tradition by pairs of teachers, ending with Hillel and Shammai about the beginning of the Christian era.
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  • He commented on all the Bible and on nearly all the Talmud, has been himself the text of several super-commentaries, and has exercised great influence on Christian exegesis.
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  • His great work, the Mikhlol, consists of a grammar and lexicon; his commentaries on various parts of the Bible are admirably luminous, and, in spite of his anti-Christian remarks, have been widely used by Christian theologians and largely influenced the English authorized version of the Bible.
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  • In this vicinity was situated, at the time of the Christian era, the Parthian city of Spasini-Charax, which was succeeded by Bahman Ardashir (Bamishir) under the Sassanians, and by Moharzi under the Arabs.
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  • The most noteworthy architectural details are the Chapel of the Trinity (15th century) and that of Christian IV.
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  • These two conquests, wrought in the great island of the Ocean and in the great island of the Mediterranean, were the main works of the Normans after they had fully put on the character of a Christian and French-speaking people, in other words, after they had changed from Northmen into Normans.
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  • Though crusades had not yet been preached, the strife with the Mussulman at once brought in the crusading element; to the Christian people of the island they were in many cases real deliverers; still, the actual process by which Sicily was won was not so very different from that by which Apulia had been won.
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  • The Norman conqueror found in Sicily a Christian and Greekspeaking people and a Mussulman and Arabic-speaking people.
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  • In one place the Christians were in utter bondage, in another they were simply tributary; still, everywhere the Mussulman Saracen formed the ruling class, the Christian Greek formed the subject class.
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  • Such a state of things might seem degradation to the Mussulman, but it was deliverance to the native Christian, while to settlers of every kind from outside it was an opening such as they could hardly find elsewhere.
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  • The university of Indianapolis (1896) is a loose association of three really independent institutions - the Indiana Law School (1894), the Indiana Dental College (1879), and Butler University (chartered in 1849 and opened in 1855 as the North-western Christian University, and named Butler University in 1877 in honour of Ovid Butler, a benefactor).
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  • The book contains expressions such as daemones, angelica virtus, and purgatoria dementia, which have been thought to be derived from the Christian faith; but they are used in a heathen sense, and are explained sufficiently by the circumstance that Boetius was on intimate terms with Christians.
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  • The writer nowhere finds consolation in any Christian belief, and Christ is never named in the work.
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  • It is not impossible, however, that Boetius may have been brought up a Christian, and that in his early years he may have written some Christian books.
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  • It contains nothing distinctly Christian, and it contains nothing of great value; therefore its authorship is a matter of little consequence.
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  • It will be seen from this statement that Peiper bases his conclusions on grounds far too narrow; and on the whole it is perhaps more probable that Boetius wrote none of the four Christian treatises, particularly as they are not ascribed to him by any of his contemporaries.
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  • The work also includes the five treatises, four of them Christian, of which mention has been made above.
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  • Thus, in view of persecution or slander, the Christian church naturally produced literary " Apologies."
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  • Theology or Theism, (2) Christian Evidences - chiefly "miracles" and " prophecy "; or, on a more modern view, chiefly the character and personality of Christ.
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  • Turning to Christian evidence proper, we are struck with the continued prominence of the argument from prophecy.
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  • These two religions anticipated the discussion of the problem of faith and reason in the Christian church.
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  • It is not exactly an attempt to base Christian faith on rational scepticism.
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  • This is to upset the compromise of Aquinas and go back to a Christian platonism.
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  • The work is not always well done; but the Christian church needs it.
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  • But hereafter it may not prove possible for the apologist to assume as unchallenged the Christian moral outlook.
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  • The Christian apologist indeed may himself seek, following John Fiske, to philosophize evolution as a restatement of natural theology - " one God, one law, one element and one far-off divine event " - and as at least pointing towards personal immortality.
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  • Positively it may be affirmed that the recovered figure of the historical Jesus is the greatest asset in the possession of modern Christian theology and apologetics.
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  • The central apologetic thesis is the uniqueness of the "only-begotten"; it is here that " the supernatural " passes into the substance of Christian faith.
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  • When, then, Basilides identified the highest angel of the seven, the creator of the worlds, with the God of the Jews, this is a development of the idea which did not occur until late, possibly first in the specifically Christian circles of the Gnostics.
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  • With Christian David, a carpenter, at their head, they crossed the border into Saxony, settled down near Count Zinzendorf's estate at Berthelsdorf, and, with his permission, built the town of Herrnhut (17 22-1 7 27).
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  • In Germany, therefore, the importance of the Moravians must be measured, not by their numbers, but by their influence upon other Christian bodies.
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  • The capital of Aloa, which appears to have been at one time a powerful Christian state, was at Soba on .the Blue Nile.
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  • Reedwald had been converted to Christianity in Kent, but after his return home he relapsed, according to Bede, owing to the influence of his wife, and there were to be seen in the same building a Christian and a pagan altar.
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  • This king was an enthusiastic Christian, and converted Ceenwalh, king of Wessex, who had fled to his court.
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  • The same holds good of the Meshcheryaks, both Moslem and Christian.
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  • The Mordvinians are nearly all Orthodox Greek, as also are the Votyaks, Voguls, Cheremisses and Chuvashes, but their religions are, in reality, modifications of Shamanism under the influence of some Christian and Moslem beliefs.
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  • Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.
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  • When they first appeared in Europe they were idolaters or Shamanists, and as such they had naturally no religious fanaticism; but even when they adopted Islam they remained as tolerant as before, and the khan of the Golden Horde (Berkai) who first became a Mussulman allowed the Russians to found a Christian bishopric in his capital.
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  • Joao d'Albuquerque, bishop of Goa, he asked his permission to officiate in the diocese, and at once began walking through the streets ringing a small bell, and telling all to come, and send their children and servants, to the "Christian doctrine" or catechetical instruction in the principal church.
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  • At Travancore he is said to have founded no fewer than fortyfive Christian settlements.
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  • The contention that Xavier should be regarded as the greatest of Christian missionaries since the first century A.D.
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  • But among the Jews two other forms of the idea expressed themselves in usages which have been perpetuated in Christianity, and one of which has had a singular importance for the Christian world.
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  • The points in relation to this offering which are clearly demonstrable from the Christian writers of the first two centuries, but which subsequent theories have tended to confuse, are these.
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  • In the case of the bread and wine of the Christian sacrifice, it was believed that, after having been offered and blessed, they became to those who partook of them the body and blood of Christ.
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  • It is clear from the evidence of the early Western liturgies that, for at least six centuries, the primitive conception of the nature of the Christian sacrifice remained.
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  • The main points in which the pre-medieval formularies of both the Eastern and the Western Churches agree in relation to the Christian sacrifice are the following.
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  • From that time until the Reformation the Christian sacrifice was all but universally regarded as the offering of the body and blood of Christ.
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  • The reaction against the medieval theory at the time of the Reformation took the form of a return to what had no doubt been an early belief, - the idea that the Christian sacrifice consists in the offering of a pure heart and of vocal thanksgiving.
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  • In the east Syrian, the Armenian and the Georgian churches, respectively Nestorian, Monophysite and Greek Orthodox in their tenets, the agape was from the first a survival, under Christian and Jewish forms, of the old sacrificial systems of a pre-Christian age.
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  • The early Christian agape admitted of adaptation to the older funeral and sacrificial feasts, and was so adapted.
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  • Christian convert was his unanimous call by the Christian people to the head of the church in Carthage, at the end of 248 or beginning of 249.
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  • Indeed, as one of the acutest and most sympathetic of his critics has remarked, the deep and settled grudge he has betrayed towards every form of Christian belief, in all the writings of his maturity, may be taken as evidence that he had at one time experienced in his own person at least some of the painful workings of a positive faith.
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  • The Christian apologists and their pagan assailants; the Theodosian Code, with Godefroy's commentary; the Annals and Antiquities of Muratori, collated with " the parallel or transverse lines" of Sigonius and Maffei, Pagi and Baronius, were all critically studied.
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  • They met with a quick and easy sale, were very extensively read, and very liberally and deservedly praised for the unflagging industry and vigour they displayed, though just exception, if only on the score of good taste, was taken to the scoffing tone he continued to maintain in all passages where the Christian religion was specially concerned, and much fault was found with the indecency of some of his notes.'
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  • And he did not realize the importance of the kinship between Christian doctrine and Hellenistic syncretism, which helped to promote the reception of Christianity.
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  • In regard to the attitude of the Roman government towards the Christian religion, there are questions still sub judice; but Gibbon had the merit of reducing the number of martyrs within probable limits.
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  • It was always patent that what he was chiefly concerned with was the substance and the life of Christian truth, and that his whole energies were employed in this inquiry because his whole heart was engaged in the truths and facts which were at stake.
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  • Smith's Dictionary of Christian Biography and Dictionary of the Bible, and he also joined the committee for revising the translation of the New Testament.
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  • Then we hear little more of it till at the opening of the Christian era it appears as flourishing Romano-Spanish town with a Latin-speaking population and the rank of municipium.
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  • The style is commonly called Byzantine; but some of the most striking features of the churches of Ravenna - the colonnades, the mosaics, perhaps the cupolas - are not so much Byzantine as representative of early Christian art generally.
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  • The present cathedral contains several early Christian marble sarcophagi, a silver cross of the 6th century (that of Agnellus), and the so-called throne of the Archbishop Maximian (54655 2), adorned with reliefs in ivory, which, however, was really brought to Ravenna in iooi by John the Deacon, who recorded the fact in his Venetian chronicle, as a present from the Doge Pietro Orseolo to the Emperor Otho III.
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  • The baptistery adjacent to the cathedral was, according to Ricci, originally part of the Roman baths, converted to a Christian baptistery by the Archbishop Neon (449-452), though according to other authorities it is a Christian building dating from before A.D.
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  • Close by is a small court with early Christian sarcophagi, containing the remains of the Braccioforte family.
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  • His English works are an Inquiry into Speculative and Experimental Science (London, 1856); Introduction to Speculative Logic and Philosophy (St Louis, 1875), and a translation of Bretschneider's History of Religion and of the Christian Church.
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  • From that period Ward and his associates worked undisguisedly for union with the Church of Rome, and in 1844 he published his Ideal of a Christian Church, in which he openly contended that the only hope for the Church of England lay in submission to the Church of Rome.
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  • The name is a corruption of St Olave, or Olaf, the Christian king of Norway, who in 994 attacked London by way of the river, and broke down London Bridge.
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  • His exile, however, was brief, and some years after his return he became involved in a dispute with his sovereign, Christian III., king of Denmark, because he refused to further the progress of Lutheranism in the island.
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  • In 1613, at the instigation of Pope Paul V., Suarez wrote a treatise dedicated to the Christian princes of Europe, entitled Defensio catholicae fidei contra anglicanae sectae errores.
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  • The commissioners on criminal law (sixth report) remark that "although the law forbids all denial of the being and providence of God or the Christian religion, it is only when irreligion assumes the form of an insult to God and man that the interference of the criminal law has taken place."
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  • Christian teachers, especially those who had a leaning towards Gnostic speculations, took an interest in natural history, partly because of certain passages of Scripture that they wanted to explain, and partly on account of the divine revelation in the book of nature, of which also it was man's sacred duty to take proper advantage.
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  • Now the early Christian centuries were anything but a period of scientific research.
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  • A full account of the history of the Physiologus should also embrace the subjects taken from it in the productions of Christian art, the parodies suggested by the original work, e.g.
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  • Yet he was a great king, the type and to some extent the victim of the confusions of his age - Christian in creed and ambition, but more than half oriental in his household.
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  • One theory is that it is a relic of the early Christian church, symbolizing the battle of life and the triumph of good over evil.
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  • By common consent of Christendom, John was the forerunner of the founder of the Christian Church.
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  • Early Christian writers assert that he proceeded to search out and to execute all descendants of David who might conceivably come forward as claimants of the vacant throne.
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  • To Eusebius the erection of a temple of Venus over the sepulchre of Christ was an act of mockery against the Christian religion.
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  • Religion under the Christian emperors became a significant source of discrimination in legal status, and non-conformity might reach so far as to produce complete loss of rights.
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  • Yet Judaism under Roman Christian law was a lawful religion (religio licita), Valentinian I.
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  • Already under Charlemagne this development is noticeable; in his generous treatment of the Jews this Christian emperor stood in marked contrast to his contemporary the caliph Harun al-Rashid, who persecuted Jews and Christians with equal vigour.
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  • The reformation as such had no favourable influence on Jewish fortunes in Christian Europe, though the championship of the cause of toleration by Reuchlin had considerable value.
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  • In the 17th century a considerable number of Jews had made a home in the English colonies, where from the first they enjoyed practically equal Tights with the Christian settlers.
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  • The Leibzoll (body-tax) was also abolished, in addition to the special law-taxes, the passport duty, the nightduty and all similiar imposts which had stamped the Jews as outcast, for they were now (Dec. 19) to have equal rights with the Christian inhabitants."
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  • The legend of ritual murder (q.v.) has been revived, and every obstacle is placed in the way of the free intercourse of Jews with their Christian fellow-citizens.
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  • It was applied by the Moslems in Spain to the Christian communities existing among them, in Cordova, Seville, Toledo and other large cities, in the exercise of their own laws and religion.
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  • The fish was an early symbol of Christ in primitive and medieval Christian art.
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  • Owing to the existence of a strong Mussulman minority among its inhabitants, the warlike character of the natives, and the mountainous configuration of the country, which enabled a portion of the Christian population to maintain itself in a state of partial independence, the island has constantly been the scene of prolonged and sanguinary struggles in which the numerical superiority of the Christians was counterbalanced by the aid rendered to the Moslems by the Ottoman troops.
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  • The vast majority of the Christian population belongs to the Orthodox (Greek) Church, which is governed by a synod of seven bishops under the presidency of the metropolitan of Candia.
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  • In 1907 there were 547 primary schools (527 Christian and 20 Mahommedan), and 31 secondary schools.
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  • In the extreme east and west of the island the aboriginal Eteocretan" element, however, as represented respectively by the Praesians or Cydonians, still held its own, and inscriptions written in Greek characters show that the old language survived to the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
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  • Among the early Christian remains of the island far and away the most important is the church of St Titus at Gortyna, which perhaps dates from the Constantinian age.
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  • Various privileges already acquired by the Christian population were confirmed; a general council, or representative body, was brought into existence, composed of deputies from every district in the island; mixed tribunals were introduced, together with a highly elaborate administrative system, under which all the more important functionaries, Christian and Mussulman, were provided with an assessor of the opposite creed.
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  • In 1894 the Porte, at the instance of the powers, nominated a Christian, Karatheodory Pasha, to the governorship, and the Christians, mollified by the concession, agreed to take part in the assembly which soon afterwards was convoked; no steps, however, were taken to remedy the financial situation, which became the immediate cause of the disorders that followed.
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  • The advance of a Turkish detachment through the western districts, where other garrisons were besieged, was marked by pillage and devastation, and 5000 Christian peasants took refuge on the desolate promontory of Spada, where they suffered extreme privations.
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  • The Pact of Halepa was restored, the troops were withdrawn from the interior, financial aid was promised to the island, a Christian governor-general was appointed, the assembly was summoned, and an imperial commissioner was despatched to negotiate an arrangement.
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  • The Christian leaders prepared a moderate scheme of reforms, based on the Halepa Pact, which, with a few exceptions, were approved by the powers and eventually sanctioned by the sultan.
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  • It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.
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  • On the same day Georgi Pasha, the Christian governor-general, took refuge on board a Russian ironclad, and, on the next, naval detachments from the warships of the powers occupied Canea.
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  • The intervention of Greece caused immense excitement among the Christian population, and terrible massacres of Moslem peasants took place in the eastern and western districts.
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  • Thus the Passover, with a new conception added to it of Christ as the true Paschal Lamb and the first fruits from the dead, continued to be observed, and became the Christian Easter.
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  • Although the observance of Easter was at a very early period the practice of the Christian church, a serious difference as to the day for its observance soon arose between the Christians of Jewish and those of Gentile descent, which led to a long and bitter controversy.
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  • Although measures had thus been taken to secure uniformity of observance, and to put an end to a controversy which had endangered Christian unity, a new difficulty had to be encountered owing to the absence of any authoritative rule by which the paschal moon was to be ascertained.
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  • Easter, as commemorating the central fact of the Christian religion, has always been regarded as the chief festival of the Christian year, and according to a regulation of Constantine it was to be the first day of the year.
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  • When at last the question arose of giving the Christian world a new pope, this time sole and uncontested, Pierre d'Ailly defended the right of the cardinals, if not to keep the election entirely in their own hands, at any rate to share in the election, and he brought forward an ingenious system for reconciling the pretensions of the council with the rights of the Sacred College.
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  • The choice of the British government fell on Prince Christian William Ferdinand Adolphus George of Schleswig-Holstein-SonderburgGliicksburg, whose election as king of the Hellenes, with the title George I., was recognized by the powers (6th of June 1863).
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  • The Baptist and Methodist churches are the leading religious denominations in the state; but there are also Presbyterians, Lutherans, members of the Christian Connexion (O'Kellyites), Disciples of Christ (Campbellites) Episcopalians, Friends, Roman Catholics, Moravians and members of other denominations.
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  • Syriac is the eastern dialect of the Aramaic language which, during the early centuries of the Christian era, prevailed in Mesopotamia and the adjoining regions.
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  • Its main centres were at Edessa and Nisibis, but it was the literary language of practically all the Christian writers in the region east of Antioch, as well as of the Christian subjects of the Persian empire.
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  • He left five sons, the eldest of whom was his successor in Saxony, Frederick Christian; and five daughters, one of whom was the wife of Louis, the dauphin of France, and mother of Louis XVI.
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  • The return to God (g vw6es, 6Ewaes) is the consummation of all things and the goal indicated by Christian teaching.
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  • These are the permanent outlines of what may be called the philosophy of mysticism in Christian times, and it is remarkable with how little variation they are repeated from age to age.
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  • Towards the end of Ruysbroeck's life, in 1378, he was visited by the fervid lay-preacher Gerhard Groot (1340-1384), who was so impressed by the life of the community at Groenendal that he conceived the idea of founding a Christian brotherhood, bound by no monastic vows, but living together in simplicity and piety with all things in common, after the apostolic pattern.
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  • After the Christian era it was accompanied by Chinese Buddhism.
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  • Soon after the Christian era central Asia began to boil over, and at least seven great.
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  • On the contrary there have been 20 dynasties since the Christian era.
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  • It is plain from early Moslem literature that Persian, Christian and especially Jewish ideas had penetrated into Arabia.
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  • The Hebrew titles ascribe to him seventy-three psalms; the Septuagint adds some fifteen more; and later opinion, both Jewish p and Christian, claimed for him the authorship of the whole Psalter (so the Talmud, Augustine and others).
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  • Sacheverell was among its rectors (1713-1724), and Thomas Chatterton (1770) was interred in the adjacent burial ground, no longer extant, of Shoe Lane Workhouse; the register recording his Christian name as William.
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  • The museum, occupying an old Gothic church, is particularly rich in Roman remains and in early Christian sarcophagi; there is also a museum of Provencal curiosities.
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  • The Rule and Exercises of Holy Living provided a manual of Christian practice, which has retained its place with devout readers.
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  • It deals with "the means and instruments of obtaining every virtue, and the remedies against every vice, and considerations serving to the resisting all temptations, together with prayers containing the whole Duty of a Christian."
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  • Here Christian, bishop of Prussia, who had received from the Polish duke of Masovia a part of Kulmerland as a fief, had founded the knightly Order of Dobrzin, and was attempting with its aid to subdue the heathens of Prussia.
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  • Besides the knightly Order founded by Christian, there was already another still farther east, which had served as Christian's model, the Knights of the Sword of Livonia.
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  • He was educated for the Church, and at the Sorbonne, to which he was admitted in 1749 (being then styled abbe de Brucourt), he delivered two remarkable Latin dissertations, On the Benefits which the Christian Religion has conferred on Mankind, and On the Historical Progress of the Human Mind.
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  • The first part treats of the vices that hinder the attainment of holiness, the second of the virtues of a Christian.
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  • In the 18th century it had two illustrious guests in Peter the Great of Russia and Christian VII.
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  • Foreign trade and foreign intercourse were undeveloped, but their influence was in historical times never entirely absent, while the influence of Roman law and the Christian Church constantly tended to modify the manorial organization.
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  • As early as the 5th century of the Christian era we find mention made of these historical traditions in the work of an Armenian author, Moses of Chorene (according to others, he lived in the 7th or 8th century).
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  • He lived in a time when the Christian communities enjoyed almost uninterrupted peace and held an acknowledged position in the world.
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  • By proclaiming the reconciliation of science with the Christian faith, of the highest culture with the Gospel, Origen did more than any other man to win the Old World to the Christian religion.
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  • Origen was born, perhaps at Alexandria, of Christian parents in the year 185 or 186.
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  • Asia Minor and the West developed the strict ecclesiastical forms by means of which the church closed her lines against heathenism, and especially against heresy; in Alexandria Christian ideas were handled in a free and speculative fashion and worked out with the help of Greek philosophy.
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  • The ten books of Stromata (in which Origen compared the teaching of the Christians with that of the philosophers, and corroborated all the Christian dogmas from Plato, Aristotle, Numenius and Cornutus) have all perished, with the exception of small fragments; so have the tractates on the resurrection and on freewill.2 6.
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  • For a knowledge of Origen's Christian estimate of life and his relation to the faith of the church these two treatises are of great importance.
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  • The most convincing proof of this is that Origen (i) takes the idea of the immutability of God as the regulating idea of his system, and (2) deprives the historical "Word made flesh" of all significance for the true Gnostic. To him Christ appears simply as the Logos who is with the Father from eternity, and works from all eternity, to whom alone the instructed Christian directs his thoughts, requiring nothing more than a perfect - i.e.
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  • This distinction was already current in the catechetical school of Alexandria, but Origen gave it its boldest expression, and justified it on the ground of the incapacity of the Christian masses to grasp the deeper sense of Scripture, or unravel the difficulties of exegesis.
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  • The old Christian eschatology is set aside; no one has dealt such deadly blows to Chiliasm and Christian apocalypticism as Origen.
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  • During the ensuing interregnum he powerfully contributed, at the head of the nobles of Funen and Jutland, to the election of Christian III.
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  • Subsequently by judicious bribery he contrived to escape to Germany, and from thence rejoined Christian III.
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  • Napoleon (who now used his Christian name instead of the surname Bonaparte) thereupon sent proposals for various changes in the constitution, which were at once registered by the obsequious Council of State and the Senate on the 4th of August (16 Thermidor) 1802.
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  • Medieval Christian synchronists make Cuchulinn's death take place about the beginning of the Christian era.
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  • This Egyptian picture was said to date from the time of the third or fourth dynasty, some three thousand years before the Christian era.
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  • Mounds of bones marked his road, witnesses of devastations which other historians record in detail; Christian prisoners, from Germany, he found in the heart of "Tartary" (at Talas); the ceremony of passing between two fires he was compelled to observe, as a bringer of gifts to a dead khan, gifts which were of course treated by the Mongols as evidence of submission.
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  • The custom, indeed, so far from dying out, was adopted by the barbarian conquerors and spread among the Christian Goths in Spain, Franks in Gaul, Alemanni in Germany, and Anglo-Saxons in Britain.
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  • The chief buildings are the town-hall, a large theatre, a school of arts and a library; the Christian Brothers College and several handsome churches.
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  • He then draws a positive demonstration of the truth of his religion from the effects of the new faith, and especially from the excellence of its moral teaching, and concludes with a comparison of Christian and Pagan doctrines, in which the latter are set down with naïve confidence as the work of demons.
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  • In the so-called Second Apology, Justin takes occasion from the trial of a Christian recently held in Rome to argue that the innocence of the Christians was proved by the very persecutions.
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  • Even as a Christian Justin always remained a philosopher.
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  • By his conscious recognition of the Greek philosophy as a preparation for the truths of the Christian religion, he appears as the first and most distinguished in the long list of those who have endeavoured to reconcile Christian with non-Christian culture.
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  • Here, where he had to deal with the Judaism that believed in a Messiah, he was far better able to do justice to Christianity as a revelation; and so we find that the arguments of this work are much more completely in harmony with primitive Christian theology than those of the Apology.
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  • Justin is a most valuable authority for the life of the Christian Church in the middle of the 2nd century.
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  • And from this it is clear that though, as a theologian, Justin wished to go his own way, as a believing Christian he was.
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  • There are not many traces of any particular literary influence of his writings upon the Christian Church, and this need not surprise us.
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  • This theory of disease disappeared sooner than did the belief in possession; the energumens (EVEp-yoiwEvoc) of the early Christian church, who were under the care of a special clerical order of exorcists, testify to a belief in possession; but the demon theory of disease receives no recognition; the energumens find their analogues in the converts of missionaries in China, Africa and elsewhere.
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  • In a somewhat narrower sense, too, the Church of England at bast has never repudiated the conception of the Catholic Church as a divinely instituted organization for the safe-guarding and proclamation of the Christian revelation.
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  • He is also the author of the Brazen Serpent (1831), the Doctrine of Election (1839), several "Introductory Essays" to editions of Christian Authors, and a posthumous work entitled Spiritual Order and Other Papers (1871).
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  • It seems to have continued to flourish down into the Christian era; remains of its ecclesiastical buildings still exist.
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  • Nisibis early became the seat of a Jacobite bishop and of a Nestorian metropolitan, and under the Arabs (when it continued to flourish and became the centre of the district of Diya`r Rebi`a) the population of the town and neighbourhood was still mostly Christian, and included numerous monasteries.
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  • His chief theological and philosophical works were Institutes of Natural and Revealed Religion (3 vols., 1772-1774); History of the Corruption of Christianity (2 vols., 1782); General History of the Christian Church to the Fall of the Western Empire, vols.
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  • Having entered the Christian priesthood, he naturally took an interest in the Priscillianist controversy then going on in his native country, and it may have been in connexion with this that he went to consult Augustine at Hippo in 413 or 414.
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  • For five centuries before the Christian era cotton was largely used in the domestic manufactures of India; and the clothing of the inhabitants then consisted, as now, chiefly of garments made from this vegetable product.
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  • Bishop Memorial Training School for nurses, the Berkshire Home for aged women, the Berkshire Athenaeum, containing the public library, the Crane Art Museum and a Young Men's Christian Association.
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  • The two conceptions, once common in the Christian church, that on the one hand miracles involved an interference with the forces and a suspension of the laws of nature, and that, on the other hand, as this could be effected only by divine power, they served as credentials of a divine revelation, are now generally abandoned.
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  • For the Christian Church the miracles of Jesus are of primary importance; and the evidence - external and internal - in their favour may be said to be sufficient to justify belief.
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  • The Christian Church would never have come into existence without faith in the Risen Lord.
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  • In some cases suspense of judgment seems necessary even from the standpoint of Christian faith.
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  • In the religious literature they are almost exclusively represented as magicians and diviners opposing the Christian missionaries, though we find two of them acting as tutors to the daughters of Laegaire, the high-king, at the coming of St Patrick.
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  • Pico was the first to seek in the Kabbalah a proof of the Christian mysteries and it was by him that Reuchlin was led into the same delusive path.
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  • His father, Emmanuel Mendel, is said to have been a Jewish pedlar, but August adopted the name of Neander on his baptism as a Christian.
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  • Neander found in him the very impulse which he needed, while Schleiermacher found a pupil of thoroughly congenial feeling, and one destined to carry out his views in a higher and more effective Christian form than he himself was capable of imparting to them.
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  • The impulse communicated by Schleiermacher was confirmed by Planck, and he seems now to have realized that the original investigation of Christian history was to form the great work of his life.
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  • Having finished his university course, he returned to Hamburg, and passed his examination for the Christian ministry.
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  • Alive to the claims of criticism, he no less strongly asserted the rights of Christian feeling.
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  • The hymn has been used in Christian worship since at least the 9th century, and was adopted into the Anglican Order of Morning Prayer from the Roman service of matin-lauds.
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  • He considers that in its earliest origins Christian faith and the methods of Greek thought were so closely intermingled that much that is not essential to Christianity found its way into the resultant system.
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  • Therefore Protestants are not only free, but bound, to criticize it; indeed, for a Protestant Christian, dogma cannot be said to exist.
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  • In 1893 he published a history of early Christian literature down to Eusebius, Geschichte der altchristl.
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  • From this point of view, the Crusades appear as a reaction of the West against the pressure of the East - a reaction which carried the West into the East, and founded a Latin and Christian kingdom on the shores of Asia.
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  • On the one hand, the reconquest of lost territories from the Mahommedans by Christian powers had been proceeding steadily for more than a hundred years before the First Crusade; on the other hand, the position of the Eastern empire after 1071 was a clear and definite summons to the Christian West, and proved, in the event, the immediate occasion of the holy war.
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  • In the centre of the Mediterranean the fight between Christian and Mahommedan had been long, but was finally inclining in favour of the Christian.
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  • But the supposed letter of Silvester is a later forgery; and in moo the way of the Christian to Jerusalem was still free and open.
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  • Meanwhile the principality of Antioch, ruled by Tancred, after the departure of Bohemund (1104-1112), and then by Roger his kinsman (1112-1119), was, during the reign of Baldwin I., busily engaged in disputes both with its Christian neighbours at Edessa and Tripoli, and with the Mahommedan princes of Mardin and Mosul.
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  • Before this great gathering of all Christian Europe he proclaimed a Crusade for the year 1217, and in common deliberation it was resolved that a truce of God should reign for the next four years, while for the same time all trade with the Levant should cease.
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  • The 1 It may be argued that the Crusade against a revolted Christian like Frederick II.
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  • The answer is partly that men like St Louis did think that the Crusade was misplaced, and partly that Frederick was really attacked not as a revolted Christian, but as the would-be unifier of Italy, the enemy of the states of the church.
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  • His general, a Christian named Kitboga, marched southwards to attack the Mamelukes of Egypt, but he was beaten by Bibars (who in the same year became sultan of Egypt), and Damascus fell into the hands of the Mamelukes.
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  • It was natural that the popes should endeavour to form a coalition between the various Christian powers which were threatened by the Turks; and Venice, anxious to preserve her possessions in the Aegean, zealously seconded their efforts.
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  • They ended, not in the occupation of the East by the Christian West, but in the conquest of the West by the Mahommedan East.
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  • In the 13th century the whole of Europe was Christian; part of Asia Minor still belonged to Greek Christianity, and there was a Christian kingdom in Palestine.
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  • A great field for missionary enterprise opened itself in the Mongol empire, in which, as has already been mentioned, there were many Christians to be found; and by 1350 this field had been so well worked that Christian missions and Christian bishops were established from Persia to Peking, and from the Dnieper to Tibet itself.
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  • The study of Oriental languages began in connexion with the Christian missions of the East; Raymond Lull, the indefatigable missionary, induced the council of Vienne to decide on the creation of six schools of Oriental languages in Europe (13 I I).
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  • Over against its want of originality must be set the fact, not merely that Syrian culture ultimately spread extensively towards the West, but that the Syrians (as is shown by the inscriptions of Teima, &c.) long before the Christian era exercised over the northern Arabs a perceptible influence which afterwards, about the beginning of the r st century, became much stronger through the kingdom of the Nabataeans.
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  • The high degree of civilization then prevailing in the country is proved by its architectural remains dating from the early Christian centuries; the investigations of De Vogue, Butler and others, have shown that from the 1st to the 7th century there prevailed in north Syria and the Hauran a special style of architecture - partly, no doubt, following Graeco-Roman models, but also showing a great deal of originality in details.
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  • The Cid of history, though falling short of the poetical ideal which the patriotism of his countrymen has so long cherished, is still the foremost man of the heroical period of Spain - the greatest warrior produced out of the long struggle between Christian and Moslem, and the perfect type of the Castilian of the 12th century.
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  • Henceforth Rodrigo Diaz began to live that life of a soldier of fortune which has made him famous, sometimes fighting under the Christian banner, sometimes under Moorish, but always for his own hand.
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  • Under Moktadir, and his successorsMoutamin and Mostain, the Cid remained for nearly eight years, fighting their battles against Mahommedan and Christian, when not engaged upon his own, and being admitted almost to a share of their royal authority.
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  • He made more than one attempt to be reconciled with Alphonso, but, his overtures being rejected, he turned his arms against the enemies of the Beni Houd, extending their dominions at the expense of the Christian states VI.
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  • Among the enterprises of the Cid the most famous was that against Valencia, then the richest and most flourishing city of the peninsula, and an object of cupidity to both Christian and Moslem.
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  • Whatever were his qualities as a fighter, the Cid was but indifferent material out of which to make a saint, - a man who battled against Christian and against Moslem with equal zeal, who burnt churches and mosques with equal zest, who ravaged, plundered and slew as much for a livelihood as for any patriotic or religious purpose, and was in truth almost as much of a Mussulman as a Christian in his habits and his character.
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  • He is the type of knightly virtue, the mirror of patriotic duty, the flower of all Christian grace.
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  • He immediately recalled his forced confession, and besought all Christian men " to pray for him, so that his tears might secure the pity of the Almighty."
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  • There were, however, some ardent spirits who continued to work along the old lines and whose watchword was revivalism, and out of their efforts came the Bible Christian, the Independent Methodist and the Primitive Methodist denominations.
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  • To the modern reader the importance of the Therapeutae, as of the Essenes, lies in the evidence they afford of the existence of the monastic system long before the Christian era.
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  • Eusebius was so much struck by the likeness of the Therapeutae to the Christian monks of his own day as to claim that they were Christians converted by the preaching of St Mark.
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  • Thus the pseudo-Democritus, who was reputed the author of the Physica et Mystica, which itself concludes each of its receipts with a magical formula, was believed to have travelled in Chaldaea, and to have had as his master Ostanes l the Mede, a name mentioned several times in the Leiden papyrus, and often by early Christian writers such as Tertullian, St Cyprian and St Augustine.
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  • In 754 he assembled at the palace of Hiereion 338 bishops, by whom the worship of images was forbidden as opposed to all Christian doctrine and a curse pronounced upon all those who upheld it.
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  • He was willing that the accused should be tried in the courts Christian provided that the punishment of the guilty were left to the lay power.
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  • The Parthenon, the Erechtheum, the " Theseum " and other temples were converted into Christian churches and were thus preserved throughout the middle ages.
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  • Some of its enactments are purely pagan - thus one paragraph allows the mother to kill her new-born child, and another prescribes the immolation to the gods of the defiler of their temple; others are purely Christian, such as those which prohibit incestuous marriages and working on Sunday.
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  • During his stay of a year and a half in this university, besides his classes, he found occasion to give to some companions his Spiritual Exercises in the form they had then taken and certain instructions in Christian doctrine.
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  • When he arrived near Loyola he would not go to the castle, but lived at the public hospice at Azpeitia, and began his usual life of teaching Christian doctrine and reforming morals.
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  • The new elector, Frederick Christian, dismissed him from office and caused an inquiry to be held into his administration.
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  • Gurnall is known by his Christian in Complete Armour, published in three volumes, dated 1655, 1658 and 1662.
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  • It consists of a series of sermons on the latter portion of the 6th chapter of Ephesians, and is described as a "magazine from whence the Christian is furnished with spiritual arms for the battle, helped on with his armour, and taught the use of his weapon; together with the happy issue of the whole war."
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  • Louis, $2,000,000; the Missouri athletic club, $500,000; the Railway Exchange, $3,000,000, 18 storeys, covering an entire city block; the University club, $600,- 000; the Young Women's Christian Association, $500,000; the Boatmen's bank, $750,000; the Arcade, $1,250,000; the Post-Despatch building, $500,000; the Bevo Manufacturing Company, $r,000,000.
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  • In 1529 he brought out his Oeconomia christiana (a treatise in German, on the right ordering of a Christian household) with a dedication to the duchess Sybil of Saxony and a preface by Luther.
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  • The help sought from James came only in the shape of useless embassies and negotiations; the two Palatinates were soon occupied by the Spaniards and the duke of Bavaria; and the romantic attachment and services of Duke Christian of Brunswick, of the 1st earl of Craven, and of other chivalrous young champions who were inspired by the beauty and grace of the "Queen of Hearts," as Elizabeth was now called, availed nothing.
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  • All who die within this boundary, be they Brahman or low caste, Moslem or Christian, are sure of admittance into Siva's heaven.
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  • The Danes returned to the struggle with increased forces under the command of King Christian in person, but they were again defeated - their admiral being killed and his ship taken.
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  • His last achievements were the bombardment of Algiers (1682-1683), in order to effect the deliverance of the Christian captives, and the bombardment of Genoa in 1684.
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  • The architect is said to have been a Coptic Christian who deprecated the destruction of ancient buildings to obtain columns and blocks of stone, and who undertook to design a mosque which should be built entirely in brick, which when coated with stucco and appropriate decorative designs would rival its predecessors.
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  • His manner of thinking is clear, calm and logical, and he has certainly given the most complete exposition of what may be called Christian pantheism.
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  • Moreover, if Colossians be accepted as Pauline (and among other strong reasons the unquestionable genuineness of the epistle to Philemon renders it extremely difficult not to accept it), the chief matters of this more advanced Christian thought are fully legitimated for Paul.
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  • It must further be supposed that the name and the very existence of this genius were totally forgotten in Christian circles fifty years after he wrote.
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  • Processes were devised by Guimet (1826) and by Christian Gmelin (1828), then professor of chemistry in Tubingen; but while Guimet kept his process a secret Gmelin published his, and thus became the originator of the "artificial ultramarine" industry.
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  • The oldest rectangular map of the world is contained in a most valuable work written by Cosmas, an Alexandrian monk, surnamed Indicopleustes, after returning from a voyage to India (535 A.D.), and entitled Christian Topography.
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  • Faith in the nearness of Christ's second advent and the establishing of his reign of glory on the earth was undoubtedly a strong point in the primitive Christian Church.
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  • Other ancient Christian authors were not so cautious.
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  • Nay more, the Gentile Christians took possession of them, and just in proportion as they were neglected by the Jews - who, after the war of Bar-Cochba, became indifferent to the Messianic hope and hardened themselves once more in devotion to the law - they were naturalized in the Christian communities.
    0
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  • The result was that these books became "Christian" documents; it is entirely to Christian, not to Jewish, tradition that we owe their preservation.
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  • In the interests of self-preservation against the world, the state and the heretics, the Christian communities had formed themselves into compact societies with a definite creed and constitution, and they felt that their existence was threatened by the white heat of religious subjectivity.
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  • It was the Alexandrian theology that superseded them; that is to say, NeoPlatonic mysticism triumphed over the early Christian hope of the future, first among the "cultured," and then, when the theology of the "cultured" had taken the faith of the "uncultured" under its protection, amongst the latter also.
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  • Now for the moralists chiliasm had a special significance as the one distinguishing feature of the gospel, and the only thing that gave a specifically Christian character to their system.
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  • Commodian, Victorinus Pettavensis, Lactantius and Sulpicius Severus were all pronounced millennarians, holding by the very details of the primitive Christian expectations.
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  • Victorinus wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse of John; and all these theologians, especially Lactantius, were diligent students of the ancient Sibylline oracles of Jewish and Christian origin, and treated them as divine revelations.
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  • It still lived on, however, in the lower strata of Christian society; and in certain undercurrents of tradition it was transmitted from century to .century.
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  • In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home; and in the and century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that "there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis."
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  • The great stress which they laid upon this aspect of Christian truth caused them to be charged with unbelief in the current orthodox views as to the inspiration of the Scriptures, and the person and work of Christ, a charge which they always denied.
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  • Now, however, a more logical and scholarly aspect was given to their literature by the writings of Barclay, especially his Apology for the True Christian Divinity published in Latin (1676) and in English (1678), and by the works of Penn, amongst which No Cross No Crown and the Maxims or Fruits of Solitude are the best known.
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  • Although many " General " and other meetings were held in different Period of parts of the country for the purpose of setting P Y P P g forth Quakerism, the notion that the whole Christian church would be absorbed in it, and that the Quakers were, in fact, the church, gave place to the conception that they were " a peculiar people " to whom, more than to others, had been given an understanding of the will of God.
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  • The permanent standing committee of the Society is known as the " Meeting for Sufferings " (established in 1675), which took its rise in the days when the persecution of many Friends demanded the Christian care and material help of those who were able to give it.
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  • It is noteworthy that Quaker efforts for the education of the poor and philanthropy in general, though they have always been Christian in character, have not been undertaken primarily for the purpose of bringing proselytes within the body, and have not done so to any great extent.
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  • The Book of Discipline in its successive printed editions from 1783 to 1906 contains the working rules of the organization, and also a compilation of testimonies borne by the Society at different periods, to important points of Christian truth, and often called forth by the special circumstances of the time.
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  • In the second and following centuries it was interpolated by Christian scribes, and finally condemned undiscriminatingly along with other apocryphs.
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  • For several centuries it was wholly lost sight of, and it was not till the 13th century that it was rediscovered through the agency of Robert Grosseteste, bishop of Lincoln, who translated it into Latin, under the misconception that it was a genuine work of the twelve sons of Jacob, and that the Christian interpolations were a genuine product of Jewish prophecy.
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  • The advent of the Reformation brought in critical methods, and the book was unjustly disparaged as a mere Christian forgery for nearly four centuries.
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  • The existence of these Christian elements in the text misled nearly every scholar for the past four hundred years into believing that the book itself was a Christian apocryph.
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  • Other encyclicals, such as those on Christian marriage (Arcanum divinae sapientiae, 10th February 1880), on the Rosary (Supremi apostolatus oficii, 1st September 1883, and Superiore anno, 5th September 1898), and on Freemasonry (Humanism genus, 20th April 1884), dealt with subjects on which his predecessor had been accustomed to pronounce allocutions, and were on similar lines.
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  • In the 2nd century of the Christian era we find a marked change with respect to the institution of slavery, both in the region of thought and in that of law.
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  • It is sometimes objected that the Christian church did not denounce slavery as a social crime and insist on its abolition.
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  • The latter would, indeed, be gradually affected; and accordingly we have observed a change in the policy of the law, indicating a change in sentiment with respect to the slave class, which does not appear to have been at all due to Christian teaching.
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  • This was the work open to the Christian priesthood, and it cannot be denied that it was well discharged.
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  • And its influence is to be seen in the legislation of the Christian emperors, which softened some of the harshest features that still marked the institution.
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  • A committee was formed on the 22nd of May 1787 for the abolition of the slave trade, under the presidency of Granville Sharp. It is unquestionable that the principal motive power which originated and sustained their efforts was Christian principle and feeling.
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  • The great motor of the parallel effort in England was the Christian spirit; in France it was the enthusiasm of humanity which was associated with the revolutionary movement.
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  • The South, and its partisans in the North, made desperate efforts to prevent the free expression of opinion respecting the institution, and even the Christian churches in the slave states used their influence in favour of the maintenance of slavery.
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  • Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, so now it acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government.
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  • The story of the destruction of the library by the Arabs is first told by Bar-hebraeus (Abulfaragius), a Christian writer who lived six centuries later; and it is of very doubtful authority.
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  • For him, as for Petrarch, St Augustine was the model of a Christian student.
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  • Besides the works already noticed, Ficino composed a treatise on the Christian religion, which was first given to the world in 1476, a translation into Italian of Dante's De monarchia, a life of Plato, and numerous essays on ethical and semi-philosophical subjects.
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  • Of the many prophetic and polemical works that were attributed to Joachim in the 13th and following centuries, only those enumerated in his will can be regarded as absolutely authentic. These are the Concordia novi et veteris Testamenti (first printed at Venice in 1519), the Expositio in Apocalypsin (Venice, 1527), the Psalterium decem chordarum (Venice, 1527), together with some "libelli" against the Jews or the adversaries of the Christian faith.
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  • This extension of the term to Christian burial-vaults generally dates from the 9th century, and obtained gradual currency through the Christian world.
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  • The works of Raoul Rochette display a comprehensive knowledge of the whole subject, extensive reading, and a thorough acquaintance with early Christian art so far as it could be gathered from books, but he was not an original investigator.
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  • The Catacombs of Rome are the most extensive with which we are acquainted, and, as might be expected in the centre of the Christian world, are in many respects the most remarkable.
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  • The enclosing slab very often bears one or more Christian symbols, such as the FIG.
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  • Not a few of the slabs, it is discovered, have done double duty, bearing a pagan inscription on one side and a Christian one on the other.
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  • The Christian antiquary has cause continually to lament the destruction of works of art due to this craving.
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  • The funeral-banquet descended to the Christian church from pagan times, and was too often profaned by heathen licence.
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  • In some of the catacombs, however, there are larger halls and connected suites of chapels which may possibly have been constructed for the purpose of congregational worship during the dark periods when the public exercise of the Christian religion was made penal.
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  • Without resorting to this exaggeration, Mommsen can speak with perfect truth of the " enormous space occupied by the burial vaults of Christian Rome, not surpassed even by the cloacae or sewers of Republican Rome," but the data are too vague to warrant any attempt to define their dimensions.
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  • Interment in rock-hewn tombs, " as the manner of the Jews is to bury," had been practised in Rome by the Jewish settlers for a considerable period anterior to the rise of the Christian Church.
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  • They are to be distinguished from Christian catacombs only by the character of their decorations, the absence of Christian symbols and the language of their inscriptions.
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  • Nor have we the slightest trace of any official interference with Christian burials, such as would render secrecy necessary or desirable.
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  • We may then completely dismiss the notion of there being any studied secrecy in connexion with the early Christian cemeteries, and proceed to inquire into the mode of their formation.
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  • When adjacent burial areas belonged to members of the same Christian confraternity, or by gift or purchase fell into the same hands, communications were opened between the respective cemeteries, which thus spread laterally, and gradually acquired that enormous extent which, " even when their fabulous dimensions are reduced to their right measure, form an immense work."' This could only be executed by a large and powerful Christian community unimpeded by legal enactments or police regulations, " a living witness of its immense development corresponding to the importance of the capital."
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  • Plans of them are also given by Agincourt in his great work on Christian art.
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  • The walls are in many places coated with stucco adorned with frescoes, including palms, doves, labara and other Christian symbols.
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  • Passing to Egypt, a small Christian catacomb at Alexandria is described and figured by de Rossi.'
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  • The loculi were intact and the epitaphs still in their places, so that " they form a kind of museum, in which the development, the formulae, and the symbolic figures of Christian epigraphy, from its origin to the end of the 3rd or 4th century, can be notified and contemplated, not in artificial specimens as in the Lateran, but in the genuine and living reality of their original condition."
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  • The question of his Christianity seems settled by the discovery of the sepulchre of these Christian Acilii.
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  • A flight of iron steps enables the visitor now to examine this venerable specimen of early Christian art.
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  • The college received insufficient financial support and suffered from the attacks of religious sectaries - he himself was charged with insincerity because, previously a Unitarian, he joined the Christian Connexion, by which the college was founded - but he earned the love of his students, and by his many addresses exerted a beneficial influence upon education in the Middle West.
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  • They obtained in the synagogue from time immemorial, and were used by the Christian fathers in the interpretation of Scripture.
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  • A feature of greater interest is the extraordinary part which this theosophy played in the Christian Church, especially at the time of the Renaissance.
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  • These and similar statements favouring the doctrines of the New Testament made many Kabbalists of the highest position in the synagogue embrace the Christian faith and write elaborate books to win their Jewish brethren over to Christ.
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