How to use Christendom in a sentence
He sent embassies to all the princes of Christendom and to the Moors.
Its three main objects, the peace of Christendom, the crusade and the reform of the church, could be secured only by general agreement among the powers, and Leo or the council failed to secure such agreement.
Christoph Wittich (1625-1687), professor at Duisburg and Leiden, is a representative of the moderate followers who professed to reconcile the doctrines of their school with the faith of Christendom and to refute the theology of Spinoza.
Jealous of the exclusive claims of the Roman Church, he procured a further condemnation at Rome of the "Association for the Promotion of the Unity of Christendom," which advocated prayers for the accomplishment of a kind of federal union between the Roman, Greek and Anglican Churches, and in a pastoral letter he insisted on the heretical assumption implied in such an undertaking.
For, while the power of Charlemagne's successors was decaying, the papacy itself became involved in the confusion of the party strife of Italy and of the city of Rome, and was plunged in consequence into such an abyss of degradation (the so-called Pornocracy), that it was in danger of forfeiting every shred of its moral authority over Christendom.Advertisement
The Christian powers of the Mediterranean did really combine to avert the ruin of Christendom.
Abd-ul-Hamid had always resisted the pressure of the European Powers to the last moment, in order to seem to yield only to overwhelming force, while posing as the champion of Islam against aggressive Christendom.
He believed in the spiritual and unseen rather than in the outward and visible unity of Christendom.
He was not, however, charged with direct heresy, as were Nestorius and Dioscorus, and the synod seems to have hesitated to deal stringently with the primate of Christendom.
The fathers of the first six or seven centuries, so far as they agree, may be fairly taken to represent the main stream of Christian tradition and belief during the period when the apostolic teaching took shape in the great creeds and dogmatic decisions of Christendom.Advertisement
This idea is repeated in Ambrose and Augustine, and has since been a dominant idea of both Eastern and Western Christendom.
He submitted to the opinion of the episcopate in the various parts of Christendom the divergence between the Easter usage of Rome and that of the bishops of Asia.
That province was the only portion of Christendom which still adhered to the Jewish usage, and Victor demanded that all should adopt the usage prevailing at Rome.
Like the other two orders, the Teutonic Order began as a charitable society, developed into a military club, and ended as something of a chartered company, exercising rights of sovereignty on the troubled confines of Christendom.
But he entered into no diplomatic compromises; it was his deepest and most solemn conviction that the sacredoracles of Christendom embraced all the ideals of antiquity.Advertisement
To the scandal of Christendom, Venice at once entered into treaty with the new masters of Syria and obtained a confirmation of her ancient trading rights.
See P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, i.
In 1802 he published Reflections upon the State of Religion in Christendom, in which he attempted to explain and illustrate the mysterious foreshadowings of the Apocalypse.
The new learning in religion had divided Christendom; the old learning of the faith, once delivered to the saints, was to reconcile them.
It illustrates Marino Sanuto's Secreta fidelium crucis, in which its author vainly appeals to Christendom to undertake another crusade.Advertisement
Among more eminent Genoese cartographers are Joannes da Carignano 1344), Petrus Vesconte, who worked in 1311 and 1327, and is the draughtsman of the maps illustrating Marino Sanuto's Liber secretorum fidelium crucis, which was to have roused Christendom to engage in another crusade (figs.
But even here certain positions were agreed on in large sections of Christendom.
Such were the letters on the study of Holy Scripture (18th November 1893), and on the reunion of Christendom (20th June 1894).
The schism between Eastern and Western Christendom left Bosnia divided between the Greek and Latin Churches.
The execution of the patriarch Gregorios, as technically responsible for the revolt, was an outrage to all Christendom; and it led at once to a breach of diplomatic relations with Russia.Advertisement
It was the religious capital of all Islam, and the political capital of the greater part of it, at a time when Islam bore the same relation to civilization which Christendom does to-day.
The university of Paris, with its scholars of all nations numbered by thousands, was a symbol of the intellectual unity of Christendom; a.nd in the university of Paris, it may almost be said, Scholasticism was reared and flourished and died.
In pursuance of the same object, he identified himself with a series of remarkable peace congresses - international assemblies designed to unite the intelligence and philanthropy of the nations of Christendom in a league against war - which from 1848 to 1851 were held successively in Brussels, Paris, Frankfort, London, Manchester and Edinburgh.
Not till 1409 could Sigismund be said to be king in his own realm, yet in 1413 we find him traversing Europe in his endeavour to terminate the Great Schism, as the first step towards uniting Christendom once more against the Turk.
Only after his death did the Ottoman empire become a menace to Christendom.
The first successful attempt to revive the study of algebra in Christendom was due to Leonardo of Pisa, an Italian merchant trading in the Mediterranean.
This is the Catholic view, common to all the ancient Churches whether of the West or East, and it is one that necessarily excludes from the union of Christendom all those Christian communities which possess no such apostolically derived ministry.
For details on the liturgical use of the Psalter in Christendom the reader may refer to Smith's Diet.
Barbarossa; its main object being to repair the direct or indirect injuries which the schism had inflicted on the life of the church and to display to Christendom the power of the see of Rome.
Prelates assembled from every country in Christendom, and with them the deputies of numerous princes.
The first is quite free from Nestorian influence, dates from some remote period, perhaps prior to 431, and is certainly the most ancient of those now in use in Christendom; the other two, though early, are undoubtedly of later date.
His later hero was the emperor Nicholas, "the only statesman in Christendom," - as unlucky a judgment as that which placed Dr Francia in the Comtist Calendar.
On the one hand there were during the middle ages sects, like the Catharists and Albigenses, whose "opposition as a rule developed itself from dualistic or pantheistic premises (surviving effects of old Gnostic or Manichaean views)" and who "stood outside of ordinary Christendom, and while no doubt affecting many individual members within it, had no influence on church doctrine."
Holding a doctrine of " conditional immortality," they believe that they alone have the true exegesis of Scripture, and that the " faith of Christendom" is" compounded of the fables predicted by Paul."
When Montanus proposed to summon all true Christians to Pepuza, in order to live a holy life and prepare for the day of the Lord, there was nothing whatever to prevent the execution of his plan except the inertia and lukewarmness of Christendom.
For nine years he remained pope, although he never went to Rome and one-half of Christendom regarded him as an anti-pope.
The Christian Creed and the Greeds of Christendom, p. 181.
The last but one of the Grand Masters who reigned in Malta, de Rohan, restored good government, abated abuses and promulgated a code of laws; but the ascendancy acquired by the Inquisition over the Order, the confiscation of the property of the knights in France on the outbreak of the Revolution, and the intrigues of the French made the task of regenerating the Order evidently hopeless in the changed conditions of Christendom.
If, then, an Egyptian inscription of the XIXth dynasty had come to hand in which the names of Joseph and Moses, and the deeds of the Israelites as a subject people who finally escaped from bondage by crossing the Red Sea, were recorded in hieroglyphic characters, such a monument would have been hailed with enthusiastic delight by every champion of the Pentateuch, and a wave of supreme satisfaction would have passed over all Christendom.
In Eastern Christendom the Greek word Xetrovpyia is used in this sense exclusively.
Christendom would welcome gladly the intelligence of a counterpoise arising so unexpectedly to the Mahommedan power; while the statements of the letter itself combined a reference to and corroboration of all the romantic figments concerning Asia which already fed the curiosity of Europe, which figured in the world-maps, and filled that fabulous history of Alexander which for nearly a thousand years supplanted the real history of the Macedonian throughout Europe and western Asia.
The delusion was dissipated slowly, and even after the great Tatar invasion and devastation of eastern Europe its effects still influenced the mind of Christendom and caused popes and kings to send missions to the Tatar hordes with a lingering feeling that their khans, if not already Christians, were at least always on the verge of conversion.
Nothing is more likely than that the princes of the "Christian families" who had got possession of the throne of northern Abyssinia should have wished to strengthen themselves by a connexion with European Christendom, and to establish relations with Jerusalem, then in Christian hands.
The pope claimed the right to tax church property throughout Christendom.
Western Christendom had now two papal courts to support.
The idea of the supreme power on earth of a general council of Christendom, deliberating in the name of the Holy Spirit, convoked, if necessary, independently of the popes, was defended by many, and advocated by the university of Paris.
The edict of Worms was entirely in harmony with the laws of Western Christendom, and there were few among the governing classes in Germany at that time who really understood or approved Luther's fundamental ideas; nevertheless - if we except the elector of Brandenburg, George of Saxony, the dukes of Bavaria, and Charles V.'s brother Ferdinand - the princes, including the ecclesiastical rulers and the towns, commonly neglected to publish the edict, much less to enforce it.
As the result of their missionary enterprises the Benedictines penetrated into all these lands and established monasteries, so that by the 10th or 1 1th century Benedictine houses existed in great numbers throughout the whole of Latin Christendom except Ireland.
Those jurists often justified the plenitudo potestatis conceded to the emperor by the fact that he stood at the head of Christendom.
The cause of Greece was now that of Christendom, of the Catholic and Protestant West, as of the Orthodox East.
In Jerusalem the new movement had its centre, and the church established there is rightly known as the mother church of Christendom.
But unity was carried much further than this, and finally resulted in at least a nominal consolidation of all the churches of Christendom into one whole.
Thus in various ways the feeling of unity found expression, and the development of widely separated parts of Christendom conformed more or less closely to a common type.
To the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Antioch and Alexandria was added at the council of Chalcedon (session 7) the bishop of Jerusalem, the mother church of Christendom, and the bishops thus recognized as possessing supreme jurisdiction were finally known as patriarchs.
The greater part of Nestorian Christendom was now swallowed up by Islam, so that only remnants of this once extensive church have survived until modern times.
On the continent an extension of the Frankish supremacy towards the east had already led to the advance of Christendom.
The whole progress of Christianity in Europe from the 9th to the 12th century was due - if we exclude Eastern Christendom - to the Teutonic nations; neither the papacy nor the peoples of Latin race were concerned in it.
It led the Romance nations to battle for Christendom.
In the autumn of 1096 the nobles of France and Italy, joined by the Norman barons of England and Sicily, set out to wrest the Holy Land from the unbelievers; and for more than a century the cry, " Christ's land must be won for Christ," exercised an unparalleled power in Western Christendom.
Their ideal was a return to that simplicity of primitive Christendom which they believed they found revealed in the New Testament and in the writings of the early Fathers.
This was all the more significant because Western Christendom in the 15th century was by no means irreligious.
Eugenius certainly owed his success merely to the political necessities of the emperor of the East, and his union was forthwith destroyed owing to its repudiation by oriental Christendom; yet at the same time his decretals of union were not devoid of importance, for in them the pope reaffirmed the scholastic doctrine regarding the sacraments as a dogma of the Church, and he spoke as the supreme head of all Christendom.
The actual divisions of Western Christendom are the outcome, less of the purely religious influences of the Reformation period than of the political forces with which they were associated and confused.
It was not, indeed, till the settlement of Westphalia in 1648, after the Thirty Years' War, that this territorial division of Christendom became stereotyped, but the process had been going on for a hundred years previously; in some states, as in England and Scotland, it had long been completed; in others, as in South Germany, Bohemia and Poland, it was defeated by the political and missionary efforts of the Jesuits and other agents of the counter-Reformation.
Considered from the standpoint of the world outside, the Roman Church is, no less than the Protestant communities, merely one of the sects into which Western Christendom has been divided - the most important and widespread, it is true, but playing in the general life and thought of the world a part immeasurably less important than that filled by the Church before the Reformation, and one in no sense justifying her claim to be considered as the sole inheritor of the tradition of the pre-Reformation Church.
The influence of the Hebrew priesthood on the thought and organization of Christendom was the influence not of a living institution, for it hardly began till after the fall of the Temple, but of the theory embodied in the later parts of the Pentateuch.
The Republic was never, indeed, the "Buckler of Christendom."
Moreover, the Turks and Tatars being the natural enemies of Christendom, a war of extermination The Cossacks.
Primarily a warrior with a strong taste for heroic adventure, John Albert desired to pose as the champion of Christendom against the Turks.
This object has engaged the attention of the leaders of Christendom from early times.
Messages of congratulation came from the rulers of every Protestant nation in Christendom, and a centenary thanksgiving fund of 250,000 guineas was raised for extending the society's work.
In it he depicts the struggle of Christendom with paganism under the allegory of a struggle between the Christian virtues and the pagan vices.
See Ehrenfeuchter, Geschichte des Katechismus (187); P. Schaff, History of the Creeds of Christendom (3 vols., 1876-1877); Mitchell, Catechisms of the Second Reformation (1887); C. Achelis, Lehrbuch der prakt.
The popular hatred of Judas has found strange symbolical expression in various parts of Christendom.
How, with this pope's support throughout his long reign, the gradual filling of nearly all the sees of Latin Christendom with bishops of their own selection, and their practical capture, directly or indirectly, of the education of the clergy in seminaries, they contrived to stamp out the last remains of independence everywhere, and to crown the Ultramontane triumph with the Vatican Decrees, is matter of familiar knowledge.
In spite of the rejection of the ascetic attitude of the Gnostics, as a blasphemy against the Creator, a part of this ascetic principle became at a later date dominant throughout all Christendom.
Thus the Revised Version was the achievement of English-speaking Christendom as a whole; only the Roman Catholic Church, of the great English-speaking denominations, refused to take part in the undertaking.
The Eucharist formed part of an agape or love feast until the end of the 2nd century, and in parts of Christendom continued to be so much later.
The words "confirm" and "confirmation" are not used in the Bible in this technical sense, which has only grown up since the 5th century, and only in the Western churches of Christendom and in their offshoots, but the rite itself has been practised in the Church from the beginning.
The Amphictyonic Council represented Greece as an ecclesiastical synod represented western Christendom.
Hooker, who speaks of Jewel as "the worthiest divine that Christendom bath bred for some hundreds of years," was one of the boys whom Jewel prepared in his house for the university; and his Ecclesiastical Polity owes much to Jewel's training.
These things represent the ideal of Christendom.
Is the authority of the church manifested in the decisions which a local church arrives at by a majority of votes, or in the decisions of apostles and prophets after taking counsel, of the episcopate in later times, ratified by common consent of Christendom?
But the divisions of Christendom testify to the harm done by undue insistence on the claims of the individual to gain scope to extend the kingdom in his own way.
In the 2nd century all Christendom flocked to Rome; there was a constant stream of people - bishops from distant parts, apologists or heresiarchs.
This dissidence Islam was to complete, and by actually suppressing the patriarchate of Jerusalem to reduce Byzantine Christendom to the two patriarchates of Rome and Constantinople.
Europe was being split up under the influence of feudalism; Christendom was assailed by the barbarians, Norsemen, Saracens and Huns; at Rome the papacy was passing into the power of the local aristocracy, with whom after Otto I.
In Eastern Christendom the papacy was at this period an almost forgotten institution, whose pretensions were always Schism of met by the combined opposition of the imperial East and authority, which was still preponderant in the West.
From all points of view, both religious and political, the pope was thus the greatest man of the West, the ideal head of all Christendom.
The example of Nicholas I., two centuries before, had shown the position which a pope could occupy in Christendom; but for a long time past the man had come short of the institution, the workman of his tool.
This struggle between spiritual and secular powers, owing to the tremendous sensation which it created throughout Christendom, showed the nations that at the head of the Church there was a great force for justice, always able to combat iniquity and oppression, and sometimes to defeat them, however powerful the evil and the tyrants might seem.
This doctrine gradually rallied all moderate minds, and finally inspired the directors of Christendom in Rome itself.
When the universal Church assembled at the second Lateran Council (1139), this leader of religion declared to the bishops that he was the absolute master of Christendom.
Perforce thou must consult before everything the general interest of Christendom, and must consider it an obligation of thine office to respect the opinions of the highest dignitaries of the court of Rome."
Besides making laws for the Christendom of the present and the future, these popes employed themselves in giving a more regular form to their principal administrative organ, the offices of the Curia.
In short, it was in the sphere of French interests much more than in that of the general interests of Latin Christendom that the activities of these popes were exerted.
Subsequently they were represented by the apostolic notaries, who were charged to exercise throughout Christendom the gracious jurisdiction of the leaders of the Church and to preside over the mosit important acts in the private lives of the faithful.
The short reign of the Spaniard, Alphonso de Borgia, as Pope Calixtus III., is almost completely filled by his heroic lll., efforts to arm Christendom for the common defence Calixtus 1455-1458.
There was hardly a sovereign or a government in Christendom against which Pius IX.
The ties with Greek official Christendom were snapped for ever, and in subsequent ages the doctrinal preferences of the Armenians were usually determined more by antagonism to the Greeks than by reflection.
And in their indifference to the distinctions of race and nationality they merely accommodated themselves to the spirit which had become characteristic of chivalry itself, already recognized, like the church, as a universal institution which knit together the whole warrior caste of Christendom into one great fraternity irrespective alike of feudal subordination and territorial boundaries.
Orders may, again, be grouped according as they are (r) Prime Orders Of Christendom, conferred upon an exclusive class only.
Having for some time learnt to be aggressive, she girded herself for the difficult work of teaching the nations a higher faith than a savage form of nature-worship, and of fitting them to become members of an enlightened Christendom.
It seemed then as if every pore of life were choked, and Christendom must be stifled and smothered in the fatal embrace."
The mention of the order of the Teutonic Knights reminds us how the crusading spirit had affected Christendom.
Then, less than five months afterwards, David Livingstone died at Ilala; and no event of the whole century did so much to wake up Protestant Christendom.
With all its deficiencies, the Christian church has gained the " nations of the future," and whereas in the 3rd century the proportion of Christians to the whole human race was only that of one in a hundred and fifty, this has now been exchanged for one in three, and it is indisputable that the progress of the human race at this moment is identified with the spread of the influence of the nations of Christendom.
The one discouraging feature, from the Christian point of view, is the backwardness of Christendom in its great enterprise.
After routing the chivalry of Christendom at the battle of Nikopoli in 1396, he pursued his victorious career in Greece, and Constantinople would doubtless have fallen before his attack, had not the emperor Manuel Palaeologus bought him off by timely concessions which reduced him practically to the position of Bayezid's vassal.
Charles VII., who in spite of the efforts of the cardinal of Ste-Croix and the conferences held by him at Auxerre and Semur had hitherto refused to return to France, finally decided to take part in the conferences which were opened at St Vaast d'Arras on the 6th of August 1435, and to which the whole of Christendom attached very high importance, all the princes of Europe and the pope and the council of Basel being represented.
It was the age of the great schism, three popes claiming the allegiance of Christendom, and of the councils of Constance and of Basel; in all ranks of the Church there was an urgent cry for reform.
He fully realized the special position of the English Church in Christendom, and firmly maintained its essential teaching.
This paved the way for the Turkish invasion of Europe, which proved an unmixed calamity for all Christendom, Venice included.
In the later stage of the strife it has been the battle-field of Christendom and Islam.
The older religious differences were small compared with the strife for life and death between Christendom and Islam.
Syracuse was for fifty years, not only, as of old, the bulwark of Europe, but the bulwark of Christendom.
A few years later, Otho the Great, the restorer of the Western empire, looked to Sicily as a land to be won back for Christendom.
Greek and Arabic were antiquated, or at least isolated, in a land which Norman conquest had made part of western Europe and Latin Christendom.
In the last years of his pontificate he was busied with preparations for a crusade and for the reunion of Christendom, and sent to Constantinople the celebrated Carmelite monk, Peter Thomas, to negotiate with the claimants to the Greek throne.
The pope bitterly felt this catastrophe as a double blow to Christendom and to Greek letters.
The headship of Christendom was in his grasp, and schemes for a new crusade began to take shape.
His ideal was founded consciously on the models of Arthur and Godfrey as national king and leader of Christendom.
Margaret, in fact, completed the reduction of the Celtic church in Scotland to conformity with western Christendom, and some recent presbyterian writers have not forgiven her.
Certain obscure religious usages, as regards Lent, the Communion, the non-observance of Sunday, non-communicating at Easter, and the Forbidden Degrees in marriage, were brought into conformity with western Christendom.
And the sympathy of Christendom soon led them beyond this immediate circle.
The martyrs were the local heroes of particular communities; but there were men whose life and death were of significance for the whole of Christendom - the apostles.
Clement XI., by bull of the 3rd of October 1716, directed the observance of the feast by all Christendom.
This brief sketch may be taken as the prototype of viking invasion of any region of western Christendom which was the object of their continuous attacks.
He had all the spirit of adventure of a Drake or a Hawkins, all the trained valour of reliance upon his comrades that mark a soldiery fighting a militia " (The Vikings in Western Christendom, p. 1 43).
This version of the figure of Antichrist, who may now really for the first time be described by this name, appears to have been at once widely accepted in Christendom.
At Basel he did much laborious work for Froben's editions, and came to the conclusion that the Church taught many doctrines of which the early doctors of Christendom knew.
The great fame of George, who is reverenced alike by Eastern and Western Christendom and by Mahommedans, is due to many causes.
Thus he had to condemn the Association for the Promotion of the Unity of Christendom, with which he had shown some sympathy in its inception in 1857; and to forbid Catholic parents to send their sons to Oxford or Cambridge, though at an earlier date he had hoped (with Newman) that at Oxford at least a college or hall might be assigned to them.
He was Boyle lecturer in 1866-1867 ("Christ and Christendom"), and Grinfield lecturer on the Septuagint at Oxford 1872-1874.
Though he cannot be said to have been eminently fitted for the task that devolved upon him in such a crisis, most of the criticism of his 2 The first law of its kind in Christendom, although not the earliest practice of such liberty in America.
Early in his term he carried out a policy he had urged upon the government when minister to France and when vice-president, by dispatching naval forces to coerce Tripoli into a decent respect for the trade of his country - the first in Christendom to gain honourable immunity from tribute or piracy in the Mediterranean.
When the ring of St Zanobius and the blood of Cape Verde turtles gave him no relief from his last illness, he showered gifts upon his patron saints, secured for his own benefit the masses of his clergy, and the most potent prayers in Christendom, those of the two most effective saints of his day, Bernardin of Doulins and Francis of Paolo.
Finally, through Luther, the explosion came, and western Christendom broke into two parts - Catholic and Protestant.
In religious history - to be distinguished from that of the political organization referred to above as the papal monarchy - the official recognition of the Christian Church by Galerius in 311 serves as a convenient starting-point for what we know as universal Christendom, though the slow disappearance of paganism, as distinct from Christianity, stretches over at least a century more.
The new synthesis reveals a universal decline from the 5th to the 10th centuries, while the Germanic races were learning the rudiments of culture, a decline that was deepened by each succeeding wave of migration, each tribal war of Franks or Saxons, and reached its climax in the disorders of the 9th and 10th centuries when the half-formed civilization of Christendom was forced to face the migration of the Northmen by sea, the raids of the Saracen upon the south and the onslaught of Hungarians and Sla y s upon the east.
Henry the Fowler beats back the Sla y s and places the outposts of Christendom along the Elbe and the Oder.
On the ruins of a medieval Christendom, hierarchically organized under the pope, grew up the " new mon archy, " or modern state, owning no law but its New own will.
The ideas of universal monarchy and of indivisible Christendom, incorporated in the Holy Roman Empire and the Roman Church, had so far lost their hold that scope was offered for the introduction of new theories both of state and church which would have seemed visionary or impious to the medieval mind.
Thus, while Christendom was still preoccupied with the Crusades, two main forces of the Renaissance, naturalism and enthusiasm for antique modes of feeling, already brought their latent potency to light, prematurely indeed and precociously, yet with a promise that was destined to be kept.
The church saw no danger in encouraging a pseudo-pagan ideal of life, violating its own principle of existence by assuming the policy of an aggrandizing secular state, and outraging Christendom openly by its acts and utterances.
This success excited great enthusiasm and led to the diffusion of the order all over Western Christendom.
It was formerly supposed that certain Notes on the State of Christendom, usually printed in his works, contain the results of his observations, but Spedding has shown that there is no reason for ascribing these Notes to him, and that they may be attributed with more probability to one of his brother Anthony's correspondents.
In the East, however, this and other forms of asceticism have always flourished more freely; and the Buddhist monastic system is not only far older than that of Christendom, but also proportionately more extensive.
In fact, the great aim of his life was to reconcile Christendom by removing all unimportant differences.
His undertaking thus resolved itself into a reformation of Christendom.
This reformation was to deliver Christendom from false Jewish doctrines by restoring the Pauline conception of the gospel, - Paul being, according to Marcion, the only apostle who had.
In Marcion's own view, therefore, the founding of his church - to which he was first driven by opposition - amounts to a reformation of Christendom through a return to the gospel of Christ and to Paul; nothing was to be accepted beyond that.
From Rome the Ember days gradually spread through the whole of Western Christendom.
In later times the custom arose of consecrating bishops for this purpose, or merely as an honorary distinction, with a title derived from some place once included within, but now beyond the bounds of Christendom.
Berlin, until the last half of the 19th century, was in respect of its churches probably the poorest of the capitals -of Christendom, and the number of worshippers on an average Sunday was then less than 2% of the population.
But the establishment of the Frank kingdom, and still more the re-establishment of the Christian empire as the source of law and jurisdiction in Christendom, had momentous influence on the history of the Italianized Lombards.
The great dogmatic work of the Eastern Church was the definition of that portion of the creed of Christendom which concerns theology proper - the doctrines of the essential nature of the Godhead, and the doctrine of the God head in relation with manhood in the incarnation, while it fell to the Western Church to define anthropology, or the doctrine of man's nature and needs.
Some of the Reformers, notably Melanchthon, expected to effect a reunion of Christendom by means of the Easterns, cherishing the same hopes as the modern Old Catholic divines and their English sympathizers.
From the earliest times the Bulgarians had occupied an anomalous position on the borders of Eastern and Western Christendom, but they had ultimately become subject to Constantinople.
Undoubtedly the question of the most pressing importance with regard to the future of Eastern Christendom is the relation between Russia and Constantinople.
It is sufficient to say that there is absolutely nothing within the covers of Rabelais's works incompatible with an orthodoxy which would be recognized as sufficient by Christendom at large, leaving out of the question those points of doctrine and practice on which Christians differ.
At last Goth and Roman had to join together against the common enemy of Europe and Christendom, Attila the Hun.
By the terms of their subjection to the Huns, the East Goths came to fight for Attila against Christendom at Chalons, just as the Servians came to fight for Bajazet against Christendom at Nicopolis.
It was this story that gave Christopher his immense popularity throughout Western Christendom.
Avignon was therefore the centre of that varied society which the high pontiffs of Christendom have ever gathered round them.
Then over against this civitas terrena he sets the divine city which is to be realized in Christendom.
In spite of the fact that the Church of England is collectively one of the wealthiest in Christendom, a large proportion of the " livings " are extremely poor.
Leonardo's "Last Supper," for all its injuries, became from the first, and has ever since remained, for all Christendom the typical representation of the scene.
More jurist than theologian, John defended the rights of the papacy with rigorous zeal and as rigorous logic. For the restoration of the papacy to its old independence, which had been so gravely compromised under his immediate predecessors, and for the execution of the vast enterprises which the papacy deemed useful for its prestige and for Christendom, considerable sums were required; and to raise the necessary money John burdened Christian Europe with new taxes and a complicated fiscal system, which was fraught with serious consequences.
Thus the sectaries no less than the Mendicant orders bear witness to the existence of spiritual needs in Western Christendom, which the Mendicant orders went a long way towards satisfying.
Allies was one of the ablest of the English churchmen who joined the Church of Rome in the early period of the Oxford movement, his chief work, The Formation of Christendom (London, 8 vols., 1865-1895) showing much originality of thought and historical knowledge.
Lord Brougham, in delivering the judgment, speaks of the " common law prevailing for 1400 years over Christian Europe," and (p. 137) says that " nothing but express enactment can abrogate the common law of all Christendom before the Reformation of the Anglican Church."
Later canons continued this restriction; and although in outlying parts of Christendom deacons claimed the right, the official churches accorded it to presbyters alone and none but bishops could perform the confirmation or seal.
In Jerusalem, therefore, whither believers flocked from all over Christendom to be buried, the official point of view as late as A.D.
The change came more quickly in Latin than in Greek Christendom, and very slowly indeed in the Armenian and Georgian churches.
As such it became the centre of that strife between Europe and Africa, between Aryan and Semitic man, in its later stages between Christendom and Islam, which forms the great interest of Sicilian history.
In the same century at Rome and at Constantinople we hear of "penitentiaries," that is priests appointed to act for the bishop in hearing the confession of sins, and deciding whether public discipline was necessary and, if it was, on its duration; in other words they prepared the penitents for solemn reconciliation by the bishop. A scandal at Constantinople in 391 led to the suppression in that city not only of the office of penitentiary, but practically of public exomologesis also, and that seemingly in Eastern Christendom generally, so that the individual was left to assess his own penance, and to present himself for communion at his own discretion.
In a few years the English church became the pride of Western Christendom.
The period when the English kingdoms began to enter into the commonwealth of Christendom, by receiving the Formation missionaries sent out from Rome or from lona, practikingdoms. cally coincides with the period in which the occupation of central Britain was completed, and the kingdoms of the conquerors assumed their final size and shape.
But in the earlier years of their struggles with Christendom the vikings seldom suffered a complete disaster; they were often beaten but seldom annihilated.
But there was a danger behind this revival; for the reformers of the 11th century, in their zeal for establishing the Kingdom of God on earth, were not content with raising the moral and intellectual standards prevailing in Christendom, but sought to bring the whole scheme of life under the church, by asserting the absolute supremacy of the spiritual over the temporal power, wherever the two came in contact or overlapped.
Several bishops declared to the king that, since his ministers had been duly excommunicated, they did not see how they could avoid regarding them as men placed outside the pale of Christendom.
The Holy See had always regarded with distaste the existence in the West of a nation who repudiated the Roman obedience, and lived in schismatical independence, under local ecclesiastical customs which dated back to the 5th century, and had never been brought into line with those of the rest of Christendom.
Occasionally his views grew yet widerhe would knit up alliances all over Christendom and dominate the West.
The English deputation lent their aid to Sigismund at the council of Constance, when Christendom was at last reunited under a single head, though all the reforms which were to have accompanied the reunion were postponed, and ultimately avoided altogether, by the restored papacy.
Charles was also distracted by many stabs in the back from the Ottoman Turks, who were just beginning their attack on Christendom along the line of the Danube.
Primarily intended for the hereditary dominions of Maximilian, these bodies were also intended for the whole Empire; and the Hofrat was to deal with "all and every business which may flow in from the Empire, Christendom at large, or the king's hereditary principalities."
Pufendorf powerfully defends the idea that international law is not restricted to Christendom, but constitutes a common bond between all nations because all nations form part of humanity.
It was not possible that this brilliant tour de force should become the theology of Christendom.
Western Christendom wishes to call Christ God; even the Ritschlian school uses the wonted language in the light of its own definitions.
On the north side of the Augustaion rose the church of St Sophia, the most glorious cathedral of Eastern Christendom; opposite, on the southern side of the square, was the Chalce, the great gate of the imperial palace; on the east was the senate house, with a porch of six noble columns; to the west, across the Mese, were the law courts.
As the seat of the chief prelate of Eastern Christendom, Constantinople was characterized by a strong theological and ecclesiastical temperament.
Gradually there came to be facing each other a great political Christendom, whose rulers were statesmen, with aims and policy of a worldly type, and a religious Christendom, full of the ideas of separation from the world by self-sacrifice and of participation in the benefits of Christ's work by an ascetic imitation.
The status and functions of the office have varied in different ages and in different branches of Christendom.
The purpose of this was to conclude an anti-Moslem alliance, especially against the Mameluke power, with the chief states of Christendom.
On returning to Rome, he was cordially received by the newly elected pontiff Nicolas IV., who gave him communion on Palm Sunday, 1288, allowed him to celebrate his own Eucharist in the capital of Latin Christendom, commissioned him to visit the Christians of the East, and entrusted to him the tiara which he presented to Mar Yaballaha.
This juridical method descended naturally from the Jewish theocracy, of which Christendom was a universalization.
And though such antinomianism has always been sternly repudiated by the moral consciousness of Christendom, it has never been forgotten that " inwardness," rightness of heart or spirit, is the preeminent characteristic of Christian goodness.
The common sense of Christendom gradually shook off these extravagances; but the reluctance to shed blood lingered long, and was hardly extinguished even by the growing horror of heresy.
P Y g Changes in the external condition of Christianity, the different degrees of civilization in the societies of which it was the dominant religion, and the natural g process of internal development, continually brought different features into prominence; while again, the important antagonisms of opinion within Christendom frequently involved ethical issues - even in the Eastern Church - until in the 4th century it began to be absorbed in the labour of a dogmatic construction.
When, however, it is remembered that the unanimous decision of the Swiss churches and of the Swiss state governments was that Servetus deserved to die; that the general voice of Christendom was in favour of this; that even such a man as Melanchthon affirmed the justice of the sentence; 3 that an eminent English divine of the next age should declare the process against him "just and honourable," 4 and that only a few voices here and there were at the time raised against it, many will be ready to accept the judgment of Coleridge, that the death of Servetus was not "Calvin's guilt especially, but the common opprobrium of all European Christendom."
He died in April 1509, undoubtedly the richest prince in Christendom.
Descended as he was from Arnuif, bishop of Metz, he was before all things a churchman, and behind his armies marched the missionaries to whom the Carolingian dynasty, of which he was the founder, were to subject all Christendom.
When Odo, brought to bay, appealed for help to the Arab troops of Abd-arRahman, who after conquering Spain had crossed the Pyrenees, Charles, like a second Clovis, saved Catholic Christendom in its peril by crushing the Arabs at Tours (732).
On the other hand, he came to represent those aspects of Peripateticism most alien to the spirit of Christendom; and the deeply religious Moslem gave his name to the anti-sacerdotal party, to the materialists, sceptics and atheists, who defied or undermined the dominant beliefs of the church.
By his interpreters it was transformed into a theory of one soul common to all mankind, and when thus corrupted conflicted not unreasonably with the doctrines of a future life, common to Islam and Christendom.
There are many confraternities established in his honour throughout Christendom, and the number of "pious" biographies devoted to him would fill many volumes.
The conception of God as wholly external to man, a purely mechanical theory of the creation, is throughout Christendom regarded as false to the teaching of the New Testament as also to Christian experience.
The Rota was the supreme court of Christendom.
These victories made Hunyadi's name terrible to the Turks and renowned throughout Christendom, and stimulated him in 1443 to undertake, along with King Wladislaus, the famous expedition known as the hosszu hdboru or "long campaign."
Their diffusion into several countries of Christendom disturbed Pope Honorius IV., who in 1286 ordered them to adhere to an already recognized rule.
In this century, indeed, the main strength of the pirates was supplied by renegades from all parts of Christendom.
Playfair's Scourge of Christendom (London, 1884) gives the history of the British consulate in Algiers.
At the very time (December 1516) that peace between France, Spain, Venice and the Empire seemed to give some promise of a Christendom united against the Turk, Leo was preparing an enterprise as unscrupulous as any of the similar exploits of Cesare Borgia.
A truce was to be proclaimed throughout Christendom; the pope was to be the arbiter of disputes; the emperor and the king of France were to lead the army; England, Spain and Portugal were to furnish the fleet; and the combined forces were to be directed against Constantinople.
As pope, he addressed a fruitless summons to Christendom to unite in a crusade against the infidels, and concluded in 1489 a treaty with Bayezid II., agreeing in consideration of an annual payment of 40,000 ducats and the gift of the Holy Lance, to detain the sultan's fugitive brother Jem in close confinement in the Vatican.
The respective relations of pope and emperor, ill-defined in the compact between Charles the Great and Leo III., were brought in question, and Che two chief potentates -of Christendom, no longer tacitly concordant, stood against each other in irreconcilable rivalry.
Still the Great Schism, which now distracted Western Christendom, so enfeebled the papacy, and kept the Roman pontiffs so engaged in ecclesiastical disputes, that they had neither power nor leisure to occupy themselves seriously with their temporal affairs.
In both cases, as it seems, an attempt was made by the bishop of Rome to depose the erring patriarch by his authority as primate of Christendom, acting in concert with a Western synod.
To complete her misfortunes, the European powers, the church and the small states of Italy, partly from jealous greed of her possessions, partly on the plea of her treason to Christendom in making terms with Islam, partly from fear of her expansion in north Italy, coalesced at Cambrai in 1508 for the partition of Venetian possessions.
Constantine Palaeologus, the last occupant of the imperial throne, took every measure that the courage of despair could devise for the defence of the doomed city; but his appeal to the pope for the aid of Western Christendom was frustrated through the bigoted, anti-Catholic spirit of the Greeks.
A domestic rebellion (1387-1395) prevented him at the outset from executing his design till 1396, and if the hopes of Christendom were shattered at Nicopolis, the failure was due to no fault of his, but to the haughty insubordination of the feudal levies.
Undismayed by personal danger, Savonarola resolved to appeal to all Christendom against the unrighteous pontiff, and despatched letters to the rulers of Europe adjuring them to assemble a council to condemn this antipope.
At the close of the reign of Antoninus Pius - probably in the year 156 (Epiphanius) - Montanus appeared at Ardabau in Mysia, near the Phrygian border, bringing revelations of the "Spirit" to Christendom.
This form of organization ultimately became universal, and already before the end of the 2nd century it was established in all the parts of Christendom with which we are acquainted, though in Egypt it seems to have been the exception rather than the rule, and even as late as the middle of the 3rd century many churches there were governed by a plurality of officers instead of by a single head (see Harnack, Mission and Ausbreitung des Christenthums, pp. 337 seq.).
In England it had not been possible to bring the old British and the young Anglo-Saxon churches into friendly union; but in spite of this the Celts did not abstain from working at the common tasks of Christendom, and the continent has much to thank them for.
It is more particularly in the part of this programme that relates to the internal policy of the papacy, to the subjection of the Church to the Curia, and to the intensive concentration of the ecclesiastical forces in the hands of the leader of Christendom, that Gregory went farthest in the execution of his plan and approached nearest the goal.
In the registers of these popes, which are now being actively investigated and published, dispensations (licences to violate the laws of the Church); indulgences; imposts levied with increasing regularity on universal Christendom and, in particular, on the clerks; the settlement of questions relating to church debts; the granting of lucrative benefices to Roman functionaries; the divers processes by which the Curia acquired the immediate disposal of monastic, capitulary and episcopal revenues - in short, all financial matters are of the first importance.
Robert assumed the style of Clement VII.; and thus Christendom was brought face to face with the worst misfortune conceivable - the Great Schism (1378-1417).
In his Guesses at the Riddle of Existence (1897), he abandons the faith in Christianity expressed in his lecture of 1861 on Historical Progress (where he forecast the speedy reunion of Christendom on the "basis of free conviction"), and writes in a spirit "not of Agnosticism, if Agnosticism imports despair of spiritual truth, but of free and hopeful inquiry, the way for which it is necessary to clear by removing the wreck of that upon which we can found our faith no more."
They were forestalled by the popes, who each summoned a council, the former to Cividale (in Friuli), the latter to Perpignan, so the dissident cardinals sent out antedated letters inviting Christendom to assemble at Pisa on the 25th of March 1409.
In recognition of this service to Christendom the pope sent to the victorious general the consecrated hat and sword which the court of Rome was accustomed to bestow upon those who had triumphed over the infidels.
If all conception of intermediary priesthood be eliminated, the Ulema may be said to be equivalent to the secular clergy of Roman Christendom (see Dervish).
He made the capital of Christendom the centre of culture.
The steps by which the practice of resting from labour on the Lord's day instead of on the Sabbath was established in Christendom and received civil as well as ecclesiastical sanction are dealt with under Sunday; it is enough to observe here that this practice is naturally and even necessarily connected with the religious observance of the Lord's day as a day of worship and religious gladness, and is in full accordance with the principles laid down by Jesus in His criticism of the Sabbath of the Scribes.
The cult of St Lawrence has spread throughout Christendom, and there are numerous churches dedicated to him, especially in England, where 228 have been counted.
Her ancient prestige, her geographical position and the intellectual primacy of her most noble children rendered Italy the battleground of principles that set all Christendom in motion, and by the clash of which she found herself for ever afterwards divided.
War was thus declared between the two chiefs of western Christendom, that war of investitures which out-lasted the lives of both Gregory and Henry, and was not terminated till the year 1122.
Ranking as one of the five Italian powers, she was also destined to defend Western Christendom against the encroachments of the Turk in Europe.
The middle ages saw geographical knowledge die out in Christendom, although it retained, through the Arabic translations of Ptolemy, a certain vitality in Islam.
And the Moslem came on the scenes bringing, as a gift for Christendom, fuller knowledge of classical, especially Aristotelian, texts.
Cyprian, although inspired by lofty notions of the prerogatives of the church, and inclined to severity of opinion towards heretics, and especially heretical dissentients from the belief in the divine authorship of the episcopal order and the unity of Christendom, was leniently disposed towards those who had temporarily fallen from the faith.
A recollection of the manifold forms which religious life and thought have taken in Christendom or in Islam, and the passions which are so easily engendered among opposing sects, will prevent a one-sided estimate of the religious standpoints which the writings betray; and to the recognition that they represent lofty ideals it must be added that the great prophets, like all great thinkers, were in advance of their age.
By common consent of Christendom, John was the forerunner of the founder of the Christian Church.
It was, therefore, during the reign of Antipas, and partly if not wholly within his territory, that the Gospel was first preached by the rabbi or prophet whom Christendom came to regard as the one true Christ, the Messiah of the Jews.
So far as Western Christendom is concerned the corrected calendar is now universally accepted, and Easter is kept on the same day, but it was not until 1752 that the Gregorian reformation of the calendar was adopted in Great Britain and Ireland.
They are, however, extraordinarily tenacious of their ancient customs, and, almost totally isolated from the rest of Christendom since the 5th century, they afford an interesting study to the eccesiastical student.
The peculiar circumstances, both ecclesiastical and temporal, of the Nestorians have attracted much attention in western Christendom, and various missionary enterprises amongst them have resulted.
Since Ultramontanism cannot hope to realise its political ambitions unless it succeeds in controlling the intellectual and religious life of Catholic Christendom, it attempts to extend its sphere of influence in all directions over culture, science, education, literature and the forms taken by devotion.
It was not till ten years later, in 1685, that the festival was first celebrated at Paray, and not till after the death of Marguerite, on the 17th of October 1690, that the cult of the Sacred Heart, fostered by the Jesuits and the subject of violent controversies within the church, spread throughout France and Christendom.
But when, in consequence of the Arab invasion, the monasticism of those countries was cut off from intercourse with the rest of Christendom, it decayed.