In 1879 a vaccine for cholera was invented.
Meanwhile there had been a frightful earthquake in 1822, and a visitation of cholera in the following year.
Being attacked with cholera, however, the Persian commander recrossed the frontier, but only to succumb to the disease in the pass of Kirind.
The earliest writers upon cholera emphasized its remarkable preference for particular places; and the history of each successive epidemic implies, besides an importation of the contagion, certain local conditions which may be either general sanitary defects or peculiarities of climate and soil.
The procedure is the same as for cholera, but it has been equally successful.
The first disease investigated by Pasteur was that of chicken cholera, an epidemic which destroyed io% of the French fowls; after the application of the preventive method the death-rate was reduced to below i %.
Epidemic diseases are rare and children's diseases mild; cholera has visited Florence several times, but the city has been free from it for many years.
Plague, formerly one of the great scourges of the country, seems to have been stamped out, the last visitation having been in 1844, but cholera epidemics occasionally occur.i Cholera rarely extends south of Cairo.
Cholera is endemic in some parts of the vilayet, and before 1875 the same was true of the bubonic plague.
In 1831 cholera first entered Europe.
That Diptera of the type of the common house-fly are often in large measure responsible for the spread of such diseases as cholera and enteric fever is undeniable, and as regards blood-sucking forms, in addition to those to which reference has already been made, it is sufficient to mention the vast army of pests constituted by the midges, sand-flies, horseflies, &c., from the attacks of which domestic animals suffer equally with man, in addition to being frequently infested with the larvae of the bot and warble flies (Gastrophilus, Oestrus and Hypoderma).
More cholera in 1827 and 18 3 2 and another earthquake in 1830 had left the place a wreck, with only half its former population, when Mehemet Ali of Cairo invaded and took Syria.
During his year of office, the heroism with which he worked hand in hand with his old enemy, Bishop Strachan, in fighting an attack of cholera, did not prevent him from winning much unpopularity by his officiousness, and in 1835 he was not re-elected either as mayor or alderman.
Cholera and typhoid organisms are less resistant, and are killed more quickly than tubercle bacilli at the above temperatures.
After the cholera epidemic of 1853, which carried off more than 4000 of the inhabitants, the medical association built several ranges of workmen's houses, and their example was followed by various private capitalists, among whom may be mentioned the Classen trustees, whose buildings occupy an open site on the western outskirts of the city.
Occasional outbreaks of cholera occur from time to time, and in the independent states these cause terrible loss of life, as the natives fly from the disease and spread the infection in every direction.
The population of the country at the censuses of 1880, 1890 and 1900 was: From 1870 to 1880 there was little increase of population, owing to the great cholera epidemic of 1872-1873, and to many epidemic diseases among children towards the end of the period.
They have had no reason to regret the change, for no part of the country profited so much by the great prosperity of the following years, notwithstanding the temporary check caused by the serious outbreak of cholera at Hamburg in 1892.
In 1854 the deaths from cholera numbered about 15,000.
The prevailing diseases are cholera, fever, small-pox, ophthalmia, dysentery and those of the skin among the lower classes.
The death-rate is high, especially among children, owing to the prevalence of cholera, smallpox and fevers during the dry weather.
Hog cholera or swine fever has been almost eradicated.
The country was roadless and uninhabited save by wild beasts, and fever and cholera made sad havoc of the working parties; but it was successfully accomplished.
In 1848 it is believed that over 200,000 persons died from cholera, but later epidemics have been much less fatal.
An epidemic of cholera in the summer of 1883 gave the British officers their first chance of acquiring the esteem and confidence of their men, and the opportunity was nobly utilized.
Cholera and fever were busy both with the North Staffordshire regiment at Gemai, whither they had been moved on its approach, and with the Egyptian troops at the front, and carried off many officers and men.
The railway reached Kosha early in August; the cholera disappeared, and stores were collected and arrangements steadily made for a farther advance.
Smallpox, dysentery and fevers, frequently of a bilious character, are endemic and occasionally epidemic. Cholera breaks out from time to time and works great havoc, as was the case in 1903 when one of the raja of Sarawak's punitive expeditions was stricken while ascending the Limbang river by boat, and lost many hundreds of its numbers before the coast could be regained.
Cholera broke out in the royal camp and caused the troops to disperse.
The value of such protective inoculations is demonstrated in the treatment against small-pox (Jenner), cholera, plague (Haffkine) and typhoid (Wright and Semple).
Cholera (Haffkine) and yellow fever are yielding up their secrets, and falling under some control.
The evidence, however, is not sufficiently strong to warrant a universal conclusion, the diffusion of cholera appearing to be largely dependent upon other factors than soil states.
An attack of scarlatina led to brain fever, and he had scarcely recovered when he fell a victim to cholera, of which he died in Paris on the 24th of August 1832.
3 Pneumonia and consumption, approximately of equal fatality (15 to 18 per 10,000 each), exceed more than twofold the diseases of next lower fatality, cancer and cholera infantum.
Bulgarian losses were great, and the army ravaged by cholera; on Dec. 2 an armistice was concluded which remained in force until Jan.
Epidemics of cholera, which occurred during the years of scarcity and famine, also swept away large numbers.
Of these 32,000 perished during the Serbian retreat or died of fever or cholera.
In 1902 Palestine was devastated by a severe epidemic of cholera.
The illness varies within the widest limits, and exhibits all gradations of severity, from a mere indisposition, which may pass almost unnoticed, to an extreme violence, only equalled by the most violent forms of cholera.
It appears, therefore, that plague is less fatal to Europeans than cholera.
This event, and the prevalence of plague and cholera at Teheran, marked somewhat gloomily the new monarchs first year.
In the following year Persia had a visitation of cholera.
Thus the organisms of suppuration, tubercle, glanders, diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera, tetanus, and others were identified, and their relationship to the individual diseases established.
Haffkine in the case of cholera (1893) and plague (1896), and more recently by Wright and Semple in the case of typhoid fever.
In many cases, however, the filtrate, when injected, produces comparatively little effect, whilst toxic action is observed when the bacteria in a dead condition are used; this is the case with the organisms of tubercle, cholera, typhoid and many others.
Thus in cholera the bacteria are practically confined to the intestine, in diphtheria to the region of the false membrane, in tetanus to some wound.
A similar phenomenon has been demonstrated in the case of Malta fever, cholera, plague, infection with B.
General Barnard died of cholera in July, and was succeeded by General Archdale Wilson.
The charitable institutions include the infirmary; the cholera hospital; the eye infirmary; the fever reception house; Sir Gabriel Wood's mariners' asylum, an Elizabethan building erected in 1851 for the accommodation of aged merchant seamen; and the Smithson poorhouse and lunatic asylum, built beyond the southern boundary in 1879.
The diseases to which the act applies are smallpox, cholera, membranous croup, erysipelas, scarlatina or scarlet fever, typhus, typhoid, enteric, relapsing, continued or puerperal fever, and any other infectious disease to which the act has been applied by the local authority of the district in the prescribed manner.
He died at Portici near Naples of cholera on the nth of August 1854.
Anson, the commander-in-chief, died of cholera before he had had a chance to act on Lawrence's telegram, "Clubs, not spades, are trumps."
Being slightly reinforced, he advanced on the 5th of August, and again turned the enemy out of Busherutgunge, but was again obliged by cholera to retreat to Mangalwar; and on receipt of news from Neill that the enemy were assembling at Bithur, he returned to Cawnpore, and abandoned for the time the attempt to relieve Lucknow.
The supply was brought into the town just after the terrible cholera outbreak of 1884, and as each new standpipe was erected in the strt.
After the cholera epidemic of 1884, M.
In 1702, 1718 and 1767, it suffered severely from fires; in 1719 was plundered by the Persians; and in 1830 the cholera swept away a large number of its people.
As usual in such cases, a severe outbreak of cholera followed in the track of the storm-wave.
But a variety of causes set back the development of the city, notably the prevalence of plague and cholera due to the silting up of the creeks that divided its component islands; and it was not till after the amalgamation of the old and new companies in 1708 that the governor's seat was transferred from Surat to Bombay.
The existence of famine and cholera added to the difficulties of the government, and in March 1867 the Lower House, by a majority of three, passed the laconic resolution, " The chamber inflicts a vote of blame on the government.
Attending the International Meteorological Congress of August 1873 at Vienna, he fell ill of cholera, and died a few hours after his arrival at Arcetri, on the 10th of September 1873.
He gained some successes during a war between Turkey and Persia which broke out in 1821, but cholera attacked his army, and a treaty was signed in 1823.
Even yet medical science has not determined the effect upon the human system of water highly charged with bacteria which are not known to be individually pathogenic. In the case of the bacilli of typhoid and cholera, we know the direct effect; but apart altogether from the presence of such specific poisons, polluted water is undoubtedly injurious.
Both it and the aromatic solution are powerful intestinal astringents, and are therefore useful in diarrhoea of a serious type, being strongly recommended both as a prophylactic and as a treatment during epidemics of Asiatic cholera.
The worst feature was a virulent outbreak of cholera in Gujarat, especially in the native states.
The climate of Bhandara is unhealthy, - the prevailing diseases being fever, small-pox and cholera.
Cholera occurs in the native city every summer, malarial fever exists and dysentery is apt to become chronic in spring and autumn on account of the sudden changes of temperature - a fall of 20° to 30° taking place in a few hours - and the moisture-laden atmosphere.
Bilston suffered severely from an outbreak of cholera in 1832.
But on the 26th of May the Venetians were forced to abandon Fort Malghera, half-way between the city and the mainland; food was becoming scarce, on the 19th of June the powder magazine blew up, and in July cholera broke out.
The similarity of the symptoms to those of cholera is very marked, but if the suspicion arises it can soon be cleared up by examining any of the secretions for arsenic. More rarely the poison seems to centre itself on the nerve centres, and gastro-intestinal symptoms may be almost or quite absent.
When the cholera appeared in France, quarantine was so rigorously enforced in the Peninsula that the external trade and railway traffic were grievously affected.
Then, to make matters worse, an outbreak of cholera occurred in the eastern provinces of the kingdom.
The authorities confessed that 105,000 persons died of cholera in the summer and autumn of 1885, being on an average from 41 to 56% of those attacked.
Such serums are injected subcutaneously in diphtheria, tetanus, streptococcic infections, plague, snake-poisoning, cholera and other similar diseases.
Tube wells drilled into the ground to provide drinking water safe from cholera were later found to contain naturally occurring arsenic.
arsenic poisoning could be confused with cholera.
Hannah Smith plays spoilt brat, Mary Lennox, whose parents have just died from cholera in India.
chloride of lime were hung at the windows of the House of Commons to prevent MPs getting cholera.
These include plague, cholera, diphtheria, yellow fever, dengue and TB.
At least half of those who caught cholera died.
The death certificate gave the cause of death as English cholera and her age as 27.
cholera epidemic which swept through the town.
cholera outbreak in 1849.
cholera vaccination apart from the above is a matter for the individual to discuss with their doctor.
cholera bacteria in the open must have weakened them in some way.
Artificial insemination spreads fowl cholera, a major bacterial disease of intensively reared turkeys.
No, the Australians didn't believe the chicken cholera would work.
But there was worse to come, that dreaded disease cholera broke out in the camp.
Well cholera is extremely contagious, hence the quarantine.
coolie camp where also there was cholera.
epidemic of cholera struck Welshpool in 1848 causing many deaths.
Hundreds of thousands have died from hunger or the cholera and typhoid epidemics which have swept the country.
During the 19 th century, cholera spread to Europe and the Americas, causing several devastating epidemics.
The cholera epidemic of 1832 had been the worst ever experienced in Scotland.
fowl cholera, a major bacterial disease of intensively reared turkeys.
Cholera is an illness caused by a germ invading the bowels.
There is now a high risk of a cholera outbreak.
outbreak of cholera in the village.
It was simply reeking with cholera germs, having a mud floor that had become saturated with filth.
We will also use the well-characterised outer leaflet raft marker cholera toxin B subunit in similar studies.
Currently there are 274 cholera patients undergoing treatment in the central hospital.
Clean water was in short supply and there were major epidemics of water-borne diseases including typhoid, cholera and diarrhea.
In 1887 he was the first after Koch to isolate the cholera vibrio, which he found in emigrants on SS Britannia.
virulence of this strain of cholera is such that Maputo Central Hospital is using 13 liters of serum for each cholera patient.
Pearse's detachment was decimated by an epidemic of cholera (perhaps the first mention of this disease by name in Indian history); but the survivors penetrated to Madras, and not only held in check Bhonsla and the nizam, but also corroborated the lesson taught by Goddard - that the Company's sepoys could march anywhere, when boldly led.
Sanitation and public hygiene received a potent impulse from the cholera epidemic of 1884, many of the unhealthiest quarters in Naples and other cities being demolished and rebuilt, with funds chiefly furnished by the state.
When we consider that tuberculosis, diphtheria, cholera, tetanus, typhoid fever, anthrax, malaria and a host of other contagious diseases have each been proved to be of parasitical origin, an idea may be conve y ed of the range of the subject.
Benevolent and sympathetic in disposition, he won the affection of his people by fearlessly visiting the districts ravaged by cholera or devastated by earthquake in 1885.
The general evidence indicates that the specific bacteria of cholera discharges are capable of a much longer existence in the superficial soil layers than was formerly supposed; consequently it is specially necessary to guard against pollution of the soil, and through it against the probable contamination of both water and air.
It is imperative that cream destined for butter-making should be free from pathogenic organisms. The organisms of cholera, typhoid fever and tuberculosis present in butter retain their vitality for a long time.
Certain places near Brunswick (10Ã‚° E.) marked the western limit of the epidemic; and cholera was arrested at the same spot in later years (Haser).
For instance, the last visitation of cholera could be traced clearly and definitely to a point of origin in northern India in the spring of 1892, and could be followed thence step by step in its mare, i westward (see Cholera).
Cholera occurs in the native city every summer, malarial fever exists and dysentery is apt to become chronic in spring and autumn on account of the sudden changes of temperature - a fall of 20Ã‚° to 30Ã‚° taking place in a few hours - and the moisture-laden atmosphere.
In the foreign settlements, owing to sanitary enactments, cholera is rare, and Europeans who adopt ordinary precautions "have nothing to fear from the climate of Shanghai" (China Sea Directory, vol.
At the same time in Germany, Robert Koch identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis and the one that caused cholera.
The Tamils had suspected cholera and smallpox at the time.
The virulence of this strain of cholera is such that Maputo Central Hospital is using 13 liters of serum for each cholera patient.
Other bacteria can be washed into water systems by rain and cause diseases like salmonella and cholera.
It is believed that having one copy of the CF gene is enough to prevent the full effects of cholera infection, while not enough to cause the symptoms of CF.
Other questions pertain to the patient's food intake over the previous few days and recent travels to countries with typhoid fever or cholera outbreaks.
In addition the uses discussed above, vaccines are available for preventing anthrax, cholera, plague, tuberculosis, and yellow fever.
The only vaccines which should not be given at the same time are cholera and yellow fever vaccines.
Vaccines possibly linked to AP include those for typhoid, measles, cholera, and yellow fever.
Cholera and Shigella remain two diseases of great concern in developing countries, and research to develop long-term vaccines against them is underway.
Gram-negative organisms are responsible for many diseases, including gonorrhea, pertussis (whooping cough), salmonella poisoning, and cholera.
Its geographical distribution is of the widest, and its rapidity of breeding, in manure and dooryard filth, so great that, as a carrier of germs of disease, especially cholera and typhoid, the house-fly is now recognized as a potent source of danger; and various sanitary regulations have been made, or precautions suggested, for getting rid of it.
Thus malaria and sand-fly fever, dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid fever, cholera, smallpox, and occasionally typhus fever, eye diseases, oriental sores and indeed any disease conveyed by impure water, flies, contaminated dust or the contagion of sufferers from infectious diseases, are prevalent in the inhabited places along the Persian Gulf, and precautions must always be taken to guard against them.
On the 14th of November, after one day's illness, he died of cholera and was buried, as he had wished, between Fichte and Solger.
An outbreak of cholera in 1837 led to disorders in Sicily, which, having assumed a political character, were repressed by Del Caretto with great severity.
In 1854 cholera caused the death of 17,000 persons; in 1867 over 30,000 people died of malarial fever; in 1892 a hurricane of terrific violence caused immense destruction of property and serious loss of life; in 1893 great part of Port Louis was destroyed by fire.
Certain places near Brunswick (10° E.) marked the western limit of the epidemic; and cholera was arrested at the same spot in later years (Haser).
Epidemic outbreaks of other diseases - for instance, cholera, diphtheria and typhoid fever - are often preceded and followed by the prevalence of mild illness of an allied type; and t he true significance of this fact is one of the most important problems in epidemiology.
On the hills behind the kasbah are Fort St Gregoire, a votive chapel commemorative of the cholera of 1849, and Fort Santa Cruz, crowning at a height of 13 12 ft.
This decrease was due partly to the famines of 1896-1897 and 1900-1901, partly to the epidemics of cholera and fever which accompanied them, and partly to the plague which attacked the state in as great measure as the surrounding presidency.
No great epidemic has visited the city since the outbreak of cholera in 1866.
At the time doctors were not sure exactly what caused cholera.
This can lead to all kinds of diarrhoeal diseases, including cholera.
Sheets soaked with chloride of lime were hung at the windows of the House of Commons to prevent MPs getting cholera.
She has asthma and in 1955 had cholera which delayed growth.
cholera in the city.
cholera in nineteenth century London.
cholera in the two areas.
An epidemic of Asiatic cholera claimed over 4,000 lives.
During the cholera epidemic at Naples and Busca in 1884, and the Ischia earthquake of 1885, he, regardless of danger, brought relief and encouragement to sufferers, and rescued many lives.
In 1866-1867, however, a serious outbreak of cholera again threatened it with ruin; but improved sanitation, the provision of a supply of pure water and the demolition of a mass of houses unfit for habitation soon effected a radical cure.
In it " the expression ` disease' means cattle plague (that is to say, rinderpest, or the disease commonly called cattle plague), contagious pleuropneumonia of cattle (in this act called pleuro-pneumonia), foot-and-mouth disease, sheep-pox, sheep-scab, or swine fever (that is to say, the disease known as typhoid fever of swine, soldier purples, red disease, hog cholera or swine plague)."
In 1892 the cholera raged within its walls, carried off 850o of its inhabitants, and caused considerable losses to its commerce and industry; but the visitation was not without its salutary fruits, for an improved drainage system, better hospital accommodation, and a purer water-supply have since combined to make it one of the healthiest commercial cities of Europe.
II.), succeeded by the isolation of the organisms of typhoid, cholera, diphtheria, actinomycosis, tetanus, &c. The knowledge we now possess of the causes of immunity from contagious disease has resulted from this study of pathological bacteriology: momentous practical issues have also followed upon this study.
At Shiraz he died of cholera on the 5th of October 1821.
His publications included: Relation des epidemies de cholera qui ont regne a l'Heggiaz, d Suez, Egypte (1832); De to peste observee en Egypte (1840); A perru general sur l'Egypte (1840); Coup d'ceil sur la peste et les quarantaines (1851); De l'ophthalmie (1864).
Some plagues, such as typhus fever, have been dispelled; others, such as enteric fever, have been almost banished from large areas; and there is much reason to hope that cholera and plague, if introduced, could not get a footing in western Europe, or in any case could be combated on scientific principles, and greatly reduced.
Mangrove swamps surround the town and epidemics of cholera, yellow fever and other tropical diseases have been frequent; but the unhealthiness of the climate is mitigated to some extent by the high tides which cover the marshes, and the invigorating breezes which blow in from the sea.
Rogers at the time of the cholera epidemic) controls in peace fourteen station hospitals, and in war furnishes a mobile field hospital to each brigade.
Its hopes, based on a Euphrates valley railway, which was to have started from its port of Suedia (Seleucia), were doomed to disappointment, and it has suffered repeatedly from visitations of cholera; but it has nevertheless grown rapidly and will resume much of its old importance when a railway is made down the lower Orontes valley.
In that year, and again in 1834, a cholera epidemic caused considerable loss of life.
Flacherie is an intestinal disease of the cholera species and therefore contagious.
Perth was visited by plague in 1512, 1585-1587, 1608 and 1645; by cholera in 1832; and the floods of 1210, 1621, 1740, 1 773 and 1814 were exceptionally severe.
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