Chlorides sentence example

chlorides
  • Iridium sesquichloride, IrC1 31 is obtained when one of the corresponding double chlorides is heated with concentrated sulphuric acid, the mixture being then thrown into water.

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  • It forms double chlorides with the alkaline chlorides.

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  • Two chlorides of copper are known, one a highly coloured substance, the other quite white.

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  • They are soluble in water and give characteristic precipitates with platinic and auric chlorides, and with potassium ferrocyanide.

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  • The salts of all the metals of this group usually crystallize well, the chlorides and nitrates dissolve readily in water, whilst the carbonates, phosphates and sulphates are either very sparingly soluble or are insoluble in water.

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  • The cotton bollworm (Chlorides obsoleta, also known as Heliothis armiger) is a caterpillar.

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  • Numerous double chlorides are known, e.g.

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  • For example, compounds of oxygen are oxides, of chlorine, chlorides, and so on.

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  • The action of these acids on many metals was also studied; Glauber obtained zinc, stannic, arsenious and cuprous chlorides by dissolving the metals in hydrochloric acid, compounds hitherto obtained by heating the metals with corrosive sublimate, and consequently supposed to contain mercury.

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  • For this purpose the cold solution is treated with hydrochloric acid, which precipitates lead, silver and mercurous salts as chlorides.

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  • In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.

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  • The N-derivatives are prepared by the action of alkyl halides and acid chlorides on potassium pyrrol.

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  • Soon afterwards, William Cruickshank decomposed the magnesium, sodium and ammonium chlorides, and precipitated silver and copper from their solutions - an observation which led to the process of electroplating.

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  • Of other lead minerals we may mention the basic sulphate lanarkite, PbO PbSO 4; leadhillite, PbSO 4.3PbCO 3; the basic chlorides matlockite, PbO PbC12j and mendipite, PbC1 2.2PbO; the chloro-phosphate pyromorphite, PbC12.3Pb3(P04)2, the chloro-arsenate mimetesite, PbC12.3Pb3(As04)2; the molybdate wulfenite, PbMoO 4; the chromate crocoite or crocoisite, PbCrO 4; the tungstate stolzite, PbW04.

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  • It combines with alkaline chlorides - potassium, rubidium and caesium - to form crystalline plumbichlorides; it also forms a crystalline compound with quinoline.

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  • It forms double salts with metallic chlorides and with the hydrochlorides of organic bases.

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  • It combines readily with alkaline and other chlorides to form double salts, e.g.

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  • Now differences in the amount of crystalloids cause alteration in osmotic pressure while the proteid content affects it but little; and of the crystalloids the chlorides appear to be those most liable to variation.

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  • Widal, Lemierre and other French observers have noted a diminution in the excretion of chlorides in nephritis associated with oedema; Widal and Javal found that a chloride-free diet caused diminution in the oedema and a chloride containing diet an increase of oedema.

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  • Some other observers, however, have not got such good results with a chloride-free diet, and Marishler, Scheel, Limbecx, Dreser and others, dispute Widal's hypothesis of a retention of chlorides as being the cause of oedema, in the case of renal dropsy at all events; they assert that the chlorides are held back in order to keep the osmotic pressure of the fluid, which they assume to have been effused, equal to that of the blood and tissues.

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  • When heated with the alkali and alkaline earth metals it yields silicon and the corresponding metallic chlorides.

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  • Aqueous Sulphuric or Hydrochloric Acid readily dissolves groups I and 2, with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides or sulphates.

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  • Aqua Regia, a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids, converts all metals (even gold, the "king of metals," whence the name) into chlorides, except only rhodium, iridium and ruthenium, which, when pure, are not attacked.

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  • Chlorine.-All metals, when treated with chlorine gas at the proper temperatures, pass into chlorides.

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  • Iron, for instance, is converted first into FeC1 21 ultimately into FeCl 3, which practically means a mixture of the two chlorides, or pure FeC1 3 as a final product.

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  • Of the several products, the chlorides of gold and platinum (AuC13 and PtC1 4) are the only ones which when heated beyond their temperature of formation dissociate into metal and chlorine.

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  • Somewhat less volatile than the last-named group are the chlorides (MC1 2) of barium, strontium and calcium.

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  • Metallic chlorides, as a class, are readily soluble in water.

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  • The chlorides AsC1 3, SbC1 3, BiC1 3, are at once decomposed by (liquid) water, with formation of oxide (As203) or oxychlorides (SbOC1, BiOCI) and hydrochloric acid.

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  • The chlorides MgC1 21 A1C13, CrC1 3, FeC1 3, suffer a similar decomposition when evaporated with water in the heat.

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  • All chlorides, except those of silver and mercury (and, of course, those of gold and platinum), are oxidized by steam at high temperatures, with elimination of hydrochloric acid.

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  • Those substituted in the benzene nucleus are obtained by condensing two molecules of a substituted benzyl and benzal chlorides.

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  • The diortho and dipara dinitro compounds result from the action of alcoholic potash on orthoand para-nitrobenzyl chlorides.

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  • They are all strong bases, readily forming salts with the mineral acids and double salts with the chlorides of gold, platinum and mercury.

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  • It is obvious that, with suitable methods and apparatus, the electrolysis of alkaline chlorides may be made to yield chlorine, hypochlorites (bleaching liquors), chlorates or caustic alkali, but that great care must be exercised if any of these products is to be obtained pure and with economy.

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  • The same inventor has patented the application of electrolysed chlorides to the purification of starch by the oxidation of less stable organic bodies, to the bleaching of oils, and to the purification of coal gas, spirit and other substances.

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  • His system for the disinfection of sewage and similar matter by the electrolysis of chlorides, or of sea-water, has been tried, but for the most part abandoned on the score of expense.

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  • In solution minute quantities of gold may be detected by the formation of " purple of Cassius," a bluish-purple precipitate thrown down by a mixture of ferric and stannous chlorides.

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  • The potassium salt is obtained by crystallizing equivalent quantities of potassium and auric chlorides.

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  • The bromides and iodides resemble the chlorides.

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  • Salt is added in the roasting to convert any lime, magnesia or lead which may be present, into the corresponding chlorides.

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  • The second process depends upon the fact that, if chlorine be led into the molten alloy, the base metals and the silver are converted into chlorides.

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  • The solution of metallic chlorides or sulphates so obtained is precipitated by iron, the metallic bismuth filtered, washed with water, pressed in canvas bags, and finally fused in graphite crucibles, the surface being protected by a layer of charcoal.

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  • Bismuth dioxide, BiO or Bi 2 O 2, is said to be formed by the limited oxidation of the metal, and as a brown precipitate by adding mixed solutions of bismuth and stannous chlorides to a solution of caustic potash.

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  • Two chlorides are known, the dichloride, TeC121 and the tetrachloride, TeCl 4.

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  • The great similarity between the salts of the ocean and the gaseous products of volcanic eruptions at the present time, rich in chlorides and sulphates of all kinds, is a strong argument for the ocean having been salt from the beginning.

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  • Besides the determination of salinity by titration of the chlorides, the method of determination by the specific gravity of the sea-water is still often used.

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  • This residue consists of sodium, potassium and lithium chlorides, with small quantities of caesium and rubidium chlorides.

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  • The platino-chlorides are reduced by hydrogen, and the caesium and rubidium chlorides extracted by water.

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  • Many double chlorides are known, and may be prepared by mixing solutions of the two components in the requisite proportions.

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  • It combines with the chlorides of the alkali metals to form characteristic double salts of the type OsC1 4.2MC1 (osmichlorides).

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  • Metaphosphoric acid can be distinguished from the other two acids by its power of coagulating albumen, and by not being precipitated by mag nesium and ammonium chlorides in the presence of ammonia.

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  • They form characteristic compounds with mercuric and auric chlorides.

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  • Electrolytic processes had, in fact, been considered since 1851, when Charles Watt patented his method for the production of sodium and potassium from fused chlorides.

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  • If the original solution contained the chlorides of magnesium or calcium or sulphate of potassium all impurities remain in the mother-liquor (the sulphur as KHS04), and can be removed by washing the precipitate with strong hydrochloric acid.

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  • Dr. Goldschmidt's principal discovery related to a simple and safe method of ignition, as the action of aluminium when mixed with various oxides, sulphides, and chlorides was well known.

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  • The kelp obtained by any of these methods is then lixiviated with water, which extracts the soluble salts, and the liquid is concentrated, when the less soluble salts, which are chiefly alkaline chlorides, sulphates and carbonates, crystallize out and are removed.

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  • The iodides as a class resemble the chlorides and bromides, but are less fusible and volatile.

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  • They may be prepared by converting nitriles into amidoximes by the action of hydroxylamine, the amidoximes so formed being then acylated by acid chlorides or anhydrides.

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  • Werner, four hydrated chromium chlorides exist, namely the green and violet salts, CrC1 3.6H 2 O, a hydrate, CrC1 3.10H 2 O and one CrC1 3.4H 2 0.

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  • Magnesium chloride readily forms double salts with the alkaline chlorides.

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  • Acid chlorides behave in an analogous manner to esters (Grignard and Tissier, Comptes rendus, 1901, 132, p. 683).

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  • Further he prepared a large number of substances, including the chlorides and other salts of lead, tin, iron, zinc, copper, antimony and arsenic, and he even noted some of the phenomena of double decomposition.

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  • He made a special study of chlorine, and discovered two new chlorides of carbon.

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  • Rose also carried out experiments on the decomposition of cryolite, and expressed an opinion that it was the best of all compounds for reduction; but, finding the yield of metal to be low, receiving a report of the difficulties experienced in mining the ore, and fearing to cripple his new industry by basing it upon the employment of a mineral of such uncertain supply, Deville decided to keep to his chlorides.

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  • Sodium amalgam reduces them to secondary alcohols; phosphorus pentachloride replaces the carbonyl oxygen by chlorine, forming the ketone chlorides.

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  • Hantzsch (Ber., 18 9 6, 2 9, p. 947 1898, 31, p. 1253) has shown that the chlorand bromdiazoniumthiocyanates, when dissolved in alcohol containing a trace of hydrochloric acid, become converted into the isomeric thiocyanbenzene diazonium chlorides and bromides.

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  • Again, the diazonium chlorides combine with platinic chloride to form difficultly soluble double platinum salts, such as (C 6 H 5 N 2 C1) 2 PtC1 4; similar gold salts, C 6 H,N 2 C1 AuC1 3, are known.

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  • Hydrogen is a very powerful reducing agent; the gas occluded by palladium being very active in this respect, readily reducing ferric salts to ferrous salts, nitrates to nitrites and ammonia, chlorates to chlorides, &c.

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  • By night the liquor gives nearly pure magnesium sulphate; in the day the same sulphate mixed with sodium and potassium chlorides is deposited.

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  • The mixed chlorides are boiled down to dryness with sulphuric acid to convert them into sulphates, which are then separated by boiling water, which dissolves only the thallium salt.

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  • Those derived from monobasic acids, obtained by the action of acid chlorides or anhydrides on urea, decompose on heating and do not form salts.

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  • It forms double salts with the chlorides of the alkali metals.

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  • The mud thus formed is settled out, and the clear liquor, which is now quite neutral and contains both manganese and calcium chlorides, is mixed with cream of lime and treated by a strong current of air, produced by a blowing-engine.

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  • The former are washed with water until the chlorides are nearly removed, and are then carried into the drying apparatus.

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  • Phosphorus pentachloride converts them into alkyl chlorides, a similar decomposition taking place when they are heated with the haloid acids.

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  • Thorium chloride readily deliquesces on exposure and forms double salts with alkaline chlorides.

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  • Numerous double chlorides of nickel and other metals are known.

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  • It is soluble in water and combines with many metallic chlorides to form double salts.

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  • More volatile anaesthetics such as anestile or anaesthyl and coryl are produced by mixing with methyl chloride; a mixture of ethyl and methyl chlorides with ethyl bromide is known as somnoform.

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  • Tungsten forms four chlorides, viz.

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  • The tetrachloride, WC1 41 is obtained by partial reduction of the higher chlorides with hydrogen; a mixture of the pentaand hexa-chloride is distilled in a stream of hydrogen or carbon dioxide, and the pentachloride which volatilizes returned to the flask several times.

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  • In the form of alkaline chlorides it is found in sea-water and various spring waters, and in the tissues of animals and plants; while, as hydrochloric acid it is found in volcanic gases.

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  • At ordinary temperatures it unites directly with many other elements; thus with hydrogen, combination takes place in direct sunlight with explosive violence; arsenic, antimony, thin copper foil and phosphorus take fire in an atmosphere of chlorine, forming the corresponding chlorides.

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  • Perfectly dry hydrochloric acid gas has no action on metals, but in aqueous solution it dissolves many of them with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides.

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  • The salts of hydrochloric acid, known as chlorides, can, in most cases, be prepared by dissolving either the metal, its hydroxide, oxide, or carbonate in the acid; or by heating the metal in a current of chlorine, or by precipitation.

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  • The majority of the metallic chlorides are solids (stannic chloride, titanic chloride and antimony pentachloride are liquids) which readily volatilize on heating.

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  • Bismuth and antimony chlorides are decomposed by water with production of oxychlorides, whilst titanium tetrachloride yields titanic acid under the same conditions.

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  • All the metallic chlorides, with the exception of those of the alkali and alkaline earth metals, are reduced either to the metallic condition or to that of a lower chloride on heating in a current of hydrogen; most are decomposed by concentrated sulphuric acid.

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  • Some metallic chlorides readily form double chlorides, the most important of these double salts being the platinochlorides of the alkali metals.

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  • The chlorides of the nonmetallic elements are usually volatile fuming liquids of low boilingpoint, which can be distilled without decomposition and are decomposed by water.

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  • Chlorides can be estimated quantitatively by conversion into silver chloride, or if in the form of alkaline chlorides (in the absence of other metals, and of any free acids) by titration with standard silver nitrate solution, using potassium chromate as an indicator.

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  • These compounds are got into solution either as chlorides or sulphates, and from either of these salts the metal can be readily obtained.

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  • Ferrous chloride decomposes the copper oxide and carbonate with the formation of cuprous and cupric chlorides (which remain in solution), and the precipitation of ferrous oxide, carbon dioxide being simultaneously liberated from the carbonate.

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  • The ore is first treated with dilute sulphuric acid, and then ferrous or calcium chloride added, thus forming copper chlorides.

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  • Hot air is blown into the filtrate, which contains ferrous or calcium chlorides, to expel the excess of sulphur dioxide, and the liquid can then be used again.

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  • The precipitation of the copper from the solution, in which it is present as sulphate, or as cuprous and cupric chlorides, is generally effected by metallic iron.

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  • Copper sulphide may be converted either into the sulphate, which is soluble in water; the oxide, soluble in sulphuric or hydrochloric acid; cupric chloride, soluble in water; or cuprous chloride, which is soluble in solutions of metallic chlorides.

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  • The conversion of copper sulphide into the chlorides may be accomplished by calcining with common salt, or by treating the ores with ferrous chloride and hydrochloric acid or with ferric chloride.

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  • The sulphate, oxide or chlorides, which are obtained from the sulphuretted ores, are lixiviated and the metal precipitated fn the same manner as we have previously described.

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  • The bromides closely resemble the chlorides and fluorides.

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  • The ketenes are usually obtained by the action of zinc on ethereal or ethyl acetate solutions of halogen substituted acid chlorides or bromides.

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  • A number of other waters containing sulphides and chlorides are powerfully purgative, and are more often drunk at home than at the springs.

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  • The waters in which chlorides form the purgative principle are those of Homburg, Kissingen, Wiesbaden and Baden Baden in Germany, and Bridge of Allan in Scotland.

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  • It combines with chlorides of the alkali metals to form double salts, and also with barium, calcium, strontium, and magnesium chlorides.

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  • The nitrates, chlorides, sugars and fats, as also the metals lead, bismuth and antimony, have a specific cohesion nearly equal to that of mercury.

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  • It condenses with acids or acid chlorides, in the presence of dehydrating agents, to oxyketones, e.g.

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  • The large amount of soluble sulphates of iron and copper formed in the roast is made to act upon salt charged in a copper-bottomed amalgamating pan; the chlorides formed finish in the wet way the imperfect chloridation obtained in the furnace.

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  • The ore, supposed to have been salt-roasted, is charged loosely into the leaching vat and treated with water (to which sulphuric acid or copper sulphate may have been added), to remove soluble salts, which might later on be precipitated with the silver (base-metal chlorides), or overcharge the solution (sodium chloride and sulphate), or interfere with the solvent power (sodium sulphate).

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  • It is almost insoluble in water, soluble in 50,000 parts of nitric acid, and more soluble in strong hydrochloric acid and solutions of alkaline chlorides.

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  • It forms addition compounds with mercuric and auric chlorides.

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  • The Benzidine and Semidine Change.-Aromatic hydrazo compounds which contain free para positions are readily converted by the action of acids, acid chlorides and anhydrides into diphenyl derivatives; thus, as mentioned above, hydrazobenzene is converted into benzidine, a small quantity of diphenylin being formed at the same time.

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  • The fused mass separates into two layers, the upper of which contains a mixture of potassium and lithium sulphates; this is lixiviated with water and converted into the mixed chlorides by adding barium chloride, the solution evaporated and the lithium chloride extracted by a mixture of dry alcohol and ether.

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  • Its chief commercial sources are the salt deposits at Stassfurt in Prussian Saxony, in which magnesium bromide is found associated with various chlorides, and the brines of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, U.S.A.; small quantities are obtained from the mother liquors of Chile saltpetre and kelp. In combination with silver it is found as the mineral bromargyrite (bromite).

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  • They are decomposed by chlorine, with liberation of bromine and formation of metallic chlorides; concentrated sulphuric acid also decomposes them, with formation of a metallic sulphate and liberation of bromine and sulphur dioxide.

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  • Sulphur trioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize phosphorus oxide, giving the pentoxide and sulphur dioxide, whilst sulphur chloride, S 2 C1 2, gives phosphoryl and thiophosphoryl chlorides, free sulphur and sulphur dioxide.

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  • It forms red crystalline double salts with the chlorides of the metals of the alkalis and of the 1 By solution in concentrated hydrochloric acid, a yellow liquid is obtained, which on concentration over sulphuric acid gives yellow deliquescent crusts of ferroso-ferric chloride, Fe3C118H20.

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  • Primary alcohols are obtained by decomposing their sulphuric acid esters (from sulphuric acid and the olefines) with boiling water; by the action of nitrous acid on primary amines; or by the reduction of aldehydes, acid chlorides or acid anhydrides.

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  • The arsines and arsine chlorides are liquids of overpowering smell, and in some cases exert an extremely irritating action on the mucous membrane.

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  • The chlorides AsCl2CH3 and AsCl(CH3)2 as well as As(CH3)3 are capable of combining with two atoms of chlorine, the arsenic atom apparently changing from the tri- to the penta-valent condition, and the corresponding oxygen compounds can also be oxidized to compounds containing one oxygen atom or two hydroxyl groups more, forming acids or oxides.

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  • The thiophen ketones may be prepared by the interaction of thiophen and its homologues with acid chlorides in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride.

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  • C 2 H 5 SO 2 C1 (chlorides of sulphonic acids), by heating the salts of esters of sulphuric acid with potassium hydrosulphide, and by heating the alcohols with phosphorus pentasulphide.

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  • Calcining furnaces have a less extended application, being chiefly employed in the conversion of metallic sulphides into oxides by continued exposure to the action of air at a temperature far below that of fusion, or into chlorides by roasting with common salt.

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  • Such calciners are used especially in roasting zinc blende into zinc oxide, and in the conversion of copper sulphides into chlorides in the wet extraction process.

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  • Double chlorides of composition CoC1 2 NH 4 C1.6H 2 O; CoC1 2 SnCl 4.6H 2 0 and CoC1 2.2CdC1 2.12H 2 O are also known.

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  • The above series of salts show striking differences in their behaviour towards reagents; thus, aqueous solutions of the luteo chlorides are strongly ionized, as is shown by their high electric conductivity; and all their chlorine is precipitated on the addition of silver nitrate solution.

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  • But not only is the combining power or valency (atomicity) of the elements different, it is also observed that one element may combine with another in several proportions, or that its valency may vary; for example, phosphorus forms two chlorides represented by the formulae PC1 3 and PC1 51 nitrogen the series of oxides represented by the formulae N 2 0, NO, (N203), N 2 O 4, N205, molybdenum forms the chlorides MoC1 2, MoC1 3, MoC1 4, MoC1 5, MoCls(?), and tungsten the chlorides WC1 2, WCl 4, WC1 5, WC16.

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  • It is obvious that electrolytic iodine and bromine, and oxygen compounds of these elements, may be produced by methods similar to those applied to chlorides (see Alkali Manufacture and Chlorates), and Kellner and others have patented processes with this end in view.

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  • The conversion of the silver into the chloride may be effected by means of salt - the " cementation " process - or other chlorides, or by free chlorine - Miller's process.

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  • It is very slightly soluble in acids and ammonia, and almost insoluble in alkaline chlorides; potassium iodide, however, dissolves it to form AgI KI.

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  • With chlorine it gives phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " chlorides, the action being accompanied with a greenish flame; bromine gives phosphorus pentabromide and pentoxide which interact to give phosphoryl and " metaphosphoryl " bromides; iodine gives phosphorus di-iodide, P 2 I 4, and pentoxide, P 2 0 5; whilst hydrochloric acid gives phosphorus trichloride and phosphorous acid, which interact to form free phosphorus, phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid.

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