How to use Chlorate in a sentence
Hot concentrated nitric acid oxidizes it to picric acid and oxalic acid, whilst on treatment with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate it yields chloranil (tetrachloroquinone).
The peroxide, Ru04, is formed when a solution of potassium ruthenate is decomposed by chlorine, or by oxidizing ruthenium compounds with potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid, or with potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid.
Serullas and Roscoe; Davy and Stadion investigated chlorine peroxide, formed by treating potassium chlorate with sulphuric acid.
Davy also described and partially investigated the gas, named by him " euchlorine," obtained by heating potassium chlorate with hydrochloric acid; this gas has been more recently examined by Pebal.
For many years it had been known that a mixture of potassium chlorate and hydrochloric or sulphuric acids possessed strong.Advertisement
Carius showed that potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid oxidized benzene to trichlorphenomalic acid, a substance afterwards investigated by Kekule and 0.
Potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid oxidize phenol, salicylic acid (o-oxybenzoic acid), and gallic acid ([2.3.4] trioxybenzoic acid) to tri chlorpyroracemic acid (isotrichlorglyceric acid), CC13 C(OH)2 C02H, a substance also obtained from trichloracetonitrile, CC1 3 CO CN, by hydrolysis.
Potassium bichromate and sulphuric acid oxidize it to carbon dioxide and water; and potassium chlorate and hydrochloric acid to chloranil.
Thus neither a chlorate, which contains the ion C103, nor monochloracetic acid, shows the reactions of chlorine, though it is, of course, present in both substances; again, the sulphates do not answer to the usual tests which indicate the presence of sulphur as sulphide.
Manganese dioxide and sulphuric acid oxidize it to benzoic and o-phthalic acid; potassium chlorate and sulphuric acid breaks the ring; and ozone oxidizes it to the highly explosive white solid named ozo-benzene, C 6 H 6 O 6.Advertisement
The chlorine reacts with the caustic soda, forming sodium hypochlorite, and this in turn, with an excess of chlorine and at higher temperatures, becomes for the most part converted into chlorate, whilst any simultaneous electrolysis of a hydroxide or water and a chloride (so that hydroxyl and chlorine are simultaneously liberated at the anode) also produces oxygen-chlorine compounds direct.
Oettel, using a 20% solution of potassium chloride, obtained the best yield of hypochlorite with a high current-density, but as soon as II% of bleaching chlorine (as hypochlorite) was present, the formation of chlorate commenced.
The best yield of chlorate was obtained when from I to 4% of caustic potash was present.
With high current-density, heating the solution tended to increase the proportion of chlorate to hypochlorite, but as the proportion of water decomposed is then higher, the amount of chlorine produced must be less and the total chlorine efficiency lower.
In other words, each pound of chlorate would require an expenditure of nearly 5.1 e.h.p. hours.Advertisement
Bismuth tetroxide, Bi 2 O 4, sometimes termed bismuth bismuthate, is obtained by melting bismuth trioxide with potash, or by igniting bismuth trioxide with potash and potassium chlorate.
Ammonium chlorate, NH 4 C10 3, is obtained by neutralizing chloric acid with either ammonia or ammonium carbonate, or by precipitating barium, strontium or calcium chlorates with ammonium carbonate.
Heated in a current of carbon dioxide sodamide yields caustic soda and cyanamide, and with nitrous oxide it gives sodium azoimide; it deflagrates with lead or silver nitrate and explodes with potassium chlorate.
For the oxyhalogen salts see Chlorate, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.
Lozenges of potassium chlorate are used in stomatitis, tonsilitis and pharyngitis, it can also be used in a gargle, to grs.Advertisement
It readily forms addition products with chlorine and with hydrogen; the dichloride, C10H8C12, is obtained as a yellow liquid by acting with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate; the solid tetrachloride, C,o 11 8 C1 4, results when chlorine is passed into naphthalene dissolved in chloroform.
Oxygen may be prepared by heating mercuric oxide; by strongly heating manganese dioxide and many other peroxides; by heating the oxides of precious metals; and by heating many oxy-acids and oxy-salts to high temperatures, for example, nitric acid, sulphuric acid, nitre, lead nitrate, zinc sulphate, potassium chlorate, &c. Potassium chlorate is generally used and the reaction is accelerated and carried out at a lower temperature by previously mixing the salt with about one-third of its weight of manganese dioxide, which acts as a catalytic agent.
Strecker, who oxidized guanine with hydrochloric acid and potassium chlorate.
The gaseous mixture, issuing from the latter, is washed with water in the usual condensing apparatus, to remove the 40 or 50 parts of hydrochloric acid left unchanged, and can then be immediately employed for the manufacture of chlorate of potash.
But most of the chlorine is utilized for the production of bleaching-powder, of bleach-liquor, and of chlorate of potash.Advertisement
On adding to this solution, after settling out the mud, a quantity of potassium chloride equivalent to the calcium chlorate, the reaction Ca(C10 3) 2 +2KC1=CaC1 2 +2KC10 3 is produced, the ultimate proportions thus being theoretically 2KC10 3 to 6CaCl2, though in reality there is rather more calcium chloride present.
When this solution is concentrated by evaporation and cooled down, about five-sixths of the chlorate of potash crystallizes out.
During these operations care must be taken lest a spark should produce the inflammation of the chlorate on contact with any organic substance.
Large quantities of potassium chlorate exposed to strong heat in contact with the wood of casks or the timber of a roof have produced violent explosions.
For the last-named purpose it is sometimes replaced by sodium chlorate.Advertisement
This has indeed become the principal, because it is the cheapest, process for the manufacture of potassium and sodium chlorate.
The electrolysis is carried on until about a quarter of the chloride has been transformed; it must be stopped at this stage lest the formation of hypochlorite and chlorate should set in.
This is filtered, washed, and then fused with caustic soda, when the sulpho-group is replaced by a hydroxyl group, and a second hydroxyl group is simultaneously formed; in order to render the formation of this second group easier, a little potassium chlorate or sodium nitrate is added to the reaction mixture.
At the same time he was working with Thenard at the improvement of the methods of organic analysis, and by combustion with oxidizing agents, first potassium chlorate and subsequently copper oxide, he determined the composition of a number of organic substances.
Nickel sesquioxide, N1203, is formed when the nitrate is decomposed by heat at the lowest possible temperature, by a similar decomposition of the chlorate, or by fusing the chloride with potassium chlorate.Advertisement
The halogen of lower atomic weight can displace one of higher atomic weight from its hydrogen compound, or from the salt derived from such hydrogen compound, while, on the other hand, the halogen of higher atomic weight can displace that of lower atomic weight, from the halogen oxy-acids and their salts; thus iodine will liberate chlorine from potassium chlorate and also from perchloric acid.
As this oxide is a dangerous explosive, great care must be taken in its preparation; the chlorate is finely powdered and added in the cold, in small quantities at a time, to the acid contained in a retort.
It is a very powerful oxidant; a mixture of potassium chlorate and sugar in about equal proportions spontaneously inflames when touched with a rod moistened with concentrated sulphuric acid, the chlorine peroxide liberated setting fire to the sugar, which goes on burning.
Berthollet, and is best prepared by decomposing barium chlorate with the calculated amount of dilute sulphuric acid.
Stas determined its composition by the analysis of pure silver chlorate.Advertisement
Potassium perchlorate, Kcio 4, can be obtained by carefully heating the chlorate until it first melts and then nearly all solidifies again.
The fused mass is then extracted with water to remove potassium chloride, and warmed with hydrochloric acid to remove unaltered chlorate, and finally extracted with water again, when a residue of practically pure perchlorate is obtained.
About 1839, on the recommendation of Graham, whom in 1837 he had accompanied to University College, London, he was appointed chemist at James Muspratt's alkali works in Lancashire; in connexion with alkali he showed that cast-iron vessels could be satisfactorily substituted for silver in the manufacture of caustic soda, and worked out improvements in the production of chlorate of potash.
The modern process consists in the electrolysis of a hot solution of potassium chloride, or, preferably, the formation of sodium chlorate by the electrolytic method and its subsequent decomposition by potassium chloride.
Potassium chlorate is very valuable in medicine.Advertisement
He also prepared potassium chlorate and attempted to use it in the manufacture of gunpowder as a substitute for saltpetre.
A saturated solution of potassium chlorate in strong nitric acid is added, and the mass evaporated to dryness.
The ore is treated as described in the cyanide method until the copper precipitated by the aluminium foil has been washed and dissolved in 5 cc. of nitric acid; then 0.25 gramme of potassium chlorate is added, and the solution boiled nearly dry to oxidize any arsenic present to arsenic acid.
In this process, the residues are boiled with a dilute sulphuric acid to which nitric acid and potassium chlorate are added in order to transform the element into selenic acid, H 2 Se0 4, which is then reduced to selenious acid, H 2 Se0 3, by boiling with hydrochloric acid, and finally to selenium by sulphur dioxide.
The substitution of potassium chlorate for pyrolusite is recommended when calcium chloride is present in the bittern.Advertisement
It has been used in combination with potassium chlorate as a composition for matches to strike on any surface.
Further, certain cubic crystals, such as sodium chlorate and bromate, and also some liquids and even vapours, rotate the plane of polarization of the light that traverses them, whatever may be the direction of the stream.
Which best explains the role of the potassium chlorate?
Sodium chlorate(I) solution is alkaline and contains enough hydroxide ions to carry out the second half of the reaction.
The area must be kept weed and litter free, but do not use sodium chlorate weedkiller.
It is still the commonest detonator, but it is now usually mixed with other substances; the British service uses for percussion caps 6 parts of fulminate, 6 of potassium chlorate and 4 of antimony sulphide, and for time fuses 4 parts of fulminate, 6 of potassium chlorate and 4 of antimony sulphide, the mixture being damped with a shellac varnish; for use in blasting, a home office order of 1897 prescribes a mixture of 4 parts of fulminate and 1 of potassium chlorate.
Most of the chlorate of potash is now prepared by electrolysis of potassium chloride (see below).
Like other glass products, smalti is composed of mostly silica, but then melted with potassium chlorate or sodium.