In English law chivalry meant the tenure of land by knights' service.
"Appreciate the chivalry," Katie retorted.
The pick of the feudal chivalry composed their ranks; with all Europe to draw upon, their resources seemed inexhaustible, and centuries of political experience made them as formidable in diplomacy as they were valiant in warfare.
I saw chivalry and flags of truce in 1805; they humbugged us and we humbugged them.
It is, however, certain that the " most noble " Order of the Garter at least was instituted in the middle of the 14th century, when English chivalry was outwardly brightest and the court most magnificent.
And it was long after knighthood had acquired its present meaning with us that chivalry was incorporated into our language.
The chivalry of France, undisciplined and careless of the lesson of Crecy and Poitiers, was quickly stung into action, and the French mounted men charged, only to be driven back in confusion.
Two modes of conferring knighthood appear to have prevailed from a very early period in all countries where chivalry was known.
The Crusades are the offensive side of chivalry: chivalry is their parent - as it is also their child.
Every feudal court and castle was in fact a school of chivalry, and although princes and great personages were rarely actually pages or squires, the moral and physical discipline through which they passed was not in any important particular different from that to which less exalted candidates for knighthood were subjected.'
The Court of Chivalry was a court instituted by Edward III., of which the lord high constable and earl marshal of England were joint judges.
Therefore the tears and the blood that were shed were not unavailing; the heroism and the chivalry were not wasted.
Gawain (Welwain, Welsh Gwalchmai), Arthur's nephew, who in medieval romance remains the type of knightly courage and chivalry, until his character is degraded in order to exalt that of Lancelot.
io) the young monarch and the flower of the Magyar chivalry were overwhelmed by fourfold odds on Turkish soil.
But his halfnaked, ill-armed ploughboys were at last overmatched by the mailclad chivalry of the nobles.
For the more important religious as distinguished from the military orders of knighthood or chivalry the reader is referred to the headings ST John Of Jerusalem, Knights Of; Teutonic Knights; and Templars.
In 1485 Henry, earl of Richmond, disembarked here on his return from France, and was welcomed on landing by Sir Rhys ap Thomas and much of the chivalry of Wales.
If you do anything contrary to the order of chivalry (which God forbid), I shall hack the spurs from your heels."
The Cursor Mundi had turned religious history into something not very different from a romance of chivalry, and in the stories of Handlyng Synne the influence of the fabliaux is not far to seek.
But strategic considerations were cancelled by the Persian barons' code of chivalry, and Alexander found them waiting for him on the banks of the Granicus.
To the brilliant court of Marienburg, not only a school of chivalry, but under Winrich's predecessor Luther of Brunswick, a literary centre,(fn3) men came from all over Europe to win their spurs.
was the most brilliant in Europe, and he was himself well fitted to be the head of the magnificent chivalry that obtained fame in the French wars.
His camp was a school of chivalry, his court a nursery of poets and artists.
Other virtues were all his own, his extreme gentleness, his love for children, his flawless honesty, his invariable kindliness, his chivalry to women and the weak.
But sometimes it was a really noble and inspiring strain that reached these woods, and the trumpet that sings of fame, and I felt as if I could spit a Mexican with a good relish--for why should we always stand for trifles?--and looked round for a woodchuck or a skunk to exercise my chivalry upon.
But if they did catch me they'd string me up to an aspen tree, and with all your chivalry just the same.
No doubt these romances, taken alone, might give as unfair an idea as modern French novels give of Parisian morals, but we have abundant other evidence for placing the moral standard of the age of chivalry definitely below that of educated society in the present day.
Thus "to do chivalry" was a medieval phrase for "to act the knight."
The chronicle of Villehardouin is justly held to be the very best presentation we possess of the spirit of chivalry - not the designedly exalted and poetized chivalry of the romances, not the self-conscious and deliberate chivalry of the 14th century, but the unsophisticated mode of thinking and acting which brought about the crusades, stimulated the vast literary development of the 12th and 13th centuries, and sent knights-errant, principally though not wholly of French blood, to establish principalities and kingdoms throughout Europe and the nearer East.
The process of inauguration was commenced in the evening by the placing of the candidate under the care of two "esquires of honour grave and well seen in courtship and nurture and also in the feats of chivalry," who were to be " governors in all things relating to him."
The barons alternated between the extravagances of Western chivalry and the attractions of Eastern luxury: they returned from the field to divans with frescoed walls and floors of mosaic, Persian rugs and embroidered silk hangings.
Though on her first landing Matilda only escaped capture through the misplaced chivalry of her opponent, she soon turned the tables upon him with the help of the Church and the barons of the west.
Even Gautier, while he contends that chivalry did much to refine morality, is compelled to admit the prevailing immorality to which medieval romances testify, and the extraordinary free behaviour of the unmarried ladies.
The neo-chivalry of the 14th century, in which a fantastic love of adventure had displaced the finer and more ideal motives of the old chivalry, looked towards the Vistula and Marienburg.
And in their indifference to the distinctions of race and nationality they merely accommodated themselves to the spirit which had become characteristic of chivalry itself, already recognized, like the church, as a universal institution which knit together the whole warrior caste of Christendom into one great fraternity irrespective alike of feudal subordination and territorial boundaries.
A series of fresh depositions were sent in against her, and in June 1679 it was decided that she must stand her trial; but she was protected by the king, who in this instance showed unusual chivalry and earned her gratitude.
by Henry Frith, Chivalry, London, 1891).
In the 11 th and 12th centuries the chivalry of Spain and southern France took up the struggle with the Moors as a holy war.
For the modern order of the Golden Fleece, see Knighthood And Chivalry, section Orders of Knighthood.
It was then that the analogy was first detected between the order of knighthood and the order of priesthood, and that an actual union of monachism and chivalry was effected by the establishment of the religious orders of which the Knights Templars and the Knights Hospitallers were the most eminent examples.
From a very early stage in the development of chivalry, however, we meet with the singular institution of brotherhood in arms; and from it the ultimate origin if not of the religious fraternities at any rate of the military companionships is usually derived.
He won a reputation as a bold knight in the fields of chivalry and in the crusades, and he inaugurated a new policy for his house by devoting more attention to his Italian possessions than to those on the French side of the Alps and in Switzerland.
The subject, taken from the age of Hungarian chivalry, is artistically worked out from medieval legends, and gives an excellent description of the times of St Ladislaus of Hungary.
As chivalry directed the layman to defend what was right, so the preaching of the Crusades directed him to attack what was wrong - the possession by "infidels" of the Sepulchre of Christ.
However this may be, remnants of their primitive superhuman qualities cling to the Celtic heroes long after they have been transfigured, under the influence of Christianity and chivalry, into the heroes of the medieval Arthurian romance, types - for the most part - of the knightly virtues as these were conceived by the middle ages; while shadowy memories of early myths live on, strangely disguised, in certain of the episodes repeated uncritically by the medieval poets.
As such a novum salutis genus, the Crusades connect themselves with the history of the penitentiary system; as the foreign policy of the Church they belong to that clerical purification and direction of feudal society and its instincts, which appears in the institution of "God's Truce" and in chivalry itself.
Of these the first three only, which are usually held to rank inter se in the order given, are historically identified with chivalry.
In spite of the silence of our records, Dr Stubbs thinks that kings so well acquainted with foreign usages as Ethelred, Canute and Edward the Confessor could hardly have failed to introduce into England the institution of chivalry then springing up in every country of Europe; and he is supported in this opinion by the circumstance that it is nowhere mentioned as a Norman innovation.
The Balkan hill-peoples of Illyrian or Thracian stock, the hill-peoples of Asia Minor and Iran, the chivalry of Media and Bactria, the mounted bowmen of the Caspian steppes, the camel-riders of the Arabian desert, could all be turned to account.
The miserable collapse of the Polish chivalry during the Bukovinian campaign of 1497 had convinced every one that the ruszenie pospolite was useless for serious military purposes, and that Poland, in order to hold her own, must in future follow the example of the West, and wage her warfare with trained mercenaries.
Moreover, the two hands and a castle, which form the arms of Antwerp, will not be dismissed as providing no proof by any one acquainted with the scrupulous care that heralds displayed in the golden age of chivalry before assigning or recognizing the armorial bearings of any claimant.
On the Continent the distinction which is commonly but incorrectly made between the nobility and the gentry has never arisen, and it was unknown here while chivalry existed and heraldry was understood.
Particularly under the grand master Winrich of Kniprode (1351-1382) it was the school of northern chivalry, engaged in unceasing struggle to defend and extend Christianity against the heathen Lithuanian.
His court was famous throughout Europe as a school of chivalry.
Hurd's Letters on Chivalry and Romance (1762) retain a certain interest for their importance in the history of the romantic movement, which they did something to stimulate.
Soon afterwards at Memel he entered into a close alliance with Prussia, not as he boasted from motives of policy, but in the spirit of true chivalry, out of friendship for the young king Frederick William and his beautiful wife.
And over all hangs the faint atmosphere of medievalism, of an England of green gardens and grey towers, of a London "small and white and clean," of chivalry and adventure in every brake.
Duke William was able, restless and adventurous, an ideal knight of the palmy days of chivalry.
The tournaments which took place under his auspices were worthy of the best days of chivalry in France and England.
While he was in the bath two " ancient and grave knights " attended him " to inform, instruct and counsel him touching the order and feats of chivalry," and when they had fulfilled their mission they poured some of the water of the bath over his shoulders, signing the left shoulder with the cross, and retired.
It may be true that, in the comparative scarcity of historical evidence, 12 th-century romances present a more favourable picture o£ chivalry at that earlier time; but even such historical evidence as we possess, when carefully scrutinized, is enough to dispel the illusion that there was any period of the middle ages in which the unselfish championship of " God and the ladies " was anything but a rare exception.
As a conscious effort to bring religion into daily life, chivalry was less successful than later puritanism; while the educated classes of our own day far surpass the average medieval knight in discipline, self-control and outward or inward refinement.
In Savoy in 1572 it was merged by Gregory (at the instance of Emanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy) in the order of St Maurice (see Knighthood And Chivalry: Orders of Knighthood, Italy).
The lectures on the Philosophy of Art stray largely into the next sphere and dwell with zest on the close connexion of art and religion; and the discussion of the decadence and rise of religions, of the aesthetic qualities of Christian legend, of the age of chivalry, &c., make the A sthetik a book of varied interest.
He founded an order of chivalry, the Ordre du Croissant, which was anterior to the royal foundation of St Michael, but did not survive Rene.
One advantage of the introduction of carriages was that it created a demand for a lighter and quicker sort of horse, instead of the ponderous animal which, despite all attempts to banish him, was still the horse of England - the age of chivalry having been the first epoch of the British horse.
They also find chivalry attractive, so if you are interested in a Libra, expect many doors to be held open for you.
In 1448 Hunyadi, now governor of Hungary, collected the largest army yet mustered by the Hungarians against the Turks, but he was defeated on the famous field of Kossovo and with difficulty escaped, while most of the chivalry of Hungary fell.
In early society, where the army is not a paid force but the armed nation, the cavalry must necessarily consist of the noble and wealthy, and cavalry and chivalry, as Freeman observes, 4 will be the same.
But there are grounds for believing that some of the rudiments of chivalry are to be detected in early Teutonic customs, and that they may have made some advance among the Franks of Gaul.
kt., sitting for the constable of England in a court of chivalry.
But within three months from this time the one duke accused the other of treason, and the truth of the charge, after much consideration, was referred to trial by battle according to the laws of chivalry.
THE ROUND TABLE, in the Arthurian Romance (q.v.), the table round which, in order to avoid quarrels as to precedence, King Arthur's knights are seated, and so applied collectively to the knights themselves as the title of a mythical order of chivalry.
Though of a fickle and treacherous nature, he had all the personal fascination of his family, and is extolled by his contemporaries as a mirror of chivalry.
The golden age of chivalry has been variously located.
chivalry called Bushido, a supernatural virtue of its rulers.
chivalry established in 1348 by Edward III.
Who said chivalry was dead, not the dashing red knight with the feather in his helmet!
Come, let us worship Beauty with the knightly faith of old, O chivalry of Labor toiling for the Age of Gold!
man chivalry is regrettably absent from today's society.
The Order, like many such organizations, drew heavily on the ideals of medieval chivalry.
The hemmed in French chivalry then charged through the muddy ground.
It is the spiritual home of the Order of the Garter, the senior order of British chivalry established in 1348 by Edward III.
It is not needful to describe the conditions of medieval chivalry with great particularity of detail.
Caltrap's Corner: A variety of pages about modern chivalry, generally attacking " bogus " orders.
chivalry in the 20th century, a topic we shall continue in the July-August issue.
chivalry in the world had such a frivolous beginning.
Codes of Conduct and the strict etiquette of everyday court life revolved around the Code of Chivalry, courtly manners and courtly love.
ideals of chivalry and Knighthood would continue to live on and flourish.
The patricians (hence called leliaerts) relied upon the support of the French crown, but the fatal battle of Courtrai (1302), in which the handicraftsmen (clauwaerts) laid low the chivalry of France, secured the triumph of the democracy.
For the Italian orders of knighthood see KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY: Orders of Knighthood.
The military spirit was evolved, not in raids and massacres of the usual Asiatic type which create little but intense racial hatred, but in feuds between families and factions of the same race, which restrained ferocity and tended to create a temper like that of the feudal chivalry of Europe.
The lady is promised to him if he will go to learn chivalry of Domnall the Soldierly and the amazon Scathach in Alba.
But it was an easier thing to consecrate the fighting instinct than to curb it; and the institution of chivalry represents such a clerical consecration, for ideal ends and noble purposes, of the martial impulses which the Church had hitherto endeavoured to check.
She was already the home of the Cluniac movement, the centre from which radiated the truce of God, the chosen place of chivalry; she could supply a host of feudal nobles, somewhat loosely tied to their place in society, and ready to break loose for a great enterprise; she had suffered from battle and murder, pestilence and famine, from which any escape was welcome.
The European war was now renewed; in 1526 the sultan, marching from Belgrade, crossed the Danube and took Peterwardein and Esseg; on the field of Mohacs he encountered and defeated the Hungarians under king Louis II., who was killed with the flower of the Hungarian chivalry (see Hungary: History).
Napier held his Moslem ally in great esteem, and entertained a very high opinion of his political acumen and chivalry as a leader and soldier.
The court of the lord high steward seems to have been first definitely instituted in 1499 for the trial of Edward Plantagenet, earl of Warwick; only two years earlier Lord Audley had been condemned by the court of chivalry, a very different and unpopular tribunal.
caballerius), the knightly class of feudal times, possessing its own code of rules, moral and social (see Knighthood And Chivalry).
Concerning the origin of knighthood or chivalry as it existed in the middle ages - implying as it did a formal assumption of and initiation into the profession of arms - nothing beyond more or less probable conjecture is possible.
and Mills, History of Chivalry, vol.
Learning chivalry, and then going on a date while wearing an earpiece to listen to instructions from teammates.
The order of the Legion of Honor is treated under KNIGHTHOOD AND CHIVALRY.
Such of them as are not genuine relics of the 12th century are either poetical versions of the leading episodes in the hero's life as contained in the Chronicle, that Chronicle itself having been doubtless composed out of still earlier legends as sung by the wandering juglares, or pure inventions of a later time, owing their inspiration to the romances of chivalry.
KNIGHTHOOD and Chivalry.
It is probably to this period and these circumstances that we must look for at all events the rudimentary beginnings of the military as well as the religious orders of chivalry.
22; History of Chivalry; Gibbon, Decline and Fall, vii.
was thus indiscriminately enjoyed even in the earlier days of chivalry.
But, by whomsoever conferred, knighthood at one time endowed the recipient with the same status and attributes in every country wherein chivalry was recognized.
316 seq., and after him by Mills, History of Chivalry, i.
The last case was that of Sir Francis Michell in 1621, whose spurs were hacked from his heels, his sword-belt cut, and his sword broken over his head by the heralds in Westminster Hall.8 Roughly speaking, the age of chivalry properly so called may be said to have extended from the beginning of the crusades to the end of the Wars of the Roses.
The spirit of chivalry implies the arbitrary choice of one or two virtues to be practised in such an exaggerated degree as to become vices, while the ordinary laws of right and wrong are forgotten.
Chivalry again in its military aspect not only encourages the love of war for its own sake without regard to the cause for which war is waged, it encourages also an extravagant regard for a fantastic show of personal daring which cannot in any way advance the objects of the siege or campaign which is going on.
Chivalry in short is in morals very much what feudalism is in law: each substitutes purely personal obligations devised in the interests of an exclusive class, for the more homely duties of an honest man and a good citizen " (Norman Conquest, v.
The chivalry from which Burke drew his ideas was, so far as it existed at all, the product of a far later age.
In its own age, chivalry rested practically, like the highest civilization of ancient Greece and Rome, on slave labour; 9 and if many of its 8 Dallaway's Heraldry, p. 303.
The knightly ages will always enjoy the glory of having formulated a code of honour which aimed at rendering the upper classes worthy of their exceptional privileges; yet we must judge chivalry not only by its formal code but also by its practical fruits.
Cornish: " Chivalry taught the world the duty of noble service willingly rendered.
Chivalry was an imperfect discipline, but it was a discipline, and one fit for the times.
Indeed, economic causes contributed much to the decay of romantic chivalry.
Although by the code of chivalry no candidate could be knighted before the age of twenty-one, we have seen how great nobles like the Berkeleys obtained that honour for their infant heirs in order to avoid possible pecuniary loss; and French writers of the r4th century complained of this knighting of infants as a common and serious abuse.'
3 This rule, however, had often been broken before; even the romances of chivalry speak not infrequently of the knighting of serfs or jongleurs; 4 and other causes besides distraint of knighthood tended to level the old distinctions.
a national effort, the strict code of chivalry was more honoured in the breach than in the observance.'
But when the Hundred Years' War brought a real national conflict between England and France, when archery became of supreme importance, and a large proportion even of the cavalry were mercenary soldiers, then the exigencies of serious warfare swept away much of that outward display and those class-conventions on which chivalry had always rested.
as it was encouraged by John of France; and while John's father opened the Crecy campaign by sending Edward a challenge in due form of chivalry, Edward took advantage of this formal delay to amuse the French king with negotiations while he withdrew his army by a rapid march from an almost hopeless position.
Much as he admired the French chivalry, he recognized their impotence at Crecy.
Froissart is perhaps the source from which we may gather most of chivalry in its double aspect, good and bad.
Cornish, Chivalry (London, 1901), too little reference to the more prosaic historical documents, but candid and without intentional partiality.
Ep. xciv.: the whole letter should be read); and, half a century earlier still, Guibert of Nogent gives an equally unflattering picture of contemporary chivalry in his De vita sua (Migne, Pat.
After routing the chivalry of Christendom at the battle of Nikopoli in 1396, he pursued his victorious career in Greece, and Constantinople would doubtless have fallen before his attack, had not the emperor Manuel Palaeologus bought him off by timely concessions which reduced him practically to the position of Bayezid's vassal.
1 The treaty of Vienna, which added largely to the grand-duchy of Warsaw, he complained had " ill requited him for his loyalty," and he was only mollified for the time by Napoleon's public declaration that he had no intention of restoring Poland, and by a convention, signed on the 4th of January 1810 but not ratified, abolishing the Polish name and orders of chivalry.
This was a heedless piece of chivalry on Edward's part.
David was a knight of the French school of late chivalry: he was not a general like Bruce or Randolph.
These battles were fought in the spirit of chivalry, and were followed, in 1389, by a three years' truce.
This famous romance of chivalry survives only in a Castilian text, but it is claimed by Portugal as well as by Spain.
The name " California " was taken from Ordonez de Montalvo's romance of chivalry Las Sergas de Esplandian (Madrid, 15 ro), in which is told of black Amazons ruling an island of this name " to the right of the Indies, very near the quarter of the terrestrial paradise."
Ladies gorgeously clad, and knights, showing by their dress and bearing their anxiety to revive the glories and the follies of the age of chivalry, jostled mountebanks, mendicants and vendors of all kinds.
The chivalry of Germany pouring through Alpine passes for an Italian campaign, or a coronation, left little trace in history except the lesson of their futility.
They were, for it, the ages of romance and chivalry.
We do not need to be reminded that Beatrice's adorer had a wife and children, or that Laura's poet owned a son and daughter by a concubine, in order to perceive that the mystic passion of chivalry was compatible in the middle ages with commonplace matrimony or vulgar illegitimate connexions.
He was also expected to prove himself an adept in physical exercises and in the courteous observances which survived from chivalry.
The affectations of decadent chivalry disappeared before its humour; the lineaments of a noble nation, animated by the youth of modern Europe emerging from the middle ages, were portrayed in its enduring pictures of human experience.
In 1512 at the battle of Ravenna, where his father and elder brother were killed, he displayed prodigies of valour, and received the highest honours of chivalry from his imperial cousin, who conferred upon him with his own hands the spurs, the collar and the eagle of gold.
These he developed along lines of his own, where Christian Neoplatonism curiously mingles with theories of chivalry and disinterestedness, borrowed from the precieuses of his own time.
Rich as its romanceiro is, its volume is far less than the Spanish, but the cancioneiros remain to prove that the early love songs of the whole Peninsula were written in Portuguese, while the primitive prose redaction of Amadis, the prototype of all romances of chivalry, was almost certainly made in Portugal, and a native of the same country produced in the Diana of Montemor (Montemayor) the masterpiece of the pastoral novel.
The romanceiro, comprising romances of adventures, war and chivalry, together with religious and sea.
Romances of chivalry belonging to the various cycles must have penetrated into Portugal at an early date, and the Nobiliario of the Conde D.
The taste for romances of chivalry continued throughout the 5th century, but of all that were produced the only one that has come down to us is the Estorea do Imperador Vespasiano, an introduction to the Graal Cycle, based on the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus.
Like most successful romances of chivalry, it had a numerous progeny, but its sequels, D.
The historian Barros tried his youthful pen in a romance of chivalry, the Chronica do Imperador Clarimundo, while in another branch, and a popular one in Portugal, the Arthurian cycle, the dramatist Ferreira de Vasconcellos wrote Sagramor or Memorial das proesas da segunda Tavola Redonda.
Physically handsome and strong, model knights of the days of chivalry, hard fighters, wise statesmen, they were born leaders of men; always ready to advance the commerce of the country, they were the supporters of the growing towns, and likewise the pioneers in the task of converting a land of marshes and swamps into a fertile agricultural territory rich in flocks and herds.
Disagreeably awakened to the insecurity of his position by the refusal of the tsar and the sultan to accept him as a vassal, he feigned to resume negotiations with the Poles in order to gain time, dismissed the Polish commissioners in the summer of 1648 with impossible conditions, and on the 23rd of September, after a contest of three days, utterly routed the Polish chivalry, 40,000 strong, at Pildawa, where the Cossacks are said to have reaped an immense booty after the fight was over.
He frequently assisted Philip in conducting negotiations with foreign powers, and he was an arbiter in tournaments and on all questions of chivalry, where his wide knowledge of heraldry was highly useful.
The greater part of this chronicle is merely a copy of the work of Enguerrand de Monstrelet, but Le Fevre is an original authority for the years between 1428 and 1436 and makes some valuable additions to our knowledge, especially about the chivalry of the Burgundian court.
In September 1356 John gathered the flower of his chivalry and attacked the Black Prince at Poitiers.
Unfortunately for England his ambition was to be tile mirror of chivalry rather than a model administrator He took up and abandoned great enterprises with equal levity; he was reckless in the spending of money; and in times of trouble he was careless of constitutional precedent, and apt to push his prerogative to extremes.
In most respects he was a perfect exponent of the ideals and foibles of his age, and when he broke a promise or repudiated a debt he was but displaying the less satisfactory side of the habitual morality of the 14th century the chivalry of which was often deficient in the less showy virtues.
Even in the age of chivalry the lords of Berkeley were notable warriors.
The plot dealing first with the life and death of Gunnar, type of the chivalry of his day, then with the burning of Nial by Flosi, and how it came about, and lastly with Kari's revenge on the burners, is the ideal saga-plot.
Some forty or fifty of these Riddara-Sogur (Romances of Chivalry) remain.
At the call of, the pope other members of the French chivalry also made victorious expeditions against the Mussulmans, and founded the Christian kingdom of Portugal.
The courteous ideal of French chivalry, with its delectable language, was adopted by all seigniorial Europe, which thus became animated, as it were, by the life-blood of France.
The Flemings, however, soon wearying of the oppressive administration of the French governor, Jacques de Chtillon, and the recrudescence of patrician domination, rose and overwhelmed the French chivalry at Courtrai (1302) a prelude to the coming disasters of the Hundred Years War.
and Philip VI., both of them young, fond of the life of chivalry, festal magnificence, and the belles apertises darmes.
It was as at Crcy and Poitiers; the French chivalry, accustomed to mere playing at battle in the tourneys, no longer knew how to fight.
or John the Good for undertaking belles apertises darmes; but then a lack of chivalry combined with a temporizing policy had not been particularly unsuccessful in the case of his grapdfather Charles V.
As early as 1509 Tarnowski brilliantly distinguished himself in Moldavia, and took a leading part in the great victories of Wisniowiec (1512) and Orsza (1514), where he commanded the flower of the Polish chivalry.
We are so accustomed to regard Hunyadi as the incarnation of Christian chivalry that we are apt to forget that he was a great captain and a great statesman as well as a great hero.
The persistent emphasis upon such features as the rejection of Saul, his enmity towards David, the latter's chivalry, and his friendship for Jonathan, will partly account for the present literary intricacies; and, on general grounds, traditions of quite distinct origin (Calebite or Jerahmeelite; indigenous Judaean; North Israelite or Benjamite) are to be expected in a work now in post-exilic form.'
The poem was first written down by a wandering minstrel about 971 to 991, was remodelled about 1140 by Konrad,' who introduced interpolations in the spirit of chivalry and was perhaps responsible for the metre; during the wars and miseries of the next fifty years manners and taste became barbarized and the fine traditions of the old popular poetry were obscured, and it was under this influence that, about 1190, a jongleur (Spielmann) revised the poem, this recension being represented by group B.
chivalry followed by King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.
" But," as Hallam says, " he who fought on horseback and had been invested with peculiar arms in a solemn manner wanted nothing more to render him a knight; " and so he concludes, in view of the verbal identity of " chevalier " and " caballarius," that " we may refer chivalry in a general sense to the age of Charlemagne."
But it is easy to understand the half-despairing adoration with which a shrewd and somewhat prosaic person like Joinville must have regarded this flower of chivalry born out of due time.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.