How to use Chinese in a sentence
Chinese nurse came to see me, her name was Asu.
The agitation against the influx of Chinese commenced industry.
There are numerous Arab and Chinese traders.
There wasn't much left to Saturday but the time was spent lounging around, munching on Chinese takeout and drinking Coors beer.
Its industries include cotton-spinning, brewing, distilling, and the manufacture of tobacco, earthenware and matches; native industry produces carved and inlaid furniture, bronzes and artistic metalwork, silk embroidery, &c. Hanoi is the junction of railways to Hai-Phong, its seaport, Lao-Kay, Vinh, and the Chinese frontier via Lang-Son.Advertisement
Finally, to enable them to work their mines to their full capacity, the Rand houses asked for leave to import Chinese labourers.'
The home government concurred, and during1904-1906over 50,000 Chinese were brought to the Rand on three-years' indentures.
By the introduction of the Chinese the gold output from the mines was greatly increased, with the result that the Transvaal suffered less than any other part of South Africa from the restriction of commerce, which lasted for several years.
The name Lao, which appears to mean simply "man," is the collective Siamese term for all the Thai peoples subject to Siam, while Shan, said to be of Chinese origin, is the collective Burmese term for those subject to Burma.
The Chinese used also to employ it largely, and the Persians and Spaniards still mix it with their rice.Advertisement
Like their neighbours the Cambodians and the Chinese, the Annamese have a great respect for the dead, and ancestor worship constitutes the national religion.
In the midst of the Annamese live Cambodians and immigrant Chinese, the latter associated together according to the districts from which they come and carrying on nearly all the commerce of the country.
Until the British occupation of Burma but little was known as to its occurrence, though it had been worked for centuries and was highly valued by the natives and by the Chinese.
His great successor, Kublai Khan (1280-1294), rebuilt the town, which he called Yenking, and which became known in Chinese as Ta-tu, or "great court," and in Mongolian as Khanbalik (Cambaluc), or "city of the khan."
The modern city consists of the nei ch' eng, or inner city, commonly known to foreigners as the "Tatar city," and the wai ch' eng, or outer city, known in the same way as the "Chinese city."Advertisement
Unlike the walls of most Chinese cities, those of Peking are kept in perfect order.
Another of Yung-lo's bells is hung in a Buddhist temple outside the north-west angle of the city wall, and is covered both on the inside and outside with the Chinese texts of the Lankavatara Sutra, and the Saddharma pundarika Sutra.
Outside the Forbidden City the most noteworthy building is the Temple of Heaven, which stands in the outer or Chinese city.
In 1899, when a Department of Mines was created by the Chinese Government, he was appointed Director-General of Mines.
The broad mountainous slope by which it is connected with the lower levels of Hindostan contains the ranges known as the Himalaya; the name Kuen-lun is generally applied to the northern slope that descends to the central plains of the Gobi, though these mountains are not locally known under those names, Kuen-lun being apparently a Chinese designation.Advertisement
Chinese Between these ranges, which are probably permanently region.
From the north of Manchuria the Khingan range stretches southward to the Chinese frontier near Peking, east of which the drainage falls into the Amur and the Yellow Sea, while to the west is an almost rainless region, the inclination of which is towards the central area of the continent, Mongolia.
Its eastern part is nearly conterminous with south Mongolia, its western forms Chinese or eastern Turkestan.
The more northern parts of Mongolia are between 4000 and 6000 ft., and no portion of the route across the desert between the Chinese frontier and Kiakhta is below 3000 ft.
On its western side, which is occupied by an immigrant Chinese population, are open and well-cultivated plains; on the east it is mountainous, and occupied by independent indigenous tribes in a less advanced state.Advertisement
His fourth journey in 1883-1885 was to Sining (the great trade centre of the Chinese borderland), and thence through northern Tibet (crossing the Altyn Tagh to Lop Nor), and by the Cherchen-Keriya trade route to Khotan.
Following Prjevalsky the Russian explorers, Pevtsov and Roborovski, in 1889-1890 (and again in 1894), added greatly to our knowledge of the topography of western Chinese Turkestan and the northern borders of Tibet; all these Russian expeditions being conducted on scientific principles and yielding results of the highest value.
Shaw subsequently accompanied Forsyth's mission in 1870, when Henry Trotter made the first maps of Chinese Turkestan.
No more valuable contribution to the illustration of western Chinese configuration has been given to the public than that of C. C. Manifold who explored and mapped the upper basin of the Yang-tsze river between the years 1900 and 1904, whilst our knowledge of the geography of the Russo-Chinese borderland on the north-east has been largely advanced by the operations attending the RussoJapanese war which terminated in 1905.
The great highland plateau which tion stretches from the Himalaya northwards to Chinese Turkestan, and from the frontier of Kashmir eastwards to China, has now been defined with comparative geographical exactness.Advertisement
On the north the Chinese Turkestan explorations are now brought into survey connexion with Kashmir and India.
No longer do we regard the Kuen-lun mountains, which extend from the frontiers of Kashmir, north of Leh, almost due east to the Chinese province of Kansu, as the southern limit of the Gobi or Turkestan depression.
This range (known to the ancients as Taurus and in medieval times as Bolor) like many others of the Chinese .
The great central depression of the continent which reaches from the foot of the Pamir plateau on the west through the Tarim desert to Lop Nor and the Gobi has yielded up many interesting Chinese secrets.
Beyond this point the Anglo-Russian Commission of 1895 demarcated a line to the snowfields and glaciers which overlook the Chinese border.Advertisement
Between the Russian Pamirs and Chinese Turkestan the rugged line of the Sarikol range intervenes, the actual dividing line being still indefinite.
The population may be set down roughly as 823,000,000, of which 330,000,000 inhabit Chinese territory, 302,000,000 British, and 25,000,000 Russian.
Farther south, in the Chinese provinces of Shansi and Shensi, the geological succession is similar in some respects to that of the Siberian Palaeozoic plateau, but the sequence is more complete.
There is also a corresponding diffusion o f Japanese and Chinese forms along this zone, these being most numer - ous in the eastern Himalaya, and less frequent in the west.
The analysis of the Hong Kong flora indicates that about threefifths of the species are common to the Indian region, and nearly all the remainder are either Chinese or local forms. The number of species common to southern China, Japan and northern Asia is small.Advertisement
South China, therefore, seems, botanically, hardly distinct from the great Indian region, into which many Chinese forms penetrate, as before noticed.
The Manchus and Mongols are chiefly Buddhist, with letters derived from the ancient Syriac. The Manchus are now said to be gradually falling under the influence of Chinese civilization, and to be losing their old nomadic habits, and even their peculiar language.
The Chinese branch of the Mongolian family are a thoroughly settled people of agriculturists and traders.
Cochin-China is more nearly Chinese in all respects.
From thence they returned late in the 18th century to the reoccupation of their old ground in Kulja under the Chinese.Advertisement
The words " Asiatic " and " Oriental " are often used as if they denoted a definite and homogeneous type, but Russians resemble Asiatics in many ways, and Turks, Hindus, Chinese, &c., differ in so many important points that the common substratum is small.
In the sphere of direct influence fall Korea, Japan and Annam; in the outer sphere are Mongolia, Tibet, Siam, Cambodia and Burma, where Indian and Chinese influence are combined, the.
Where Chinese influence had full play it introduced Confucianism, a special style in art and the Chinese system of writing.
The cumbrous Chinese script maintains itself in the Far East, but has not advanced west of China proper and Annam.
But it made no progress in Indo-China or Japan; and though there is a large Moslem population in China the Chinese influence has been stronger, for alone of all Asiatics the Chinese have succeeded in forcing Islam to accept the ordinary limitations of a religion and to take its place as a creed parallel to Buddhism or any other.Advertisement
It is clear, however, that the Chinese came from the west, and entered their present territory along the course of the Hwang-ho at an unknown period, possibly about 3000 B.C. In early historical times China consisted of a shifting confederacy of feudal states, but about 220 B.C. the state of Tsin or Chin (whence the name China) came into prominence, and succeeded in forming a homogeneous empire, which advanced considerably towards the south.
China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.
The Mongol dynasty lasted less than a century, but the Ming, the native Chinese dynasty which succeeded it, reigned for nearly 300 years and despatched expeditions which reached India, Ceylon and East Africa.
Until the advent of Europeans, the Chinese were always in contact with inferior races.
Whether they expanded at the expense of weak aboriginal tribes or were conquered by more robust invaders, Chinese civilization prevailed and assimilated alike the conquered and the conquerors.
The spirit of the Chinese polity is self-contained, anti-military and anti-sacerdotal.
The most conspicuous figure in Chinese literature is Confucius (55 1 -475 B.C.).
Authentic history does not begin till about the 6th century A.D., when Chinese civilization and Buddhism were introduced.
In 1895 they defeated the Chinese and ten years later the Russians.
Unlike the Chinese and Indians, they have hitherto not had the smallest influence on the intellectual development of Asia, and though they have in the past sometimes shown themselves intensely nationalist and conservative, they have, compared with India and China, so little which is really their own that their assimilation of foreign ideas is explicable.
Korea received its civilization and religion from China, but differs in language, and to some extent in customs. An alphabet derived from Indian sources is in use as well as Chinese writing.
A powerful native dynasty reigned in the 12th century, but in 1408 the island was attacked by Chinese, and from 1505 onwards it was distracted by the attacks and squabbles of Europeans.
Indian influence is predominant as far as Cambodia (though with a Chinese tinge), Indian alphabets being employed and the Buddhism being of the Sinhalese type, but in Annam and Tongking the Chinese script and many Chinese institutions are in use.
Until Annam was taken by the French, its history consisted of a struggle with the Chinese, who alternately asserted and lost their sovereignty.
It has entirely escaped Islam, and though it is a nominal vassal of China, direct Chinese influence has not been strong.
Such civilization as the Mongols possess is a mixture of Chinese and Indian, the latter derived chiefly through Tibet, but their alphabet is a curious instance of transplantation.
Thus with the exception of a little folklore the literature of Indo-China, Tibet, Mongolia, Korea and Manchuria is mainly Indian or Chinese.
The chief original literatures are Chinese, Sanskrit, Pali, Arabic and Persian.
The Japanese have produced few books of importance, and their compositions are chiefly remarkable as being lighter and more secular than is usual in Asia, but the older Chinese works take high rank both for their merits and the effect they have had.
Without counting subdivisions, there would seem to be three main schools of art in Asia at present - Chinese, Indian and Moslem.
Unlike Chinese art it has a genius for architecture and sculpture rather than painting.
Mathematics were cultivated by the Chinese, Indians and Arabs, but nearly all the sciences based on the observation of nature, including medicine, have remained in a very backward condition.
Histories and accounts of travels have been composed both in Arabic and Chinese.
The resemblances between primitive Christianity and Buddhism appear to be coincidences, and though both early Greek philosophy and later Alexandrine ideas suggest Indian affinities, there is no clear connexion such as there is between certain aspects of Chinese thought and India.
Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.
The Chinese name Yetha seems an attempt to represent the same sound.
Our earliest information about the Ephthalites comes from the Chinese chronicles, in which it is stated that they were originally a tribe of the great Yue-Chi, living to the north of the Great Wall, and in subjection to the Jwen-Jwen, as were also the Turks at one time.
Our knowledge of the Indian Hunas is chiefly derived from coins, from a few inscriptions distributed from the Punjab to central India, and from the account of the Chinese pilgrim Hsuan Tsang, who visited the country just a century after the death of Mihiragula.
The Chinese writers say that their customs were like those of the Turks; that they had no cities, lived in felt tents, were ignorant of writing and practised polyandry.
The Chinese statement that the Hoa or Ye-tha were a section of the great Yue-Chi, and that their customs resembled those of the Turks (Tu-Kiue), is probably correct, but does not amount to much, for the relationship did not prevent them from fighting with the Yue-Chi and Turks, and means little more than that they belonged to the warlike and energetic section of central Asian nomads, which is in any case certain.
A system of parallel ranges of mountains, culminating in the Chinese Chang pai Shan, " the long white mountains," on the Korean frontier, runs in a north-easterly direction from the shores of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
The original Manchurian railway was constructed under an agreement made in 1896 between the Chinese government and the Russo Chinese bank, an institution founded in 1895 to develop Manchurian .
Thence eat E min-ting and to Niu-chwang, and the link between Sin-min-ting and Mukden is also under Chinese control, The lines now under Russian control were laid down, and remain, on the 5 ft.
Throughout their history they appear as a rude people, the tribute they brought to the Chinese court consisting of stone arrow-heads, hawks, gold, 4 and latterly ginseng.
Assuming that, as the Chinese say, the Khitans were Manchus, the first appearance of the Manchus, as a people, in China dates from the beginning of the 10th century, when the Khitans, having first conquered the kingdom of Pohai, crossed the frontier into China 3 and established the Liao or Iron dynasty in the northern portion of the empire.
Thirteen years later, in 1617, after numerous border fights with the Chinese, Nurhachu drew up a list of ` c seven hates," or indictments, against his southern neighbours, and, not getting the satisfaction he demanded, declared war against them.
The Anglo-German agreement of October 1900, to which Japan also became a party, and by which it was agreed to " maintain undiminished the territorial condition of the Chinese empire," was considered by Great Britain and Japan not to exclude Manchuria; but Germany, on the other hand, declared that Manchuria was of no interest to her.
The Anglo-Japanese treaty of 1902, however, was ostensibly directed towards the preservation of Manchuria in Chinese hands.
British capital has been invested in the extension of the Chinese Northern railway to Niu-chwang, and the fact was officially recognized by an agreement between Great Britain and Russia in 1899.
In 1900, 95.5% were native born, 43' 7% were coloured (including 479 Chinese, Japanese and Indians), and in 1905 the percentages were little altered.
It is notorious, however, on the coasts that a Malay gang on board a ship invariably gets the better of any fight which may arise between it and the Chinese crew.
The number of Portuguese, English, Dutch and Chinese words in Malay is not considerable; their presence is easily accounted for by political or commercial contact.
It is also prepared by digesting precipitated mercuric sulphide with an alkaline sulphide fox some hours; it is said that Chinese vermilion owes its superiority to being made in this way.
He entered the navy in 1846, and served first at sea off Portugal in 1847; afterwards, in 1848, in the Mediterranean, and from 1848 to 1851 as midshipman of the "Reynard" in operations against piracy in Chinese waters; as midshipman and mate of the "Serpent" during the Burmese War of 1852-53; as mate of the "Phoenix" in the Arctic Expedition of 1854; as lieutenant of the "Hastings" in the Baltic during the Russian War, taking part in the attack on Sveaborg.
The tree which supplies the materials for the pith paper of the Chinese is not uncommon, and the cassia tree is found in the mountains.
In the lowlands of the western portion, the Chinese have introduced a large number of cultivated plants and fruit trees.
The rivers and neighbouring seas seem to be well stocked with fish, and especial mention must be made of the turtles, flying-fish, and brilliant I coral-fish which swarm in the waters warmed by the Kurosiwo current, the gulf-stream of the Pacific. Shell-fish form an important article of diet to both the Chinese and the aborigines along the coast - a species of Cyrena, a species of Tapes, Cytheraea petechiana and Modiola teres being most abundant.
The semi-civilized aborigines, who adopted the Chinese language, dress and customs, were called Pe-pa-hwan (Anglice Pepo-hoans), while their wilder brethren bear the name of Chin-hwan or" green savages," otherwise Sheng-fan or " wild savages."
Petty wars are extremely common, not only along the Chinese frontiers, but between the neighbouring clans; and the heads of the slain are carefully preserved as trophies.
Many of the tribes that had least intercourse with the Chinese show a considerable amount of skill in the arts of civilization.
It has a population of 4000 Chinese and 200 Japanese.
Six miles inland from Takau is a prosperous Chinese town called Fengshan (Japanese, Hozan).
One of the first abuses with which the Japanese had to deal was the excessive use of opium by the Chinese settlers.
In 1682 the Chinese of Formosa recognized the emperor K'ang-hi, and the island then began to form part of the Chinese empire.
From the close of the 17th century a long era of conflict ensued between the Chinese and the aborigines.
The aborigines, Sheng fan, or " wild savages," deserved the appellation in some respects, for they lived by the chase and had little knowledge even of husbandry; while the Chinese themselves, uneducated labourers, acknowledged no right except that of might.
But some of the most valuable products of the island, as camphor and rattan, are to be found in the upland forests, and the Chinese, whenever they ventured too far in search of these products, fell into ambushes of hill-men who neither gave nor sought quarter, and who regarded a Chinese skull as a specially attractive article of household furniture.
Reconciliation never took place on any large scale, though it is true that, in the course of time, some fitful displays of administrative ability on the part of the Chinese, and the opening of partial means of communication, led to the pacification of a section of the Sheng fan, who thenceforth became known as Pe-pa-hwan (Pepohoan).
In the early part of the 19th century the island was chiefly known to Europeans on account of the wrecks which took place on its coasts, and the dangers that the crews had to run from the cannibal propensities of the aborigines, and the almost equally cruel tendencies of the Chinese.
An attack made on those at Feng-shan (Hozan) in 1868 led to the occupation of Fort Zelandia and Anping by British forces; but this action was disapproved by the home government, and the indemnity demanded from the Chinese restored.
In 1874 the island was invaded by the Japanese for the purpose of obtaining satisfaction for the murder of a shipwrecked crew who had been put to death by one of the semi-savage tribes on the southern coast, the Chinese government being either unable or unwilling to punish the culprits.
The resident Chinese officials, however, refused to recognize the cession, declared a republic, and prepared to offer resistance.
A formal transfer to Japan was made in June of the same year in pursuance of the treaty, the ceremony taking place on board ship outside Kelung, as the Chinese commissioners did not venture to land.
The general state of the island when the Japanese assumed possession was that the plain of Giran on the eastern coast and the hill-districts were inhabited by semibarbarous folk, the western plains by Chinese of a degraded type, and that between the two there existed a traditional and continuous feud, leading to mutual displays of merciless and murderous violence.
By many of these Chinese settlers the Japanese conquerors, when they came to occupy the island, were regarded in precisely the same light as the Chinese themselves had been regarded from time immemorial by the aborigines.
Hsiian Tsang, the celebrated Chinese pilgrim, visited Benares in the 7th century A.D.
Tattnall not only brought the Toeywan under fire, but lent the aid of his boats to land detachments to turn the Chinese defences.
The Chinese pug is slender legged, with long hair and a bushy tail.
He attended King Edward's coronation in 1902, and accompanied the British army in person in the Chinese campaign of Igoe in command of the Bikanir Camel Corps, which also did good service in Somaliland in 1904.
Rice, dried fish, beans, pepper and oxen are the chief elements in the export trade of the country, which is in the hands of Chinese.
As early as the 12th century B.C., Chinese chronicles, which are almost the only source for the history of Cambodia till the 5th century A.D., mention a region called Fou-nan, in later times appearing under the name of Tchin-la; embracing the basin of the Menam, it extended eastwards to the Mekong and may be considered approximately coextensive with the Khmer kingdom.
From the last decade of the 13th century there dates a valuable description of Tchin-la 1 written by a member of a Chinese embassy thereto.
As to the origin of the peach two views are held, that of Alphonse de Candolle, who attributes all cultivated varieties to a distinct species, probably of Chinese origin, and that adopted by many naturalists, but more especially by Darwin, who looks upon the peach as a modification of the almond.
On the other hand, Alphonse de Candolle, from philological and other considerations, considers the peach to be of Chinese origin.
According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.
Honolulu is served by the Oahu railway, by electric lines to the principal suburbs, and by steamship lines to San Francisco, Seattle, Vancouver, Manila, Salina Cruz (Mexico), Victoria, Sydney, and Chinese and Japanese ports.
On the Pacific slope extinct volcanoes (mentioned in Chinese annals) have been reported in the Ilkhuri-alin mountains in northern Manchuria.
Engler's Versuch einer Entwickelungsgeschichte der Pflanzenwelt (Leipzig, 1879-1882), we should have in Siberia (a) the arctic region; (b) the sub-arctic or coniferous region - north Siberian province; (c) the Central-Asian domain - Altai and Daurian mountainous regions; and (d) the east Chinese, intruding into the basin of the Amur.
Later on serfdom, religious persecutions and conscription were the chief causes which led the peasants to make their escape to Siberia and build their villages in the most inaccessible forests, on the prairies and even on Chinese territory.
On the left of the Amur there are some 60,000 Chinese and Manchurians about the mouth of the Zeya, and 26,000 Koreans on the Pacific coast.
Usuri district were Koreans and Chinese, and in the Amur province there were nearly 15,000 Manchus and Koreans.
The resistance of the Chinese, however, obliged the Cossacks to quit their forts, and by the treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) Russia abandoned her advance into the basin of the river.
It was formerly a Chinese naval station strongly fortified, but was captured by the Japanese in February 1895, and occupied by their troops until May 1898, pending the payment of the indemnity.
Chinese war-vessels are at liberty to use the anchorage, notwithstanding the lease; and Chinese jurisdiction may continue to be exercised within the walled city of Wei-hai-wei, so far as not inconsistent with military requirements.
Wei-hai-wei was made the headquarters of a native Chinese regiment in the pay of Great Britain, and organized and led by British officers; but this regiment was disbanded in 1902.
Upon one of these is based the principle of the mariner's compass, which is said to have been known to the Chinese as early as I ioo B.C., though it was not introduced into Europe until more than 2000 years later; a magnet supported so that its axis is free to turn in a horizontal plane will come to rest with its poles pointing approximately north and south.
The property of orientation, in virtue of which a freely suspended magnet points approximately to the geographical north and south, is not referred to by any European writer before the 12th century, though it is said to have been known to the Chinese at a much earlier period.
After arranging at Hue with the king of Annam the condition of the French protectorate, he proceeded to Shanghai to settle with China the difficulties which had arisen over the evacuation of Tongking by the Chinese troops.
The settlement in Flying Fish Cove now numbers some 250 inhabitants, consisting of Europeans, Sikhs, Malays and Chinese, by whom roads have been cut and patches of cleared ground cultivated.
Under the provisions of the Anglo-French agreement of January 1896, from the Chinese frontier southwards to the mouth of the Nam Hok the Mekong forms the frontier between the British Shan States on the west and the territories acquired from Siam by France in 1893.
At the beginning of 1857 tidings from China reached England of a rupture between the British plenipotentiary in that country and the governor of the Canton provinces in reference to a small vessel or lorcha called the "Arrow," which had resulted in the English admiral destroying the river forts, burning 23 ships belonging to the Chinese navy and bombarding the city of Canton.
This portion of Mongolia is also much better watered, namely, by the Khatsyr, the Lao-ho and the Shara-muren, all flowing from the Khingan Mountains eastwards, and the last making the frontier between Mongolia and the Chinese province of Chihli.
It consists of Mongols - Eastern Mongols and Kalmucks in the west - various Turkish tribes, Chinese and Tunguses.
Agriculture is only carried on sporadically, chiefly in the south, where the Mongols have been taught by the Chinese.
There is a Chinese imperial agent at Urga.
A Chinese garrison is stationed here, and copper and iron are wrought in the neighbourhood by exiled Chinese criminals.
It is quite impossible to connect with our musical system the utterance of the sounds of which the Chinese and Annamese languages are composed.
These sovereigns were succeeded by another dynasty, under which, at the end of the 3rd century B.C., the Chinese invaded the country, and eventually established there a supremacy destined to last, with little intermission, till the 10th century A.D.
In 968 Dinh-Bo-Lanh succeeded in ousting the Chinese and founded an independent dynasty of Dinh.
Three lines of sovereigns followed that of Dinh, under the last of which, about 1407, Annam again fell under the Chinese yoke.
From a party-political point of view the period of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's premiership was chiefly marked by the continued controversies remaining from the general election of 1906, - tariff reform and free trade, the South African question and the allied Liberal policy for abolishing Chinese labour, the administration of Ireland, and the amendment of the Education Act of 1902 so as to remove its supposed denominational character.
The failure of the government in Ireland (where the only success was Mr Birrell's introduction of the Universities Bill in April 1908), their internal divisions as regards socialistic legislation, their variance from the views of the selfgoverning colonies on Imperial administration, the admission after the general election that the alleged "slavery" of the Chinese in the Transvaal was, in Mr Winston Churchill's phrase, a "terminological inexactitude," and the introduction of extreme measures such as the Licensing Bill of 1908, offered excellent opportunities of electioneering attack.
But he distributed the increased taxation so equally, and chose its subjects so wisely, that the ordinary administrative expenditure and the interest on the national debt were fully provided for, while the extraordinary expenditure for military purposes was met from the Chinese indemnity.
Here are collections of pictures and drawings, including the Raphael cartoons, objects of art of every description, mechanical and scientific collections, and Japanese, Chinese and Persian collections, and an Indian section.
This route was once made use of by the Chinese for purposes of pilgrimage, if not for invasion.
There are two superintendents of the Shan States, one for the northern and one for the southern Shan States, and an assistant superintendent in the latter; a superintendent of the Arakan hill tracts and of the Chin hills, and a Chinese political adviser taken from the Chinese consular service.
Lead is extracted by a Chinese lessee from the mines at Bawzaing (Maw-son) in the Myelat, southern Shan States.
The city and the dynasty were destroyed by a Chinese (or rather Mongol) invasion(1284 A.D.) in the reign of Kublai Khan.
But while the Burmans were extending their conquests in this quarter, they were invaded by a Chinese army of 50,000 men from the province of Yunnan.
The Chinese, on the contrary, having from an early period had excellent porcelain, have been careless about the manufacture of glass.
It seems probable that this is of Chinese manufacture.
The earliest articles of Chinese glass the date of which has been ascertained, which have been noticed, are some bearing the name of the emperor Kienlung (1735-1795), one of which is in the Victoria and Albert Museum.
The inhabitants are chiefly natives, but the shops are kept by Chinese merchants.
The art of boiling sugar was known in Gangetic India, from which it was carried to China in the first half of the 7th century; but sugar refining cannot have then been known, for the Chinese learned the use of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from Egyptian visitors?
It has long ranked as one of the great centres of Chinese commerce and Chinese learning.
The name Kinsai, which appears in Wassaf as Khanzai, in Ibn Batuta as Khansa, in Odoric of Pordenone as Camsay, and elsewhere as Campsay and Cassay, is really a corruption of the Chinese King-sze, capital, the same word which is still applied to Peking.
According to Chinese authorities it is 6 m.
It commemorates "the introduction and propagation of the noble law of Ta t'sin in the Middle Kingdom," and beneath an incised cross sets out in Chinese and Syriac an abstract of Christian doctrine and the course of a Syrian mission in China beginning with the favourable reception of Olopan, who came from Judaea in 636.
During the regency of Sophia, sister of Peter the Great, he was sent to the Amur to defend the new Muscovite fortress of Albazin against the Chinese.
The first Chinese coolies were introduced in 1849 to supply labourers on the sugar estates, which had begun to feel the effects of the suppression of the African slave traffic. At first the coolies were treated with cruelty.
Many Chinese are also settled in the coast cities.
He regulated the Chinese immigration to the coast-valleys, which from 1860 to 1872 had amounted to 58,606.
One of the chief products is building-stone, which is quarried by the Chinese.
Beyond the commercial portion, on each side, lie the Chinese quarters, wherein there is a closely packed population.
There is a police force composed of Europeans, Indian Sikhs and Chinese; and a strong military garrison.
There is an extensive Chinese passenger trade.
Of these, three are appointed by the governor (of whom one must be, and two at present are, members of the Chinese community); one is elected from the chamber of commerce, and one from the justices of the peace.
The attempts to connect the name Yahweh with that of an Indo-European deity (Jehovah-Jove, &c.), or to derive it from Egyptian or Chinese, may be passed over.
The inhabitants include many races besides Chinese, such as Shans, Lobos and Maotsze.
Water-deer frequent the neighbourhood of the large Chinese rivers where they crouch amid the reeds and grass in such a manner as to be invisible, even when not completely concealed by the covert.
The station is to a considerable extent a commercial depot for the country behind, and there are many universal supply shops of most nationalities (except British) - Austrian, Chinese and Indian.
Physical Characteristics.The best authorities are agreed that the Japanese people do not differ physically from their Korean and Chinese neighbors as much as the inhabitants of northern Europe differ from those of southern Europe.
It is true that the Japanese are shorter in stature than either the Chinese or the Koreans.
Yet in other physical characteristics the Japanese, the Koreans and the Chinese resemble each other so closely that, under similar conditions as to costume and coiffure, no appreciable difference is apparent.
Thus since it has become the fashion for Chinese students to flock to the schools and colleges of Japan, there adopting, as do their Japanese fellow-students, Occidental garments and methods of hairdressing, the distinction of nationality ceases to be perceptible.
If the theories hitherto held with regard to the origin of the Japanese people be correct, close relationship should exist between the Japanese and the Korean tongues, and possibly between the Japanese and the Chinese.
For example, the ideographs signifying rice or metal or water in Chinese were used tc convey the same ideas in Japanese.
There were two epochs in Japani study of the Chinese language first, the epoch when she received Confucianism through Korea; and, secondly, the epoch when sh began to study Buddhism direct from China.
Evidently this triplication of sounds had many disadvantages, but, on the other hand, the whole Chinese language may be said to have been grafted on the Japanese.
Chinese has the widest capacity of any tongue ever invented.
Chamberlain, the necessity of committing to memory two syllabaries, one of which has many variant forms, and at least two or three thousand Chinese ideographs, in forms standard and cursive ideographs, too, most of which are susceptible of three or four different readings according to circuinstance,add, further, that all these kinds of written symbols are apt to be encountered pell mell on the same page, and the task of mastering Japanese becomes almost Herculean.
Already by the time of its compilation the influence of Chinese civilization and Chinese literature had prevailed so greatly in Japan that the next authentic work, composed only eight years later, was completely Chinese in style and embodied Chinese traditions and Chinese philosophical doctrines, not distinguishing them from their Japanese context.
Standard Chinese soon became easier to understand than archaic Japanese, as the former alone was taught in the schools, and the native language changed rapidly during the century or two that followed the diffusion of the foreign tongue and civilization (CnAMBERLAIN).
In his country retreat at Shizuoka he formed one of the richest libraries ever brought together in Japan, and by will he bequeathed the Japanese section of it to his eighth son, the feudal chief of Owari, and the Chinese section to his ninth son, the prince of Kishu, with the result that under the former feudatorys auspices two works of considerable merit were produced treating of ancient ceremonials and supplementing the Nikongi.
Rai Sanyo devoted twenty years to the preparation of his 22 volumes and took his materials from 259 Japanese and Chinese works.
It is not to be inferred that the writers of Japan, enamoured as they were of Chinese ideographs and Chinese style, deliberately excluded everything Chinese from the realm of poetry.
On the contrary, many of them took pleasure in composing versicles to which Chinese words were admitted and which showed something of the parallelism peculiar to Chinese poetry, since the first ideograph of the last line was required to be identical with the final ideograph.
To women, indeed, from the 8th century onwards may be said to have been entrusted the guardianship of the pure Japanese language, the classical, or Chinese, form being adopted by men.
To this day the spoken language of Japanese women is appreciably simpler and softer than that of the men, and to this day while the educated woman uses the hiragana syllabary in writing, eschews Chinese sords and rarel pens an ideograph, the educated man employs the ideograp entirely, and translates his thoughts as far as possible into thi mispronounced Chinese words without recourse -to which it would be impossible for him to discuss any scientific subject, or even tc refer to the details of his daily business.
To this may be attributed the appearance of a group of nien known as kangakusha (Chinese scholars).
These Chinese scholars made no secret of their contempt for Buddhism, and in their turn they were held in aversion by the Buddhists and the Japanese scholars (wagakusha), so that the second half of the i8th century was a time of perpetual wrangling and controversy.
The worshippers at the shrine of Chinese philosophy evoked a reactionary spirit of nationalism, just as the excessive worship of Occidental civilization was destined to do in the I9th century.
There had not yet been any real escape from the tradition which assigned the crown of scholarship to whatever author drew most largely upon the resources of the Chinese language and learning.
But a few years ago they used to compile laborious essays, in which the inspiration was drawn from Occidental text-books, and the alien character of the source was hidden under a veneer of Chinese aphorisms., To-day they write terse, succinct, closely-reasoned articles, seldom diffuse, often witty; and generally free from extravagance of thought or diction.
During the long apprenticeship that educated Japanese serve to acquire the power of writing with the brush the complicated characters borrowed from Chinese, they unconsciously cultivate the habit of minute observation and the power of accurate imitation, and with these the delicacy of touch and freedom of hand which only long practice can give.
In the field of landscape the Japanese painter fully reached the eminence on which his great Chinese masters stood.
Tradition refers to the advent of a Chinese artist named Nanriu, invited to Japan in the 5th century as a painter of the Imperial banners, but of the labors and influence of Period, this man and of his descendants we have no record.
The real beginnings of the study of painting and sculpture in their higher branches must be dated from the introduction of Buddhism from China in the middle of the 6th century, and for three centuries after this event there is evidence that the practice of the arts was carried on mainly by or under the instruction of Korean and Chinese immigrants.
At the end of the 9th century there were two exotic styles of painting, Chinese and Buddhist, and the beginning of a native style founded upon these.
This early Chinese manner, which lasted in the parent country down to the end of the 13th century, was characterized by a viril,e grace of line, a grave dignity of composition, striking simplicity of technique, and a strong but incomplete naturalistic ideal.
The chief motives were landscapes of a peculiarly wild and romantic type, animal life, trees and flowers, and figtire compositions drawn from Chinese and Buddhist history and Taoist legend; and these, together with the grand aims and strange shortcomings of its principles and the limited range of its methods, were adopted almost without change by Japan.
It was a noble art, but unfortunately the rivalry of the Buddhist and later native styles permitted it to fall into comparative neglect, and it was left for a few of the faithful, the most famous of whom was a priest of the I 4th century named Kawo, to preserve it from inanition till the great Chinese renaissance that lent its stamp to the next period.
An accomplished artist in the Chinese manner, he amused himself and his friends by burlesque sketches, marked by a grace and humour that his imitators never equalled.
The native style, Yamato or Wa-gwa-ryi, was an adaptation of Chinese art canons to motives drawn from the court life, poetry Native and stories of old Japan.
The originality of the motive did not prevent the adoption of all the Chinese conventions, and of some new ones of the artists own.
Talented representatives of the Kose, Takuma Thhd and Tosa lines maintained the reputation of the Period, native and Buddhist schools, and the long-neglected Chinese school was destined to undergo a vigorous revival.
The motives remained almost identical with those of the Chinese masters, and so imbued with the foreign spirit were many of the Japanese disciples that it is said they found it difficult to avoid introducing Chinese accessories even into pictures of native scenery.
ShObun was an artist of little less power, but he followed more closely his exemplars, the Chinese masters of the 12th and 13th centuries; while Kano Masanob (1424-1520), trained in the love of Chinese art, departed little from the canons he had learned from Josetsu or Oguri SOtan.
The strength of Meicli, Sessh, Motonobu and Tanyu gave place to a more or less slavish imitation of the old Japanese painters and their Chinese exemplars, till the heirs to the splendid traditions of the great masters preserved little more than their conventions and shortcomings.
Throughout the whole of this period, embracing about a hundred years, there still continued to work, altogether apart from the men who were making the success of popular art, a large number of able painters of the Kano, Tosa and Chinese schools, who multiplied pictures that had every merit except that of originality.
It was in the middle of the 18th century that the decorative, but relatively feeble, Chinese art of the later Ming period found favor in Japan and a clever exponent in a painter named Ryurikyo It must be regarded as a sad decadence from the old Chinese ideals, which was further hastened, from about 1765, by the popularity of the southern Chinese style.
The naturalistic principle Natural- was by no means a new one; some of the old Chinese istk masters were naturalistic in a broad and, noble manner, Sc 00.
It was a farmers son named OkyO, trained in his youth to paint in the Chinese manner, who was first bold enough to adopt as a canon what his predecessors had only admitted under rare exceptions, the principle of an exact imitation of nature.
The books illustrated by the men of this school were mainly collections of useful information, guide-books, romances and historical and religious compilations; but much of the best of their work is to be found in the collections of pictorial designs, very often taken from Chinese sources, which were produced for the use of workers in lacquer, pottery and similar crafts.
The bronze image of the same divinity at Horyu-ji, said to have been cast at the beginning of the 7th century by Tori Busshi, the grandson of a Chinese immigrant, is of good technical quality, but much inferior in design to the former.
The great Nara school of sculpture in wood was founded in the early part of the 11th century by a sculptor of Imperial descent named JOchO, who is said to have modelled his style upon that of the Chinese wood-carvers of the Tang dynasty; his traditions were maintained by descendants and followers down to the beginning of the 13th century.
As to the former, the Japanese method does not differ from that seen in the beautiful iron censers and vases inlaid with gold which the Chinese produced from the Snen-tl era (1426-1436).
Bronze is called by the Japanese kara-kane, a term signifying Chinese metal and showing clearly the source from which knowledge of the alloy was obtained.
In the 8th century, however, when the court was moved to Nara, the influence of Chinese civilization made itself felt.
The plan of the city itself was taken from that of the Chinese metropolis.
Such as it was in Buddhist outline when first erected in accordance with Chinese Temple models, such it virtually remained, though in later A,vhitecture.
Sometimes Chinese cobalt was used, sometimes Japanese, and sometimes a mixture of both.
At Hirado the ceramists affected a lighter and more delicatetone than that of the Chinese, and, in order to obtain it, subjected the choice pigment of the Middle Kingdom to refining processes of great severity.
Taking the renowned yao-pien-yao, or transmutation ware of China as a model, the Takatori potters endeavoured, by skilful mixing of coloring materials, to reproduce the wonderful effects of oxidization seen in the Chinese ware.
Many examples of the above varieties deserve the enthusiastic admiration they have received, yet they unquestionably belong to a lower rank of ceramic achievements than the choice productions of Chinese kilns.
As for faience and pottery, howeverr the Chinese despised them in all forms, with one notable exception, the yi-hsing-yao, known in the Occident as boccaro.
In short, the artistic output of Chinese kilns in their palmiest days was, not faience or pottery,, but porcelain, whether of soft or hard paste.
It is a curious and interesting fact that this last product of Chinese skill remained unknown in Japan down to very recent days.
In the eyes of a Chinese connoisseur, no blue-and-white porcelain worthy of consideration exists, or ever has existed, except the kai-pien-yao, with its imponderable pdle, its wax-like surface, and its rich, glowing blue, entirely free from superficiality or garishness and broken into a thousand tints by the microscopic crackle of the glaze.
There remains, too, a wide domain in which the Chinese developed high skill, whereas the Japanese can scarcely be said to have entered it at all; namely, the domain of monochromes and polychromes, striking every note of color from the richest to the most delicate; the domain of truit and fiamb glazes, of yO-pien-yao (transmutation ware), and of egg-shell with incised or translucid decoration.
In all that region of achievement the Chinese potters stood alone and seemingly unapproachable.
Miyagawa soon began to cast about for a better inspiration, and found it in Adoption of the monochromes and polychromes of the Chinese Chinese Kang-hsi and Yung-cheng kilns.
Thenceforth his example was largely followed, and it may now be said that the tendency of many of the best Japanese ceramists is to copy Chinese chef s-dteuvre.
But a sharp distinction has to be drawn between the method of Seifu and that of the other six ceramists mentioned above as following Chinese fashions.
As for his ivory-white, it distinctly surpasses the Chinese Ming Chen-yao in every quality except an indescribable intimacy of glaze and p&e which probably can never be obtained by either Japanese or European methods.
It can scarcely be doubted that the true instincts of the ceramist will ultimately counsel him to confine his decoration over the glaze to vitrifiable enamels, with which the Chinese and Japanese potters of former times obtained such brilliant results.
The Hirado expert has not yet attained technical skill equal to that of the Chinese.
But his artistic instincts are higher than those of the Chinese, and there is reasonable hope that,in time he may excel their best works.
Only lately did Owari feel the influence of the new movement towards Chinese types.
In purity of tone and velvetlike gloss of surface there is distinct inferiority on the side of the Japanese ware, but in thinness of pale it supports comparison, and in profusion and beauty of incised decoration it excels its Chinese original.
The line chosen by these ceramists is purely Chinese.
Their great aim seems to be the production of the exquisite Chinese monochromes known as u-kwo-tien-tsing (blue of the sky after rain) and yueh-peh (clair-detune).
Lacquer.Japan derived the art of lacquering from China (probably about the beginning of the 6th century), but she ultimately carried it far beyond Chinese conception.
Two faults, however, marred the workfirst, the shapes were clumsy and unpleasing, being copied from bronzes whose solidity justified forms unsuited to thin enamelled vessels; secondly, the colors, sombre and somewhat impure, lacked the glow and mellowness that give decorative superiority to the technically inferior Chinese enamels of the later Ming and early Tsing eras.
The pieces do not quite reach the level of Chinese monochrome porcelains, but their inferiority is not marked.
The Chinese and Japanese cultivate another species, the Diospyros Kaki, of which there exist numerous ill-defined varieties.
Singapore had a Journal of the Indian Archipelago from 1847 to 1859, and the Chinese Repository (1832-1851) was edited at Carton by Morrison.
In1758-1759the Chinese conquered Dzungaria and East Turkestan, and the begs or rulers of Ferghana recognized Chinese suzerainty.
There are also, besides the Dutch, some Arabs, Chinese and a few Portuguese settlers.
The city was incorporated in 1862, and according to the census of 1886 the population was 14,000, including Chinese and Indians, spread over an area of 4 sq.
The compounds in general, especially those originally made for Chinese labourers, are well built, comfortable, and fulfil every hygienic requirement.
The " pan " is now only used by prospectors, while the " cradle " and " tom " are practically confined to the Chinese; the sluice is considered to be the best contrivance for washing gold gravels.
This at least is the excuse for the entire exclusion of Chinese labourers from the United States since 1882 (provisions made more severe in 1888 and 1892) (see also the article Co01.IE).
Though most of the land is under garden cultivation, the mass of the people is dependent more or less directly on mercantile pursuits; for, while the exclusive policy both of Chinese and Portuguese which prevented Macao becoming a free port till1845-1846allowed what was once the great emporium of European commerce in eastern Asia to be outstripped by its younger and more liberal rivals, the local, though not the foreign, trade of the place is still of very considerable extent.
In 1557 the Portuguese were permitted to erect factories on the peninsula, and in 1573 the Chinese built across the isthmus the wall which still cuts off the barbarian from the rest of the island.
Still the Portuguese remained largely under the control of the Chinese, who had never surrendered their territorial rights and maintained their authority by means of mandarins - these insisting that even European criminals should be placed in their hands.
Although Macao is de facto a colonial possession of Portugal, the Chinese government persistently refused to recognize the claim of the Portuguese to territorial rights, alleging that they were merely lessees or tenants at will, and until 1849 the Portuguese paid to the Chinese an annual rent of X71 per annum.
The formal treaty was signed in the same year, and arrangements were made whereby the Chinese imperial customs were able to collect duties on vessels trading with Macao in the same way as they had already arranged for their collection at the British colony of Hong-Kong.
From the time of the emperor Yao, upwards of 2000 years B.C., the Chinese had two different years, - a civil year, which was regulated by the moon, and an astronomical year, which was solar.
According to the missionary Gaubil, the Chinese divided the day into loo ke, each ke into loo minutes, and each minute into 00 seconds.
Since the accession of the emperors of the Han dynasty, 206 B.C., the civil year of the Chinese has begun with the first day of that moon in the course of which the sun enters into the sign of the zodiac which corresponds with our sign Pisces.
The Chinese divide the time of a complete revolution of the sun with regard to the solstitial points into twelve equal portions, each corresponding to thirty days, ten hours, thirty minutes.
For chronological purposes, the Chinese, in common with some other nations of the east of Asia, employ cycles of sixty, by means of which they reckon their days, moons and years.
Each day of the cycle has a particular name, and as it is a usual practice, in mentioning dates, to give the name of the day along with that of the moon and the year, this arrangement affords great facilities in verifying the epochs of Chinese chronology.
In the Chinese history translated into the Tatar dialect by order of the emperor K'ang-hi, who died in 1721, the characters of the cycle begin to appear at the year 2357 B.C. From this it has been inferred 8th May.
Since the year 163 B.C. the Chinese writers have adopted the practice of dating the year from the accession of the reigning emperor.
The periods thus formed are called by the Chinese Nien-hao.
According to this method of dating the years a new era commences with every reign; and the year corresponding to a Chinese date can only be found when we have before us a catalogue of the Nien-hao, with their relation to the years of our era.
Indian literature supplies few data for the period, and the available information has been collected chiefly from notices in Chinese annals, from inscriptions found in India, and above all from coins.
Here, according to Chinese authorities, their royal family was supplanted by a dynasty called Ki-to-lo (Kidara), who were also of Yue-Chi stock, but belonged to one of the tribes who had remained in Bactria when the Kushans marched to India.
The trade of Bangkok is almost entirely in the hands of Europeans and Chinese.
Mingling with Siamese and Chinese, who form the major part, may be seen persons of almost every race to be found between Bombay and Japan, while Europeans of different nationalities number over 1000.
They consist of the Sirani or Christian descendants of the Portuguese, of Malays, with a Papuan element, Galela men from the north of Halmahera, immigrants from Celebes, with some Chinese and Arabs.
On the overthrow of the dynasty about 1125 this prince, who is called by the Chinese Yeliu Tashi, and had gone through a complete Chinese education, escaped westward with a body of followers.
This Unc was in fact the prince of the Kerait, called by the Chinese Tuli, and by the Persian historians of the Mongols Toghral, on whom the Kin emperor of north China had conferred the title of "wang" or king, whence his coming to be known as Awang or Ung Khan.
In Asia the Chinese coalfields are of peculiar interest.
There were in 1900, 2,249,088 native whites, 1 79,357 persons of foreign birth, 836 Chinese, 470 Indians and 13 Japanese.
It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
It is regularly visited by the vessels of the China Navigation Company and the Chinese Merchants' Steam Navigation Company.
Straw or grass hats, straw mats, samshu (from the Shao-sing district), Chinese drugs, vegetable tallow and fish are among the chief exports; in 1904 the hats numbered 2,125,566, though in 1863 they had only amounted to 40,000, and the mats, mainly despatched to south China, average from 1,000,000, to 2,000,000.
His father was an officer in the artillery, and during his early years his education consisted mainly of the study of Chinese literature.
The seat of government is at Tanjong Pinang, a small port of 4000 inhabitants (including 160 Europeans and about 2000 Chinese), on the S.W.
The principal sulphur springs are the old sulphur well in the centre of Low Harrogate, discovered about the year 1656; the Montpellier springs, the principal well of which was discovered in 1822, situated in the grounds of the Crown Hotel and surmounted by a handsome building in the Chinese style, containing pump-room, baths and reading-room; and the Harlow Car springs, situated in a wooded glen about a mile west from Low Harrogate.
The people of colour in 1906 numbered 53,000, including 2300 Chinese and 6500 Maori half-castes.
The subsequent occupation of Port Arthur and other Chinese harbours by European powers, and the evident intention of consolidating Russian influence in Manchuria, were again and again the subject of Japanese representations at St Petersburg, and these representations became more vigorous when, in 1903, Russia seemed to be about to extend her Manchurian policy into Korea.
Behind these was the " Chinese Wall," and behind that more batteries and trenches.
The Japanese hand grenades consisted of about 1 lb of high explosive in a tin case; the Russian cases were of all sorts, including old Chinese shell.
At " G " they took a portion of the Chinese Wall and lost it again, other trenches with a cross fire being behind.
The town, which is built on a promontory at a point nearest to the mainland, is largely occupied by Chinese and Tamils, though the Malays are also well represented.
The population was composed of 71,462 Chinese, 34,286 Malays, 18,740 Tamils and other natives of India, 1649 Eurasians, 993 Europeans and Americans, and 1699 persons of other nationalities.
At the general election on March 1857, Palmer, finding that the independent part he had taken, especially in reference to the Chinese question, had alienated from him many of his constituents in Plymouth, abandoned the prospect of re-election for that borough, and did not seek for election elsewhere.
Ptolemy, who himself chiefly used the " Claws " (XnXai), speaks of it as a distinctively Chaldaean sign; 2 and it occurs as an extrazodiacal asterism in the Chinese sphere.
An ancient Chinese law, moreover, prescribed the regularization of weights and measures at the spring equinox.
They were transmitted from India by Buddhist missionaries to China, but remained in abeyance until the Jesuit reform of Chinese astronomy in the 17th century.
The native Chinese zodiacal system was of unexampled complexity.
The characteristic Chinese mode of dividing the "yellow road " of the sun was, however, by the twelve "cyclical animals " - Rat, Ox, Tiger, Hare, Dragon or Crocodile, Serpent, Horse, Sheep, Monkey, Hen, Dog, Pig.
For the Chinese series has the strange peculiarity of proceeding in a retrograde direction or against the course of the sun.
Tradition ascribes their invention to Tajao, minister of the emperor Hwang-ti, who reigned c. 2697 B.e., and it can scarcely be placed later than the 7th century B.e.4 The Chinese circle of the " animals " obtained early a wide diffusion.
Seven of the twenty days constituting the Aztec month bore names evidently borrowed from those of the Chinese horary signs.
Relationship of a more intimate kind connects the Hindu lunar mansions with those of the Arabs and Chinese.
The assertion, paradoxical at first sight, that the twenty-eight " hostelries " of the Chinese sphere had nothing to do with the moon's daily motion, seems to convey the actual fact.
Their number, as a multiple of four, was prescribed by the quaternary partition of the heavens, fundamental in Chinese astronomy.
The Hindu zodiacal constellations belong then to an earlier epoch than the Chinese " stations," such as they have been transmitted to our acquaintance.
Eight junction stars lie quite close to, seven others are actually identical with, Chinese determinants; 14 and many of these coincidences 9 Sir William Jones, As.
The small stellar groups characterizing the Arab " mansions of the moon " (manazil alkamar) were more equably distributed than either the Hindu or Chinese series.
Eighteen Chinese determinants were included in the Arab asterisms, and of these five or six were not nakshatra stars; consequently, they must have been taken directly from the Chinese series.
The decans are ranged on the outermost of its five concentric zones; the planets and the Greek zodiac in duplicate occupy the next three; while the inner circle is unaccountably reserved for the Chinese cyclical animals.
The Tatar zodiac is not unfrequently found engraven on Chinese mirrors in polished bronze or steel of the 7th century, and figured on the " plateau of the twelve hours "' 5 " Orat.
Of this total about 3,000,000 are Siamese, about 2,000,000 Laos, about 400,000 Chinese, 115,000 Malay, 80,000 Cambodian and the rest Burmese, Indian, Mohn, Karen, Annamite, Kache, Lawa and others.
The Laos predominate in northern and eastern Siam, Malays mingle with the Siamese in southern Siam, and the Chinese are found scattered all over, but keeping mostly to the towns.
Bangkok, the capital, with some 650,000 inhabitants, is about one-third Chinese, while in the suburbs are to be found settlements of Mohns, Burmese, Annamites and Cambodians, the descendants of captives taken in ancient wars.
The typical Siamese is of medium height, well formed, with olive complexion, darker than the Chinese, but fairer than the Malays, eyes well shaped though slightly inclined to the oblique, nose broad and flat, lips prominent, the face wide across the cheek-bones and the chin short.
Though able and intelligent cultivators they do not take kindly to any form of labour other than agricultural, with the result that most of the industries and trades of the country are in the hands of Chinese.
Meat is eaten, but, as the slaughter of animals is against Buddhist tenets, is not often obtainable, with the exception of pork, killed by Chinese.
When it is understood that there are over 30,000 Chinese, Annamese, Burmese and other Asiatic foreign subjects living in Siam, the importance to the country of this change will be to some extent realized.
The great southward expansion here recorded is confirmed by the Chinese annals of the period.
Japan was soon after this, in 1636, closed to foreigners; but trade was carried on at all events down to 1745 through Dutch and Chinese and occasional English traders.
But the Siamese now repudiate this supremacy, and have sent neither mission nor tribute for sixty years, while no steps have been taken by the Chinese to enforce its recognition.
Thus foreigners in Siam, except Chinese who have no consul, could only be tried for criminal offences, or sued in civil cases, in their own consular courts.
Its connexion with Chinese is clear though evidently distant, but its relationship with the other languages of the Tai group is very close.
A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the Chinese form, from an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts.
Chinese tombs are among the objects that strike the traveller's attention at Amboyna and other ancient settlements.
Natives, Chinese and Arabs, are given seats, and in certain instances some of the members are elected, but more generally they are appointed by government.