China Sentence Examples
A matching china cabinet held fine china, crystal and silverware.
It was, however, in the reigns of Severus and his immediate successors that Roman intercourse with India was at its height, and from the writings of Pausanias (c. 174) it appears that direct communication between Rome and China had already taken place.
The emperor Justinian (483-565), in whose reign the greatness of the Eastern empire culminated, sent two Nestorian monks to China, who returned with eggs of the silkworm concealed in a hollow cane, and thus silk manufactures were established in the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands.
The earliest Arabian traveller whose observations have come down to us is the merchant Sulaiman, who embarked in the Persian Gulf and made several voyages to India and China, in the middle of the 9th century.
Masudi, a great traveller who knew from personal experience all the countries between Spain and China, described the plains, mountains and seas, the dynasties and peoples, in his Meadows of Gold, an abstract made by himself of his larger work News of the Time.Advertisement
Ibn Batuta made the voyage through the Malay Archipelago to China, and on his return he proceeded from Malabar to Bagdad and Damascus, ultimately reaching Fez, the capital of his native country, in November 1349.
Among them was Nicolo Conti, who passed through Persia, sailed along the coast of Malabar, visited Sumatra, Java and the south of China, returned by the Red sea, and got home to Venice in 1444 after an absence of twenty-five years.
In Further India and the Malay Archipelago the Portuguese acquired predominating influence at sea, establishing factories on the Malabar coast, in the Persian Gulf, at Malacca, and in the Spice Islands, and extending their commercial enterprises from the Red sea to China.
He started in 1603, and, after traversing' the least-known parts of Central Asia, he reached the confines of China.
Among these is the Heng-shan, one of the Wu-yo or five sacred mountains of China, upon which the celebrated tablet of Yu was placed.Advertisement
Next after cottons come woollens, silk, cloth, chemicals, machinery, paper, furniture, hats, cement, leather, glass and china and other products.
The nucleus of the invading horde was a small pastoral tribe in Mongolia, the chief of which, known subsequently to Europe as Jenghiz Khan, became a mighty conqueror and created a vast empire stretching from China, across northern and central Asia, to the shores of the Baltic and the valley of the Danube - a heterogeneous state containing many nationalities held together by purely administrative ties and by an enormous military force.
A ship of an English squadron which was trying First to reach China by the North-East passage, entered the relations northern Dvina, and her captain, Richard Chancellor, with journeyed to Moscow in quest of opportunities for trade.
By the treaty of Aigun (May 28, 1858), and without any military operations, the cession of a great part of the basin of the Amur was obtained from China.
In Asia, after the accession of Nicholas II., the expansion of Russia, following the line of least resistance and stimulated by the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway, took the direction of northern China and the effete little kingdom of Korea.Advertisement
Much tobacco of excellent quality, principally for consumption in Persia, is also grown (especially in Fessa, Darab and Jahrom) and a considerable quantity of opium, much of it for export to China, is produced.
In proportion to its population China has the least railway development of any of the great countries of the world; the probability that its present commercial awakening will extend seems large, and in that case it will need a vast increase in its interior communications.
The town is celebrated for its manufacture of agate and carnelian ornaments, of reputation principally in China.
The cultivated plants of China are, with a few exceptions, the same as those of India.
Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.Advertisement
Their missionaries were received at the court of Akbar, and Benedict Goes, a native of the Azores, was despatched on a journey overland from Agra to China.
In 1583 Jan Hugen van Linschoten made a voyage to India with a Portuguese fleet, and his full and graphic descriptions of India, Africa, China and the Malay Archipelago must have been of no small use to his countrymen in their distant voyages.
The result was a more accurate map of China than existed, at that time, of any country in Europe.
The next journey was that of Fathers Grueber and Dorville about 1660, who succeeded in passing from China, through Tibet, into India.
He went thence to China, returned to Lhasa, and was in India in time to be an eye-witness of the sack of Delhi by Nadir Shah in 1737.Advertisement
The fossil egg of a struthious bird, Struthiolithus, has been found near Cherson, south Russia, and in north China.
The Palaearctic Subregion is, broadly speaking, Europe and Asia, with the exception of India and China.
The Himalo-Chinese or Transgangetic province shows the characteristics of its avifauna also far away to the eastward in Formosa, Hainan and Cochin China, and again in a lesser degree to the southward in the mountains of Malacca and Sumatra.
The Ahoms, together with the Shans of Burma and Eastern China and the Siamese, were members of the Tai race.
There is a trade with China, valued at less than half a million sterling annually.
Another event of1884-1885was the going forth to China of " The Cambridge Seven," in connexion with the China Inland Mission.
The Central African Mission (1858), indeed, is not for the most part manned by graduates, though it is led by them; but the Cambridge Mission at Delhi (1878), the Oxford Mission at Calcutta (1880), and the Dublin Missions in Chota Nagpur (Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, 1891) and the Fuh-Kien Province of China (Church Missionary Society, 1887) consist of university men.
Of these the China Inland Mission is the largest and most influential; and while it has sent forth many of this class, it has also enrolled not a few men and women of considerable wealth, education and social status.
They are especially valuable in Mahommedan countries, where open preaching is difficult and sometimes impossible, and also in works of mercy among barbarous tribes; while in China, which comes under neither of these two categories, they have been largely developed.
The Church Missionary Society, besides relying on the above-named Zenana Bible and Medical Mission and Church of England Zenana Missionary Society for women's work at several of its stations in India and China, sent out 500 single women in the fifteen years ending 1900; and the non-denominational missions above referred to have (including wives) more women than men engaged in their work - especially the China Inland Mission, which has sent out several hundreds to China.
The Australian Presbyterians have important agencies in the South Seas and in Korea, the Australian Baptists in Bengal, the Canadians of various denominations in the Far North-West of the Dominion, and in India and China.
The Basel Society, with its famous seminary at Basel, which formerly supplied many able German missionaries to the Church Missionary Society, has extensive work in India, West Africa and South China.
The old Swedish and Norwegian missionary societies work in South Africa, Madagascar and India; but large numbers of Scandinavians have been stirred up in missionary zeal, and have gone out to China in connexion with the China Inland Mission; several were massacred in the Boxer outbreaks.
International Missionary Alliance (1887), which has sent many missionaries to India and China.
Mott succeeded in forming students' associations in universities and colleges in several European countries, as well as in Turkey in Asia, Syria, India, Ceylon, China, Japan and Australia; and all these associations, over 150 in number, are now linked together in a great International Student Federation.
The story of modern missions in China begins with Robert Morrison of the London Missionary Society, who reached Canton in 1807, and not being allowed to reside in China entered the service of the East India Company.
Hudson Taylor, the founder of the China Inland Mission, and James Gilmour, the apostle of Mongolia, are pre-eminent.
In 1857 there were only about 400 baptized Protestant Christians in the whole of China.
Out of the agony, however, a new China was born.
The growing power of Japan, seen in her wars with China and Russia, and the impotence of the Boxers against the European allies, made all classes in China realize their comparative impotence, and the central government began a series of reforms, reorganizing the military, educational, fiscal and political systems on Western lines.
The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, under the inspiration of Lord William Cecil, were interesting themselves in 1910 in a scheme for establishing a Christian university in China.
One of Morrison's contemporaries hoped that after a century of mission work there might possibly be 2000 Christians in China.
The total number of Protestant missionaries (including wives) in China in 1910 was 4175, one to about IIoo sq.
The Anglican Church is not so strong in China as in some other fields; the American Episcopalians were first in the field in 1835, followed by the Church Missionary Society (in 1844), which has had stirring success in Fu-Kien, and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in 1874.
One of the most interesting features of missionary work in China is the comity that prevails among the workers of different societies and agencies.
The conference reported, " We have quite as much reason to be encouraged by the net result of the progress of Christianity in China during the 19th century as the early Christians had with the progress of the Gospel in the Roman Empire during the first century."
The war with China in 1894 marked a new chapter and initiated a time of intense national activity; education and work for women went forward rapidly.
In the Straits Settlement the foundations of modern missionary effort were laid by the London Missionary Society pioneers who were waiting to get into China; they were succeeded by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (1856), English Presbyterians (1875), Methodist Episcopalians (1884), who have a fine Anglo-Chinese College at Singapore, and the Church of England Zenana Society (1900).
When plants are required to stand in ornamental china pots or vases, it is better, both for the plants and for avoiding risk of breakage, to grow them in ordinary garden pots of a size that will drop into the more valuable vessels.
Some of the more popular annuals, hardy and half-hardy, have been very much varied as regards habit and the colour of the flowers, and purchases may be made in the seed shops of such things as China asters, stocks, Chinese and Indian pinks, larkspurs, phloxes and others, amongst which some of the most beautiful of the summer flowers may be found.
P. peltatum, the North American mandrake, has large umbrella-like leaves and white flowers; P. pleianthum, from China, purple.
The china aster is now one of the most popular of summer and fall plants.
For the first time in the earth's history we find Foraminifera taking a prominent part in the marine faunas; the genus Fusulina was abundant in what is now Russia, China, Japan, North America; Valvulina had a wide range, as also had Endothyra and Archaediscus; Saccammina is a form well known in Britain and Belgium, and many others have been described; some Carboniferous genera are still extant.
This, in brief, has been the history of its use in China, Tatary, Russia, Siberia and North America, and at present the employment of fancy furs among civilized nations has grown to be more extensive than at any former period.
In addition to the fur skins coming from North America vast numbers from Russia, Siberia, China, Japan, Australia and South America are offered during the same periods at public auction.
A few come from China, but the fur is yellowish-grey, slightly spotted and worth little.
DoG.-The only dogs that are used in the fur trade in civilized countries are those imported from China, which are heavy and coarse, and only used in the cheaper trade, chiefly for rugs.
It is found widely in the northern parts of America and in smaller numbers south of the United States, also in China, Japan and Australia.
They are found in Siberia, Amoor, China and Japan, but the best are from Siberia.
Mongolian lambs, size 24 X15 in., are of a short wavy loose curl, creamy white colour, and are usually exported from China dressed, the majority being ready-made into cross-shaped coats or linings.
Slink lambs come from South America and China.
The China sorts are much larger.
Marmots are also found in North America, Canada and China; the best, however, come from Russia.
Is of the amphibious class and is found throughout North America and in Russia, China and Japan.
Skins from Germany and China are smaller, and shorter in the wool.
The fur is most highly esteemed in Russia and China; in the latter country it is used to trim mandarins' state robes.
Some of the better haired sorts are dyed black and brown and used for men's motor coats when quite a waterproof garment is wanted, and they are used also for this quality in China.
Tigers are found throughout India, Turkestan, China, Mongolia and the East Indies.
The coats of the Bengal kind are short and of a dark orange brown with black stripes, those from east or further India are similar in colour, but longer in the hair, while those from north of the Himalayas and the mountains of China are not only huge in size, but have a very long soft hair of delicate orange brown with very white flanks, and marked generally with the blackest of stripes.
Good supplies are available from North America and Siberia and a very few from China.
Another great source of inexpensive furs is China, and for many years past enormous quantities of dressed furs, many of which are made up in the form of linings and Chinese looseshaped garments, have been imported by England, Germany and France for the lower class of business; the garments are only regarded as so much fur and are reworked.
One of the most remarkable results of the European intervention in the Boxer rising in China (I goo) was the absurd price paid for so-called "loot" of furs, particularly in mandarins' coats of dyed and natural fox skins and pieces, and natural ermine, poor in quality and yellowish in colour; from three to ten times their value was paid for them when at the same time huge parcels of similar quality were warehoused in the London docks, because purchasers could not be found for them.
The royal china factory is celebrated for models of Thorvaldsen's works in biscuit china.
He published Japan (1901); Japan and China (1903), as well as a Japanese-English dictionary, and was the author of the article Japan in the earlier volumes of this encyclopaedia.
The foreign-born in 1903 numbered 29,491, comprising 21,083 natives of China, 4300 natives of the United States of America, 2065 natives of Spain, and 721 natives of Japan.
To it came fleets from China, Japan, India, Malacca and other places in the Far East for an exchange of wares, and from it rich cargoes were sent by way of Mexico to the mother country in exchange for much cheaper goods.
The chief exports are iron and other ores, china clay, granite, fish and grain.
But it is common among the American Indians, as well as in China, Cambodia and India, although throughout Asia it is generally contrary both to law and religion.
But unmistakable traces of much more ancient bored springs appear in Lombardy, in Asia Minor, in Persia, in China, in Egypt, in Algeria, and even in the great desert of Sahara.
By careful dredging, the broad river is navigable as far as Brisbane for ocean-going vessels, and the port is the terminal port for the Queensland mail steamers to Europe, and is visited by steamers to China, Japan and America, and for various inter-colonial lines.
He directed the peace negotiations with Spain after the war of 1898, and not only secured American interests in the imbroglio caused by the Boxers in China, but grasped the opportunity to insist on "the administrative entity" of China; influenced the powers to declare publicly for the "open door".
It is doubtfully referred to in the book of ancient poems edited by Confucius, all of which are previous in date to 550 B.C. A tradition exists in China that a knowledge of tea travelled eastward to and in China, having been introduced S43 A.D.
The use of tea in China in the middle of the 9th century is known from Arab sources (Reinaud, Relation des Voyages, 1845, p. 40).
From China a knowledge of tea was carried into Japan, and there the cultivation was established during the 9th century.
It is somewhat curious that although many of the products of China were known and used in Europe at much earlier times, no reference to tea has yet been traced in European literature prior to 1588.
No mention of it is made by Marco Polo, and no knowledge of the substance appears to have reached Europe till after the establishment of intercourse between Portugal and China in 1517.
Pepys's often-quoted mention of the fact that on the 25th September 1660, "I did send for a cup of tee, a China drink, of which I never had drunk before," proves the novelty of tea in England at that date.
The first direct purchase in China was made at Amoy, the teas previously obtained by the Company's factors having bean purchased in Madras and Surat, whither it was brought by Chinese junks after the expulsion of the British from Java.
Difficulties with China doubtless showed the advisability of having an independent source of supply.
In the meantime a committee had been formed by Lord William Bentinck, the governor-general, for the introduction of tea culture into India, and an official had already been sent to the tea districts of China to procure seed and skilled Chinese workmen to conduct operations in the Himalayan regions.
The introduction of Chinese seed and Chinese methods was a mistake, and there seems little reason to doubt that, in clearing jungle for tea planting, fine indigenous tea was frequently destroyed unwittingly in order to plant the inferior China variety.
As cultivated in China it is an evergreen shrub growing to a height of from 3 to 5 ft.
In 1843, however, Mr Robert Fortune found that, although the two varieties of the plant existed in different parts of China, black and green tea were produced from the leaves of the same plant by varying the manufacturing processes.
From the variety Bohea, or from hybrids of descent from it, came the China teas of former days and the earlier plantings in India grown from imported China stock.
It exists in greater percentage in Indian and Ceylon teas than in those from Java, and is lowest in China and Japan teas.
In 1877, except to the initiated, tea meant China tea., India and Java were producing a little, but practically for use only in Great Britain and Holland.
More people are learning English in China than there are people who speak it in the United States.
The analysis of the Hong Kong flora indicates that about threefifths of the species are common to the Indian region, and nearly all the remainder are either Chinese or local forms. The number of species common to southern China, Japan and northern Asia is small.
The sturgeons, which abound in the Black Sea and Caspian, and ascend the rivers that fall into them, are also found in Asiatic Russia, and an allied form extends to southern China.
The insects of all southern Asia, including India south of the Himalaya, China, Siam and the Malayan Islands, belong to one.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
Modern missions have made no great conquests there, and in earlier times the Nestorians and Jacobites who penetrated to central Asia, China and India, received respectful hearing, but never had anything like the success which attended Buddhism and Islam.
In many parts of southern Asia are found semi-barbarous races representing the earliest known stratum of population, such as the Veddahs of Ceylon, and various tribes in China General a nd the Malay Archipelago.
Some connexion between Babylonia and China is generally admitted, and all Indian alphabets seem traceable to a Semitic original borrowed in the course of commerce from the Persian Gulf.
These countries, except Japan, have all been at some time at least nominal tributaries of China.
The cumbrous Chinese script maintains itself in the Far East, but has not advanced west of China proper and Annam.
But it made no progress in Indo-China or Japan; and though there is a large Moslem population in China the Chinese influence has been stronger, for alone of all Asiatics the Chinese have succeeded in forcing Islam to accept the ordinary limitations of a religion and to take its place as a creed parallel to Buddhism or any other.
To these may be added numerous lesser invasions of India, China and Persia.
Thus they are mainly responsible for the introduction of Islam with its Arabic or Persian civilization into India and Europe, and in earlier times their movements facilitated the infiltration of Graeco-Bactrian civilization into India, besides maintaining communication between China and the West.
This is the oldest of existing states, though its authentic history does not go back much beyond 1000 B.C. It is generally admitted that there was some connexion between the ancient civilizations of China and Babylonia, but its precise nature is still uncertain.
It is clear, however, that the Chinese came from the west, and entered their present territory along the course of the Hwang-ho at an unknown period, possibly about 3000 B.C. In early historical times China consisted of a shifting confederacy of feudal states, but about 220 B.C. the state of Tsin or Chin (whence the name China) came into prominence, and succeeded in forming a homogeneous empire, which advanced considerably towards the south.
The subsequent history of China is mainly a record of struggles with various tribes, commonly, but not very correctly, called Tatars.
China proper, minus these external provinces, was again united under the Sung dynasty (960-1127), but split into the northern (Tatar) and southern (Chinese) kingdoms. In the 13th century arose the Mongol power, and Kublai Khan conquered China.
Confucianism is an ethical rather than a religious system, and hence was able to co-exist, though not on very friendly terms, with Buddhism, which reached China about the 1st century A.D.
The second half of the 16th century was a period of ferment and anarchy, marked by the arrival of the Portuguese and the rise of some remarkable adventurers, one of whom, Hideyoshi, conquered Korea and apparently meditated the invasion of China.
The nation hardly came into existence till China and India had passed their prime, and remained secluded and free from the continual struggle against barbarian invaders, which drained the energies of its neighbours.
Unlike the Chinese and Indians, they have hitherto not had the smallest influence on the intellectual development of Asia, and though they have in the past sometimes shown themselves intensely nationalist and conservative, they have, compared with India and China, so little which is really their own that their assimilation of foreign ideas is explicable.
Korea received its civilization and religion from China, but differs in language, and to some extent in customs. An alphabet derived from Indian sources is in use as well as Chinese writing.
The country was at most periods independent though nominally tributary to China.
In the 16th century the Japanese occupied it for a short period, and in 1894 they went to war with China on account of her claims to suzerainty.
Cochin China was once the seat of a kingdom called Champa, which appears to have had a hinduized Malay civilization and to have been subsequently absorbed by Annam.
It has entirely escaped Islam, and though it is a nominal vassal of China, direct Chinese influence has not been strong.
The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.
Both China and Japan have felt through Buddhism the influence of Indian art, which contains at least two elements - one indigenous and the other Greco-Persian.
Though Europeans may be indebted to China for some mechanical inventions, she was too distant to produce much direct effect, and the influence of India has been mainly directed towards the East.
Alexander's conquests resulted in the foundation of a Perso-Greek kingdoms in Asia, which not only hellenized their own area but influenced the art and religion of India and to some extent of China.
Portugal was first on the scene, and in the r6th century established a considerable littoral empire on the coasts of East Africa, India and China, fragments of which still remain, especially Goa, where Portuguese influence on the natives was considerable.
It grows in marshy places; and is cultivated in China, the fruit having a supposed value as a diuretic and anti-phthisic. It was cultivated by John Gerard, author of the famous Herball, at the end of the 16th century as a tender annual.
Armillae are said to have been in early use in China.
Derby is also celebrated for its china, and silk-throwing is the principal industry of the town.
The Derby porcelain or china manufactory was started about 1750.
Oriental types range far northwards into China and Japan.
Of those travellers then the first to be here especially named is Marsigli, the fifth volume of whose Danubius Pannonico-Mysicus is devoted to the birds he met with in the valley of the Danube, and appeared at the Hague in 1725, followed by a French translation in 1744.8 Most of the many pupils whom Linnaeus sent to foreign countries submitted their discoveries to him, but Kalm, Hasselqvist and Osbeck published separately their respective travels in North America, the Levant and China.
The range of the genus extends from the southern bank of the Bramaputra in Assam to southern China, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra and Borneo.
This theory of disease disappeared sooner than did the belief in possession; the energumens (EVEp-yoiwEvoc) of the early Christian church, who were under the care of a special clerical order of exorcists, testify to a belief in possession; but the demon theory of disease receives no recognition; the energumens find their analogues in the converts of missionaries in China, Africa and elsewhere.
The ship to which he was appointed was ordered to China, and he found opportunities during the voyage for indulging his passion for exploration, making a journey from Rio de Janeiro to the base of the Andes, and another from Bombay through India to Ceylon.
In 1844 he left China, and, returning by India,.
The chief luxuries of the ancient world, silks, jewels, pearls, perfumes, incense and the like, were drawn from India, China and southern Arabia.
Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China.
The simplest cotton gin in extensive use is the " churka," used from early times, and still largely employed in India and China.
The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China, India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil, parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel, &c., and escape all statistical record.
The bulk of the cotton is of very short staple, about three-quarters of an inch, and is not well suited to the requirements of the English spinner, but very large mills specially fitted to deal with short-stapled cottons have been erected in India and consume about one-half the total crop, the remainder being exported to Germany and other European countries, Japan and China.
Cotton has not been cultivated in China from such early times as in India, and although cotton cloths are mentioned in early writings it was not until about A.D.
There are no figures obtainable as to the production, but it must be very large, considering that the crop provides clothing for a large proportion of the population of China.
The mollusc itself is often eaten, and dried for consumption in China and Japan.
As in the north of China, the rivers are frozen up during the four winter months.
The great plain in Sheng-king is in many parts swampy, and in the neighbourhood of the sea, where the soil emits a saline exudation such as is also common in the north of China, it is perfectly sterile.
This bird is exported in large numbers to northern China, where it is much prized on account of its extraordinary power of imitation.
Under the RussoJapanese treaty of August 1905, after the war, supplemented by a convention between Japan and China concluded in December of the same year, Japan took over the line from Port Arthur as far as Kwang-cheng-tsze, now known as the Southern Manchurian railway (508 m.).
In the southwest of Manchuria a line of the imperial railways of Northern China gives connexion from Peking, and branches at Kou-pang-tsze to Sin Population.
The ancient records of China and Japan are said to contain many allusions to the use of natural gas for lighting and heating.
Nothing came of either of these missions; but through them Europe first began to know the interior of Asia, for Carpini was conducted by the Mongols as far as Karakorum, the capital of the great khan, on the borders of China.
Other exports are tin and copper, granite, serpentine, vegetables and china clay.
Oberlin is primarily an educational centre, the seat of Oberlin College, named in honour of Jean Frederic Oberlin, and open to both sexes; it embraces a college of arts and sciences, an academy, a Theological Seminary (Congregational), which has a Slavic department for the training of clergy for Slavic immigrants, and a conservatory of music. In 1909 it had twenty buildings, and a Memorial Arch of Indiana buff limestone, dedicated in 1903, in honour of Congregational missionaries, many of them Oberlin graduates, killed in China in 1900.
In 1874, while captain of the "Audacious," he served for three years as flag-captain to viceadmiral Ryder in China; and finally he was appointed, in 1880, to command the "Thunderer" in the Mediterranean.
It forms part of the long line of islands which are interposed as a protective barrier between the Asiatic coast and the outer Pacific, and is the cause of the immunity from typhoons enjoyed by the ports of China from Amoy to the Yellow Sea.
Rice is grown in such quantities as to procure for Formosa, in former days, the title of the " granary of China "; and the sweet potato, taro, millet, barley, wheat and maize are also cultivated.
Pheasants, ducks, geese and snipe are abundant, and Dr C. Collingwood in his Naturalist's Rambles in the China Seas mentions .Ardea prasinosceles and other species of herons, several species of fly-catchers, kingfishers, shrikes and larks, the black drongo, the Cotyle sinensis and the Prinia sonitans.
But, influenced by medical views and by the almost insuperable difficulty of enforcing any drastic import veto in the face of Formosa's large communications by junk with China, the Japanese finally adopted the middle course of licensing the preparation and sale of the drug, and limiting its use to persons in receipt of medical sanction.
On the expulsion of the Ming dynasty in China, a number of their defeated adherents came over to Formosa, and under a leader called in European accounts Coxinga, succeeded in expelling the Dutch and taking possession of a good part of the island.
The question as to whether copper really was first used in Egypt is not yet resolved, and many arguments can be brought against the theory of Egyptian origin and in favour of one in Syria or further north.26 Egypt has also recently been credited with being the inceptor of the whole " megalithic (or heliolithic, as the fashionable word now is) culture " of mankind, from Britain to China and (literally) Peru or at any rate Mexico via the Pacific Isles.27 The theory is that the achievements of the Egyptians in great stone architecture at the time of the pyramid-builders so impressed their contemporaries that they were imitated in the surrounding lands, by the Libyans and Syrians, that the fame of them was carried by the Phoenicians further afield, and that early Arab and Indian traders passed on the megalithic idea to Farther India, and thence to Polynesia and so on so that both the teocalli of Teotihuacan and Stonehenge are ultimately derived through cromlechs and dolmens innumerable from the stone pyramid of Saqqara, built by Imhotep, the architect of King Zoser, about 3100 B.C. (afterwards deified as the patron of science and architecture).
The same phenomena have been witnessed, not only in the conflicts within the Church that marked the 13th to the 16th centuries, but in the different mission fields, and particularly in Madagascar and China.
The hairless dogs of Central Africa are greyhounds employed chiefly in hunting antelopes, and there are somewhat similar varieties in China, Central and South America.
In 1868 this developed into the Friends' Foreign Mission Association, which now undertakes Missionary work in India (begun 1866), Madagascar (1867), Syria (1869), China (1886),(1886), Ceylon (1896).
Amongst other works may be mentioned Histoire de la raison d'etat, La China et l'Europa, Corso d'istoria degli scrittori politici italiani.
He used his influence with the emperor of Russia, as also with the emperors of China and Japan and with the shah of Persia, to secure the free practice of their religion for Roman Catholics within their respective dominions.
Since 1710 Meissen has been the seat of the manufacture of Dresden china.
The trade of the United States with the island was as great in 1900-1907 as with Mexico and all the other West Indies combined; as great as its trade with Spain, Portugal and Italy combined; and almost as great as its trade with China and Japan.
There is also a unique collection of Swansea and Nantgarw china.
One portion of the tribe emigrated to China and was there exterminated; the remainder have disappeared among the Tuba Tatars and the Soyotes.
The climate of Cambodia, like that of Cochin China, which it closely resembles, varies with the monsoons.
It is not known as a wild plant in China or Japan.
The peach has not, it is true, been found wild in China, but it has been cultivated there from time immemorial; it has entered into the literature and folk-lore of the people; and it is designated by a distinct name, "to" or "tao," a word found in the writings of Confucius five centuries before Christ, and even in other writings dating from the 10th century before the Christian era.
According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.
While the peach has been cultivated in China for thousands of years, the almond does not grow wild in that country and its introduction is supposed not to go back farther than the Christian era.
The famous china manufactory of Nymphenburg, founded in 1754 at Neudeck by a potter named Niedermeyer, was shortly afterwards removed hither and, after being long under royal patronage, is now a private undertaking.
It is an important feature as affording foothold for the Janglam (the great high road of southern Tibet connecting Ladakh with China), which is denied by the actual valley of the Brahmaputra.
Prior to the building of the trans-Siberian railway a fairly active trade was carried on between China and the Amur region; but since the opening of that railway (in 1902-1905) the Amur region has seriously and rapidly declined in all that concerns trade, industry, general prosperity and civilization.
The accomplished fact was recognized by China in 1857 and 1860 by a treaty.
Port Arthur having in the spring of that year been acquired by the Russian government under a lease from China, a similar lease was granted of Wei-hai-wei to the British government,.
Wei-hai-wei is used by the China squadron as a sanatorium and exercising ground.
From this city as their base the Arabs, under Kotaiba (Qotaiba) ibn Moslim, early in the 8th century brought under subjection Balkh, Bokhara, Ferghana and Kashgaria, and penetrated into China as far as the province of Kan-suh.
His most important mission was in 1884, when he was sent as French minister to China to regularize the French dominion in Annam.
After arranging at Hue with the king of Annam the condition of the French protectorate, he proceeded to Shanghai to settle with China the difficulties which had arisen over the evacuation of Tongking by the Chinese troops.
The negotiation failed, and the French admiral resumed hostilities against China in August.
Throughout the greater part of its course in Tibet, where it is called the Dza-Chu, it flows south-eastwards to Chiamdo, on the great east and west caravan route from China to Lhasa.
From here to its outfall in the China Sea the river winds for some 400 m.
At the beginning of 1857 tidings from China reached England of a rupture between the British plenipotentiary in that country and the governor of the Canton provinces in reference to a small vessel or lorcha called the "Arrow," which had resulted in the English admiral destroying the river forts, burning 23 ships belonging to the Chinese navy and bombarding the city of Canton.
From Manchuria and China it is separated by the border ridge of the plateau - the Great Khingan, while in the south-west it runs up to the foot of the high northern border ridges of the Tibetan plateau - an artificial frontier separating it from east Turkestan and Dzungaria.
Inner Mongolia, lying between the desert of Gobi, China proper and Manchuria, is divided into 24 aimaks.
From the Dorah eastwards the crest of the Hindu Kush again becomes the boundary till it effects a junction with the Murtagh and Sarikol ranges, which shut off China from Russia and India.
From the Oxus (loon ft.) to Faizabad (4000 ft.) and Zebak (850o ft.) the course of the Kokcha offers a high road across Badakshan;, between Zebak and Ishkashim, at the Oxus bend, there is but an insignificant pass of 9500 ft.; and from Ishkashim by the Panja, through the Pamirs, is the continuation of what must once have been a much-traversed trade route connecting Afghan Turkestan with Kashgar and China.
History There is something almost pathetic in the childish wonder and delight with which mankind in its earlier phases of civilization gathered up and treasured stories of strange animals from distant lands or deep seas, such as are recorded in the Physiologus, in Albertus Magnus, and even at the present day in the popular treatises of Japan and China.
Closely allied with the Lao are a number of tribes found throughout the hill regions of the upper Mekong, between Yunnan and Kwangsi in China and the upper waters of the Menam in Siam.
Among other interesting features it contains information about the Nestorian Church of China in the 13th century - Yabhalaha was a native of Peking - an account of a journey through Central Asia, and a description of a visit to Europe by Rabban Sauma, the friend of the catholicus."
It has long been cultivated in Persia and Kashmir, and is supposed to have been introduced into China by the Mongol invasion.
According to their own annals and traditions they once inhabited southern China, a theory which is confirmed by many of their habits and physical characteristics; the race has, however, been modified by crossings with the Chams and other of the previous inhabitants of Indo-China.
China, and in what is now Tongking and northern Annam, are regarded by the Annamese as their ancestors, and tradition ascribes to their first rulers descent from the Chinese imperial family.
Its use was obviously continued by the Buddhists during the prevalence of their religion in India, for it is still used by them in Nepal, Tibet, Ceylon, Burma, China and Japan.
These countries all received Buddhism from India, and a large proportion of the porcelain and earthenware articles imported from China and Japan into Europe consists of innumerable forms of censers.
It may be said to spring from the head of the Taghdumbash Pamir, where it unites with the great meridional system of Sarikol stretching northwards, and the yet more impressive mountain barrier of Murtagh, the northern base of which separates China from the semi-independent territory of Kanjut.
On the east the Kachin, Shan and Karen hills, extending from the valley of the Irrawaddy into China far beyond the Salween gorge, form a continuous barrier and boundary, and tail off into a narrow range which forms the eastern watershed of the Salween and separates Tenasserim from Siam.
It rises possibly beyond the confines of Burma in the unexplored regions, where India, Tibet and China meet, and seems to be formed by the junction of a number of considerable streams of no great length.
The jade mines of Upper Burma are now practically the only source of supply of that mineral, which is in great demand over all China.
The boundary with Siam was demarcated in 1893, and that with China was completed in 1900.
The Wei dynasty, to which Tsaou-tsaou belonged, reigned in northern China, and at this day a considerable manufacture of glass is carried on at Po-shan-hien in Shantung, which it would seem has existed for a long period.
In the manufacture of ornamental glass the leading idea in China seems to be the imitation of natural stones.
The development of other species of Vitis, such as the curious succulent species of the Soudan and other parts of equatorial Africa, or the numerous kinds in India and Cochin China, is of course possible under suitable conditions; but it is obvious that an extremely long period must elapse before they can successfully compete with the product of many centuries.
Friar Odoric was despatched to the East, where a remarkable extension of missionary action was then taking place, about 1316-1318, and did not return till the end of 1329 or beginning of 1330; but, as regards intermediate dates, all that we can deduce from his narrative or other evidence is that he was in western India soon after 1321 (pretty certainly in 1322) and that he spent three years in China between the opening of 1323 and the close of 1328.
From India he sailed in a junk to Sumatra, visiting various ports on the northern coast of that island, and thence to Java, to the coast (it would seem) of Borneo, to Champa (South Cochin-China), and to Canton, at that time known to western Asiatics as Chin-Kalan or Great China (Mahachin).
In China his mention of Canton by the name of Censcolam or Censcolam (Chin-Kalan), and his descriptions of the custom of fishing with tame cormorants, of the habit of letting the finger-nails grow extravagantly, and of the compression of women's feet, are peculiar to him among the travellers of that age; Marco Polo omits them all.
The stem of the Guinea corn or sorghum (Sorghum saccharatum) has long been known in China as a source of sugar.
The art of boiling sugar was known in Gangetic India, from which it was carried to China in the first half of the 7th century; but sugar refining cannot have then been known, for the Chinese learned the use of ashes for this purpose only in the Mongol period, from Egyptian visitors?
The term clay is often used by chemists to denote hydrated silicate of alumina (Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2.2H 2 O), of which kaolin or china clay is a fairly pure form.
These canals pass through the richest and most populous districts of China, and in particular lead into the great silk-producing districts.
From the 10th to the 13th century (960-1272) the city, whose real name was then Ling-nan, was the capital of southern China and the seat of the Sung dynasty, which was dethroned by the Mongolians shortly before Marco Polo's visit.
The cultivation is widespread throughout Southern China.
The exports of manufactured tobacco, such as Manila cheroots, find their principal market in China, British India, Australasia and the United Kingdom, whilst of the leaf tobacco fully three-quarters goes to Spain.
In Ceylon tobacco is grown in the northern portion of the island; the produce is but little suited to the European market and is mainly exported to southern India and Cochin China.
The excitement caused at Paris by an unimportant reverse of the French troops at Lang-son caused his downfall (30th of March 1885), but the treaty of peace with China (9th of June 1885) was his work.
They showed a zeal for evangelization which resulted in the establishment of their influence throughout Asia, as is seen from the bishoprics founded not only in Syria, Armenia, Arabia and Persia, but at Halavan in Media, Mer y in Khorasan, Herat, Tashkent, Samarkand, Baluk, Kashgar, and even at Kambaluk (Pekin) and Singan fu Hsi`en fu in China, and Kaljana and Kranganore in India.
Early evidence of Nestorian missions in China is extant in the tablet found in 1625 at Chang`an in the district of Hsi`en-fu, province of Shensi.
It commemorates "the introduction and propagation of the noble law of Ta t'sin in the Middle Kingdom," and beneath an incised cross sets out in Chinese and Syriac an abstract of Christian doctrine and the course of a Syrian mission in China beginning with the favourable reception of Olopan, who came from Judaea in 636.
This evidence is confirmed by (a) the canon of Theodore of Edessa (800) allowing metropolitans of China, India and other distant lands to send their reports to the catholikos every six years; (b) the edict of Wu Tsung destroying Buddhist monasteries and ordering 300 foreign priests to return to the secular life that the customs of the empire might be uniform; (c) two 9th-century Arab travellers, one of whom, Ibn Wahhab, discussed the contents of the Bible with the emperor; (d) the discovery in 1725 of a Syrian MS. containing hymns and a portion of the Old Testament.
Nganhui is one of the most productive provinces of China.
An agreement was entered into in 1898 whereby China leased to Great Britain for ninety-nine years the territory behind Kowloon peninsula up to a line drawn from Mirs Bay to Deep Bay and the adjoining islands, including Lantao.
There is also a large paper currency in the form of notes issued by the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China, the Hong-Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation and the National Bank of China, Limited.
Formerly an integral part of China, the island of Hong-Kong was first ceded to Great Britain in 1841, and the cession was confirmed by the treaty of Nanking in 1842, the charter bearing the date 5th of April 1843.
Clement also forbade the practice of the Jesuit missionaries in China of "accommodating" their teachings to pagan notions or customs, in order to win converts.
He was received with distinguished honours in England and on the continent of Europe, g whence he made his way to India, China and Japan.
Formosa and the Pescadores were ceded to Japan by China after the war of 1894-1895, and the southern half of Sakhalinthe part south of 500 N.was added to Japan by cession from Russia in 1905.
These have their origin, for the most part, in the China Sea, especially in the vicinity of Luzon.
Starlings (muku-dori) are numerous, and so are the wagtail (sekirei), the swallow (tsubame) the martin (ten), the woodchat (mozu) and the jay (kakesu or kashi-dori), but the magpie (tOgarasu), though common in China, is rare in Japan.
The gad-fly (abu), the housefly (hai), the mosquito (ka), the flea (nonzi) and occasionally the bedbug (called by the Japanese kara-mushi because it is believed to be imported from China), are all fully represented, and the dragon-fly (tombO) presents itself in immense numbers at certain seasons.
For edible purposes the most valuable of the Japanese echinoderms is the sea-slug or bche de mer (namako), which is greatly appreciated and forms an important staple of export to China.
The first and most important is the Manchu-Korean type; that is to say, the type which prevails in north China and in Korea.
Small in stature, with a well-knit frame, the cheekbones prominent, the face generally round, the nose and neck short, a marked tendency to prognathism, the chest broad and well developed, the trunk long, the hands small and delicate this Malay type is found in nearly all the islands along the east coast of the Asiatic continent as well as in southern China and in the extreme south-west of Korean peninsula.
Iwleanwhile an inquirer is confronted by the strange fact that of three neighboring countries between which frequent communication existed, one (China) never deviated from an ideographic script; another (Korea) invented an alphabet, and the third (Japan) devised a syllabary.
Antiquaries have sought to show that Japan possessed some form of script before her first contact with either Korea or China.
Very different was the case when China presented her noble code of Confucian philosophy and the literature embodying it.
There were two epochs in Japani study of the Chinese language first, the epoch when she received Confucianism through Korea; and, secondly, the epoch when sh began to study Buddhism direct from China.
The latter were often little more than historical novels founded on facts; and the former, though nominally intended to engraft the doctrines of Buddhism and Shinto upon the philosophy of China, were really of rationalistic tendency.
The real beginnings of the study of painting and sculpture in their higher branches must be dated from the introduction of Buddhism from China in the middle of the 6th century, and for three centuries after this event there is evidence that the practice of the arts was carried on mainly by or under the instruction of Korean and Chinese immigrants.
Sessh (1421-1507) was a priest who visited China and studied painting there for several years, at length returning in 1469, dis-.
He was the boldest and most original of Japanese landscape artists, leaving powerful and poetic records of the scenery of his own land as well as that of China, and trusting more to the sure and sweeping stroke of the brush than to color.
It has been practised to some extent in China and Korea, but there is no evidence of its antiquity in these countries.
It is a golden yellow bronze, called seniokuthis being the Japanese pronunciation of Suen-t, the era of the Ming dynasty of China when this compound was invented.
In the forefront of the new movement are to be found men like Yoneharu Unkai and Shinkai Taketaro; the former chiselled a figure of Jenner for the Medical Association of Japan when they celebrated the centenary of the great physician, and the latter has carved life-size effigies of two Imperial princes who lost their lives in the war with China (1894 95).
Architects, turners, tilemakers, decorative artists and sculptors, coming from China and from Korea, erected grand temples for the worship of Buddha enshrining images of much beauty and adorned with paintings and carvings of considerable merit.
In the I3th century, however, the introduction 01 tea from China, together with vessels for infusing and serving it revealed to the Japanese a new conception of ceramic possibilities for the potters of the Middle Kingdom had then (Sung dynasty) fully entered the road which was destined to carry them ultimately to a high pinnacle of their craft.
It had long been customary in Japan to send students to China for the purpose of studying philosophy and religion, and she now (1223) sent a potter, Kato Shirozaemon, who, on his return, opened a kiln at Seto in the province of Owari, and began to produce little jars for preserving tea and cups for drinking it.
Nearly three centuries elapsed before a radically upward movement took place, and on this occasion also the inspiration came from China.
The existence of porcelain clay in Hizen was not discovered for many years, and Shonzuis pieces being made entirely with kaolin imported from China, their manufacture ceased after his death, though knowledge of the processes learned by him survived and was used in the production of greatly inferior wares.
Many of the pieces are distinguished by a peculiar creamy whiteness of glaze, suggesting the idea that they were intended to imitate the soft-paste wares of China.
Seto, in fact, acquired such a widespread reputation for its ceramic productions that the term seto-mono (Seto article) came to be used generally for all pottery and porcelain, just as China is in the West.
But, speaking generally, Japanese blues do not rank on the same decorative level with those of China.
Taking the renowned yao-pien-yao, or transmutation ware of China as a model, the Takatori potters endeavoured, by skilful mixing of coloring materials, to reproduce the wonderful effects of oxidization seen in the Chinese ware.
Directing his efforts at first to reproducing the deep green and straw-yellow glazes of China, he had exhausted almost his entire resources before success came, and even then the public was slow to recognize the merits of his ware.
He took for his models the raku faience of KiOto, the masterpieces of Ninsei and Kenzan, the rococc wares of Korea, the enamelled porcelain of China, and the blue-andwhite ware of Delft.
No faience produced either in China or any other Oriental country can dispute the palm with really representative specimens of Satsuma ware.
Seifu YOhei, however, has the special faculty of manufacturing monochromatic and jewelled porcelain and faience, which differ essentially from the traditional Kioto types, their models being taken directly from China.
It cannot be said, indeed, that his cladon shows the velvety richness of surface and tenderness of color that distinguished the old Kuang-yao and Lungchuan-yao of China, or that he has ever essayed the moss-edged crackle of the beautiful Ko-yao.
Hirado That, however, is an achievement of no small consequence, especially since it had never previously been essayed outside China.
The sum of the matter is that the modern Japanese ceramist, after many efforts to cater for the taste of the Occident, evidently concludes that his best hope consists in devoting all his technical and artistic resources to reproducing the celebrated wares of China.
Yet it is remarkable that China, at the close of the Ioth century, should have again furnished models to Japanese eclecticism.
Lacquer.Japan derived the art of lacquering from China (probably about the beginning of the 6th century), but she ultimately carried it far beyond Chinese conception.
All students of the ceramic art know that the monochrome porceMonochro- lains of China owe their beauty to the fact that the;afic t color is in the glaze, not under it.
They have passed entirely out of use, and are now to be seen in museums only, but the type still exists in China.
The chief articles of manufacture are machinery, woollen and cotton goods, silk ribbons, paper, tobacco, leather, china, glass, clocks, jewellery and chemicals.
In this leisurely journey Pallas went by Kasan to the Caspian, spent some time among the Kalmucks, crossed the Urals to Tobolsk, visited the Altai mountains, traced the Irtish to Kolyvan, went on to Tomsk and the Yenisei, crossed Lake Baikal, and extended his journey to the frontiers of China.
The United States (California) after 1848, and Australia after 1851, were responsible for enormous increases in the total production, which has been subsequently enhanced by discoveries in Canada, South Africa, India, China and other countries.
Since then the proportion furnished by these countries has been greatly lowered by the supplies from South Africa, Canada, India and China.
The gold production of China was estimated for 1899 at £1,328,238 and for 1900 at £860,00o; it increased in 1901 to about £1,700,000, to fall to £340,000 in 1905; in 1906 and 1907 it recovered to about £1,000,000.
The other cereal crops consist of mandua (a grass-like plant producing a coarse grain resembling rice), wheat, barley, and china, a rice-like cereal.
Their food consists of meat, chiefly pork, turnips, rice, barley-meal and tea made from the brick-tea of China.
This may be Aquilaria agallochum, a native of East India and China, which supplies the so-called eagle-wood or aloes-wood, which contains much resin and oil.
Though the /see' are thus strictly portions of solar time, yet what is remarkable, though not peculiar to China, they give their name to the lunar months, each month or lunation having the name of the chung-ki or sign at which the sun arrives during that month.
Kanishka and other monarchs were zealous but probably by no means exclusive Buddhists, and the conquest of Khotan and Kashgar must have facilitated the spread of Buddhist ideas to China.
Count Muraviev's policy was vacillating; in China his hands were forced by Germany's action at Kiaochow.
But he acted with singular legerete with regard at all events to his assurances to Great Britain respecting the leases of Port Arthur and Talienwan from China; he told the British ambassador that these would be "open ports," and afterwards essentially modified thin pledge.
We may without hesitation follow the opinion of Mommsen, who maintains that the limes was not intended, like Hadrian's Wall between the Tyne and the Solway, and like the great wall of China, to oppose an absolute barrier against incursions from the outside.
It is the universal medium of exchange throughout China for all retail transactions.
The four fringing seas of eastern Asia, those of Bering, Okhotsk, Japan and East China, are arranged parallel to the main lines of dislocation in the neighbouring land-masses, and so are the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of California.
The China Sea on the north has a maximum depth of 2715 fathoms off the Philippines, the Sulu Basin reaches 2550 fathoms, and the Celebes Basin 2795 fathoms. Some of the channels between the islands are of very great depth, Macassar Strait exceeding 1000 fathoms, the Molucca Passage exceeding 2000 fathoms, and the Halmahera Trough sinking as deep as 2575 fathoms. The deepest of all is the Banda Basin, a large area of which lies below 2500 fathoms and reaches 3557 fathomsin the Kei Trench.
In the Bering Sea the trough north of Buldir in the Aleutian Islands sinks to 2237 fathoms, and in the Sea of Okhotsk, north-west of the Kuriles, to 1859 fathoms. Similar conditions prevail in the East China Sea and the Andaman Sea.
This variety surrounds the tropical parts of the continental shelves of South America, South Africa and eastern China.
This personage was a prince of the Khitai or Khitaian dynasty of Liao, which had reigned over northern China and the regions beyond the Wall during a great part of the 10th and 11th centuries, and from which came the name Khitai (Cathay), by which China was once known in Europe and still is known in Russia.
This Unc was in fact the prince of the Kerait, called by the Chinese Tuli, and by the Persian historians of the Mongols Toghral, on whom the Kin emperor of north China had conferred the title of "wang" or king, whence his coming to be known as Awang or Ung Khan.
They are widely distributed throughout China Proper, but those of the province of Shansi appear to be the richest.
This province forms part of the great delta plain of China proper, 20,000 sq.
He was, however, appointed later in the same year commissioner of the United States to China, holding this position until 1845, and in 1844 negotiating the first treaty between China and the United States.
It is regularly visited by the vessels of the China Navigation Company and the Chinese Merchants' Steam Navigation Company.
Straw or grass hats, straw mats, samshu (from the Shao-sing district), Chinese drugs, vegetable tallow and fish are among the chief exports; in 1904 the hats numbered 2,125,566, though in 1863 they had only amounted to 40,000, and the mats, mainly despatched to south China, average from 1,000,000, to 2,000,000.
Missions are maintained in Ning-po by the Roman Catholic church, by the Church Missionary Society (1848), the American Presbyterians, the Reformed Wesleyans, the China Inland Mission (1857), &c. A mission hospital was instituted in 1843.
Trade with China and India from Salem was begun in 1785 (first voyage from New York, 1784), and was first controlled there, and afterwards in Boston till the trade was lost to New York.
The loquat, an introduction from China, thrives admirably.
In China, moreover, an enumeration of somewhat the same nature was an ancient institution in connexion with the provincial revenues and military liabilities.
Going outside Europe, an extreme instance of the results of combining a census with more definite administrative objects may be found in the census of China in 1711, when the population enumerated in connexion with a poll-tax and liability to military service, was returned as 28 millions; but forty years later, when the question was that of the measures for the relief of widespread distress, the corresponding total rose to 103 millions!
It embraced a population second to that of India alone, as China, probably the most populous country in the world, has not yet been subjected to this test.
How far back in prehistoric times this system has been practised it is impossible to say, but in China it is said to have existed 3000 years before Christ,' and in Greek literature it is treated even in the most ancient writings as well-known belief.
At the present day palmistry is practised in nearly all parts of China.
Coining originated independently in China at a later date than in the western world, and spread from China to Japan and Korea.
In China 26 mints were at work in 1906.
In 1856 he commissioned the "Acorn" brig for the China station, and arrived in time to take part in the destruction of the junks in Fatshan creek on the 1st of June 1857, and in the capture of Canton in the following December, for which, in February 1858, he received a post-captain's commission.
They reached Nootka Sound in September 1788, and in July 1789 Captain Gray in the " Columbia " began the homeward voyage by way of China.
But the whole course of this expansion had been watched with suspicion by Japan, from the time of the Saghalien incident of 1875, when the island power, then barely emerging from the feudal age, had to cede her half of the island to Russia, to the Shimonoseki treaty of 1895, when the powers compelled her to forego the profits of her victory over China.
He therefore proposed to abandon Russian projects in southern Manchuria and the Port Arthur region and to restore Port Arthur to China in return for considerable concessions on the side of Vladivostok.
But a reinforcement under RearAdmiral Nebogatov was despatched from the Baltic via Suez early in March 1905, and the armada proceeded by the Straits of Malacca, Nebogatov joining at Kamranh Bay in Cochin China.
But independently of the public anxieties of the war, and of those aroused by the violent and unexpected outbreak of fanaticism in China, the year brought deep private griefs to the queen.
Four large firms manufacturing every variety of art china and earthenware alone employ over 5000 hands.
It is used in China, mixed with food, to give to mulch cows to improve the quality and increase the quantity of milk, and when mixed with lime as a size to impart a gloss to walls.
In 1855 he supported Gladstone in the efforts to bring about peace with Russia before the capture of Sebastopol; in 1856 he opposed the opening of museums on Sunday; in the following year he supported Cobden in his disapproval of the second opium war with China.
They were transmitted from India by Buddhist missionaries to China, but remained in abeyance until the Jesuit reform of Chinese astronomy in the 17th century.
It appears nevertheless to have become tolerably clear that the nakshatras were both native to India, and the sieu to China, but that the manazil were mainly of Indian derivation.
The cool season begins with the commencement of the north-east monsoon in the China Sea in November.
Her commerce with India, China and probably Japan dates from the beginning of the Christian era or earlier, while that with Europe began in the 16th century.
The southward movement of the Lao-Tai family from their original seats in south-west China is of very ancient date, the Lao states of Luang Prabang and Wieng Chan on the Mekong having been founded at least two thousand years ago.
This, however, latterly became displeasing to the French, now in Cochin China, and Siam was ultimately obliged to recognize the protectorate forced on Cambodia by that power.
The supremacy of China is indicated by occasional missions sent, as on the founding of a new dynasty, to Peking, to bring back a seal and a calendar.
For centuries she had been distracted by wars with Cambodians, Peguans and Burmans, but the incorporation of Lower Cochin China, Annam and Tongking by the French, and the annexation of Lower and Upper Burma successively by the British, freed her from all further danger on the part of her old rivals.
The flora of the Asiatic islands (thus distinguished) "is a special development of that prevailing from the Himalayas to the Malay Peninsula and south China.
A great proportion of the exports goes to the mother country, though a considerable quantity of rice is exported to China.
The Dutch company opened up a profitable trade with Japan and China, and prosecuted the war against Portugal with great vigour, invading Portuguese India and capturing Point de Galle in 1640, Malacca in 1641, Cochin and Cannanore in 1663.
Immigration from China and Japan steadily increased, especially towards the end of the period 1816-1910.
In 1910 the nations most directly interested in the future of the archipelago were the Netherlands, Great Britain, the United States, Germany, Japan, China and Portugal.