How to use Chile in a sentence
Sulphur is worked in Chile and Peru.
The name of the genus is derived from Arauco, the name of the district in southern Chile where the trees were first discovered.
The boundary dispute with Chile, to which reference has already been made, was of a more serious character.
In August an ultimatum was received from Chile demanding arbitration.
Of Restiaceae, a single Leptocarpus has been found in Chile.Advertisement
Melastomaceae, copiously represented in tropical America, are more feebly so in Peru and wholly wanting in Chile.
A few Cactaceae extend to Chile.
Amongst Coniferae Podocarpus is common to this and preceding sub-regions; Libocedrus extends from California to New Zealand and New Caledonia; Fitzroya is found in Chile and Tasmania; and Araucaria in its most familiar species occurs in Chile.
Sir John Narborough took two ships through the Strait of Magellan in 1670 and touched on the coast of Chile, but it was not until 1685 that Dampier sailed over the part of the Pacific where Hawkins met his defeat.
In the interior of South America the Spanish conquerors had explored the region of the Andes from the isthmus of Panama to Chile.Advertisement
They are important ores of silver (the pure chloride contains 75.3% of silver), and have been extensively mined at several places in Chile, also in Mexico, and at Broken Hill in New South Wales.
Its territory touches that of every South American nation, except Chile, and with each one there has been a boundary dispute at some stage in its political life.
Rodrigo became head winemaker at Guelbenzu Chile in 2003.
The genus Pyrophorus contains about ninety species, and is entirely confined to America and the West Indies, ranging from the southern United States to Argentina and Chile.
Political Divisions and Towns.-The chief political divisions of the republic consist of one federal district, 14 provinces and 10 territories, the last in great part dating from the settlement of the territorial controversies with Chile.Advertisement
Proteaceae are found also in Tierra del Fuego and Chile.
Pedro de Valdivia in 1540 made an expedition into the country of the Araucanian Indians of Chile, and was the first to explore the eastern base of the Andes in what is now Argentine Patagonia.
Mahu died on the passage out, and was succeeded by Simon de Cordes, who was killed on the coast of Chile.
On the 6th of May 1615 Spilbergen entered the Pacific Ocean, and touched at several places on the coast of Chile and Peru, defeating the Spanish fleet in a naval engagement off Chilca.
After touching at Concepcion in Chile and at Easter Island, La Perouse proceeded to Hawaii and thence to the coast of California, of which he has given a very interesting account.Advertisement
The only industry of importance is grazing, cattle being raised for export to Chile, and a few sheep for their wool.
Cradock was heavily defeated by a German squadron off the coast of Chile.
The only information at this period on the ornithology of South America is contained in the two works on Chile by Molina, published at Bologna in 1776 and 1782.
There is no actual proof that this spider is more poisonous than others, but it is a significant fact that its species, inhabiting countries as widely separated as Chile, Madagascar, Australia, New Zealand and South Europe are held in great fear by the indigenous population, and many stories are current of serious or fatal results following their bites.
Of great value for cartographical work is a careful survey, carried out by American engineers (1897-1898), for a continental railway running along the west coast from Mexico to Chile.Advertisement
By the peace of Ghent, December 1814, the United States and England mutually bound themselves to do all in their power to extinguish the traffic. It was at once prohibited in several of the South American states when they acquired independence, as in La Plata, Venezuela and Chile.
The city occupies a green, fertile valley of the Rio Chile, 7753 ft.
The city's water-supply is derived from the Chile river and is considered dangerous to new arrivals because of the quantity of saline and organic matter contained.
In the combined state nitrogen is fairly widely distributed, being found in nitre, Chile saltpetre, ammonium salts and in various animal and vegetable tissues and liquids.
Norway, Scotland, British Columbia 5 and Alaska, Patagonia and Chile, and even Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, whose west coasts are far more indented than their east ones.
Extending across the great central valley of Chile, the province has a considerable area devoted to agriculture, but much attention is given to cattle and mining.
Lapageria, a native of Chile, is a favourite greenhouse climber with fine bell-shaped flowers.
The result was of importance, as it was known that Brazil was on friendly terms with Chile, and this interchange of courtesies had some effect in bringing about a settlement of the controversy between Chile and Argentina over the Andean frontier question without recourse to hostilities.
Of these sodium stannate, Na2Sn03, is produced industrially by heating tin with Chile saltpetre and caustic soda, or by fusing very finely powdered tinstone with caustic soda in iron vessels.
It was occupied by the Chileans in 1879 in the war between Chile and Peru, and was ceded to Chile by the treaty of the 10th of October 1883.
As in Chile, Peru and Colombia, the ruling classes and the Church have taken little interest in the education of the Indians and mestizos.
Its anchorage was used by Lord Cochrane in 1820 during his attacks on Callao; it was the landing-place of an invading Chilean army in 1838; it was bombarded by the Chileans in 1880; and in 1883 it was the meeting-place of the Chilean and Peruvian commissioners who drew up the treaty of Ancon, which ended the war between Chile and Peru.
Chile saltpetre, cubic nitre or sodium nitrate, NaNO,, occurs under the same conditions as ordinary saltpetre in deposits covering immense areas in South America, which are known locally as caliche or terra salitrosa, and abound especially in the provinces of Tarapaca and Antofagasta in Chile.
The nitre thus refined is exported chiefly from Valparaiso, whence the name of "Chile saltpetre."
Chemically pure sodium nitrate can be obtained by repeated recrystallization of Chile saltpetre or by synthesis.
The chief applications of Chile saltpetre are in the nitric acid industry, and in the manufacture of ordinary saltpetre for making gunpowder, ordinary Chile saltpetre being unsuitable by reason of its deliquescent nature, a property, however, not exhibited by the perfectly pure salt.
Tobacco is cultivated in localities scattered over almost the whole world, ranging as far north as Quebec, Stockholm and the southern shores of Lake Baikal in one hemisphere, and as far south as Chile, the Cape of Good Hope and Victoria in the other.
The province lies partly in the great central valley of Chile, noted for its fine climate and fertility, and partly on the western slopes of the Andes.
Leaving Hampton Roads on the 18th of August 1838, it Mopped at Madeira and Rio de Janeiro; visited Tierra del Fuego, Chile, Peru, the Paumotu group of the Low Archipelago, the Samoan islands and New South Wales; from Sydney sailed into the Antarctic Ocean in December 1839 and reported the discovery of an Antarctic continent west of the Balleny islands; visited the Fiji and the Hawaiian islands in 1840, explored the west coast of the United States, including the Columbia river, San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento river, in 1841, and returned by way of the Philippine islands, the Sulu archipelago, Borneo, Singapore, Polynesia and the Cape of Good Hope, reaching New York on the 10th of June 1842.
With Chile the de jure line is that of the Camarones ravine which separated the old department of Moquegua (including the provinces of Tacna and Arica) from that of Tarapaca.
The Maritime Cordillera of Peru has no connexion with the coast ranges of Chile, but is a continuation of the Cordillera Occidental of Chile, which under various local names forms the eastern margin of the coastal desert belt from Atacama northward into Peru.
At the outbreak of the war with Chile he was vice-director of the national library at Lima, which was wantonly pillaged by the Chilean forces.
The largest share in Peru's foreign trade is taken by Great Britain, Chile ranking second and the United States third.
In 1876 new mining laws were enacted which gave better titles to mining properties and better regulations for their operation, but the outbreak of the war with Chile at the end of the decade and the succeeding years of disorganization and partisan strife defeated their purpose.
The Peruvian navy was practically annihilated in the war with Chile, and the poverty of the country prevented for many years the adoption of any measure for its rebuilding.
At the end of the war, these loans, and sums owing to Chile and Colombia, raised the foreign debt to £4,000,000.
In 1876 interest payments on account of this debt were suspended and in1879-1882the war with Chile deprived Peru of her principal sources of income - the guano deposits and the Tarapaca nitrates.
His consolidated empire extended from the river Ancasmayu north of Quito to the river Maule in the south of Chile.
Almagro then undertook an expedition to Chile, and Pizarro founded the city of Lima on the 18th of January 1535.
But Almagro, returning from Chile, raised the siege on the 18th of April 1537.
Consequently the insurrections in the more distant provinces, such as Chile and Buenos Aires, were the first to declare Peru Inpende themselves independent, in 18x6 and 1817.
A fleet of armed ships was fitted out at Valparaiso in Chile, under the command of Lord Cochrane (afterwards earl of Dundonald) and officered by Englishmen.
But the strong-handed intervention of Chile on the ground of assistance rendered to rebels, but really through jealousy of the confederation, ended in the defeat and overthrow of Santa Cruz, and the separation of Bolivia from Peru.
The true object of Chile was the conquest of the rich Peruvian province of Tarapaca, the appropriation of its valuable guano and nitrate deposits, and the spoliation of the rest of the Peruvian coast.
The military events of the war, calamitous for Peru, are dealt with in the article Chile Peruvian War.
General Iglesias was nominated to the office of president of the republic, and in October 1883 a treaty of peace, known as the treaty of Ancon, between Peru and Chile was signed.
The principal conditions imposed by Chile were the absolute cession by Peru of the province of Tarapaca, and the occupation for a period of ten years of the territories of Tacna and Arica, the ownership of these districts to be decided by a popular vote of the inhabitants of Tacna and Arica at the expiration of the period named.
The agreement between Chile and Bolivia, by which the disputed provinces were to be handed over to the latter country if Chilean possession was recognized, was also a stumbling-block, a strong feeling existed among Peruvians against this proceeding.
The money, about L13000,000, could probably have been obtained to indemnify Chile if occasion for it arose.
The railway connexions are with Ovalle to the S., and Vicuña (or Elqui) to the E., but the proposed extension northward of Chile's longitudinal system would bring Coquimbo into direct communication with Santiago.
The city has a good well-sheltered harbour, reputed the best in northern Chile, and is the port of La Serena, the provincial capital, 9 m.
Both came from Chile, to which these outlying colonies were at first subject.
San Juan exports wine, and has a profitable trade with Chile over the Patos and Uspallata passes.
Before 1842, when guano began to attract notice as an exportable product, Atacama was considered as Bolivian territory, and Coquimbo the extreme northern province of Chile.
In that year Chile decided to explore the desert coast, and in 1843 that part of the desert extending north to the 26th parallel was organized into the province of Atacama.
The product of Colombia, Venezuela, the Guianas, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador amounted in 1900 to £2,481,000 and to £2,046,000 in 1905.
It comprises some 200 species, distributed from the south-west United States to Brazil and Chile.
They are natives of Brazil, Bolivia and Chile.
Opuntia, the prickly pear, or Indian fig cactus, is a large typical group, comprising some 150 species, found in North America, the West Indies, and warmer parts of South America, extending as far as Chile.
Its most extraordinary feature consisted in the provision for lodging the executive authority in the hands of a president for life, without responsibility and with power to nominate his successor, a proposal which alarmed the friends of liberty, and excited lively apprehensions amongst the republicans of Buenos Aires and Chile; whilst in Peru, Bolivar was accused of a design to unite into one state Colombia, Peru and Bolivia, and to render himself perpetual dictator of the confederacy.
The Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the war between Chile and Peru in 1882, and that between Greece and Turkey in 1897, are instances of wars brought to a close through the mediation of neutral powers.
Cradock left Vallenar (Chonos, Chile) with the " Monmouth " on Oct.
In South America coal is known in Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, northern Chile, Brazil (chiefly in the south), and Argentina (Parana, the extreme south of Patagonia, and Tierra del Fuego), but in no country are the workings extensive.
From Peru the Spaniards advanced southwards to Chile, which was first unsuccessfully invaded (1535-37) by Diego de Almagro, and afterwards occupied (1540-53) by Pedro de Valdivia.
What the Spaniards had then overrun from Mexico to Chile is still Spanish America.
Other governments known as captain-generalships were cut out of the viceroyalties at different periods - Guatemala in 1527, Venezuela in 1773, Cuba in 1777 and Chile in 1778.
For the details of the struggle the reader must refer to the articles Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela.
During the disastrous war with Chile he sought refuge at Buenos Aires, where he was made professor in the National College, and where he wrote and published a history of the war (1884).
In South America, at least four species are found in Chile or the La Plata region, and one, Conurus patagonus, is pretty common on the bleak coast of the Strait of Magellan.
Hydrated sulphates occur at several localities in the province of Madrid and in other provinces of Spain, and at Miihlingen in Aargau, and copious deposits of glauberite, the double sulphate of sodium and calcium, are met with in the salt-mines of Villarrubia in Spain, at Stassfurt, and in the province of Tarapaca, Chile, &c. A native nitrate of soda is obtained in great abundance in the district of Atacama and the province of Tarapaca, and is imported into Europe in enormous quantities as cubic nitre for the preparation of saltpetre.
It was formerly capital of the Bolivian department of Atacama and the only port possessed by Bolivia, but the seizure of that department in 1879 by Chile and the construction of the Antofagasta and Oruro railway deprived it of all importance, and its population, estimated at 6000 in 1858, has fallen to less than 500.
The tribes of Peru are said to have adored great snakes in the pre-Inca days; and in Chile the Araucanians made a serpent figure in their deluge myth.
Chillán is one of the most active commercial cities of central Chile, and is surrounded by a rich agricultural and grazing country.
Iodine is obtained either from kelp (the ashes of burnt seaweed) or from the mother-liquors obtained in the purification of Chile saltpetre.
Comparing the product of the United States with that of the world, the figures for the two respectively were 23,350 and I51,936 long tons in 1879, when the United States was second to both Spain (and Portugal) and Chile as a producer; 51,570 and 199,406 long tons in 1883, when the Unites States first took leading rank; 172,300 and 334,565 long tons in 1895, when the yield of the United States first exceeded that of all other parts of the world combined; and 942,570,000 and 1,667,098,000 lb in 1908.
It has the best harbour on the Pacific coast of South America, and is one of the most important ports of southern Chile, being connected by rail with Concepcion, Santiago and southern Chile.
It is one of the oldest towns of Chile, dating from the first years of the conquest.
The third Pan-American Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay.
Among the Southern Republics Argentina and Chile concluded in 1902 a treaty of arbitration, for the settlement of all difficulties without distinction, combined with a disarmament agreement of the same date, to which more ample reference will be made hereafter.
It fell into the possession of Chile in the war of 1879-82, and was definitely ceded to that republic in 1885.
The eastern and western sections are mountainous, and are separated by the fertile valley of central Chile.
It was founded in 1742 by Jose de Manso, and is one of the more cultured and progressive provincial towns of Chile.
The acid is found to exist to a slight extent in the free condition in some waters, but chiefly occurs in combination with various metals, as nitrates, principally as nitre or saltpetre, KN03, and Chile saltpetre, NaNO 3.
On the large scale it is obtained by distilling Chile saltpetre with concentrated sulphuric acid in horizontal cast iron stills, the vapours being condensed in a series of stoneware Woulfe's bottles.
In practice the theoretical quantity of acid and Chile saltpetre is not used, but the charge is so regulated that the mixture of acid and neutral sodium sulphate formed in the retort remains liquid at the temperature employed, and consequently can be readily removed.
Professor POffig, also cited by Dr Twining, states that on the east side of the Andes in Chile, in some of the races which live there, he did not see a single case of goitre, and yet in the white inhabitants, who live exactly as the natives, it prevails in a great degree.
In 1861 Antoine de Tounens (1820-1878), a French adventurer in Chile, proclaimed himself king of Araucania under the title of Orelie Antoine I., and tried to obtain subscriptions from France to support his enterprise.
Handsome scrophulariaceous plants, from Chile, thriving in moist, well-drained peaty soil, and in moderate shade.
Of great scientific interest in this connexion is the discovery of small diamonds in certain meteorites, both stones and irons; for example, in the stone which fell at Novo-Urei in Penza, Russia, in 1886, in a stone found at Carcote in Chile, and in the iron found at Canon Diablo in Arizona.
He was educated in England, and after a visit to Spain he lived quietly on his estate in Chile till the revolution broke out.
O'Higgins with most of the patriots fled across the Andes to Mendoza, where Jose de San Martin was preparing a force for the liberation of Chile.
After the battle of Chacabuco O'Higgins was entrusted with the administration of Chile, and he ruled the country firmly and well, maintaining the close connexion with the Argentine, co-operating loyally with San Martin in the preparation of the force for the invasion of Peru, and seeking, as far as the confusion and embarrassments of the time allowed, to improve the welfare of the people.
In 1875 he surveyed Lake Titicaca, Peru, examined the copper mines of Peru and Chile, and made a collection of Peruvian antiquities for that museum, of which he was curator from 1874 to 1885.
Between these is the central valley of Chile in which the population and industries of the province are chiefly concentrated.
It is one of the most important provincial towns and commercial centres of central Chile.
The whites form an exclusive governing caste, as in Chile.
The cause of the troubles under President Cordero was the assistance lent by Ecuador to Chile in the matter of the sale of the cruiser Esmeralda to the Japanese government in 1894, in the middle of the Japanese-Chinese War.
The government of Chile arranged the sale of the Esmeralda, but wished to be free from all danger of international complications in the affair.
The other two provinces (Tacna and Arica) were held for indemnity by Chile after the war of1879-1883with the understanding (treaty of Ancon, March 8, 1884) that at the expiration of ten years a plebiscite should be taken in the two provinces to determine whether they should remain with Chile, or return to Peru - the country to which they should be annexed to pay the other Io,000,000 pesos.
Chile did not comply with this treaty agreement, and in 1910 still held both provinces.
At the close of the war between Chile and Peru (1879-1883), the terms of the treaty of Ancon (signed by representatives of the two countries on the 10th of October 1883) were practically dictated by Chile, and by one of the provisions the Peruvian provinces of Tacna and Arica were to be occupied and exploited by Chile for a period of ten years, when a plebiscite should be taken of their inhabitants to determine whether they would remain with Chile or return to Peru, the country acquiring the two provinces in this manner to pay the other $10,000,000.
At the termination of the period Peru wished the plebiscite to be left to the original population, while Chile wanted it to include the large number of Chilean labourers sent into the province.
Chile refused to submit the dispute to arbitration, and it remained unsettled.
Meanwhile Chile expelled the Peruvian priests, and treated the province more like a conquered territory than a temporary pledge.
Among the bristle-tails we find the genus Machilis, represented in Europe (including the Faeroe Islands) and in Chile; while Campodea lives high on the mountains and in the deepest caves.
Atacamite occurs chiefly in Chile and Peru.
Chrysocolla contains in the pure state 30% of the metal; it is an abundant ore in Chile, Wisconsin and Missouri.
The Welsh method finds adherents only in Wales and Chile.
Sulphuric acid may be applied as such on the ores placed in lead, brick, or stone chambers; or as a mixture of sulphur dioxide, nitrous fumes (generated from Chile saltpetre and sulphuric acid), and steam, which permeates the ore resting on the false bottom of a brick chamber.
Chile was the largest producer in 1869 with 54,867 tons; but in 1899 her production had fallen off to 25,000 tons.
He commanded the "Baltimore" in Rear-Admiral George Brown's squadron off the coast of Chile in 1891.
In 1905 there were imported 7,941,920 lb from Chile (only 195,328 in 1909); 6,033,104 lb from Canada (this also fluctuates greatly; 1,801,072 in 1909); 1,241,408 lb from British West Africa (4,985,232 in 1909); 1,126,720 lb from the British West Indies and Guiana (3,022,208 in 1908).
He upheld American rights in Samoa, pursued a vigorous diplomacy with Italy over the lynching of eleven Italians, all except three of them American naturalized citizens, in New Orleans on the 14th of May 1891, held a firm attitude during the strained relations between the United States and Chile (growing largely out of the killing and wounding of American sailors of the U.S. ship "Baltimore" by Chileans in Valparaiso on the 16th of October 1891), and carried on with Great Britain a resolute controversy over the seal fisheries of Bering Sea, - a difference afterwards settled by arbitration.
He travelled in Mexico, under a commission from the French ministry of education, in 1857-1861; in Madagascar in 1863; in South America, particularly Chile and Argentina, in 1 875; and in Java and Australia in 1878.
Chile is thus a ribbon-like strip of territory between the Andes and the Pacific, comparatively regular north of the 42nd parallel, but with an extremely ragged outline south of that line.
The war of 1879-81 with Peru and Bolivia gave to Chile 73,993 sq.
Under the treaty of Ancon (20th October 1883) Chile was to retain possession of the provinces of Tacna and Arica belonging to the Peruvian department of Moquegua for a period of ten years, and then submit " to popular vote whether those territories are to belong to Chile or Peru."
The eastern parts of this region lie within the higher ranges of the Andes and include a large district awarded to Chile in 1899 (see Argentina and Atacama).
It is sometimes called the " Vale of Chile," and is the richest and most thicklypopulated part of the republic. It is a highly fertile region, is well watered by numerous streams from the Andes, has a moderate rainfall, and forms an agricultural and grazing region of great productiveness.
At the southern frontier of Bolivia the main chain, which has served as the boundary line between Argentina and Chile, divides into two great ranges, the principal one continuing almost due north along the eastern side of the great Bolivian alto-planicie, and the other forming its western rim, where it is known as the Cordillera Silillica, and then following the trend of the coast north-westward into Peru becomes the Cordillera Occidental.
The whole system is volcanic, and a considerable number of volcanoes are still intermittently active, noticeably in central and southern Chile.
In southern Chile the coast is highly mountainous, but the relation of these elevations to the Andes has not been clearly determined.
The coast range of central Chile has no noteworthy elevations, the culminating point in the province of Santiago being 7316 ft.
Between central Chile and the northern desert region there is a highly mountainous district where distinct ranges or elongated spurs cross the republic from the Andes to the coast, forming transverse valleys of great beauty and fertility.
The passes of central and southern Chile are used only in the summer season, but those of northern Chile are open throughout the whole year.
The volcanic origin of the Andes and their comparatively recent elevation still subject Chile, in common with other parts of the western coast region, to frequent volcanic and seismic disturbances.
In this respect Chile may be divided into at least four great earthquake areas, two in the desert region, the third enclosing Valparaiso, and the fourth extending from Concepcion to Chiloe.
A study of Chilean earthquake phenomena, however, would probably lead to a division of southern Chile into two or more distinct earthquake areas.
The western and larger part of Tierra del Fuego (q.v.) belongs to Chile.
The coast of northern and central Chile is singularly deficient in good harbours.
There are some small harbours for coasting vessels of light draught along the coast of central Chile, usually at the partially obstructed mouths of the larger rivers, as San Antonio near the mouth of the Maipo, Constitucion at the mouth of the Maule, and Llico on the outlet of Lake Vichuquen, but there is no harbour of importance until Concepcion (or Talcahuano) Bay is reached.
Except in the extreme south the hydrography of Chile is of the simplest description, all the larger rivers having their sources in the.
The central agricultural provinces are traversed by several important rivers, all of them rising on the western slopes of the snow-clad Andes and breaking through the lower coast range to the Pacific after being extensively used to irrigate the great central valley of Chile.
These rivers have been of great service in the agricultural development of this part of Chile, affording means of transportation where railways and highways were entirely lacking.
The Palena is another river of the same character, having its source in a large frontier lake called General Paz and flowing for some distance through Argentine territory before crossing into Chile.
The lakes of Chile are numerous and important, but they are found chiefly in the southern half of the republic. In the north the only lakes are large lagoons, or morasses, on the upper sakes.
Chile may be divided longitudinally into two regions which differ from each other in their geological structure.
The great longitudinal valley of Chile runs approximately, but only approximately, along the boundary between the two zones.
The ancient rocks which form the most characteristic feature of the former do indeed occur upon the coast of Peru, but in the north of Chile they are found only in isolated masses standing close to the shore or, as at Mejillones, projecting into the sea.
South of Antofagasta the old rocks form a nearly continuous band along the coast, extending as far as Cape Horn and Staten Island, and occupying the greater part of the islands of southern Chile.
The climate of northern and central Chile is profoundly affected by the high mountain barrier on the eastern frontier and by the broad treeless pampas of Argentina, which raise the easterly moisture-laden winds from the Atlantic to so high an elevation that they sweep across Chile without leaving a drop of rain.
In southern Chile the climate undergoes a radical change - the prevailing winds becoming westerly, causing a long rainy season with a phenomenal rainfall.
The indigenous flora of Chile is less extensive and less interesting than those of Argentina and Brazil, but contains many peculiar genera and species.
Near the sierras where irrigation is possible, fruit-growing is so successful, especially the grape and fig, that the product is considered the best in Chile.
To some degree the flora of central Chile is of a transition character between the northern and southern zones.
A large majority of the 198 genera peculiar to the South American temperate regions belong exclusively to central Chile.
In earlier times the coquito palm (Jubaea spectabilis) was to be found throughout this part of Chile, but it has been almost completely destroyed for its saccharine sap, from which a treacle was made.
Several exotic species have been introduced into this part of Chile, some of which have thriven even better than in their native habitats.
It is generally conceded that the potato originated in southern Chile, as it is found growing wild in Chiloe and neighbouring islands and on the adjacent mainland.
The strawberry is also indigenous to these latitudes on both sides of the Andes, and Chile is credited 1 Notes of a Naturalist in South America, p. 134.2 Also classified as Nothofagus (Mirb.).
Maize and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) were known in Chile before the arrival of Europeans, but it is not certain that they are indigenous.
Among the many economic plants which have been introduced into Chile and have become important additions to her resources, the more prominent are wheat, barley, hemp and alfalfa (Medicago sativa), together with the staple European fruits, such as the apple, pear, peach, nectarine, grape, fig, olive and orange.
The fauna of Chile is comparatively poor, both in species and individuals.
Of Reptilia Chile is singularly free, there being recorded only eleven species - five saurians, four ophidians, one frog and one toad - but a more thorough survey of the uninhabited territories of the south may increase this list.
The only venomous species to be found in central Chile is that of a spider which frequents the wheat fields in harvest time.
The population of Chile is largely concentrated in the twelve agricultural provinces between and including Coquimbo and Concepcion, though the next six provinces to the south, of more recent general settlement, have received some foreign immigrants, and are rapidly growing, In the desert provinces the population is limited to the mining communities, and to the ports and supply stations maintained for their support and for the transport, smelting and export of their produce.
The twelve provinces first mentioned, which include the celebrated " Vale of Chile," comprise only 17% of the area of the republic, but the census of 1895 showed that 72% of the total population was concentrated within their borders.
During these years Chile held the anomalous position of a country spending large sums annually to secure immigrants while at the same time her own labouring classes were emigrating by thousands to the neighbouring republics to improve their condition.
The estimated number of Indians living within the boundaries of Chile is about 50,000, which presumably includes the nomadic tribes of the Fuegian archipelago, whose number probably does not reach 5000.
The political organization of the country has not been favourable to the development of artistic or scientific tastes, though Chile has produced political leaders, statesmen and polemical writers in abundance.
In addition to this, Chile claimed Patagonia and the adjacent islands, and has finally secured not only the forested The population is not concentrated in large cities, but is well distributed through the cultivated parts of the country.
Communications.-Railway construction in Chile dates from 1850, when work was begun on a short line between Copiapo and the port of Caldera, in the Atacama desert region.
One of these, running from Antofagasta to the Caracoles district, was afterwards extended to Oruro, Bolivia, and has become a commercial route of international importance, with a total length of 574 m., 224 of which are in Chile.
The first railway to be constructed in central Chile was the government line from Valparaiso to Santiago, 115 m.
This is the only railway " system " it is possible for Chile to have.
In addition to her railway lines Chile has about 21,000 m.
Chile is a member of the International Postal Union, and has arrangements with the principal commercial nations for the exchange of postal money values.
The prosperity of Chile is intimately connected with her ocean-going trade, and no elaborate system of national railway lines and domestic manufactures can ever change this relationship. These conditions should have developed a large merchant marine, but the Chileans are not traders and are sailors only in a military sense.
In the aggregate, the commerce of Chile is large and important; in proportion to population it is exceeded among South American states only by Argentina, Uruguay and the Guianas.
According to the census returns about one-half the population of Chile lives in rural districts, and is engaged nominally in agricultural pursuits.
What may be called central Chile is singularly well adapted to agriculture.
The vine is cultivated all the way from Atacama and Coquimbo, where excellent raisins are produced, south to Concepcion, where some of the best wines of Chile are manufactured.
At one time Chile supplied Argentina and the entire West Coast as far north as California with wheat, but Argentina and California have become wheat producers and exporters, and Chile has been driven from all her old consuming markets.
Chile has been badly handicapped by her crude methods of cultivation,.
Maize (Indian corn) is grown in every part of Chile except the rainy south where the grain cannot ripen, and is a principal article of food.
The pastoral industries of Chile have been developed chiefly for the home market.
There are some districts in central Chile where cattle-raising is the principal occupation, but the long dry summers limit the pasturage on the open plains and prevent the development which perhaps would otherwise result.
The manufacturing interests of Chile have become influential enough to force a high tariff policy upon the country.
They have been restricted principally to articles of necessity - food preparations, beverages, textiles and wearing apparel, leather and leatherwork, woodwork, pottery, chemicals, ironware, &c. In earlier days, when Chile had less competition in the production of wheat, flour mills were to be found everywhere in the wheat-producing provinces, and flour was one of the leading exports.
There are over 500 large flour mills in Chile, the greater part of which are equipped with modern rollerprocess machinery.
The sugar beet has been added to the productions of Chile, and with it the manufacture on a small scale of beet sugar.
The second most important mining industry in Chile, however, is that of copper, which is found in the provinces of Antofagasta, Atacama, Coquimbo, Aconcagua, Valparaiso, Santiago, O'Higgins, Colchagua, Curico and Talca, but the richest deposits are in the three desert provinces.
Chile was once the largest producer of copper in the world, her production in 1860-1864 being rated at 60 to 67% of the total.
Iron mining has never been developed in Chile, although extensive deposits are said to exist.
Those of the firstnamed province have been discovered since the war between Chile and Peru, and have greatly extended the prospective life of the industry.
The coal deposits of Chile are found chiefly in the provinces of Concepcion and Arauco, the principal mines being on the coast of the Bay of Arauco at Coronel and Lota.
According to this constitution the sovereignty resides in the nation, but suffrage is restricted to married citizens over twenty-one and unmarried citizens over twenty-five years of age, not in domestic service, who can read and write, and who are the owners of real estate, or who have capital invested in business or industry, or who receive salaries or incomes proportionate in value to such real estate as investment; and as 75% of the population is classed as illiterate, and a great majority of the labouring classes is landless, badly paid, and miserably poor, it is apparent that political sovereignty in Chile is the well-guarded possession of a small minority.
The jury system does not exist in Chile, and juries are unknown except in cases where the freedom of the press has been abused.
Education in Chile is very largely under the control of the national government, the minister of justice and public instruction being charged with the direction of all public schools from the university down to the smallest and most remote primary school.
The system includes the University of Chile and National Institute at Santiago, lyceums or high schools in all the provincial capitals and larger towns, normal schools at central points for the training of public school teachers, professional and industrial schools, military schools and primary schools.
The National Institute at Santiago is the principal high school of the secondary grade in Chile.
Of the 72,812 foreigners residing in Chile in 1895, about 16,000 were described as Protestants.
For a long time Chile was considered one of the poorest states of Spanish America, but the acquisition of the rich mineralproducing provinces of the north, together with the development of new silver and copper mines in Atacama and Coquimbo, largely increased her revenues and enabled her to develop other important resources.
The monetary circulation in Chile consists almost wholly of paper currency, nominally based on a gold standard of 1 The expenditures of 1902 are also given as 25,882,702 pesos gold, and 108,844,693 pesos currency.
There is no state bank, though the Bank of Chile, with its numerous agencies and its paid-up capital of 20,000,000 pesos, may be said to fill the place of such an institution.
The metric system of weights and measures is the legal standard in Chile, but the old Spanish standards are still widely used, especially in handling mining and farm produce.
Chile was the recognized name of the country from the beginning of its known history.
The difference was no doubt due to the invasion and conquest of northern Chile in the 15th century by Yupanqui, Inca of Peru, grandfather of Atahualpa, ruler of Peru at the time of its conquest by Pizarro.
Beyond the limits of the Inca conquest the Indians of Chile were distinguished by fierce independence of character and by their warlike qualities.
The first Spanish invasion of Chile took place in 1535, when Diego de Almagro, the companion and rival of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru, marched into Chile in search of gold.
In 1540 Pizarro sent Pedro de Valdivia to make a regular conquest and settlement of Chile.
Valdivia founded Santiago, the present capital of Chile, in February 1541, and proceeded to build the towns of La Serena, Concepcion, Villarica, Imperial, Valdivia and Angol, in order to secure his hold on the country.
It was this constant warfare with the Indians and the necessity for hard continuous work, owing to the lack of precious metals in Chile, that no doubt helped to produce in the settlers the strength and hardihood of character that distinguishes the Chileans among South American races.
Merchant-ships were allowed to sail direct to Chile, trade with France was sometimes permitted, and a large batch of hardy emigrants was sent out from the Biscay provinces of Spain.
As in all Spanish colonies, so in Chile, the Church played a large part in the public life.
In 1809 risings took place in Venezuela, in Ecuador, in Upper Peru and in the Argentine; the revolutionary fever spread to Chile, and on the 18th of September 1810 the cabildo of Santiago secured the resignation of the governor and vested his powers in an elected Junta (board) of seven members.
This event was the beginning of the independence of Chile.
For three years the Spaniards maintained their hold on Chile, ruling the country with tyrannical harshness, but in the spring of 1817 a patriot force which had been organized at Mendoza in the Argentine by Jose de San Martin, an Argentine officer, and by O'Higgins, crossed the Andes and overwhelmed the royalists at the battle of Chacabuco.
O'Higgins was named director-general of Chile, while San Martin, realizing that the independence of each colony depended on the Spanish being expelled from the whole of South America, set about preparing an invasion of Peru.
The viceroy of Lima made one more effort to uphold the power of Spain in Chile, but the army he despatched under Mariano Osorio, the victor of Rancagua, was decisively defeated at the river Maipo on the 3rd of April 1818.
By this battle the independence of Chile, formally proclaimed by O'Higgins in the previous February, was finally secured.
The next few years witnessed the expulsion of the royalists from the south of Chile, the equipment of a small fleet, placed under the command of Manuel Blanco Encalada and Lord Cochrane (earl of Dundonald), and the invasion of Peru by San Martin with the help of the fleet, ending in the proclamation of Peruvian independence in 1821; though the Spanish power was not finally broken until Bolivar's victory at Ayacucho in 1824.
Relieved from all fear of Spanish attacks from the north, the new republic of Chile entered upon a period of internal confusion and dissension bordering upon anarchy.
Prieto was elected president in 1831, and a new constitution was drafted and promulgated in 1833, which, with some modifications, remains the constitution of Chile at the present time.
In 1836 Chile also became involved in a war with a confederation of Peru and Bolivia, which ended in the victory of Chile and the dissolution of the confederation.
While refusing to allow the people any share in, or control over, the government, the Conservative leaders devoted themselves to improving the condition of the people and of the country, and under their firm rule Chile advanced rapidly in prosperity.
With a population of over two millions, a rapidly increasing revenue, ruled by a government that was firm and progressive and that enjoyed the confidence of all classes, Chile was well equipped for the struggle with Peru that began in 1879.
The war of 1879-82 between Chile and Peru is the subject of a separate article (see Chile-Peruvian War).
President Anibal Pinto of Chile now set about to find means to conclude a treaty of peace with Peru, but his efforts in this direction were frustrated by the armed resistance offered in the country districts to the Chilean authorities by the remainder of the Peruvian forces under command of General Caceres.
In September 1881 the term of office of president Pinto expired, and he was succeeded in the post of chief executive of Chile by President Domingo Santa Maria.
Senor Domingo Santa Maria, who now acceded to the presidency of Chile, was a Liberal in politics, and had previously held various important posts under the government.
By the terms of this treaty Peru ceded to Chile unconditionally the province of Tarapaca, and the provinces of Tacna and Arica were placed under Chilean authority for the term of ten years, the inhabitants having then to decide by a general vote whether they remained a part of Chile or elected to belong once more to Peru.
In the event of the decision being favourable to Peru a sum of io,000,000 dollars was to be paid by Peru to Chile.
The government of Bolivia also attempted to negotiate a treaty of peace with Chile in 1884, and for this purpose sent representatives to Santiago.
No satisfactory terms, however, could be arranged, and the negotiations ended in only an armistice being agreed to, by which Chile remained in occupation of the Bolivian seaboard pending a definite settlement at some future period.
According to usage and custom in Chile, a ministry does not remain in office unless supported by a majority in the chambers.
As protest against the action of President P P g Balmaceda, the vice-president of the senate, Senor Waldo Silva, and the president of the chamber of deputies, Senor Ramon Barros Luco, issued a proclamation appointing Captain Jorje Montt in command of the squadron, and stating that the navy could not recognize the authority of Balmaceda so long as he did not administer public affairs in accordance with the constitutional law of Chile.
He had alienated the sympathy of the aristocratic classes of Chile by his personal vanity and ambition.
The death of Balmaceda finished all cause of contention in Chile, and was the closing act of the most severe and bloodiest struggle that country had ever witnessed.
An unfortunate occurrence soon after the close of the revolution brought strained relations for a short period between the governments of the United States and Chile.
In the end Chile paid an indemnity of $75,000 as asked, but the affair left bad feeling in its train.
The close of the revolution against Balmaceda left the government of Chile in the hands of the junta under whose guidance the military and naval operations had been organized.
The great majority of the voters, however, required no pressure to decide who was in their opinion the man most fitted to administer the affairs of the republic. For the first time in the history of Chile a perfectly free election was held, and Admiral Montt was duly chosen by a nearly unanimous vote to be chief magistrate for the constitutional term of five years.
Early in 1892 an amnesty was granted to the officers of the Balmaceda regime, and they were freely permitted to return to Chile without any attempt being made to molest them.
Great opposition was raised by the representatives of the debtor class in congress to the suppression of the inconvertible paper money, but in the end President Montt carried the day, and on the 11th of February 1895 a measure finally became law establishing a gold currency as the only legal tender in Chile.
The election for the position of president of the republic was closely contested in 1896 between Senor Errazuriz and Senor Reyes, and ended in the triumph of the former candi of the new president had been chief magistrate of Chile from 1871 to 1876, and his administration had been one of the best the country had ever enjoyed; his son had therefore traditions to uphold in the post he was now called upon to fill.
In these circumstances no final settlement with Peru and Bolivia was possible, the authorities of those republics holding back to see the issue of the Chile-Argentine dispute, and Chile being in no position at the time to insist on any terms being arranged.
Both Chile and Argentina put forward certain pretensions to territory in the Atacama district to the north, and also to a section of Patagonia in the south.
The cry of an acute financial crisis emanating from the fear of war with Argentina was now raised in Chile.
The Argentine difficulty was ended, but Chile still had to find a settlement with Peru and Bolivia.
By the terms of the armistice of 1883 between Chile and Bolivia, a three years' notice had to be given by either government wishing to denounce that agreement.
By the protocol of 1895 Chile agreed to give to Bolivia the port of Arica, or some other suitable position on the seaboard.
Vitor, a landing-place a little to the south of Arica, was offered by the Chilean government to Bolivia, but refused as not complying with the conditions stated in the protocol of 1895; the Bolivians furthermore preferred to wait and see if Arica was finally ceded by Peru to Chile, and if so to claim the fulfilment of the terms of the protocol.
Political parties in congress were so evenly balanced and so subdivided into groups that a vote against the ministry was easy to obtain, and the resignation of the cabinet immediately followed in accordance with the so-called parliamentary system in vogue in Chile.
In September 1900 a fresh outburst of hostile feeling against Chile was created in Argentina by a note addressed by the Chilean government to Bolivia, intimating that Chile was no longer inclined to hand over the port of Arica or any other port on the Pacific, but considered the time ripe for a final settlement of the questions connected with the Chilean occupation of Bolivian territory, which had now been outstanding for sixteen years.
The foreign policy of Chile, as indicated by this note, was considered by Argentina to be grasping and unconciliatory, and there were rumours of an anti-Chilean South American federation.
Chile disclaimed any aggressive intentions; but in December the Bolivian congress declined to relinquish their claim to a port, and refused to conclude a definite treaty of peace.
The year closed with a frontier incident between Chile and Argentina in the disputed territory of Ultima Esperanza, where some Argentine colonists were ejected by Chilean police; but both governments signed protocols agreeing not to take aggressive action in consequence.
This was practically an ultimatum, and a refusal on the part of the Argentine government to comply with the terms of the 1896 agreement meant a declaration of war by Chile.
Unfortunately, a recrudescence of the excitement over the boundary dispute was occasioned by the irritation created in Argentina by the fact that, pending a decision, Chile was constructing roads in the disputed territory.
The removal of this source of irritation and the restoration of friendly relations between the two republics was a great relief to the finance of Chile.
By this treaty Bolivia ceded all claims to a seaport and strip of the coast, on condition that Chile constructed at her own charges a railway to Lapaz from the port of Arica, giving at the same time to Bolivia free transit across Chilean territory to the sea.
A cash indemnity of 300,000 was also paid, and certain stipulations were made with regard to the construction of other railways giving access from Chile to the Bolivian interior.
The prosperity of Chile was to suffer a rude shock.
The personality of the president, however, had become of much less importance in modern Chile than in earlier days.
Chile, however, except in the Balmacedist civil war, is happily distinguished by its freedom from revolution and serious political unrest.
Valdes Vergara, Historia de Chile (Valparaiso, 1898), written primarily for schools,but containing useful sketches of leading figures in Chilean history.
Amunatequi, Descubri miento y conquista de Chile (Santiago, 1885), a valuable detailed account of the Spanish conquest; by same author, Los Precursores de la independencia de Chile (Santiago, 1870), a clear useful description of the evils of the Spanish colonial system; Horacio Lara, Cronica de la Araucania (Santiago, 1889), a history of the Araucanian Indians right up to recent dates; Abbe Eyzaguirre, Histoire du Chili (Lille, 1855), mainly dealing with the position of the Church during the colonial period.
Perez Garcia's Historia del reino de Chile (Santiago, 1900), an old history by a Spanish officer written about 1780, and Molina's History of Chili in the English translation (London, 1809), will also be found useful.
Vicuna Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), giving a useful account of the revolutionary struggle and the main actors; and the same author's Historia jeneral de la republics de Chile, a collection of essays on the early republican history by various writers.
At the discovery of America, we are told by Humboldt, the plant was cultivated in all the temperate parts of the continent from Chile to Colombia, but not in Mexico.
This species is probably native in Chile, but it is very doubtful if it is truly wild farther north.
The boundary with Chile was greatly modified by the results of the war of 1879-83, as determined by the treaties of 1884, 1886 and 1895, Bolivia losing her department of the littoral on the Pacific and all access to the coast except by the grace of the conqueror.
The western range, the Cordillera Occidental, a part of the boundary between Bolivia and the northern provinces of Chile, closely follows the coast outline and forms the western rampart of the great Bolivian tableland or alta-planicie, which extends from the Vilcanota knot in Peru, south to the Serrania de Lipez on the Argentine frontier, is 500 m.
Having no sea-coast, Bolivia has no seaport except what may be granted in usufruct by Chile.
A roughly-taken census of 1900 gives the total population as 1,816,271, including the Litoral department, now belonging to Chile (49,820), and estimates the number of wild Indians of the forest regions at 91,000.
Under a treaty with Brazil in 1903 and with Chile in 1904 (ratified 1905) provisions were made for railway construction in Bolivia to bring this isolated region into more effective communication with the outside world.
Chile also agreed to construct a railway from Arica to La Paz, 295 m.
The large cities are connected with one another by telegraph lines and are in communication with the outside world through Argentina, Chile and Peru.
Special agreements have been made, also, with Argentina, Chile and Peru for the transmission of the Bolivian foreign mails.
These figures, however, do not correctly represent the aggregates of Bolivian trade, as her imports and exports passing through Antofagasta, Arica and Mollendo are to a large extent credited to Chile and Peru.
At the close of the war with Chile there was an indemnity debt due to citizens of that republic of 6,550,830 bolivianos, which had been nearly liquidated in 1904 when Chile took over the unpaid balance.
At this juncture the government of Chile interfered actively, and espousing the cause of Gamarra, sent troops into Peru.
The Bolivian general was now in turn to invade Peru, when Chile again interfered to prevent him.
In 1862 a treaty of peace and commerce with the United States was ratified, and in the following year a similar treaty was concluded with Belgium; but new causes of disagreement with Chile had arisen in the discovery of rich beds of guano on the eastern coast-land of the desert of Atacama, which threatened warfare, and were only set at rest by the treaty of August 1866, in which the 24th parallel of latitude was adopted as the boundary between the two republics.
To understand the reasons that urged Bolivia to take this step it is necessary to go back to the abovementioned treaty of 1866 between Chile and Bolivia.
By this instrument Bolivia, besides conceding the 24th parallel as the boundary of Chilean territory, agreed that Chile should have a half share of the customs and full facilities for trading on the coast that lay between the 23rd and 24th parallels, Chile at that time being largely interested in the trade of that region.
It was also agreed that Chile should be allowed to mine and export the products of this district without tax or hindrance on the part of Bolivia.
There can be no doubt that the aggression contemplated as possible by both countries was a further encroachment on the part of Chile.
He signed yet another treaty with Chile, by which the latter agreed to withdraw her claim to half the duties levied in Bolivian ports on condition that all Chilean industries established in Bolivian territory should be free from duty for twenty-five years.
An offer on the part of Peru to act as mediator met with no favour from Chile.
Chile replied by curtly demanding the annulment of the secret treaty and an assurance of Peruvian neutrality.
During 1880 the war was chiefly maintained at sea between Chile and Peru, Bolivia taking little or no part in the struggle.
On the 10th of October 1883 they concluded a treaty of peace with Chile; the troops at Arequipa, under Admiral Montero, surrendered that town, and Montero himself, coldly received in Bolivia, whither he had fled for refuge, withdrew from the country to Europe.
Negotiations were opened, and on r 1th December a peace was signed between Chile and Bolivia.
By this treaty Bolivia ceded to Chile the whole of its sea-coast, including the port of Cobija.
On the 18th of May 1895 a treaty was signed at Santiago between Chile and Bolivia, " with a view to strengthening the bonds of friendship which unite the two countries," and, " in accord with the higher necessity that the future development and commercial prosperity of Bolivia require her free access to the sea."
By this treaty Chile declared that if, in consequence of the plebiscite (to take place under the treaty of Ancon with Peru), or by virtue of direct arrangement, she should " acquire dominion and permanent sovereignty over the territories of Tacna and Arica, she undertakes to transfer them to Bolivia in the same form and to the same extent as she may acquire them "; the republic of Bolivia paying as an indemnity for that transfer $5,000,000 silver.
If this cession should be effected, Chile should advance her own frontier north of Camerones to Vitor, from the sea up to the frontier which actually separates that district from Bolivia.
Chile also pledged herself to use her utmost endeavour, either separately or jointly with Bolivia, to obtain possession of Tacna and Arica.
On the 23rd of May 1895 further treaties of peace and commerce were signed with Chile, but the provisions with regard to the cession of a seaport to Bolivia still remained unfulfilled.
He had to deal with two difficult settlements as to boundaries with Chile and Brazil, and to take steps for improving the means of communication in the country, by this means reviving its mining and other industries.
The long-standing dispute with Chile with regard to its occupation of the former Bolivian provinces of Tacna and Arica under the Parto de Tregna of the 4th of April 1884 was more difficult to arrange satisfactorily.
In 1895 there had been some prospect of Chile conceding an outlet on the sea in exchange for a recognition of the Chilean ownership of Tacna and Arica.
The discovery, however, of secret negotiations between Bolivia and Argentina caused Chile to change its conciliatory attitude.
Bolivia was in no position to venture upon hostilities or to compel the Chileans to make concessions, and the final settlement of the boundary dispute between Argentina and Chile deprived the Bolivians of the hope of obtaining the support of the Argentines.
A treaty was accordingly ratified in 1905, which was in many ways advantageous to Bolivia, though the republic was compelled to cede to Chile the maritime provinces occupied by the latter power since the war of 1881, and to do without a seaport.
The government of Chile undertook to construct a railway at its own cost from Arica to the Bolivian capital, La Paz, and to give the Bolivians free transit through Chilean territory to certain towns on the coast.
Chile further agreed to pay Bolivia a cash indemnity and lend certain pecuniary assistance to the construction of other railways necessary for the opening out of the country.
It is also found in other silver mines, especially those of Mexico, Peru and Chile; in the Lake Superior copper mining region it occurs in association with native copper.
America has furnished European supplies since the discovery of the Potosi mines of Peru in 1 533; Bolivia and Chile are also notable producers.
Silver bromide, AgBr, constitutes the mineral bromargyrite or bromyrite, found in Mexico and Chile.
The minerals embolite, megabromite and microbromite, occurring in Chile, are variable mixtures of the chloride and bromide.
They offered a vigorous resistance to the first Spanish colonists coming from Chile.
The boundary between Argentina and Chile has been settled in such a manner that Argentina holds that part of the main island of Tierra del Fuego which is situated east of the meridian of Cape Espiritu Santo, the frontier striking the north shore of Beagle Channel about its centre; and Chile holds all the western part of the main island and the other numerous islands to the west and to the south of Beagle Channel.
Its chief commercial sources are the salt deposits at Stassfurt in Prussian Saxony, in which magnesium bromide is found associated with various chlorides, and the brines of Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, U.S.A.; small quantities are obtained from the mother liquors of Chile saltpetre and kelp. In combination with silver it is found as the mineral bromargyrite (bromite).
Farther south the coast ranges cause a very heavy rainfall on their western slopes, which are quite as uninhabitable because of rain and heat as are the coasts of southern Chile through rain and cold.
As in Chile, the indifference of the ruling class to the welfare of the common people is a primary cause of their ignorance and poverty, to which must be added the apathy, if not opposition, of the Church.
The second, from 1671 to the time of their greatest power, 1685, when the scene of their operations was no longer merely the Caribbean, but principally the whole range of the Pacific from California to Chile.
The genus comprises a few species of shrubs or trees, seldom reaching a large size, distributed through the North Temperate zone, and in the New World passing along the Andes southwards to Chile.
In 1871 Fish presided at the Peace Conference at Washington between Spain and the allied republics of Peru, Chile, Ecuador and Bolivia, which resulted in the formulation (April 12) of a general truce between those countries, to last indefinitely and not to be broken by any one of them without three years' notice given through the United States; and it was chiefly due to his restraint and moderation that a satisfactory settlement of the "Virginius Affair" was reached by the United States and Spain (1873).
Alfalfa is grown to a considerable extent and is used for feeding the herds of cattle driven across country to Chile.
The metric system is now obligatory in Argentina, Austria,-Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Mexico, Netherlands, Norway, Peru, Portugal, Rumania, Servia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland.
Two of his vessels failed to round the Horn, another, the "Wager," was wrecked in the Golfo de Pallas on the coast of Chile.
Native arsenic occurs usually in metalliferous veins in association with ores of antimony, silver, &c.; the silver mines of Freiberg in Saxony, St Andreasberg in the Harz, and Chanarcillo in Chile being well-known localities.
The Andean range is composed of two great principal chains with a deep intermediate depression, in which, and at the sides of the great chains, arise other chains of minor importance, the chief of which is that called the Cordillera de la Costa of Chile.
This starts from the southern extremity of the continent, and runs in a northerly direction, parallel with the coast, being broken up at its beginning into a number of islands, and afterwards forming the western boundary of the great central valley of Chile.
The gaps of Bermejo and Iglesia, in the Uspallata road, the best