Chiefs sentence example
Below these came the Eiki or chiefs, and next to them the class called Matapule.
As organs of the Police central government there are further, the ispravniki, chiefs of police in the districts into which the governments are divided.
The third crusade numbered among its chiefs Floris III.
The official seats of some of the chiefs are constructed from the wood of this tree.
Local laws, subject to approval by the legislative council of Fiji, are promulgated by a regulation board, composed of the commissioner, native chiefs of the seven districts into which the island is divided, and two native magistrates.Advertisement
The administration is in the hands of a council of chiefs which exercises legislative, executive and, to some extent, judicial functions.
There are in Cutch about 200 of these Jareja chiefs, who all claim their descent from a prince who reigned in Sind about l000 years ago.
From him also the reigning sovereign is lineally descended, and he is the liege lord of whom all the chiefs or nobles hold their lands in feu, for services which they or their ancestors had performed, or in virtue of their relationship to the family.
Many sanguinary broils now ensued, in the course of which Jugjevan was murdered, and the executive authority was much weakened by the usurpations of the Arabs and other chiefs.
The chiefs of these colonies were invited to place them under the protection of the Portuguese crown, but these at first affecting loyalty to Spain declined the offer, then threw off the mask and declared themselves independent, and the Spanish governor, Elio, was afterwards defeated by Artigas, the leader of the independents.Advertisement
The sheikhs El Morgani are the chiefs of a religious brotherhood widely spread and of considerable influence in the eastern Sudan.
In native cases the chiefs have civil jurisdiction in disputes among their own tribesmen and criminal jurisdiction over natives except in capital cases, offences against the person or property of non-natives, pretended witchcraft, cases arising out of marriages by Christian rites, &c. An appeal lies to a magistrates' court from every judgment of a native chief, and from the magistrates' judgment on such appeal to a native high court.
They lived, practically, as Kaffir chiefs, trading with Chaka and gathering round them many refugees from that monarch's tyranny.
While this opportunity of educating and training a docile people was in the main neglected, savage abuse of power by their chiefs was prevented.
Four Manchu tsian-tsuns, or governor-generals, acted as chiefs of the troops, and the prince of each aimak, nominated from Peking, was considered as the lieutenant or assistant of his respective Manchu chief.Advertisement
The repeated efforts made by Pasic to avert so distasteful a decision were held to disqualify him from the leadership of the new united Cabinet, but in order to secure his renunciation it was found necessary to exclude the other party chiefs.
Instead of reducing chaos to order and concentrating his attention, as Brand had done in the Free State, on establishing security and promoting industry, he took up, with all its entanglements, the policy of intrigues with native chiefs beyond the border and the dream of indefinite expansion.
On the western border, where the natives were of less warlike character than those on their southern and northern frontiers, intrigues were already going on with petty tribal chiefs, and the Boers drove out a portion of the Barolongs from their lands, setting up the so-called republics of Stellaland and Goshen.
He presides over a council (Conseil de Protectoral) composed of the chiefs of the French services in Annam, together with two members of the "comat"; this body deliberates on questions of taxation affecting the budget of Annam and on local public works.
In February 1789, guided by compass, he traversed the country, practically unknown to white men, from Frederickstown to Quebec, falling in with Indians by the way, with whom he fraternized; and in a subsequent expedition he was formally adopted at Detroit by the Bear tribe of Hurons as one of their chiefs, and made his way down the Mississippi to New Orleans, whence he returned to England.Advertisement
The defeated chiefs retired on the city, led by Ansgar the Staller, under whom as sheriff the citizens of London had marched to fight for Harold at Senlac. They elected Edgar Atheling, the grandson of Edmund Ironside, as king, which the Saxon Chronicle says " was indeed his natural right."
The circumstances and history of the two chief migrations of Zulu peoples northward are well known; the Matabele were led by Mosilikatze (Umsiligazi), and the Angoni by Sungandaba, both chiefs of Chaka who revolted from him in the early 19th century.
In the magistracies the authority of the chiefs and indumas (headmen) is exercised under the control of resident magistrates.
The Ingwavu'ma magistracy, like Tongaland, formed no part of the dominions of the Zulu kings, but was ruled by independent chiefs until its annexation by Great Britain in 1895.
After this battle the Zulu army dispersed, most of the leading chiefs tendered their submission, and Cetywayo became a Wolseley's fugitive.Advertisement
The Chaka dynasty was deposed, and the Zulu country portioned among eleven Zulu chiefs, John Dunn, 2 a white adventurer, and Hlubi, a Basuto chief who had done good service in the war.
A Resident was appointed who was to be the channel of communication between the chiefs and the British government.
In the meantime, however, blood feuds had been engendered between the chiefs Usibepu 1 For his action on this occasion Colonel (afterwards General Sir) Redvers Buller, who was Wood's principal assistant, received the V.C. Piet Uys was among the slain.
Cetywayo's party (who now became known as Usutus) suffered severely at the hands of the two chiefs, who were aided by a band of white freebooters.
The coast-line was thus secured for Great Britain up to the boundary of the Portuguese territory at Both these chiefs were members of the royal family.
Officially one of several chiefs subject to the control of the resident magistrate, he was, in fact, regarded by most of the Zulu as the head of their nation.
Other Zulu chiefs were convicted of various offences and sentenced to imprisonment.
Criminal jurisdiction in cases in which either the complainant or the defendant is a European, or American, or a government servant, or a British subject not a native of a Shan State, is withdrawn from the chiefs and vested in the superintendents and assistant superintendents.
In the Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however, the criminal law is practically the same as the law in force in Upper Burma, and the ngwegunhmus, or petty chiefs, have been appointed magistrates of the second class.
Within this area the petty chiefs have appointment orders, the people are disarmed, and the rate of tribute per household is fixed in each case.
The chiefs, however, are allowed to administer their own affairs, as far as may be, in accordance with their own customs, subject to the supervision of the superintendent of the Chin hills.
There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Kachins and Shans, and a school for the sons of Shan chiefs at Taung-gyi in the southern Shan States.
It happened, accordingly, that the Burmese, carrying their arms into Assam and Manipur, penetrated to the British border near Sylhet, odthe north-east frontier of Bengal, beyond which were the possessions of the chiefs of Cachar, under the protection of the British government.
At length their chiefs ventured on the open violation of the British territories.
Moreover in 1910 the natives were granted a measure of local autonomy; their chiefs were - for the first.
These powers had a tendency, however, to make the chiefs, at least those of minor importance, simply agents of the State.
In Teneriffe all the land belonged to the chiefs who leased it to their subjects.
In Strabo's time they had passed under the Roman dominion, though still governed by their own petty chiefs and retaining to a considerable extent their predatory habits (giving rise to such wars as that carried on by Quirinius, about 8-6 B.C.).
There is nowhere a real defining line between the two (many New Caledonians having black skins and woolly hair with Polynesian superiority of limb), but the Polynesian type is generally found among the chiefs and their kindred.
There is no trustworthy information as to the earlier chiefs of this people.
Abraha in his invasion of the Hejaz was accompanied by chiefs of Kinda.
The Bharatpur chiefs took an active part in the disturbances consequent on the declining power of the Mogul emperors, sometimes on the imperial side, and at others with the Mahrattas.
But there was a Hunnic party amongst the Khazar chiefs.
The people were to be directly governed by their native chiefs, whose duty was to collect the tribute and exercise magisterial functions.
The chiefs or " curacas " had subordinate native officials under them called " pichca-pachacas " over Soo men, and " pachacas " over Ioo men.
Four of their chiefs were taken prisoners and executed in Manila.
Limited judicial powers are exercised by chiefs of police, and by certain department commissions, or boards, of an executive character.
The obvious remedy for these evils was to concentrate the executive power, to render the petty chiefs amenable to one tribunal, and to confide the management of the defensive force to one hand.
The honours bestowed upon the Indian chiefs for their assistance in this war broke down in a great measure the barrier between the two races; and there is at this day a greater admixture of their blood among the better classes in Bahia than is to be found elsewhere in Brazil.
The heirs of Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi) were favoured by the Osmanli sultans until 1516, when Selim was on the point of destroying the Mevlevi establishment as hostile to the Osmanli and the faith; and though he did not do so the Mevlevi and their chiefs were deprived of influence and dignity.
Ten years later, at the instigation of Adrastus, the war was renewed by the sons of the chiefs who had fallen.
A special quarter contains the temporary residences of the chiefs when they visit headquarters, and there is a school for their sons.
In 1311, the two burgomasters, now chiefs of the municipality, take the place of the royal Schultheiss.
Not until the Tokugawa family obtained military control of the whole empire (I6o3), and, fixing its capital at Yedo, required the feudal chiefs to reside there every second year, did the problem of roads and post-stations force itself once more on official attention.
By degrees, however, the progresses of the feudal chiefs to and from Yedo, which at first were simple and economical, developed features of competitive magnificence, and the importance of good roads and suitable accommodation received increased attention.
The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president -of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke.
At the fort, on the 22nd of October 1784, a treaty was made by Oliver Wolcott, Richard Butler and Arthur Lee, commissioners for the United States, with the chiefs of the Six Nations.
All those parts of Peloponnese and the islands which in historic times were " Dorian " are ruled by recently established dynasties of " Achaean " chiefs; the home of the Asiatic Dorians is simply " Caria "; and the geographical " catalogue " in Iliad ii.
The duc de Richelieu was compelled to admit to the cabinet two of the chiefs of the Left, Villele and Corbiere.
The first and third are still occupied by feudal chiefs, and have never been subjected to a regular land-settlement, by either the Mussulman or the British government.
As both his chiefs were in the Lords, he was the spokesman of the office in the Commons, and he acquitted himself well.
The town, the name of which is usually derived from Dhara Nagari (the city of sword blades), is of great antiquity, and was made the capital of the Paramara chiefs of Malwa by Vairisinha II., who transferred his headquarters hither from Ujjain at the close of the 9th century.
Bastar is divided into two portions - that held by the Raja or chief himself, and that possessed by feudatory chiefs under him.
Under the government of Herat, however, there are a very large number of tribes, ruled over by separate and semi-independent chiefs, and belonging probably to different nationalities.
In that year he commanded the patriot forces in Rumelia, and though he failed to co-operate effectually with other chiefs, or with the foreign sympathizers fighting for the Greeks, he gained some successes against the Turks which were very welcome amid the disasters of the time.
In 777 the king was visited at Paderborn by three Saracen chiefs who implored his aid against Abdar-Rahman, the caliph of Cordova, and promised some Spanish cities in return for help. Seizing this opportunity to extend his influence Charles marched into Spain in 778 and took Pampeluna, but meeting with some checks decided to return.
In 1257 the twelve peers were the chiefs of the great feudal provinces, the dukes of Normandy, Burgundy and Aquitaine, the counts of Toulouse, Champagne and Flanders, and six spiritual peers, the archbishop of Reims, the bishops of Laon, Chalons-sur-Marne, Beauvais, Langres and Noyon.
Bachian is the most important island of a group formerly governed by a sultan, but since 1889 by a committee of chiefs under the control of a Dutch controleur.
The choice was ratified by the chiefs of the army, and ultimately confirmed, though Ali, Mahomet's sonin-law, disputed it, asserting his own title to the dignity.
He was educated, like many of the Numidian chiefs, at Carthage, learnt Latin and Greek, and was an accomplished as well as a naturally clever man.
The tree vegetation consists rather of jungle or copse than forest, abounding in game which is preserved by the native chiefs.
Two chiefs then held the ceded districts, Himmat Bahadur, the leader of the Sanyasis, who promoted the views of the British, and Shamsher, who made common cause with the Mahrattas.
During the mutiny of 1857, however, many of the chiefs rose against the British, the rani of Jhansi being a notable example.
In 1838 Espartero carefully opened up negotiations with Maroto and the principal Carlist chiefs of the Basque provinces.
He proclaimed for the constitution drawn up by the Cortes in 1812, which was unworkable, and which the chiefs of the conspiracy did not propose to restore.
Efforts are made by instruction in government and mission schools to spread a knowledge of the German language among the natives, in order to fit them for subordinate posts in administrative offices, such as the customs. Native chiefs in the interior are permitted to help in the administration of justice.
Some Baganda chiefs have started cotton, rubber and cocoa plantations, the botanic department assisting in this enterprise.
The natives are ordinarily under the direct rule of their own recognized chiefs, but in all the organized districts the governor alone has the power of life or death, of levying taxes, of carrying on war, of controlling waste lands and forests, and of administering justice to non-natives.
The king was secured a minimum civil list of £1500 a year out of the native revenues; pensions were accorded to other members of the Buganda royal family; the salaries of ministers and governing chiefs were guaranteed; compensation in money was paid for removing the king's control over waste lands; definite estates were allotted to the king, royal family, nobility and native landowners; the native parliament or " Lukiko " was reorganized and its powers were defined; and many other points in dispute were settled.
The chiefs of the rival creeds - British (Anglicans), French (Catholics), and Ba-Islamu, as they were called - divided thechiefships.
The Mahommedans now formed a plot to oust the Christians, and treacherously massacred a number of their chiefs and then defeated their unprepared adherents.
The king and chiefs (except two ringleaders) were offered reinstatement, and they appeared anxious to accept these terms, but the French bishop joined them in the islands, and from that day all hopes of peace vanished.
Talleyrand believed that he served those causes best by remaining in office whenever possible, and by guiding or moderating the actions of his chiefs.
Thus too it is very generally applied in the East to the chiefs of independent or semi-independent tribes.
Chiefs were at once qualified for the highest grade, but ordinary members attained promotion only through initiatory rites.
Again, the army was morally weakened by a haunting dread of treason, and some of the chiefs, Ney for example, took the field with disturbing visions of the consequences of their late betrayal of the Bourbon cause, in case of Napoleon's defeat.
The two chiefs, surveying the French army in their front, considered that no serious force was in front of Quatre Bras, and Wellington terminated the interview with the conditional promise that he would bring his army to Blucher's assistance at Ligny, if he was not attacked himself.
Henceforth the Chalukya rajas ranked only as petty chiefs.
To counteract it they, in 1701, prevailed upon the chiefs to deed their territory, said to be Boo m.
Hobson landed in the Bay of Islands on the 22nd of January 1840, hoisted the Union Jack, and had little difficulty in inducing most of the native chiefs to accept the queen's sovereignty at the price of guaranteeing to the tribes by the treaty of Waitangi possession of their lands, forests and fisheries.
But their kings were incompetent, their chiefs jealous and their tribes divided.
In 1842 he obtained from the native chiefs cessions of territory at Assini and Grand Bassam to France and the towns named were occupied in 1843.
This merchant sent an agent into the interior who made friendly treaties between France and some of the native chiefs.
Between 1887 and 1889 Captain Binger (an officer of marine infantry, and subsequently director of the African department at the colonial ministry) traversed the whole region between the coast and the Niger, visited Bontuku and the Kong country, and signed protectorate treaties with the chiefs.
There is no doubt that it contains an element of truth; as among the Romans the gradual deification of ancestors and the apotheosis of emperors were prominent features of religious development, so among primitive peoples it is possible to trace the evolution of family and tribal gods from great chiefs and warriors.
The treaties gave great offence to the Boers, who refused to acknowledge the sovereignty of the native chiefs.
Waterboer's claims were based on the treaty concluded by his father with the British in 1834, and on various arrangements with the Kok chiefs; the Free State based its claim on its purchase of Adam Kok's sovereign rights and on long occupation.
In 777 Charles held an assembly at Paderborn, henceforth his headquarters during this war, which was attended by most of the Saxon chiefs.
The land was divided into counties, which, however, were given to Saxon chiefs to administer, and it was probably on this occasion that the capitulatio de partibus Saxoniae was issued.
They proposed the impeachment of the minister responsible for the nomination of the chiefs of the districts, and declared that they would take no part in revising the constitution.
In 1888 the tide of persecution turned, and several chiefs embraced Christianity, and on Crowther's return from another visit to England, the large iron church known as "St Stephen's cathedral" was opened.
The fall of Missolonghi, followed as this was by the submission of many of the more notable chiefs, left Reshid free to turn his attention to East Hellas, where Gouras had been ruling Karaa s a practically independent chief and in the s irit P Y P P?
The montons consist of groups of the old rural provinces (muang); the hereditary chiefs of which, except in the Lao country in the north and in the Malay States, have been replaced by governors trained in administrative work and subordinate to the high commissioner.
His earlier study of Irish history afforded him suggestions for a historical novel entitled The Two Chiefs of Dunboy (1889).
Justice for Europeans is administered by European judges, but, as with administration at large so in judicial matters, native chiefs have extensive powers in native affairs.
The treaty of 1818 gave effect to this arrangement, Britain guaranteeing the prince against external enemies and refractory chiefs; he, on his part, pledging himself to be guided by her representative in the administration of his state.
Worn out by internal strife fostered by Haakon's emissaries, the Icelandic chiefs acknowledged the Norwegian king as overlord in 1262.
The sultan of Air is to a great extent dependent on the chiefs of the Tuareg tribes inhabiting a vast tract of the Sahara to the north-west.
The Chinese had thoughts of pushing their conquests towards western Turkestan and Samarkand, the chiefs of which sent to ask assistance of the Afghan king Ahmed Shah.
He had defeated all enterprises by rivals against his throne; he had broken down the power of local chiefs, and tamed the refractory tribes; so that his orders were irresistible throughout the whole dominion.
Although the peasants had to leave their chiefs and work on the land, the Vendeans still remained formidable opponents.
The great native chiefs, bewildered and disquieted, thought themselves menaced.
The Gallic chiefs now appealed to Caesar to deliver them from the actual or threatened tyranny of Ariovistus.
Historical value of the ordinary kind may be found in the latter part of the Popol-Vuh, which gives names of chiefs down to the time when they began to bear Spanish names and the great city of Quiche became the deserted ruin of Santa Cruz.
As in the Guatemala traditions, we hear of ancient migration from the Mexican legendary region of Tula; and here the leaders are four famous chiefs or ancestors who bear the Aztec name of the Tutul-Xiu, which means " Bird-Tree."
As one of the Aztec chiefs at the time of the founding of their city was called Tenoch, it is likely that from him was derived the name Tenochtitlan or " Stone-cactus place."
While the prairie tribes of America lived under the loose sway of chiefs and councils of old men, the settled nations of Mexico had attained to a highly organized government.
The Mexican chronicles, however, show instances of the king's son succeeding or of powerful chiefs being elected to the kingship. The term republic is sometimes used to describe the little state of Tlascala, but this was in fact a federation of four chiefs, with an assembly of nobles.
The greatest estates belonged to the king, or had been granted to military chiefs whose sons succeeded them, or were the endowments of temples, but the calpulli or village community still survived, and each freeman of the tribe held and tilled his portion of the common lands.
The common soldiers were promoted for acts of daring, and the children of chiefs were regularly trained to war, and initiated by being sent into battle with veterans, with whose aid the youth took his first prisoner, but his future rise depended on how many captives he took unaided in fight with warlike enemies; by such feats he gained the dignity of wearing coloured blankets, tassels and lip-jewels, and reached such military titles as that of " guiding eagle."
But after cremation came in a mourning procession of servants and chiefs carrying the body to the funeral pyre to be burnt by the demondressed priests, after which the crowd of wives and slaves were exhorted to serve their lord faithfully in the next world, were sacrificed and their bodies burnt.
Although under strong British influence the country was nevertheless ruled by its own chiefs, among whom the best-known in the middle of the 19th century were Montsioa, chief of the Barolong, and Sechele, chief of the Bakwena and the friend of Livingstone.
The Transvaal government was to have supreme power, and to be the final arbiter in case of future quarrels arising among the native chiefs.
He found very little difficulty in negotiating with the various Bechuana chiefs, but with the Boers he was not so successful.
Khania and two other Bechuana chiefs came to England and protested against this arrangement.
The result was that their territories and those of other petty chiefs lying to the north of the Molopo were made native reserves, into which the importation of alcohol was forbidden.
A stipulation, however, was made with these chiefs that a strip of country sufficient for the purposes of a railway to Matabeleland should be conceded to the Chartered Company.
In the settlement of 64 B.C. Galatia became a client-state of the empire, the old constitution disappeared, and three chiefs (wrongly styled "tetrarchs") were appointed, one for each tribe.
The conquerors, who were few in number, formed a small military aristocracy, living not in the towns, but in fortified villages, where the chiefs in their castles kept up a barbaric state, surrounded by their tribesmen.
It was not till 1748, when a decisive blow was struck at the power of the chiefs by the abolition of heritable jurisdictions, and the appointment of sheriffs in the different districts, that the arts of peace and social improvement made way in these remote regions.
Their confradias, or brotherhoods, each with its patron saint and male and female chiefs, exist largely to organize public festivals, and to purchase wooden masks, costumes and decorations for the dances and dramas in which the Indians delight.
With him were executed several Indian chiefs who had been concerned in a massacre of whites.
In spite of the incapacity which he displayed in this war, John was sent a little later 'to govern Ireland (1185); but he returned in a few months covered with disgrace, having alienated the loyal chiefs by his childish insolence and entirely failed to defend the settlers from the hostile septs.
On one occasion he trapped a number of his enemies, the Berber chiefs of the Ronda, into visiting him, and got rid of them by smothering them in the hot room of a bath.
Here, negotiating and bargaining with the Mahratta chiefs, Wellesley acquired a knowledge of their affairs and an influence over them such as no other Englishman possessed.
In these critical circumstances Wellesley was charged with "the general direction and control of military and political affairs in the territories of the Nizam, the Peshwa and the Mahratta states and chiefs."
Of this by far the most important member was Federigo da Montefeltro, lord of Urbino from 1444 to 1482, one of the most successful condottieri chiefs of his time, and not only a man of great military and political ability, but also an enthusiastic patron of art and literature, on which he lavished immense sums of money.
Little control was exercised by the rulers of Kabul, and the country was administered by local chiefs or Afghan Sirdars very much as they pleased.
Though nominally a deputy of the peshwa he was now ruler of a vast territory, including the greater part of Central India and Hindustan proper, while his lieutenants exacted tribute from the chiefs of Rajputana.
In 1196 Gwalior was captured by Mahommed Ghori; it then passed into the hands of several chiefs until in 1559 Akbar gained possession of it, and made it a state prison for captives of rank.
But in the " Great Division " which took place in 1848 and forms the foundation of present land titles, about 984,000 acres, nearly onefourth of the inhabited area, were set apart for the crown, about r, 495, 000 acres for the government, and about 1,619,000 acres for the several chiefs; and the common people received fee-simple titles 4 for their house lots and the pieces of land which they cultivated for themselves, about 28,600 acres, almost entirely in isolated patches of irregular shape hemmed in by the holdings of the crown, the government or the great chiefs.
Generally the chiefs ran into debt; many died without heirs; and their lands passed largely into the hands of foreigners.
Most of the people are of moderate stature, but the chiefs and the women of their families have been remarkable for their height, and 400 pounds was formerly not an unusual weight for one of this class.
Polygamy prevailed among the chiefs and rulers, and women were subject to all the humiliations of the tabu system, which subjected them to many privations, and kept them socially in a condition of inferiority to the other sex.
Grotesque and repulsive wooden figures, animals and the bones of chiefs were the objects of worship. Human sacrifices were offered whenever a temple was to be dedicated, or a chief was sick, or a war was to be undertaken; and these occasions were frequent.
Bush was commissioned as minister plenipotentiary to the king of Samoa, the king of Tonga and the other independent chiefs of Polynesia.
Holofernes now inquires of the chiefs who are with him about the Israelites,and is answered by Achior the leader of the Ammonites, who enters upon a long historical narrative showing the Israelites to be invincible except when they have offended God.
This ordination of Ulfilas by the chiefs of the semi-Arian party is at once an indication of their determination to extend their influence by active missionary enterprise, and evidence that Ulfilas was now a declared adherent of the Arian or semi-Arian party.
The religious quarrel either accentuated, or was accentuated by, political differences, and the rival chiefs, Athanaric and Frithigern, appeared as champions of Paganism and Christianity respectively.
Here are several fine houses in bungalow style, the residences of the chiefs or wealthy natives.
The chiefs of Duke Town and other places in the neighbourhood placed themselves in 1884 under British protection.
From Caesar we learn that it was customary at tribal assemblies for one or other of the chiefs to propose an expedition.
Chiefs of known prowess and liberality attracted large retinues, and their influence within the tribe, and even beyond, increased proportionately.
Most of these districts are governed by deba or chiefs, while a few have kings or gyalpo, the most powerful of the latter being the king of Derge, famous for its inlaid metal and leather work, and of Chagla, or, as it is better known, Tachienlu, as it is called by the Chinese or the Dartsemdo of the Tibetans, the headquarters of the tea trade with China.
Though the whole of Tibet is under the suzerainty of China, the government of the country is divided into two distinct administrations, the one under the rule of the Dalai lama of Lhasa, the other under local kings or chiefs, and comprising a number of ecclesiastical fiefs.
The native chiefs of the Panaka and other Tibetan tribes of this region are styled pdmbo (" official " or " headman ") by both the natives and the Chinese.
The people pay a small poll-tax to China, and are exempted from any other impost; they also pay a small tax in kind, sheep, butter, &c., to their chiefs.
The province of Khamdo, including all eastern Tibet, is governed by local chiefs, styled gyalpo, " king," and deba, " chief," succession to the chieftainship being usually assured to the eldest son not a lama.
Once in every five years the chiefs send a tribute mission to the capital of Szechuen, and once every ten years to Peking, but the tribute sent is purely nominal.
There are also a few lama chiefs.
He fled north of the Himalayas into the Bod country, where he was elected king by the twelve chiefs of the tribes of southern and central Tibet.
The descendants of the first made themselves masters of Gung-t'ang, Lugyalwa, Chyipa, Lhatse, Langlung and Tsakor, where they severally ruled as petty chiefs.
The Hittites were invading Syria; nomads from the desert supported the invasion; and many of the local chiefs were ready to seize the opportunity to throw off the yoke of Egypt.
Nevertheless Baal submitted in the end, along with the princes of Gebal and Arvad, Manasseh of Judah, and the other Canaanite chiefs; in the island of Cyprus the Assyrians carried all before them ii.
Some of the Phoenician chiefs, among them Ithobal II., the new king of Tyre, while forced to yield to a change of masters, were bold enough to declare their hostility to the Babylonians.
In 1509 the place became a source of contention between the chiefs of Mewar and Marwar, and was ultimately conquered in 1532 by the latter prince, who in his turn in 1559 had to give way before the emperor Akbar.
As Stubbs says " the thegn seems to be primarily the warrior gesith " - the gesithas forming the chosen band of companions (comites) of the German chiefs (principes) noticed by Tacitus - " he is probably the gesith who had a particular military duty in his master's service "; and he adds that from the reign of Athelstan " the gesith is lost sight of except very occasionally, the more important class having become thegns, and the lesser sort sinking into the rank of mere servants of the king."
Sawla.wi was then appointed myoza, and received a sanad, or patent of appointment, on the same terms as the chiefs of the Shan states.
In 1870 Katr was under Wahhabi rule, but in the year 1871 Turkish assistance was requested to aid the settlement of a family quarrel between certain Wahhabi chiefs, and the Turks thus obtained a footing in Katr, which they have retained ever since.
But the pearl fisheries of Katr are still under the protection of the chiefs of Bahrein, who are themselves under British suzerainty.
Each tetrarchy was divided into five provinces, ruled by five chiefs called apo-ulmen; and each province into nine districts, governed by as many ulmen, who were subject to the apo-ulmen, as the latter were to the toquis.
The chiefs, indeed, were little more than leaders in war; for the right of private revenge limited their authority in judicial matters; and they received no taxes.
The tract was purchased from the Mohegan chiefs, Uncas, Owaneco and Attawanhood, and the settlement was called Mohegan until 1662, when the present name was adopted.
Everywhere, however, he met with discouragement among the chiefs, whose adherence he wished to secure; but at last, by enlisting the support of Cameron of Lochiel, he gained a footing for a serious rebellion.
The chiefs of the clans, with a few sub-chiefs having hereditary rights, formed the King's Council, and the king, unless of exceptionally strong character, often exercised less power than the council of chiefs, each of whom kept his little court, making a profuse display of barbaric pomp. Land is held in common by the tribes, lands unallotted being attached to the office of head chief or king and called "stool lands."
The system of human sacrifices, practised among the Ashanti until the closing years of the 19th century, was founded on a sentiment of piety towards parents and other connexions - the chiefs believing that the rank of their dead relatives in the future world would be measured by the number of attendants sent after them.
About 1807, two chiefs of the Assin, whom he had defeated in battle, sought refuge among the Fanti, the ruling people on the coast.
Torrane (governor 1805-1807) repaired to Anamabo, where he was received with great pomp. Torrane determined to surrender the fugitive Assin chiefs, but one succeeded in escaping; the other, on being given up, was put to death by the Ashanti.
After this act with the principal chiefs were arrested and taken as prisoners to Cape Coast, where they were embarked on board H.M.S.
Though outwardly submissive, the Kumasi chiefs were far from reconciled to British rule, and in 1900 a serious rebellion broke out.
Hodgson, in a public palaver at Kumasi, announced that the Ashanti chiefs would have to pay the British government 4000 oz.
Thereafter many of the rebel chiefs surrendered, and the only two remaining in the field were captured on the 28th of December.
The order in council mentioned, which may be described as the first constitution granted Ashanti by its British owners, provides that the governor, in issuing ordinances respecting the administration of justice, the raising of revenue, or any other matter, shall respect any native laws by which the civil relations of any chiefs, tribes or populations are regulated, "except so far as they may be incompatible with British sovereignty or clearly injurious to the welfare of the natives themselves."
Moreover, the maintenance of the tribal system and the support given to the lawful chiefs did much to win the confidence and respect of a people naturally suspicious, and mindful of their exiled king.
The municipal councils were, however, maintained to carry out the orders of the military chiefs.
The chiefs and their followers that settled Iceland were "picked men," the flower of the land, and sought a new home from other motives than want or gain.
The whole country had tamely submitted to the invader, and the leading chiefs had taken the oaths of allegiance.
Being attacked there by two Ostrogothic chiefs he also, in 381, sought the protection of the Roman emperor.
During the contests for power which ensued about the middle of the 18th century between the native chiefs, the French and the English took opposite sides.
Their decisions, however, are subject to the approval of their official chiefs.
Its chiefs differed on questions of policy, one section believing that the emperor did not intend to proceed to extremities, and for some time no measures were taken to meet the coming peril.
The Mahratta chiefs availed themselves of these circumstances to endeavour to possess themselves of the whole country, and Ahmad was compelled more than once to cross the Indus in order to protect his territory from them and the Sikhs, who were constantly attacking his garrisons.
They build square houses, are active traders and are ruled by independent chiefs, having no political cohesion.
Although British influence was powerful and the British consul for the Oil Rivers during this period exercised considerable authority over the native chiefs, requests made by them - in particular by the Dualla chiefs in 1882 - for annexation by Great Britain, were refused or neglected, with the result that when Germany started on her quest to pick up unappropriated parts of the African coast she was enabled to secure Cameroon.
A treaty with King Bell was negotiated by Dr Gustav Nachtigal, the signature of the king and the other chiefs being obtained at midnight on the 15th of July 1884.
Though too late to secure King Bell's territory, Mr Hewett concluded treaties with all the neighbouring chiefs, but the British government decided to recognize the German claim not only to Bell town, but to the whole Cameroon region.
About the year 1040 or a little earlier, one of their chiefs, Yahya ibn Ibrahim, made the pilgrimage to Mecca.
The Macedonian chiefs found their pride in being champions of Hellenism.
To fix their European soldiery upon the new soil was an obvious necessity for the Macedonian chiefs who had set up kingdoms among the barbarians, and the lots of the veterans (except in Egypt) were naturally attached to various urban centres.
These conditions were that all rights of conquest acquired by the Fulani throughout Northern Nigeria passed to Great Britain, that for the future every sultan and emir and principal officer of state should be appointed by Great Britain, that the emirs and chiefs so appointed should obey the laws of the British government, that they should no longer buy and sell slaves, nor enslave people, that they should import no firearms, except flint-locks, that they should enforce no sentences in their courts of law which were contrary to humanity, and that the British government should in future hold rights in land and taxation.
When these conditions were accepted by the Fulani chiefs the supremacy of Great Britain was established over the entire country.
Throughout Northern Nigeria all chiefs, Mahommedan and Pagan, now hold their appointments under the British crown and take the oath of allegiance to the British sovereign.
They were of two classes, the " Alkalis' Court," presided over by trained Mahommedan jurists, and " Judicial Councils," under the leading chiefs and natives presided over by the emir or other native ruler.
At its initiation the proceeds were divided in approximately equal shares between the central government and the native administration, and a means was thus found of creating a legitimate revenue for the native chiefs to supersede the proceeds of slave-raiding and slave-dealing, and of oppression and extortion, by which they had hitherto supplied their needs.
As in India, the village with its lands and cultivation was constituted the unit of assessment, and the provinces were divided into districts under native headmen responsible for the collection of the tax, and its payment to the paramount chief, who in turn rendered the assigned share to district and village chiefs, to the officers of state recognized by government and to the government itself.
In the Pagan districts where no native machinery existed and no previous taxation had been in force, a nominal impost was levied and collected by the officers of the government through the agency of the village chiefs.
The great chiefs are appointed by the government in consultation with the principal men, and in accordance with native customs and laws of succession.
Minor chiefs are nominated by their paramount chiefs, subject to the approval of the high commissioner.
This was in accord with native laws - that the land is the property of the people, held in trust for them by their chiefs, who have not the power of alienation.
Army.The youth of Egypt was liable to be called upon for service in the field under the local chiefs.
Libyan soldiers had long been employed in the army, and their military chiefs settled in the large towns and acquired wealth and power, while the native rulers grew weaker and weaker.
Heracleopolis Magna, however, with its petty king Pefteuaubasti, held out against Tefnakht, and Pankhi coming to its aid not only drove Tefnakht out of Middle Egypt, but also captured Memphis and received the submission of the princes and chiefs; in all these included four kings and fourteen other chiefs.
Notwithstanding, the Assyrian king entrusted the government and collection of tribute to the native chiefs; twenty princes in all are enumerated in the records, including one Assyrian to hold the key of Egypt at Pelusium.
He was compelled to surrender by the Albanians; the two chiefs of the Turks who killed Tahir Pasha were taken with him and put to death, and he himself was detained a prisoner.
The Mamelukes in the citadel directed a fire of shot and shell on the houses of the Albanians which were situated in the Ezbekia; but, on hearing of the flight of their chiefs, they evacuated the place; and Mehemet Au, on gaining possession of it, once more proclaimed Mahommed Khosrev pasha of Egypt.
For one day and a half he enjoyed the title; the friends of the late Thir Pasha then accomplished his second degradation,i and Cairo was again the scene of terrible enormities, the Albanians revelling in the houses of the Mameluk chiefs, whose hareems met with no mercy at their hands.
This reverse in a measure united the two great Mameluke parties, though their chiefs remained at enmity.
Two chiefs of the Albanians joined his party, but many of his soldiers deserted.
On the 17th of August 1805 the dam of the canal of Cairo was to be cut, and some chiefs of Mehemet Alis party wrote, informing them that he would go forth early on that morning with most of his troops to witness the ceremony, inviting them to enter and seize the city, and, to deceive them, stipulating for a certain sum of money as a reward.
Eighty-three heads (many of them those of Frenchmen and Albanians) were stuffed and sent to Constantinople, with a boast that the Mameluke chiefs were utterly destroyed.
He induced the ulemg to sign a letter, praying the sultan to revoke the command for reinstating the beys, persuaded the chiefs of the Albanian troops to swear allegiance to him, and sent 2000 purses contributed by them to Constantinople.
On the 1st of March, Shhhin Bey and the other chiefs (one only excepted) repaired with their retinues to the citadel, and were courteously received by the pasha.
Of the betrayed chiefs, many were laid low in a few moments; some, dismounting, and throwing off their outer robes, vainly sought, sword in hand, to return, and escape by some other gate.
Ihe revolt was reduced by presents to the chiefs of the insurgents, md Mehemet Ali ordered that the sufferers by the disturbances;hould receive compensation from the treasury.
On assuming office, the first thing it had to do was to bring to trial the chiefs of the rebellion.
The Darfurian chiefs then allied themselves with Abu Gemaiza, sheikh of the Masalit Arabs, who had proclaimed himself Khalifa Osman, and was known as the anti-mahdi.
His father, a man of mild and peaceful disposition, was killed when Ali was fourteen years old by neighbouring chiefs who seized his territories.
The Serbs, who owing to the dissensions of their zhupans or chiefs, had hitherto failed to take a prominent part in the history of the Peninsula, attained unity under Stephen Nemanya (1169-1195), the founder of the Nemanyich dynasty.
The Sala de los Abencerrajes (Hall of the Abencerrages) derives its name from a legend according to which Boabdil, the last king of Granada, having invited the chiefs of that illustrious line to a banquet, massacred them here.
Neither they nor the lesser chiefs who flourished on the lack of common law and order could be reduced by ordinary methods, and the Councils of Wales and of the North were given summary powers derived from the Roman civil law similiar to those exercised by the Star Chamber at Westminster and the court of Castle Chamber at Dublin.
Malcolm the Maiden, before his early death in 1165, had put down the menacing power of Somerled, lord of the Isles, a chief apparently of mixed Celtic and Scandinavian blood, the founder of the great clan of Macdonald, whose chiefs, the lords of the Isles, were almost royal; Malcolm also subdued the Celts of Galloway, sometimes called Picts, but at this time Gaelic in speech.
The highlanders were next handled as the lowlanders had been; a parliament was held at Inverness and a number of chiefs who attended were seized, imprisoned or executed.
Morton, with Angus, attacked the Hamiltons, whose chiefs fled the country, accompanied by the worst of traitors, Sir James Balfour.
They were never again dangerous at this period, were scattered by Livingstone in a surprise at Cromdale haughs, and government began to attempt to buy from chiefs the peace of the clans.
But the hereditable jurisdictions and feudal powers, as of calling out tenants by the fiery cross and punishing the peaceful by burning their cottages, had never been abolished; the chief's will was law, and if the chiefs headed a rising, their clansmen would follow them, willingly or " forced out."
If the chiefs had possessed information now accessible to us, they might not have made " the great refusal," but with only the intelligence which they possessed they could not have followed their audacious prince to the south.
The chiefs first raised the highland regiments which have covered themselves with glory from Ticonderoga to Dargai and Elandslaagte.
The abolition of hereditable jurisdictions and of the claims of feudal superiors to military service, after Culloden, broke the bond between chiefs and clans, and introduced new social and economical conditions, bequeathing the Land Question to the 10th century.
The old sultan of Mataram was captured, and he and other Balinese chiefs were exiled to different parts of the Malay Archipelago, whilst the sultan's heir fell at the hands of his warriors.
Their colour is a brown, lighter or darker generally according to the amount of their exposure to the sun - being darker on some of the atolls where the people spend much time in fishing, and among fishermen on the volcanic islands, and lighter among women, chiefs and others less exposed than the bulk of the people.
There have been exceptions, however, especially in the case of high chiefs; but usually great care is taken to prevent the union of those within the prescribed limits of consanguinity.
There also, especially in the case of chiefs and chieftainesses, brothers and sisters sometimes intermarried.
Even in this case the chiefs or ' Morgan has founded one of his forms of family - the consanguine - on the supposed existence in former times among the Malays and Polynesians of the custom of " intermarriage of brothers and sisters, own and collateral, in a group."
Much deference is paid to chiefs and to persons of rank; and special terms are generally employed in addressing these.
In addressing chiefs, or others to whom one wishes to be respectful, the singular number of the personal pronoun is rarely used; the dual is employed instead, - the dual of dignity or of respect.
A common practice is for the holder of a high title to nominate a successor; and his nomination is generally confirmed by the chiefs, or heads of households, with whom the right of election rests.
Usually all matters affecting a district or an island were settled by the chiefs of the district, while those of a single village were settled by a council consisting of the chiefs and heads of households in the village.
Among the former it appears to have become a sort of ex officio title of the Byzantine vicegerents of Italy, the exarchs of Ravenna; among the barbarian chiefs who were thus dignified were Odoacer, Theodoric, Sigismund of Burgundy, Clovis, and even in later days princes of Bulgaria, the Saracens, and the West Saxons.
The Trucial chiefs of the Arabian coast hold sway between the peninsulas of Musandam and Qatar.
Shortly afterwards a treaty was made with the Chief of Qatar, whereby his position was assimilated to that of the Trucial chiefs.
In defiance of her commercial interests and of her popularity with the Moslem population of the Gulf, Great Britain set herself to suppress the trade, and executed a series of agreements with the chiefs of the Arabian littoral with this object.
But a weakening of the authority of chiefs was apparent, and in 1912 an ordinance was.
From Wittenberg he was sent by the chiefs of the German Augustinian Eremites to Rome on a mission concerning the organization of the order.
He was sprung from a race the heads of which had been Celtic chiefs, had lost their lands in the wars of Ireland, and had felt the full weight of the harsh penal code which long held the Catholic Irish down.
Acre was captured, but quarrels among the chiefs of the expedition made the enterprise ineffective.
Dennie with a small force routed Dost Mahommed Khan, accompanied by a number of Uzbeg chiefs.
There are three classes of chiefs who form the council or durbar of the king.
Among these was a noble young soldier, Ahmad Khan, of the Saddozai family of the Abdali clan, who after the assassination of Nadir (1747) was chosen by the Afghan chiefs at Kandahar to be their leader, and assumed kingly authority over the eastern part of Nadir's empire, with the style of Dur-i-Durdn, " Pearl of the Age," bestowing that of Durani upon his clan, the Abdalis.
The leading chiefs of Afghanistan perceived that the maintenance of Shah Shuja'?
The result was that whereas in former times the forces of an Afghan ruler consisted mainly of a militia, furnished by the chiefs of tribes who held land on condition of military service, and who stoutly resisted any attempt to commute this service for money payment, the amir had at his command a large standing army, and disposed of a substantial revenue paid direct to his treasury.
Abdur Rahman executed or exiled all those whose political influence he saw reason to fear, or of whose disaffection he had the slightest suspicion; his administration was severe and his punishments were cruel; but undoubtedly he put down disorder, stopped the petty tyranny of local chiefs and brought violent crime under some effective control in the districts.
They are also bought up by native chiefs at high prices for purposes of ostentation.
The attempt resulted in failure in every case, except where the zamindars happened to be the representatives of ancient lines of powerful chiefs.
Several of such chiefs exist in the extreme south and in the north of the presidency.
He had transferred much territory to chiefs and confederacies devoted to his cause; every petty court had its Greek faction; and the detachments which he left behind at various positions, from the Afghan frontier to the Beas, and from near the base of the Himalaya to the Sind delta, were visible pledges of his return.
Sober and industrious, good farmers and skilful artisans, they scarcely ever had recourse to a lawsuit, and lived peaceably under their native chiefs.
It appears that in the 4th century three Pallava chiefs were established at Kanchi, Vengi and Palakkada, the latter two being subordinate to the first, and that Pallava rule extended from the Godavari on the north to the Southern Vellaru river on the south, and stretched across Mysore from sea to sea.
Shut off by the line of Decline of the the Ghats from Mahommedan India of that day, they Portu- were able to dominate the petty chiefs of Malabar, guese.
The family of Sivaji produced no great names, either among those who continued to be the nominal chiefs of the Mahratta confederacy, their capital at Satara, or among M the Y?
The Mahratta chiefs never again united heartily for a common purpose, though they still continued to be the most formidable military power in India.
He is charged with being, under these orders, the only governor-general who diminished the area of British territory, and with violating engagements by abandoning the Rajput chiefs to the tender mercies of Holkar and Sindhia.
Though the great Mahratta chiefs were learning to live rather as peaceful princes than as leaders of predatory bands, the example of lawlessness they had set was being followed, and bettered in the following, by a new set of freebooters, known as the Pindaris.
To suppress the Pindari hordes, who were supported by the sympathy, more or less open, of all the Mahratta chiefs, Lord Hastings (1817) collected the strongest British army that had been seen in India, numbering nearly 1 20,000 men, half to operate from the north, half from the south.
Peace was proclaimed throughout India on the 8th of July 1859; and in the following cold season Lord Canning made a viceregal progress through the upper provinces, to receive the homage of loyal princes and chiefs, and to guarantee to them the right of adoption.
The same quality, combined with sympathy and firmness, stood him in good stead in all his dealings both with native chiefs and European officials.
There followed on the part of the British authorities, interference in Chitral, ending in an expedition in 1895 and the ejection of the local chiefs in favour of candidates amenable to British influence.
Joseph's authority did not exist throughout a large part of the kingdom, where royalist risings, led by brigand chiefs, maintained a state of anarchy, and a British force under Sir John Stuart, which landed in Calabria from Sicily, defeated the French at Maida (July 6th, 1806).
The regional commissioners and the political residents act either by means of the village headmen (Shum or Chicca), by the chiefs of districts in the few localities where villages are still organized in districts, or by the headmen of tribes, and by the councils of the elders wherever these remain.
Defence is entrusted to a corps of colonial troops, partly Italian and partly native; to a militia (milizia mobile) formed by natives who have already served in the colonial corps; and to the chitet or general levy which, in time of war, places all male able-bodied inhabitants under arms. The regional commissioners and political residents have at their disposal some hundreds of irregular paid soldiers under native chiefs.
In this he drew a masterly picture, not only of the life and immorality of the friars but also of the insolent Filipino chiefs or caciques, subservient to the powers above, tyrannical to those below, superstitious, unprogressive and grasping.
Using the same tactics as his father had used before, Obaidallah summoned the chiefs of the tribes and made them responsible for the conduct of their men.
A revolt headed by Procopius in the second year of his reign, and backed up by the public opinion of Constantinople and the sympathy of the Gothic princes and chiefs on the Danube, seemed so alarming to him that he thought of negotiation; but in the following year the revolt collapsed before the firmness of his ministers and generals.
From 1824 to 1840 there is a complicated and not uninteresting movement of local politics and a preparation for the future, - the missions fall, republicanism grows, the sentiment of local patriotism becomes a political force, there is a succession of sectional controversies and personal struggles among provincial chiefs, an increase of foreign commerce, of foreign immigration and of foreign influence.
His kingdom was divided among thirteen chiefs and he himself taken to Cape Town, whence he was brought to London in August 1882.
In a parliament held at Inverness in 1427 the king arrested many turbulent northern chiefs, and his whole policy was directed towards crushing the power of the nobles.
A military post was established, but it was destroyed in 1775 by the natives under the ddto', or vassal chiefs, who resented the cession of their territory.
The company subsequently acquired further sovereign and territorial rights from the sultan of Brunei and his chiefs in addition to some which had already been obtained at the time of the formation of the company.
The principal departments, whose chiefs reside at the capital, are the treasury, the land and survey, the public works, the constabulary, the medical and the judicial.
There is an Imam's court for the trial of cases affecting Mahommedan law of marriage, succession, &c. The native chiefs are responsible to the government for the preservation of law and order in their districts.
Each community is usually composed (but there are local differences) of - (i) an upper class of chiefs, from among whom the head (tamol or iros) is chosen; (2) a lower but still noble class; and (3) common people, mostly without rights of property.
In Ponape, one of the Caroline Islands, many words of ceremony are used in addressing chiefs, as they are used in Samoa.
The bodies of the dead, and sometimes even of the sick, are despatched to sea westwards, with certain rites; those of the chiefs, however, are buried, for the order has something essentially divine about it; their bodies therefore are sacred, and their spirits naturally assume the position above described.
Thus too it comes that the chiefs, and all belonging to them, are taboo as regards the common people.
The mantles made from its skin are reserved for chiefs and dignitaries of native tribes.
This position is not due to its chiefs, who are all of inferior rank.
Cavalry is unknown, and the battles are mainly decided by the prowess of the chiefs.
The chief buildings are the palace of the emir and the houses of the baloguns (war chiefs).
His plan failed, for the local Roman officials acted as though the kingdom had been conquered in war; they seized on the property of the late king and his chiefs and insulted his family.
If this was so, it is easy to understand both the enthusiasm with which the chiefs of northern Gaul rallied to the standard of a leader belonging to their own race, and the opposition which Vindex encountered from the Roman colony of Lugdunum and the legions on the Rhine.
It had been the policy of the great Mahratta chiefs, Holkar and Sindhia, to trample down into complete subjection all the petty Rajput princes, whose lands they seized and from whom they levied heavy contributions of money.
Many of these minor chiefs had been expelled from their possessions, had taken refuge in the hills and forest, and retaliated upon the Mahratta usurpers by wasting the lands which they had lost, until the Mahrattas compounded for peace by payment of blackmail.
The policy pursued was to declare the permanency of the rights existing at the time of the British interposition, conditionally upon the maintenance of order; to adjust and guarantee the relations of subordinate and tributary chiefs to their superiors so as to prevent all further disputes or encroachments; and to settle the claims of the ousted landholders, who had resorted to pillage or blackmail, by fixing grants of land to be made to them, or settling the money allowances to be paid to them.
The general result was to place all the privileges, rights and possessions of these inferior chiefs under the guarantee or protection of the British government, to whom all disputes between the superior and inferior states must be referred, and whose decision is final upon all questions of succession to hereditary rights or rulership. The states have no general ethnological affinity, such as exists in Rajputana.
Ten of them are under direct treaty with the government of India; others are held under sanads and deeds, of fealty and obedience; while a third class, known as the mediatized states, are held under agreements mediated by the British government between them and their superior chiefs.
The chancellor took the place of the justiciar in council, the treasurer in the exchequer, while the two offshoots from the curia regis, the common pleas and the exchequer, received chiefs of their own.
The barbarian invaders, though they were accustomed to contributions to their chiefs and to the payment of commodities as tributes or as penalties, had no acquaintance with the working of a regular system of taxation.
The most notable of the later outbreaks were those in1879-1880and in1885-1886respectively of the Apache chiefs Victorio and Geronimo (c. 1834-1909).
Nine rebel chiefs are led before him, their hands bound behind them, and a rope round their necks; the ninth is Skunka, the chief of the Scythians (Sacae) whom he defeated.
In 1832 the "FourLakes" country was in the theatre of hostilities during the Black Hawk War; Colonel Henry Dodge held a conference with Winnebago chiefs on Lake Mendota, and there were several skirmishes in the neighbourhood between his troops and the followers of Black Hawk, one of which took place on the site of Madison.
Aurangabad long continued to be the capital of the succession of potentates bearing the modern title of nizam, after those chiefs became independent of Delhi.
His general, Mir Jumla, defeated the rajah, who fled to the mountains, and most of the chiefs made their submission to the conqueror.
Anxious to retain so promising an adherent, and probably desirous at the same time to avoid public scandal, the chiefs of the community offered him a yearly pension of r000 florins if he would outwardly conform and appear now and then in the synagogue.
Between 1867 and 1871 he carried out the negotiations with the Rajput chiefs for opening road and railway communications through the great belt of mountain and jungle which formerly cut India in two.
Luderitz, of Bremen, established a trading station here in 1883, and his agent concluded treaties with the neighbouring chiefs, who ceded large tracts of country to the newcomers.
In 1900 he allied himself with other hostile chiefs and adopted an openly antagonistic attitude to the British government.
A mission school has been established, and is attended by the sons of the emir and of the principal chiefs, who are desirous of learning to read and write English.
Among the nomads a different system of titles prevails, the chiefs who are responsible for the taxes and the orderly conduct of their tribes and clans being known as ilklzani, ilbegi (both meaning tribe-lord, but the latter being considered an inferior title to the former), khan, rais, amir, mir, shaikh, tushmal, &c.
The governors and chiefs, excepting those possessing hereditary rights, are frequently changed; appointments are for one year only and are sometimes renewed, but it does not often occur that an official holds the same government for longer than that period, while it happens rarely that a province is governed by the same person for two or three years.
The concession for this road was obtained in 1897 by the Bakhtiari chiefs and ceded to Messrs Lynch, of London, who advanced the necessary capital at 6% interest and later formed the Persian Road and Transport Company.
Many of the ministers would have been considered in Europe merely as chiefs of departments of a ministry, as, for instance, the minister for Crown buildings, that for Crown domains, the minister of ceremonies, those for arsenals, army accounts, &c.; also an accumulation of several offices without any connection between their functions, in the hands of a single person, was frequently a characteristic departure from the European model.
Side by side with the nobles ranked the spiritual chiefs, now a far more powerful body than under the Arsacids.
As to foreign relations, he received embassies from Europe and a deputation from the French East India Company; he sought to conciliate the Uzbegs by treating their refugee chiefs with unusual honor and sumptuous hospitality; he kept on good terms with Turkey; he forgave the hostility of a Georgian prince when brought to him a captive; and he was tolerant to all religionsalways regarding Christians with especial favor.
He had addressed letters to all the military chiefs of the country, calling upon them for support; he had sent an envoy to Constantinople insisting upon the sultans restora.
But he was neither of an age nor character to rule over a people led by turbulent and disaffected chiefs, ever divided by the conflicting interests of personal ambition.
A new combination of chiefs, 01 which Jiafir the Kurd and Mir Alam the Arabian are th i Creasy says the war broke out in 1743, but was terminatec in 1746 by a treaty which made little change in the old arrange ments fixed under Murad IV.
At this juncture Abmad Shah Abdali reappeared in Persian Khorasan from Herat; he attacked and took possession of Meshed, slew Mir Alam, and, pledging the local chiefs to support the blinded prince in retaining the kingdom of his grandfather, returned to Afghanistan.
Malcolm says that Gilan was under one of its owr chiefs, Hidaiyat Khan.