Chiefly sentence example
Moscow is chiefly busy with gossip, he continued.
The foreign trade is not large, and consists chiefly in the exportation of pineapples and other fruit.
But the talk in every group was chiefly about the Emperor Alexander.
He served in the New York legislature (1759-1760), but his political influence was long exerted chiefly through pamphlets and newspaper articles.
In Jefferson county there were in 1900 more than 300 mining and manufacturing establishments, engaged, chiefly, in the production of iron, coal and coke, and a majority of these are in Birmingham and its suburban towns.Advertisement
The dockyard, chiefly used for naval repairs, covers about 60 acres, and consists of three basins and large docks, the depth of water in the basins ranging down to 26 ft.
The department is served chiefly by the lines of the Northern railway; in addition, the main line of the Eastern railway to Strassburg traverses the extreme south.
Trade is also brisk, and is facilitated by a canal connecting the town with Vienna, and used chiefly for the transport of coal and timber.
She chiefly lived in Normandy till 1663, when her husband died, and she came to Paris.
In him the animal man chiefly was developed.Advertisement
It was around him that the people chiefly crowded, expecting answers from him to the questions that occupied all their minds.
The books he read were chiefly historical, and on these he spent a certain sum every year.
The metal is chiefly used, as the oxide, for colouring glass and porcelain.
The remainder of the population is chiefly made up of English-speaking people horn the other provinces of the Dominion, from the United States, from England and Scotland and the north of Ireland.
This irritability is, as you know, chiefly directed to political questions.Advertisement
It was chiefly in the way of matrimonial alliances that it was brought into contact with other states.
Oswio was chiefly responsible for the reconversion of the East Saxons.
Chiefly by knowing how to choose my aquaintances.
The French followed him with astonishment in their eyes chiefly because Pierre, unlike all the other Russians who gazed at the French with fear and curiosity, paid no attention to them.
This difficulty had arisen chiefly because the hussars did not understand what was said to them in French.Advertisement
The saurians or lizards are numerous, chiefly on dry sandy or rocky ground in the tropical region.
Joplin is the trade centre of a rich agricultural and fruit-growing district, but its growth has been chiefly due to its situation in one of the must productive zinc and lead regions in the country, for which it is the commercial centre.
The judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of Appeals, the Circuit courts, such inferior courts as may be established, county courts, the powers and duties of which are, however, chiefly police and fiscal, and in justices of the peace.
Propertius had a large number of friends and acquaintances, chiefly literary, belonging to the circle of Maecenas.
But, as Teuffel has said, his debt to these writers is chiefly a formal one.Advertisement
His work as a barrister was chiefly concerned with pedigree cases before the House of Lords.
Public attention, however, was chiefly concentrated on foreign policy.
It is chiefly a prairie region, with treeless plains of from 5 to 40 m.
With the truth or falsehood of these doctrines we are not here concerned; but that the revived vestments are chiefly valued because of their doctrinal significance the clergy who use them would be the last to deny.
During the disastrous Swedish War of 1643-1645 Frederick was appointed generalissimo of the duchies by his father, but the laurels he won were scanty, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille, who commanded the Danish forces.
The modern town, founded in 1857, is remarkable chiefly for its pleasant situation and sandy beach.
Latex, though chiefly secreted in vessels or small sacs which reside in the cortical tissue between the outer bark and the wood is also found in the leaves and sometimes in the roots or bulbs.
The trees and plants whose latices furnish caoutchouc in considerable quantity chiefly belong to the natural orders Euphorbiaceae, Urticaceae, Apocynaceae, Asclepiadaceae.
It was not until the middle of the 18th century that the trees which yielded caoutchouc were identified, chiefly by French observers.
In 1909 the total production of rubber is stated to have been about 70,000 tons, of which more than one-half came from tropical America, about one-third from Africa, whilst the remainder was chiefly of Asiatic origin, including " plantation " rubber from Ceylon and Malaya, which amounted to about 3000 tons.
Each year, however, the output of " plantation " rubber will show a considerable increase, and it is to be expected that ultimately this will form the chief source of supply, unless unforeseen circumstances should arise to interfere with the development of the plantation industry, which has been vigorously started chiefly with European capital in the tropical possessions of Great Britain, France and Germany.
This rubber is obtained chiefly from Hevea brasiliensis, Mull.
It is exported chiefly from San Juan del Norte, or Grey Town, and the larger proportion goes to the United States.
Rubber is chiefly composed of the soft, solid, elastic substance known as caoutchouc. It is usually assumed that this substance is present as such in the latex.
The watery liquid known as rubber milk or latex is an emulsion consisting chiefly of a weak watery solution of proteids, carbohydrates and salts holding the liquid globules in suspension.
The proteids should be as far as possible removed during the preparation of the rubber, as these substances are chiefly responsible for the objectionable smell and colour of " native " rubbers, and their presence leads to subsequent change in the commercial material.
The technical value of caoutchouc chiefly depends on the extent to which it is capable of being stretched without breaking, and the extent to which it at once returns to its original dimensions.
These are chiefly farmers.
The prosperity of the town depends chiefly on the vine culture in the neighbourhood, from which, besides the exportation of a large quantity of grapes, about 700,000 gallons of wine are manufactured annually.
The principal industries are the iron and metal manufactures, chiefly centred at Steyr.
Volcanic formations, so far as is known, occur chiefly along the north-western border-range of the great plateau.
This arises chiefly from the orographical structure; the vast plateau of Central Asia prevents the moderating influence of the sea from being felt.
As the Gobi desert is approached the forests disappear, the ground becomes covered chiefly with dry Gramineae, and Salsolaceae make their appearance.
In East Siberia the Buriats occupy the Selenga and the Uda, parts of Nerchinsk, and the steppes between Irkutsk and the upper Lena, as also the Baikal Mountains and the island of Orkhon; they support themselves chiefly by live-stock breeding, but some, especially in Irkutsk, are agriculturists.
The rapid growth of the actual population is chiefly due to immigration.
The native populations of the Amur - Golds and Gilyaks - support themselves chiefly by fishing, when the salmon enters the Amur and its tributaries in dense masses.
It is estimated that about one-half of the Russian agricultural population supplement their income by engaging in non-agricultural pursuits, but not more than 18 to 22% carry on domestic trades, the others finding occupation in the carrying trade - which is still important, even since the construction of the railway - in hunting (chiefly squirrel-hunting) and in work in the mines.
The alake exercises little authority apart from his council, the form of government being largely democratic. Revenue is chiefly derived from tolls or import duties.
The industries include brewing, flour milling, and the export of agricultural produce, chiefly corn and cider.
A popular and successful democratic leader, he cannot, however, be ranked among the great statesmen of the republic. As a general he was headstrong and selfsufficient and seems to have owed his victories chiefly to personal boldness favoured by good fortune.
His works are few and chiefly polemical, e.g.
The Welsh mines are chiefly in Flint, Cardigan and Montgomery shires; the Scottish in Dumfries, Lanark and Argyll; and the Irish in Wicklow, Waterford and Down.
In Nevada and Colorado the ore is worked chiefly for the sake of the silver.
It is chiefly used as a pigment and in the manufacture of flint glass.
Believers in law have put their trust in authority or logic; while believers in disposition chiefly look to our instinctive faculties - conscience, common-sense or sentiment.
The business of the town is chiefly connected with the interests of the sheep and cattle farmers of the Riverina district, a plain country, in the main pastoral, but suited in some parts for cultivation.
In the internal field of a long coil of wire carrying an electric current, the lines of force are, except near the ends, parallel to the axis of the coil, and it is chiefly for this reason that the field due to a coil is particularly well adapted for inductively magnetizing iron and steel.
Grassot has devised a galvanometer, or " fluxmeter," which greatly alleviates the tedious operation of taking ballistic readings.2 The instrument is of the d'Arsonval type; its coil turns in a strong uniform field, and is suspended in such a manner that torsion is practically negligible, the swings of the coil being limited by damping influences, chiefly electromagnetic. The index therefore remains almost stationary at the limit of its deflection, and the deflection is approximately the same whether the change of induction occurs suddenly or gradually.
Under these officers the equites formed a kind of corporation, which, although' not officially recognized, had the right of passing resolutions, chiefly such as embodied acts of homage to the imperial house.
After the completion 'of their preliminary military service, the equites were eligible for a number of civil posts, chiefly those with which the emperor himself was closely concerned.
The body-guard of Augustus, consisting of foreign soldiers (chiefly Germans and Batavians), abolished by Galba, was revived from the time of Trajan or Hadrian under the above title.
It was chiefly recruited from the pick of the provincial cavalry, but contained some Roman citizens.
They became extinct in Palaeozoic times, and are chiefly found in the Upper Silurian, though extending upwards as far as the Carboniferous.
Its territory comprises chiefly districts of the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire, which linguistically or ethnographically belonged to the Letts, whence the name of Latvia as a new nation-state.
Industry consists chiefly in fishing (sardines, &c., and coral), the manufacture of tobacco, oil-distilling, tanning, and the preparation of preserved citron§ and of macaroni and similar provisions.
Here with his five brothers and sisters Riemann spent his boyhood and received, chiefly from his father, the elements of his education.
His published works deal chiefly with topography and ancient mythology.
About threefourths of the inhabitants are Christian Serbs, and the remainder are chiefly Moslem Albanians, with a few gipsies, Turkish officials and about 3000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers.
They contain a few genera chiefly old world tropical and subtropical.
If the arguments chiefly relied on for an early date are so precarious or can even be turned against their inventors, there are others of an unambiguous kind which make for a date in the Persian period.
The countess had long wished for such a box, but as she did not want to cry just then she glanced indifferently at the portrait and gave her attention chiefly to the box for cards.
Two classes of boilers are chiefly used in hot-water heating installations, viz.
The extent to which the employment of the local preacher is characteristic of Methodism may be seen from the fact that in the United Kingdom while there are only about 5000 Methodist ministers, there are more than 18,000 congregations; some 13,000 congregations, chiefly in the villages, are dependent on local preachers.
The differences developed were chiefly between general atonement and atonement for the elect only and between mediate imputation and immediate imputation.
The older part of the city and the principal business and manufacturing district occupies the low lands; the newer part, chiefly residential, is built upon the heights.
He introduced the Thurman Bill, for which he was chiefly responsible, which became law in May 1878, and readjusted the government's relations with the bond-aided Pacific railways.
The manufacture is chiefly carried out in India, Persia and the Balkans; the last named supplying the bulk of the European demand.
They are found chiefly in the neighbourhood of the eruptive masses.
In 1840 he invaded Buenos Aires at the head of troops raised chiefly in the province of Entre Rios; but he was defeated at Santa Fe, then at Lujan, and finally was captured in Jujuy and shot, 1841.
His knowledge of foreign affairs was, however, peculiarly useful at a juncture when boundary ques tions were the subjects that chiefly attracted public attention.
Seaboard.The shore of the Mediterranean encircling the Gulf of the Lion (Golfe du Lion) from Cape Cerbera to Martigues is lowlying and unbroken, and characterized chiefly by lagoons separated from the sea by sand-dunes.
Some of these are on the south-west coast, in the Landes, as Carcans, Lacanau, Biscarosse, Cazau, Sanguinet; but more are to be found in the south and south-east, in Languedoc and Provence, as Leucate, Sigean, Thau, Vaccars, Berre, &c. Their want of depth prevents them from serving as roadsteads for shipping, and they are useful chiefly for fishing or for the manufacture of bay-salt.
The chestnut covers considerable areas in Prigord, Limousin and Beam; resinotis trees (firs, pines, larches, &c.) form fine forests in the Vosges and The indigenous fauna include the bear, now very rare but still found in the Alps and Pyrenees, the wolf, harbouring chiefly in the Cvennes and Vosges, but in continually decreasing areas; the fox, marten, badger, weasel, otter, the beaver in the extreme south of the Rhne valley, and in the Alps the marmot; the red deer and roe deer are preserved in many of the forests, and the wild boar is found in several districts; the chamois and wild goat survive in the Pyrenees and Alps.
Towards the end of the period, however, during the deposition of the Portlandian beds, the sea again retreated, and in the early part of the Cretaceous period was limited (in France) to the catchment basins of the Sane and Rhnein the Paris basin the contemporaneous deposits were chiefly estuarine and were confined to the northern and eastern rim.
Before these alterations the relations between the state and the Roman Catholic communion, by far the largest and most important in France, were chiefly regulated by the provisions of the Concordat of 1801, concluded between the first consul, Bonaparte, and Pope Pius VII.
Rye, on the other hand, one of the least valuable of the cereals, is grown chiefly in the poor agricultural territories of the central plateau and western Brittany.
Flax is cultivated chiefly in the northern departments of Nord, Seine- Infrieure, Pas-de-Calais, Ctes-du-Nord, hemp in Sarthe, Morbihan and Maine-ct-Loire.
Colsa, grown chiefly in the lower basin of the Seine (SeineInfrieure and Eure), is the most important of the oil-producing plants, all of which show a diminishing acreage.
The following sketch of the manufacturing industry of France takes account chiefly of those of its branches which are capable in some degree of localization.
Salt, &c.Rock-salt is worked chiefly in the department of Meurthe-et-Moselle,which produces more than half the average annual product of salt.
Paving-stone is supplied in large quantities by Seine-et-Oise, and brick-clay is worked chiefly in Nord, Seine and Pas-de-Calais.
Cotton.In 1901, 166,000 persons were employed in the spinning and weaving of cotton, French cotton goods being distinguished chiefly for the originality of their design.
Flax, Hemp, Jute, &c.The preparation and spinning of these materials and the manufacture of nets and rope, together with the weaving of linen and other fabrics, give occupation to 112,000 persons chiefly in the departments of Nord (Lille, Armentires, Dunkirk), Somme (Amiens) and Maine-et-Loire (Angers, Cholet).
Brewing and malting are localized chiefly in Nord.
Oysters are reared chiefly at Marennes, which is the chief French market for them, and at Arcachon, Vannes, Olron, Auray, Cancale and Courseulles.
The urban and rural district roads, covering a much greater mileage and classed as la petite voirie, are maintained chiefly by the communes under the supervision of the Minister of the Interior.
Water traffic, which is chiefly in heavy merchandise, as coal, building materials, and agriculture and food produce, more than doubled in volume between 1881 and 1905.
Amongst exports manufactured goods (silk, cotton and woollen goods, fancy wares, apparel, &c.) come before raw materials and articles of food (wine and dairy products bought chiefly by England).
Led to the ministry of commerce and industry or to that of public artment was chiefly formed.
The president of the Republic has a military household, and the minister a cabinet, both of which are occupied chiefly with questions of promotion, patronage and decorations.
The naval prefect is assisted by a rearadmiral as chief of the staff (except at Lorient and Rochefort, where the office is filled by a captain), and a certain number of other officers, the special functions of the chief of the staff having relation principally to the efficien.cy and personnel of the fleet, while the major-general, who is usually a rear-admiral, is concerned chiefly with the materiel.
The surrounding country produces tobacco of a very superior quality, and to the tobacco industry, introduced in 1872, the growth of Winston is chiefly due; the manufacture of flat plug tobacco here is especially important.
Lord Mansfield's great reputation rests chiefly on his judicial career.
In 1764 Moratin published a collection of pieces, chiefly lyrical, under the title of El Poeta, and in 1765 a short didactic poem on the chase (Diana 0 arte de la caza).
This last word is the regular French for "knight," and is chiefly used in English for a member of certain foreign military or other orders, particularly of the Legion of Honour.
The plan of the temple is chiefly remarkable for the unsymmetrically placed door leading from the back of the cella into the opisthodomus.
The growth has been chiefly towards the north and north-west; but there are large suburbs on the west, and on the southwest near the railway station on the plain of Rephaim.
The unhealthiness of the city is chiefly due to want of proper drainage, impure drinkingwater, miasma from the disturbed rubbish heaps, and contaminated dust from the uncleansed roads and streets.
The soil, chiefly alluvial, though in some places arenaceous, is generally fertile and well cultivated, but a great portion is covered with forests, interspersed with lakes.
Good sketches, chiefly after Flandin, are given by C. Kossowicz, Inscriptiones palaeopersicae (St Petersburg, 1872).
He fought with success in Italy, but was chiefly noted for the severity he showed in suppressing and punishing a rising in Brescia.
Amadou is prepared on the continent of Europe, chiefly in Germany, but the fungus is a native of Britain.
The winds are liable to little variation; they blow from the west, often with great violence, for nine months in the year, and at other times from the north; and they moderate the summer heats, which are chiefly felt during the months of July and August, when the hot winds blow from the coast of Anatolia.
The Brisbane river, falling into Moreton Bay, is important chiefly from the fact that the city of Brisbane is situated on its banks.
Previous to its arrival Australia doubtless possessed considerable vegetation and a scanty fauna, chiefly invertebrate.
Moreton Bay pine is chiefly known by the utility of its wood.
Chinese, numbering about 30,000, are chiefly found in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, and the Northern Territory.
The vine is cultivated in all the states, but chiefly in South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales.
Australia produces abundant quantities and nearly all varieties of fruits; but the kinds exported are chiefly oranges, pineapples, bananas and apples.
The industry gravitated to New Zealand, and finally died out, chiefly through the wasteful practice of killing the calves to secure the capture of the mothers.
Gold is obtained chiefly from quartz reefs, but there are still some important alluvial deposits being worked.
So far this form of winning is chiefly carried on in New South Wales, where there are about fifty gold-dredging plants in successful operation.
The first of these comprises chiefly the mines of the Hunter river districts; the second includes the Illawarra district, and, generally, the coastal regions to the south of Sydney, together with Berrima, on the tableland; and the third consists of the mountainous regions on the Great Western railway and extends as far as Dubbo.
The exports of breadstuffs - chiefly to the United Kingdom - exceed six millions per annum, butter two and a half millions, and minerals of all kinds, except gold, six millions.
It may be said that exploration on a large scale is now at an end; there remain only the spaces, nowhere very extensive, between the tracks of the old explorers yet to be examined, and these are chiefly in the Northern Territory and in Western Australia north of the tropic of Capricorn.
Unlike the other mainland provinces, it was at first held and used chiefly for the reception of British convicts.
This has greatly facilitated the formation of large estates devoted chiefly to grazing purposes, contrary to the policy of the legislature, which has everywhere sought to encourage tillage, or tillage joined to stock-rearing, and to discourage large holdings.
The effects of the crisis were mainly felt in the three eastern states, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia being affected chiefly by reason of the fact of their intimate financial connexion with the eastern states.
He was also the author of important papers in which he extended to complex quadratic forms many of Gauss's investigations relating to real quadratic forms. After 1864 he devoted himself chiefly to elliptic functions, and numerous papers on this subject were published by him in the Proc. Lond.
There the nineteen bishops and twenty-four presbyters, from all parts of Spain, but chiefly from the south, assembled, probably at the instigation of Hosius of Cordova, but under the presidency of Felix of Accis, with a view to restoring order and discipline in the church.
He was a man of erudition, but he owed his fame chiefly to his personality.
The inhabitants of these islands support themselves by seafaring, pilotage, grazing of cattle and sheep, fishing and a little agriculture, chiefly potato-growing.
The Temple of Inscriptions, one of the largest and best preserved, is distinguished chiefly for its tablets, which contain only hieroglyphics.
Tuskegee is chiefly known for its educational institutions - the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute and the Alabama Conference Female College (Methodist Episcopal Church, South; opened 1856).
Peacock's original contributions to mathematical science were concerned chiefly with the philosophy of its first principles.
Philip's reign in the Netherlands was chiefly noteworthy for his efforts for the revival of trade with England.
Chiefly through the valour of Lamoral, count of Egmont, two great victories were won over the French IL at St Quentin (August Io, 1557) and at Gravelines (July 1 3, 1 55 8).
The cultivation of vines had also increased, and wine industries had been initiated, chiefly in Tashkent and Samarkand.
The tin occurs in the form of cassiterite, and is found chiefly in or near the crystalline rocks, especially the granite.
The Chinese immigrants suffer chiefly from fever of a malarial type, from beri-beri, a species of tropical dropsy, and from dysentery.
Only less important and only less early to be established in Vermont was the quarrying of granite, which began in 1812, but which has been developed chiefly since 1880, largely by means of the building of "granite railroads" which connect each quarry with a main railway line - a means of transportation as important as the logging railways of the Western states and of Canada.
The commerce on Lake Champlain is carried on chiefly through Burlington, the port of entry for the Vermont customs district.
These four alkaloids exist in combination in tobacco chiefly as malates and citrates.
French residents numbered 50,996, naturalized Frenchmen Spaniards 12,354, Italians 7368, Maltese 865, and other Europeans (chiefly British and Germans) 1652, besides 12,490 Jews.
It is chiefly an agricultural county.
There are two granite quarries in the township immediately north-west of the Blue Hills; the granite is of the "dark Quincy" variety-dark bluish grey in colour-and is used chiefly for monuments.
A bitter principle to which the name of quercin has been applied by Gerber, its discoverer, has also been detected in the acorn of the common oak; the nutritive portion seems chiefly a form of starch.
The Metaphysica vera (1691), and the IvcA vEavrOv, sive Ethica (under the pseudonym "Philaretus," 1675), are the works by which he is chiefly known.
The treaty of Westminster (24th of October 1655) dealt chiefly with commercial subjects, and contained a clause promising the expulsion from France of political exiles.
But he was chiefly attracted to the philosophical system represented by Reid and Stewart.
They are described by Strabo as a mixed race of Celts and Illyrians, who used Celtic weapons, tattooed themselves, and lived chiefly on spelt and millet.
The imports are chiefly textiles, metals and hardware, and gin.
Oxyuris, though chiefly parasitic in the Mammalia, occurs also in reptiles, Amphibia and one or two insects.
It is chiefly found in the tropical parts of Asia and Africa, but has also been met with in South Carolina and several of the West Indian islands.
The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.
The principal manufactures are cotton and woollen goods, carvings in ivory and working in metals, &c., all of which handicrafts are chiefly carried on in the eastern states.
The deposits are superficial, resulting from the opening out of veins at the surface, and consist chiefly of haematite.
At the receiving station the differences in these systems depend chiefly upon variations in the actual form of the oscillation detector used, whether it be a loose contact or a thermal, electrolytic or magnetic detector.
In the middle ages Teignmouth was a flourishing port, able to furnish 7 ships and 120 mariners to the Calais expedition of 1347, and depending chiefly on the fishing and salt industries.
The ancient town is chiefly celebrated for the famous Iguvine (less correctly Eugubine) Tables, which were discovered there in 1444, bought by the municipality in 1456, and are still preserved in the town hall.
The vine is cultivated chiefly on the slopes of the Taunus, in the south-west, where the names of several towns are well known for their winesSchierstein, Erbach (Marcobrunner), Johannisberg, Geisenheim, Riidesheim, Assmannshausen.
The hair imported into Europe is chiefly used in the manufacture of small brushes used by painters, while the thick hide is formed into a very durable leather.
The food of the camel consists chiefly of the leaves of trees, shrubs and dry hard vegetables, which it is enabled to tear down and masticate by means of its powerful front teeth.
The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.
The woods consist chiefly of pine and hazel upon theApennines, and upon the Calabrian, Sicilian and Sardinian mountains of oak, ilex, hornbeam and similar trees.
The output in 1881 was worth about 1/22,800,000, but by 1895 had decreased to 1,800,000, chiefly on account of the fall in the price of sulphur.
Boracic acid is chiefly found near Volterra, where there is also a little rock salt, but the main supply is obtained by evaporation.
For steelmaking foreign pig iron is chiefly used.
The industry is chiefly developed in Lombardy, Piedmont and Liguria; to some extent also in Campania, Venetia and Tuscany, and to a less extent in Lazio (Rome), Apulia, Emilia, the Marches, Umbria, the Abruzzi and Sicily.
The industry centres chiefly in Piedmont (province of Novara), Venetia (province of Vicenza), Tuscany (Florence), Lombardy (Brescia), Campania (Caserta), Genoa, Umbria, the Marches and Rome.
Chemicals sulphate of copper, employed chiefly as a preventive 01 certain maladies of the vine; carbonate of lead, hyper.
The large numbers of emigrants, who are drawn chiefly from the rural classes, furnish another proof of poverty.
Among the steamers the increase has chiefly taken plac in vessels of more than 1000 tons displacement, but the number of large sailing vessels has also increased.
The principal exports are silk and cotton tissues, live stock, wines, spirits and oils; corn, flour, macaroni and similar products; and minerals, chiefly sulphur.
In 1894 the excess of imports over exports fell to 2,720,000, but by 1898 it had grown to 8,391,000, in consequence chiefly of the increased importation of coal, raw cotton and cotton thread, pig and cast iron, old iron, grease and oil-seeds for use in Italian industries.
The high average in Sardinia is chiefly due to cases within the competence of the conciliation offices.
The number of penal proceedings, especially those within the competence of praetors, has also increased,, chiefly on account of the frequency of minor contraventions of the law referred to in the section Crime.
The fortresses in the basin of the Po chiefly belong to the era of divided Italy and are now out of date; the chief coast fortresses are Vado, Genoa, Spezia, Monte Argentaro, Gacta, Straits of Messina, Taranto, Maddalena.
The acts of communal administration requiring the sanction of the provincial administrative junta are chiefly financial.
The pope was unable to check this revolution, which is now chiefly interesting as further proof of the insurgence of the Latin as against the feudal elements in Italy at this period.
He chiefly had borne the brunt and won the laurels of the unprecedented fight against deficit in which Italy had been involved since 1862.
The movement was confined chiefly to the northern and central provinces.
The Udgatri's duties being mainly confined to the chanting of hymns made up of detached groups of verses of the Rigveda, as collected in the Samaveda-samhita, the more important Brahmanas of this sacerdotal class deal chiefly with the various modes of chanting, and the modifications which the verses have to undergo in their musical setting.
Belief in a primitive historical revelation, once universal among Christians, has almost disappeared; but belief in a very early and highly moral theism is stoutly defended, chiefly on Australian evidence, by Andrew Lang (The Making of Religion and later works).
Aristotle has impressed the ordinary mind chiefly by his criticism of Plato's ideal theory; and therefore he is often ranked as the father of empiricists.
Samuel Clarke, who defended Newton's view of the world against Leibnitz's strictures, is perhaps chiefly interesting to.
Freinsheim's literary activity was chiefly devoted to the Roman historians.
The newer rocks, common also to the Nicobars and Sumatra, are in Ritchie's Archipelago chiefly and contain radiolarians and foraminifera.
The only artificial deformity is a depression of the skull, chiefly among one of the southern tribes, caused by the pressure of a strap used for carrying loads.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
In places the nematocysts may be crowded so thickly as to form a tough, supporting, " chondral " tissue, resembling cartilage, chiefly developed at the margin of the umbrella and forming streaks or bars supporting the tentacles (" Tentakelspangen," peronia) or the tentaculocysts (" Gehorspangen," otoporpae).
The nervous system of the medusa consists of sub-epithelial ganglion-cells, which form, in the first place, a diffuse plexus of nervous tissue, as in the polyp, but developed chiefly on the subumbral surface; and which are concentrated, in the second place, to form a definite central nervous system, never found in the polyp. In Hydromedusae the central nervous system forms two concentric nerverings at the margin of the umbrella, near the base of the velum.
The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."
The Leptolinae are chiefly forms belonging to the inshore fauna.
Thus from the original planula three appendages are, as it were, budded off, while the planula itself mostly gives rise to coenosarc, just as in some hydroids the planula is converted chiefly into hydrorhiza.
Baldwin raised them to great prosperity by his energy and foresight, and chiefly as a result of the active political and military support he rendered to the emperors Henry VII., Louis the Bavarian and Charles IV.
For the rest, his theory is chiefly important as emphasizing the vital character of the original substance.
The thirty years which followed the publication of the Origin of Species were characterized chiefly by anatomical and embryological work; since then there has been no diminution in anatomical and embryological enthusiasm, but many of the continually increasing body of investigators have turned again to bionomical work.
But he was certainly not a man of genius, as has long been imagined, and his success was chiefly due to the support of the papacy; once his father was dead his career was at an end, and he could no longer play a prominent part in Italian affairs.
Like so many lemurs, it is completely nocturnal in its habits, living either alone or in pairs, chiefly in the bamboo forests.
After the close of the war for the Union Mrs Stowe bought an estate in Florida, chiefly in hope of restoring the health of her son, Captain Frederick Beecher Stowe, who had been wounded in the war, and in this southern home she spent many winters.
Of the Lenten fast or Quadragesima, the first mention is in the fifth canon of the council of Nicaea (325), and from this time it is frequently referred to, but chiefly as a season of preparation for baptism, of absolution of penitents or of retreat and recollection.
The Lombardy poplar is valuable chiefly as an ornamental tree, its timber being of very inferior quality; its tall, erect growth renders it useful to the landscape-gardener as a relief to the rounded forms of other trees, or in contrast to the horizontal lines of the lake or river-bank where it delights to grow.
The celebrated Gascoigne's powder, which was sold as late as the middle of the 19th century in the form of balls like sal prunella, consisted of equal parts of crabs' eyes," the black tips of crabs' claws, Oriental pearls, Oriental bezoar and white coral, and was administered in jelly made of hart's horn, but was prescribed by physicians chiefly for wealthy people, as it cost about forty shillings per ounce.
Luria himself wrote no mystical works; what we know of his doctrines and habits comes chiefly from his Boswell, Ilayim Vital.
Molybdenum occurs in nature chiefly as the minerals molybdenite (MoS 2) and wulfenite (PbMo04), and more rarely as molybdic ochre (Moos) and ilsemannite; it also occurs in many iron ores.
Now it is chiefly known as the junction of four railways, the East Indian, Oudh & Rohilkand, Rajputana and Indian Midland, and as a great emporium for harness, shoes and other leather-work.
He was also very judicious in the way in which he expended the limited money at his command; he did not fritter it away in an attempt to make the whole of a building remarkable, but devoted it chiefly to one part or feature, such as a spire or a rich scheme of internal decoration.
Some of the so-called " Orphic tablets," metrical inscriptions engraved on small plates of gold, chiefly dating from the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C., have been discovered in tombs in southern Italy, Crete and Rome.
The department belongs to the Seine basin, and is watered chiefly by the Seine and the Aube.
The vine flourishes chiefly on the hills of the south-east; the wines of Les Riceys, Bar-sur-Aube, Bouilly and Laines-aux-Bois are most esteemed.
The architecture of the department is chiefly displayed in its churches, many of which possess stained glass of the 16th century.
There is a certain amount of evidence that at any rate in some cases light is necessary, and that the violet rays of the spectrum are chiefly concerned.
The Vertebrata come within the scope of our subject, chiefly as destructive agents which cause wounds or devour young shoots and foliage, &c. Rabbits and other burrowing animals injure roots, squirrels and birds snip off buds, horned cattle strip off bark, and so forth.
The criticisms were directed chiefly to the inclusion of sand dune plants among halophytes, to the exclusion of halophytes from xerophytes, to the inclusion of bog xerophytes among hydrophytes, to the inclusion of all conifers among xerophytes and of all deciduous trees among mesophytes, and to the group of mesophytes in general.
The rainfall, which occurs chiefly in winter, only averages about So in.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
This change is due partly to the migrations of plants, but chiefly to a transformation of the plants covering the earth.
The midbrain is represented chiefly by the optic lobes, the cortex of which alone is homologous with the corpora quadragemina of the mammals.
The Papuan Subregion, chiefly New Guinea with its dependencies, the Timor group of islands, the Moluccas and Celebes.
Enaliornis, England, vertebrae chiefly biconcave; Hesperornis, North America, vertebrae heterocoelous.
Front toes completely webbed; hallux very short or absent; feed chiefly on small aquatic invertebrates.
Delbriick's writings are chiefly concerned with the history of the art of war, his most ambitious work being his Geschichte der Kriegskunst im Rahmen der politischen Geschichte (first section, Das Altertum, 1900; second, Reiner and Germanen, 1902; third, Das Mittelalter, 1907).
His most important work was 11Epi cuo ew (De natura), of which considerable fragments are extant (chiefly in Simplicius); it is possible that he wrote also Against the Sophists and On the Nature of Man, to which the well-known fragment about the veins would belong; possibly these discussions were subdivisions of his great work.
His energies were chiefly devoted to the business of the school; but he found time also for much literary work, as well as for an extensive correspondence.
He published a number of original and scholarly papers on assyriological questions of the highest value, chiefly in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy.
The rest of his life was passed in Verona, Mantua and Rome - chiefly Mantua; Venice and Florence have also been named, but without confirmation.
Pernambuco is chiefly agricultural, the lowlands being devoted to sugar and fruit, with coffee in some of the more elevated localities, the agreste region to cotton, tobacco, Indian corn, beans and stock, and the sertao to grazing and in some localities to cotton.
Individual Geonim produced valuable works (of which later), but what is perhaps most important from the point of view of the development of Judaism is the literature of their Responsa or answers to questions, chiefly on halakhic matters, addressed to them from various countries.
The fact that many of the most important works were written in Arabic, the vernacular of the Spanish Jews under the Moors, which was not understood in France, gave rise to a number of translations into Hebrew, chiefly by the family of Ibn Tibbon (or Tabbon).
The latter was a prolific writer of great influence, chiefly known for his Responsa, but also for his halakhic treatiseE, hiddushin and tosaphot.h.
At the end of the century Isaac ben Moses, called Profiat Duran (Efodi), is chiefly known as an antiChristian controversialist (letter to Me'ir Alguadez), but also wrote on grammar (Ma`aseh Efod) and a commentary on the Moreh.
Many localities in India yield amethyst; and it is found also in Ceylon, chiefly as pebbles.
The coasting trade consists chiefly of imports of coal and provisions, the exports being principally timber for shipbuilding and flint for the Staffordshire potteries.
In the latest empire Ausonius, Symmachus, Apollinaris, Sidonius and other Gaulish writers, chiefly of Gallia Comata, kept alive the classical literary tradition, not only for Gaul but for the world.
Enfantin thus became sole "father," and the few who were chiefly attracted by his religious pretensions and aims still adhered to him.
In the form of "Norman" (Northmannus, Normannus, Normand) it is the name of those colonists from Scandinavia who settled themselves in Gaul, who founded Normandy, who adopted the French tongue and French manners, and who from their new home set forth on new errands of conquest, chiefly in the British Islands and in southern Italy and Sicily.
The farmers are chiefly Italians, Canary Islanders and Frenchmen.
The cattle are destined chiefly for the saladero establishments for the preparation of tasajo, or jerked beef, for the Brazilian and Cuban markets, and for the Liebig factory, where large quantities of extract of meat are prepared for the European trade.
Sheep-farming flourishes chiefly in Durazno and Soriano.
He is chiefly known by the part which he took in the Arian controversy.
In some orders the parts are numerous, chiefly in the case of the stamens and the carpels, as in the buttercup and other members of the order Ranunculaceae.
Some of the most important deposits of sulphur in the world are worked in Sicily, chiefly in the provinces of Caltanisetta and Girgenti, as at Racalmuto and Cattolica; and to a less extent in the provinces of Catania, Palermo (Lercara) and Trapani (Gibellina).
In combination the element chiefly occurs as metallic sulphides and sulphates.
The general slope of the plateau is toward the N., and the drainage of the state is chiefly through the above-named rivers - the principal tributaries of the Araguaya being the Grande and Vermelho, and of the Upper Tocantins, the Manoel Alves Grande, Somno, Paranan and Maranhao.
The land tortoises chiefly belong to the genus Cynyxis.
Theology or Theism, (2) Christian Evidences - chiefly "miracles" and " prophecy "; or, on a more modern view, chiefly the character and personality of Christ.
Many of the principal medieval attempts in apologetics are directed chiefly against him, e.g.
There are a large number of varieties, differing chiefly in the form and division of the pinnae; var.
He also wrote several literary articles for the first two volumes of the Encyclopaedia, and to the remaining volumes he contributed mathematical articles chiefly.
The controversy as to the nature of his religious opinions, arising as it did chiefly out of his connexion with the Encyclopaedia, has no longer any living interest now that the Encyclopaedists generally have ceased to be regarded with unqualified suspicion by those who count themselves orthodox.
It is to be observed, moreover, that as Alembert confined himself chiefly to mathematical articles, his work laid him less open to charges of heresy and infidelity than that of some of his associates.
The revenue is obtained chiefly from land and forests, the latter being leased to the British government.
Supposing Dekker to be chiefly responsible for the scenes dealing with the unfortunate old woman whom persecution as a witch actually drives to become one, and Ford for the domestic tragedy of the bigamist murderer, it cannot be denied that both divisions of the subject are effectively treated, while the more important part of the task fell to the share of Ford.
The coal is here confined to the lower division of the system; the Upper Carboniferous (corresponding with the English Coal-Measures) is exclusively marine, consisting chiefly of Fusulina limestone.
Mostly sons of poor parents, they live in extreme poverty, supporting themselves chiefly by translating and by tutorial work.
The soil of Russia depends chiefly on the distribution of the boulder-clay and loess.
They are chiefly Lutherans, but many of them belong to other religious sects - Anabaptists, Moravians, Mennonites.
The Lithuanians prevail in Kovno, Vilna and Suwalki; and the Letts, who are, however, more scattered, are chiefly concentrated in Vitebsk, Courland and Livonia.
The aggregate value of the redemption and land taxes often reaches 185 to 275% of the normal rental value of the allotments, not to speak of taxes for recruiting purposes, the church, roads, local administration and so on, chiefly levied from the peasants.
Crops, chiefly barley, rye, oats, turnips and green crops, are, however, grown on clearings in the forest, though the yield is poor.
Of the 55 million sheep kept in Russia only about 15 millions belong to the fine merino breed, and these are pastured chiefly on the Black Sea steppes.
The minerals chiefly produced in the Urals are iron, coal, gold, platinum, copper, salt and precious stones.
The cotton factories excel chiefly in the production of red and printed cottons.
Beer is chiefly brewed in Poland and the Baltic provinces.
The wealth of Russia consisting mainly of raw produce, the trade of the country turns chiefly on the purchase of this for export, and on the sale of manufactured and imported goods I in exchange.
There were no great, well-organized secret societies, but there were many small groups, composed chiefly of male and female students of the universities and technical schools, which worked independently for a common purpose.
In Finland the population is composed of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking Protestants; the Baltic provinces are inhabited by German-speaking, Lettspeaking and Esth-speaking Lutherans; the inhabitants of the south-western provinces are chiefly Polish-speaking Roman Catholics and Yiddish-speaking Jews; in the Crimea and on the Middle Volga there are a considerable number of Tatarspeaking Mahommedans; and in the Caucasus there is a conglomeration of races and languages such as is to be found on no other portion of the earth's surface.
The main features of the steam locomotive were thus established, and its subsequent development is chiefly a history of gradual increase in size and power, and of improvements in design, in material and in mechanical construction, tending to increased efficiency and economy of operation.
This classification is based partly upon special conditions of service, which make some articles more economical to carry than others (with particular reference to the question whether the goods are offered to the companies in car-loads or in small parcels), but chiefly with regard to the commercial value of the article, and its consequent ability to bear a high charge or a low one.
In North America, except for small industrial railways and some short lines for local traffic, chiefly in mountainous country, it has become almost universal; the long lines of 3 ft.
The trade is chiefly confined to the export of cotton.
The first two causes have attracted many inquirers; but it is the last that has chiefly given to modern spiritualism its religious aspect.
The remainder of the island consists chiefly of pasture and morass.
The place is noted for its wine, chiefly sweet champagne.
His power lies chiefly in the clear grasp of fact, in selection and synthesis, in the vivid narration of incident.
In 1899 he married Baroness de Rosen, and after 1900 he appeared but little in public; but he became better known as a composer, chiefly of pieces for his own instrument.
In September 1533 the birth of a daughter, afterwards Queen Elizabeth, instead of the long-hoped-for son, was a heavy disappointment; next year Of this there is no direct proof, but the statement rests upon contemporary belief and chiefly upon the extraordinary terms of the dispensation granted to Henry to marry Anne Boleyn, which included the suspension of all canons relating to impediments created by "affinity rising ex illicito coitu in any degree even in the first."
Having made a fortune by teaching and lecturing in Chalcedon he spent the rest of his life chiefly at Athens, where he died.
The account of the causes of the expansion of Christianity is chiefly to be criticized for its omissions.
It was always patent that what he was chiefly concerned with was the substance and the life of Christian truth, and that his whole energies were employed in this inquiry because his whole heart was engaged in the truths and facts which were at stake.
In January 1910 there were seven national forests in the state, created since July 1908 and chiefly in 1909, containing 7983.76 sq.
A so-called " rainy season " lasts from October to April, but the precipitation is chiefly in the form of snow on the mountains.
The attributes of Demeter are chiefly connected with her character as goddess of agriculture and vegetation - ears of corn, the poppy, the mystic basket (calathus) filled with flowers, corn and fruit of all kinds, the pomegranate being especially common.
This change of attitude is thought to have been due chiefly to his suspicion of the North aroused by John Jay's proposal to surrender to Spain for twentyfive or thirty years the navigation of the Mississippi.
He was created count of Poitiers in 1356, and was made the king's lieutenant in southern France, though the real power rested chiefly with John of Armagnac, whose daughter Jeanne he married in 1360.
Of the mortality due to malarial disease a small part only is referable to the direct attack of intermittent, and chiefly to the fever in its pernicious form.
The National Verein, its work being done, was now dissolved; but Bennigsen was chiefly instrumental in founding a new political party - the National Liberals, - who, while they supported Bismarck's national policy, hoped to secure the constitutional development of the country.
It was chiefly owing to him that the building up of the internal institutions of the empire was carried on without the open breach between Bismarck and the parliament, which was often imminent.
The wings, which are not capable of being folded, are usually transparent, but occasionally pigmented and adorned with coloured spots, blotches or bands; the wing-membrane, though sometimes clothed with minute hairs, seldom bears scales; the wing-veins, which are of great importance in the classification of Diptera, are usually few in number and chiefly longitudinal, there being a marked paucity of cross-veins.
Many instances of exaggerated and apparently unnatural structure nevertheless occur, as in the case of the genera Pangonia, Nemestrina, Achias, Diopsis and the family Celyphidae, .and, as might be expected, it is chiefly in tropical species that these peculiarities are found.
He spent ten or twelve years in study, chiefly theological, at Palencia, and then, about 1195, he was ordained and became a canon in the cathedral chapter of Osma, his native diocese.
Tribes, chiefly of pastoral habits, settled down among others who were so nearly of their own type that a complete amalgamation could be effected, and this without any marked modification of the general characteristics of the earlier inhabitants.
Antipas is chiefly known to history in connexion with John the Baptist, who reproached him publicly for his marriage with Herodias.
At the end of the 12th century was established the " exchequer of the Jews," which chiefly dealt with suits concerning money-lending, and arranged a " continual flow of money from the Jews to the royal treasury," and a so-called " parliament of the Jews " was summoned in 1241; in 1275 was enacted the statute de Judaismo which, among other things, permitted the Jews to hold land.
With the J urassic beds is associated an extensive series of eruptive rocks (gabbro, peridotite, serpentine, diorite, granite, &c.); they are chiefly of Jurassic age, but the eruptions may have continued into the Lower Cretaceous.
It contained a shrine of the Cretan snake goddess, and was rich in minor relics, chiefly in the shape of bronze implements and pottery for household use.
Henderson's own works are chiefly contributions to current controversies, speeches and sermons.
It is used chiefly in the manufacture of coarse sackcloth, cordage and hammocks, and is exported in large quantities.
The Delta is drained chiefly by the Yazoo.
The Jackson formation south-west of the Lisbon beds, is made up chiefly of grey calcareous clay marls, bluish lignitic clays, green-sand and grey siliceous sands.
The most valuable species for lumber are the long-leaf pine which is predominant in the low southern third of the state, sometimes called the "cow-country"; the short-leaf pine, found farther north; the white oak, quite widely distributed; cotton-wood and red gum, found chiefly on the rich alluvial lands; and the cypress, found chiefly in the marshes of the Delta.
The prevailing winds are from the south-east; but the rain-bearing winds are chiefly from the southwest, and the high winds from the west and north-west.
The largest Indian-corn producing districts are nearly the same as those which produce the most cotton; oats and wheat are grown chiefly in the north-eastern quarter of the state, and rice in the south-western quarter.
The Coastal Plain Region is the only part of the state that has any lakes, and these are chiefly shallow bodies of water, with sandy bottoms, in the midst of swamps.
The fisheries are chiefly of shad, oysters, mullet, alewives, clams, black bass, menhaden, croakers and bluefish.
The most valuable immediate product of the state's mines and quarries for nearly every year from 1890 to 1908 was building stones of granite and gneiss, which are found in all parts of the state west of the " Fall Line "; the best grades of granite are quarried chiefly in Gaston, Iredell, Rowan, Surry and Wilkes counties.
There is also (at Oxford) an Orphanage for the Colored (1883), which was established by the " Wake and Shiloh Associations of the Colored Baptist Church," first received state aid in 1891, and is now supported chiefly by the state.
The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials.
The population is chiefly occupied in connexion with the sulphur, copper, silver and other mines in the neighbourhood.
When, in the 5th century A.D., owing to theological differences the Syriac-using Christians became divided into Nestorians or East Syrians and Jacobites (Monophysites) or West Syrians, certain differences of pronunciation, chiefly in the vowels, began to develop themselves.
Such is the poetry of Hafiz and Saadi, whose verses are chiefly devoted to the praises of wine and women.
Among them chiefly the followers of Eckhart were to be found.
He is chiefly occupied with the means whereby the unio mystica is to be attained, whereas Eckhart dwells on the union as an ever-present fact, and dilates on its metaphysical implications.
The population of Minas Geraes is chiefly of Portuguese origin, which has been constantly strengthened by immigrants from the mother country.
Phajinae, includes 15 genera chiefly tropical Asiatic, some- Phajus and Calanthe - spreading northwards into China and Japan.
The plan was foiled in part by his own lack of military skill, but chiefly through the heroic resistance of Vienna and its timely relief by John Sobieski, king of Poland.
Sumatra, the largest of the islands, is but thinly peopled; the greater part of the surface is covered with dense forest, the cultivated area being comparatively small, confined to the low lands, and chiefly in the volcanic region near the centre of the island.
The people are peaceful and industrious, and chiefly occupied with agriculture.
The present outline of the eastern coast and the nearly enclosed seas which lie between the islands and the mainland, are attributed by Richthofen chiefly to simple faulting.
They consist chiefly of sandstone and conglomerate, but include workable seams of coal.
South and east of the Palaeozoic plateau is an extensive area consisting chiefly of Archean rocks, and including the greater part of Mongolia north of the Tian-shan.
The south-eastern parts of the Malay Archipelago have much in common with the Australian continent, to which they adjoin, though their affinities are chiefly Indian.
The higher mountains rise abruptly from the plains; on their slopes, clothed below almost exclusively with the more tropical forms, a vegetation of a warm temperate character, chiefly evergreen, soon begins to prevail, comprising Magnoliaceae, Ternstroemiaceae, subtropical Rosaceae, rhododendron, oak, Ilex, Symplocos, Lauraceae, Pinus longifolia, with mountain forms of truly tropical orders, palms, Pandanus, Musa, Vitis, Vernonia, and many others.
The Manchus and Mongols are chiefly Buddhist, with letters derived from the ancient Syriac. The Manchus are now said to be gradually falling under the influence of Chinese civilization, and to be losing their old nomadic habits, and even their peculiar language.
Such civilization as the Mongols possess is a mixture of Chinese and Indian, the latter derived chiefly through Tibet, but their alphabet is a curious instance of transplantation.
Almost all Asiatic countries have a literature, but it is often not indigenous and consists of foreign works, chiefly religious, read either in translations or the original.
The Japanese have produced few books of importance, and their compositions are chiefly remarkable as being lighter and more secular than is usual in Asia, but the older Chinese works take high rank both for their merits and the effect they have had.
The extensive Sanskrit literature, which has reached in translations China, Japan and Java, is chiefly theological and poetical, history being conspicuously absent.