Chiari-malformation sentence example
In addition to brain anomalies, Chiari malformation can also involve defects in the base of the skull and in the bony part of the spine.
There are four types of Chiari malformation.
Approximately 80-90 percent of children with Chiari malformation Type II also have hydrocephalus, a condition in which one or more of the ventricles becomes enlarged due to an accumulation of CSF.
Type II Chiari malformation may be diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound or shortly after birth during medical evaluation of the accompanying spina bifida.
Some neurologists do not consider it a Chiari malformation but rather a specific type of spina bifida called an encephalocervical meningocele.Advertisement
As with Type III malformation, many neurologists do not consider this a Chiari malformation but rather cerebellar hypoplasia (underdevelopment).
The remainder of this entry only discusses Chiari malformation Types I and II.
The true incidence of Chiari malformation is unknown.
Most researchers agree that the rate of both Type I and Type II Chiari malformation is approximately 1 percent of all live births.
As access to imaging testing such as MRI has increased, so has the number of children diagnosed with Chiari malformation Type I.Advertisement
Therefore, the incidence of known Type I Chiari malformation is anticipated to increase.
Similarly, studies of families and identical twins with Chiari malformation show that the malformation occurs more often in these families than in families in which no member is affected.
Another proposed cause for Chiari malformation is an abnormality in bone development.
Symptoms of Chiari malformation vary according to the type of malformation.
Symptoms of Type II Chiari malformation include those that occur in Type I malformation.Advertisement
In some children Chiari malformation is evident at birth, especially Type II malformation.
This procedure is most helpful in assessing abnormalities of the skull and backbone associated with Chiari malformation.
The prognosis for Chiari malformation varies depending on which type of malformation is present.
Some patients may continue to experience neurological symptoms, but the long term prognosis for children with this type of Chiari malformation is excellent, including normal development and intellectual functioning.
The full extent of problems associated with Chiari malformation may not be evident at birth, especially for children with Type I malformation.Advertisement
The first step for diagnosing Chiari malformation Type I is an accurate and detailed history and physical examination.
The prognosis for children with Chiari malformation Type I is very good.
When discussing Chiari malformation and surgery with their child, parents should use words the child can understand.