How to use Chemists in a sentence

chemists
  • Other names have been in use among the earlier chemists for this same liquid.

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  • Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about chemists.

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  • This knowledge, joined to what he had gathered by historical reading of equally unusual extent, he carefully digested and gave to the world in his Biographisch-literarisches Handworterbuch zur Geschichte der exacten Wissenschaften, containing notices of the lives and labours of mathematicians, astronomers, physicists, and chemists, of all peoples and all ages.

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  • It is remarkable that this theory should have gained the esteem of the notable chemists who flourished in the 18th century.

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  • He proceeds to give what has been quoted as his first table of atomic weights, but on p. 248 of his laboratory notebooks for 1802-1804, under the date 6th of September 1803, there is an earlier one in which he sets forth the relative weights of the ultimate atoms of a number of substances, derived from analysis of water, ammonia, carbon-dioxide, &c. by chemists of the time.

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  • Chemists also had to thank him for translating three editions of the Lehrbuch of Berzelius and all the successive volumes of the Jahresbericht into German from the original Swedish.

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  • This revival of the synthetical production of S03, at a period when this article had suddenly become of great importance, caused the greatest excitement among chemists and led to numerous attempts in the same direction, some of which were at once sufficiently successful to compete with the Bohemian process.

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  • Always keenly alive to the interests of chemists in general, Bell conceived the idea of a society which should at once protect the interests of the trade, and improve its status, and at a public meeting held on the 15th of April 1841, it was resolved to found the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

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  • Both in Paris and in England he enjoyed personal intercourse with the leading chemists of the period.

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  • Drugs, chemists and oilmen s colors 15,896,900 23,196,250

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  • Up to about this time Lavoisier's work, mainly quantitative in character, had appealed most strongly to physicists, but it now began to win conviction from chemists also.

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  • Klaproth and the German Academy, and by most English chemists except Cavendish, who rather suspended his judgment, and Priestley, who stubbornly clung to the opposite view.

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  • Examinations are suited in the first instance for the purpose for which they were originally designed in medieval universities - the test of technical and professional capacity; it has never been proposed to abolish qualifying examinations for doctors, pharmaceutical chemists, &c.; the tests applied are (or should be) direct tests of capacity carried out under conditions as nearly as possible like those of actual practice.

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  • Usually this lime is regarded only as mechanically mixed with the bleaching-compound, CaOCl 2, but some chemists adopt formulae in which this lime is equally represented.

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  • Owing to the manufacture of synthetic indigo by German chemists the export trade in indigo, which was formerly the most important business carried on by European capital in India, has been almost entirely ruined.

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  • The industry suffered depression owing to the indigo riots of 1860 and the emancipation of the peasantry by the Land Act of 1859; but in the closing decade of the century it received a much more disastrous blow from the invention of the German chemists.

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  • Some of the best chemists and most enterprising glass-manufacturers exerted their utmost efforts without succeeding in producing perfect disks of more than 31 in.

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  • He had now secured a leading if not the foremost place among the chemists of the French capital, and the demand for his services as adviser in technical problems and matters of practical interest made great inroads on his available time.

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  • The manufacture of synthetic indigo by German chemists has greatly affected the growth and manufacture of indigo, the indigo factories decreasing in1904-1905from 402 to 252.

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  • The theory of the ionization of salts in solution has raised much discussion amongst chemists, but the general fact is certain that electricity only moves through liquids in association with matter, and simultaneously involves chemical dissociation of molecular groups.

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  • The publication of his great Dictionnaire de chimie pure et appliquee, in which he was assisted by many other French chemists, was begun in 1869 and finished in 1878; two supplementary volumes were issued 1880-1886, and in 1892 the publication of a second supplement was begun.

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  • The two great Swedish chemists, Torbern Olof Bergman (1735-1784) and Karl Vilhelm Scheele (1742-1786), flourished at this time.

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  • The governors were directed to regulate religious instruction in secular schools, to prevent horse-stealing, to control subscriptions collected for the holy places in Palestine, to regulate the advertisements of medicines and the printing on cigarette papers, to examine the quality of quinine soap and overlook the cosmetics and other toilet articles - such as soap, starch, brillantine, tooth-brushes and insect-powder - provided by chemists.

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  • That substance, recently discovered in Paris, was attracting the attention of French chemists when he stepped in and, after a short examination with his portable chemical laboratory, detected its resemblance to chlorine and pronounced it an "undecompounded body."

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  • The chemists and bacteriologists do not appear to have finally determined the true nature and origin of this growth, but it is found in the impounded waters, and passes into the pipes, where it rapidly increases.

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  • In 1906 Lunge (in a paper published with Bert) to some extent modified his views, by introducing an intermediate compound, sulphonitronic acid, SO 5 NH 2, which had been noticed by various chemists for some time through its property of imparting a deep blue colour to sulphuric acid.

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  • They went to chemists for assorted hair bobbles and slides.

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  • There are 3 dispensing chemists in Dawlish approximately 2 Miles away and 1 located in Starcross approximately 2 miles in the other direction.

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  • There will always be a need for well qualified chemists.

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  • Researchers in this area are, or have to become, competent chemists.

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  • This choice is based on their wish to work alongside St Andrews ' world-renowned inorganic chemists.

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  • This story describes the process of moving synthetic chemists from the paper lab book to an all-digital equivalent.

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  • Profile on the was no exception leading Parisian chemists.

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  • The chain's merger with Alliance Unichem brand would see more than 2,700 high street chemists in the UK carrying the brand.

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  • Long term objectives are to enhance production capacity, to promote further development and create jobs for young graduate chemists in the region.

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  • Every toxicologist, physiologist, medical doctor and most chemists know that... Cigarette smoke condensate applied to the backs of mice causes tumors.

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  • Their profit margins are likely to come under intense pressure leading to the possible closure of smaller chemists in rural areas.

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  • You can use a chlorhexidine mouthwash every day during the first week after surgery (you can get these from supermarkets and chemists ).

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  • First line treatment for acne includes creams or gels containing the active ingredient benzoyl peroxide, which is available from chemists.

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  • From the New Year, emergency contraceptive pills will be available over-the counter in chemists, it was reported today.

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  • In larger towns chemists operate a rota to provide 24-hour cover - details are posted on chemist's windows.

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  • What is so sacrosanct about having fifteen chemists in each High Street?

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  • In their research the UCR chemists first cleaned the copper surface, creating an extremely slippery surface.

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  • Rather before the commencement of the 19th century the work of Lavoisier had rendered it very probable that chemical changes are not accompanied by any change in weight, and this principle of the conservation of matter was becoming universally accepted; chemists were also acquiring considerable skill in chemical analysis, that is, in the determination of the nature and relative amounts of the elements contained in compounds.

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  • The superiority of this notation over that of Dalton is not so obvious when we consider such simple cases as the above, but chemists are now acquainted with very complex molecules containing numerous atoms; cane sugar, for example, has the formula C 12 H 22 0, 1.

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  • Some distinguished chemists have thought atomic that this fate may be awaiting the atomic theory, and that in future chemists may be able to obtain all the guidance they need from the science of the transformations of energy.

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  • In this respect his hypothesis has much in common with the " law of mass-action " developed at a much later date b y the Swedish chemists Guldberg and Waage, and the American, Willard Gibbs (see Chemical Action).

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  • In addition to empirical and molecular formulae, chemists are in the habit of employing various kinds of rational formulae, called structural, constitutional or graphic formulae, &c., which not only express the molecular composition of the compounds to which they apply, but also embody certain assumptions as to the manner in which the constituent atoms are arranged, and convey more or less information with regard to the nature of the compound itself, viz.

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  • It is not to be supposed that there are any actual bonds of union between the atoms; graphic formulae such as these merely express the hypothesis that certain of the atoms in a compound come directly within the sphere of attraction of certain other atoms, and only indirectly within the sphere of attraction of others, - an hypothesis to which chemists are led by observing that it is often possible to separate a group of elements from a compound, and to displace it by other elements or groups of elements.

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  • Berzelius immediately appreciated the importance of this discovery, notwithstanding 1 The reader is specially referred to the articles Alizarin; Indigo; Purin and Terpenes for illustrations of the manner in which chemists have artificially prepared important animal and vegetable products.

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  • Quantitative chemistry had been all but neglected before the time of Lavoisier, for although a few chemists such as Tachenius, Bergman and others had realized the advantages which would accrue from a knowledge of the composition of N N N bodies by weight, and had laid down the lines upon which such determinations should proceed, the experimental difficulties in making accurate observations were enormous, and little progress could be made until the procedure was more accurately determined.

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  • This assumed that all coloured substances were derivatives of orthoor para-quinone (see Quinones), and although at the time of its promotion little practical proof was given, yet the theory found wide acceptance on account of the researches of many other chemists.

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  • In larger towns chemists operate a rota to provide 24-hour cover - details are posted on chemist 's windows.

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  • It is suitable for the scientists engaged in cross-disciplinary work and chemists studying multidisciplinary problems.

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  • Instead, chemists studied the structure of the proteins from the snake venom.

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  • It's within this context that Dr. Brinkenhoff, along with a specialized team of cosmetic chemists, developed an eyelash conditioner that within a few weeks grows lush, lengthy lashes.

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  • Luminess Air was developed by an impressive roster of makeup artists, cosmetic chemists and colorists and offers two different consumer foundation kits so you can be sure to find one that suits your makeup needs.

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  • Professional organizations have a vested interest in developing the next generation in their field, whether chemists, journalists or librarians.

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  • Without chemists, the world would be a completely different place, and not necessarily for the better.

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  • During World War II, chemists found yet another use for this very useful bean.

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  • A little more than 100 years ago, chemists created the pH scale to describe the range from pure acid to pure alkaline.

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  • Fortunately, the compounds at first examined by the chemists engaged in verifying these laws were comparatively simple, so that the whole numbers referred to above were small.

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  • The atomic theory has been of priceless value to chemists, but it has more than once happened in the history of science that a hypothesis, after having been useful in the discovery Present and the co-ordination of knowledge, has been aban- position doned and replaced by one more in harmony with later of the discoveries.

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  • As early as 1866, tannic acid, gallic acid, wood spirit, acetic acid, essential oil and eucalyptol were produced from various species of eucalyptus, and researches made by Australian chemists, notably by Messrs.

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  • The astringent principle is a peculiar kind of tannic acid, called by chemists quercitannic, which, yielding more stable compounds with gelatine than other forms, gives oak bark its high value to the tanner.

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  • The drugs used by the physicians and apothecaries were purchased from the grossarii or sellers in gross, who were subsequently called 'grocers, some of whom specialized as druggists and others as chymists or chemists.

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  • The curious signs on the coloured carboys in chemists' windows, which were commonly to be seen until the middle of the 19th century, were signs used by the alchemists to indicate various chemical substances.

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  • The assistants employed at these dispensaries after a time appear to have gone into business on their own account, and in this way the dispensing chemists, as a class, appear to have originated.

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  • This society was instituted in 1841, the original founders being chemists and druggists in the metropolis and provincial towns.

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  • Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."

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  • His lectures, which were supplemented with practical laboratory teaching, were attended by many chemists who subsequently attained distinction.

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  • Still no explanation of this singular fact was forthcoming, and it was reserved for the young chemist from FrancheComte to solve a problem which had baffled the greatest chemists and physicists of the time.

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  • Thus at one step Pasteur gained a place of honour among the chemists of the day, and was immediately appointed professor of chemistry at the Faculte of Science at Strasburg, where he soon afterwards married Mlle Laurent, who proved herself to be a true and noble helpmeet.

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  • Although our information respecting the chemical composition of petroleum has been almost entirely gained since the middle of the 18th century, a considerable amount of empirical knowledge of the substance was possessed by chemists at an earlier date, and there was much speculation as to its origin.

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  • Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.

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  • Other theories of a like nature were brought forward by various chemists, Mendeleeff, for example, ascribing the formation of petroleum to the action of water at high temperatures on iron carbide in the interior of the earth.

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  • Klaproth, and especially by Berzelius; these chemists are to be regarded as the pioneers in this branch of descriptive chemistry.

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  • Since their day many chemists have entered the lists, new and powerful methods of research have been devised, and several new elements definitely characterized.

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  • In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.

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  • Unwilling to discard the strictly unitary views of these chemists, or to adopt the copulae theory of Berzelius, he revived the notion of radicals in a new form.

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  • The germs of analytical chemistry are to be found in the writings of the pharmacists and chemists of the iatrochemical period.

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  • In England this branch of chemistry is especially cared for by the Institute of Chemistry, which, since its foundation in 1877, has done much for the training of analytical chemists.

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  • To explain this result, chemists suppose that both changes can occur simultaneously, and that equilibrium results when the rate at which AB and CD are transformed into AD and CB is the same as the rate at which the reverse change goes on.

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  • The chemical composition and constitution of guncotton has been studied by a considerable number of chemists and many divergent views have been put forward on the subject.

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  • We thus see that, while the great anatomists, physicists and chemists - men of the type of Willis, Borelli and Boyle - were laying foundations which were later on built up into the fabric of scientific medicine, little good was done by the premature application of their half-understood principles to practice.

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  • Gas must be supplied at 16-candle illuminating power, and is officially tested by the chemists' department of the London County Council.

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  • From 1870 he was editor of the Journal fiir praktische Chemie, in which many trenchant criticisms of contemporary chemists and their doctrines appeared from his pen.

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  • The term clay is often used by chemists to denote hydrated silicate of alumina (Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2.2H 2 O), of which kaolin or china clay is a fairly pure form.

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  • The material which chemists call calcium carbonate is met with in a comparatively pure state in chalk.

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  • This laboratory, unique of its kind at the time, in conjunction with Liebig's unrivalled gifts as a teacher, soon rendered Giessen the most famous chemical school in the world; men flocked from every country to enjoy its advantages, and many of the most accomplished chemists of the 19th century had to thank it for their early training.

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  • The formulae of the group of substances last mentioned are in harmony with the ordinary views of chemists as to valency, but the formulae NaHg 2, NaCd 2, NaT1 2, AuAl 2 are more surprising.

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  • Until recently the vast subject of inter-metallic compounds has been an unopened book to chemists.

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  • The analyses of modern chemists have now revealed the existence of 32 out of the 80 known elements as existing dissolved in sea-water, and it is scarcely too much to say that the remaining elements also exist in minute traces which the available methods of analysis as yet fail to disclose.

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  • The nature of the gases evolved by coal when freshly exposed to the atmosphere has been investigated by several chemists, more particularly by Lyon Playfair and Ernst von Composi- Meyer.

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  • Coins of foreign mints are generally submitted to examination by a committee of eminent chemists and metallurgists whose report is published in the official journals.

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  • The college to which Hofmann devoted nearly twenty of the best years of his life was starved; the coaltar industry, which was really brought into existence by his work and that of his pupils under his direction at that college, and which with a little intelligent forethought might have been retained in England, was allowed to slip into the hands of Germany, where it is now worth millions of pounds annually; and Hofmann himself was compelled to return to his native land to find due appreciation as one of the foremost chemists of his time.

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  • By the addition of sodium amalgam to a concentrated solution of ammonium chloride, the so-called ammonium amalgam is obtained as a spongy mass which floats on the surface of the liquid; it decomposes readily at ordinary temperatures into ammonia and hydrogen; it does not reduce silver and gold salts, a behaviour which distinguishes it from the amalgams of the alkali metals, and for this reason it is regarded by some chemists as being merely mercury inflated by gaseous ammonia and hydrogen.

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  • The name beryllium was given to the metal by German chemists and was generally used until recently, when the earlier name was adopted.

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  • Various chemists had traced numerical sequences among the atomic weights of some of the elements and noted connexions between them and the properties of the different substances; but it was left to him to give a full expression to the generalization, and to treat it not merely as a system of classifying the elements according to certan observed facts, but as a "law of nature" which could be relied upon to predict new facts and to disclose errors in what were supposed to be old facts.

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  • The constitution of the oxyazo compounds has attracted much attention, some chemists holding that they are true azophenols of the type R N 2 R l OH, while others look upon them as having a quinonoid structure, i.e.

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  • Keenly alive to the importance of the technical applications of chemistry, he devoted special attention as a teacher to the training of industrial chemists.

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  • This low refractivity is noteworthy as strongly antagonistic to the view at one time favoured by eminent chemists that argon was a condensed form of nitrogen represented by N3.

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  • The atomic weight of arsenic has been determined by many different chemists.

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  • Code breakers and linguists were consulted, chemists and biologists patched up their differences and worked together, and scientific groups were formed to share information and theories.

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  • These chemists electrolyse either pure calcium chloride, or a mixture of this salt with fluorspar, in a graphite vessel which servos as the anode.

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