I think it's something about my body chemistry that they don't like.
The transformations of these two forms are discussed in Chemistry: Physical.
"You are too good," said the master of Trinity, "to die of drinking punch in the torrid zone"; and Watson, instead of becoming, as he had flattered himself, a great orientalist, remained at home to be elected professor of chemistry, a science of which he did not at the time possess the simplest rudiments.
The Chemistry of the Sun (1887) is an elaborate treatise on solar spectroscopy based on the hypothesis of elemental dissociation through the intensity of solar heat.
So well was his position as a leading man of science now established that in 1854 he was appointed professor of chemistry and dean of the Faculte des Sciences at Lille.
advanced chemistry or to have found further confirmation in the facts of chemistry.
From about 1796 Ampere gave private lessons at Lyons in mathematics, chemistry and languages; and in 1801 he removed to Bourg, as professor of physics and chemistry, leaving his ailing wife and infant son at Lyons.
He was thus led to conclude that chemistry is a branch of applied mathematics and to endeavour to trace a law according to which the quantities of different bases required to saturate a given acid formed an arithmetical, and the quantities of acids saturating a given base a geometrical, progression.
Kuavos, blue -yevvav, to produce), C2N2, in chemistry, a gas composed of carbon and nitrogen.
An exact and conscientious worker, he did much to improve and systematize the processes of analytical chemistry and mineralogy, and his appreciation of the value of quantitative methods led him to become one of the earliest adherents of the Lavoisierian doctrines outside France.
The first incentive to his serious study of chemistry was given by hearing J.
His first acquaintance with chemistry was gained as laboratory boy to an apothecary in Rouen (1777-1779), and after various vicissitudes he obtained an introduction to A.
Mountain winters were always a surprise to lowlanders and easterners, where the chemistry of moisture played games that produced slush and wet snow, not the sparkling crystals so soft a broom could clear a foot-deep snowfall with a few swishes.
Perhaps the most remarkable discovery of modern chemistry is the existence of compounds, which, whilst possessing an identical composition, are absolutely different bodies, judged of by their properties.
In 1845 he was appointed to the chair of chemistry, physics and technology at the Wiesbaden Agricultural Institution, and three years later he became the first director of the chemical laboratory which he induced the Nassau government to establish at that place.
And as the undefinable essence of the force moving the heavenly bodies, the undefinable essence of the forces of heat and electricity, or of chemical affinity, or of the vital force, forms the content of astronomy, physics, chemistry, botany, zoology, and so on, just in the same way does the force of free will form the content of history.
The attention he had paid to chemistry in the earlier part of his career enabled him to hold his own in this position, but he found his work more congenial when in 1887 he was transferred to the professorship of physics.
GLYCOLS, in organic chemistry, the generic name given to the aliphatic dihydric alcohols.
Copious extracts from a diary kept by him at this time are given by Bain; they show how methodically he read and wrote, studied chemistry and botany, tackled advanced mathematical problems, made notes on the scenery and the people and customs of the country.
PYRIMIDINES, METADIAZINES or Miazines, in organic chemistry, a series of heterocyclic compounds containing a ring complex, composed of four carbon atoms and two nitrogen atoms, the nitrogen atoms being in the meta-position.
In 1849 we find him studying chemistry under Bunsen at Marburg, where his love for astronomy was revived by Gerling's lectures.
Gilbert, Rothamsted Memoirs on Agricultural Chemistry and Physiology, 7 vols.
The university, founded in 1869, built mainly of basalt, has schools of arts, medicine, chemistry and mineralogy.
At that date the science of chemistry was very imperfectly known, and the real constituents of ordinary remedies so little understood that different virtues were attributed to different products containing the same constituents.
In 1849 he was appointed professor of practical chemistry at University College, London, and from 1855 until his retirement in 1887 he also held the professorship of chemistry.
This table is taken from Warington's Chemistry of the Farm, 19th edition (Vinton and Co.), to which reference may be made for a detailed discussion of the feeding of animals.
In 1904 he delivered at the university of California a course of lectures, the object of which was to illustrate the application of the methods of physical chemistry to the study of the theory of toxins and antitoxins, and which were published in 1907 under the title Immunochemistry.
On his arrival in Russia he rapidly rose to distinction, and was made professor of chemistry in the university of St Petersburg; he ultimately became_rector, and in 1764 secretary of state.
He initiated in 1866 the spectroscopic observation of sunspots; applied Doppler's principle in 1869 to determine the radial velocities of the chromospheric gases; and successfully investigated the chemistry of the sun from 1872 onward.
The appeal to authority cannot be permitted in economics any more than in chemistry, physics or astronomy.
In 1787 he was appointed lecturer in chemistry to the Royal Artillery, and when the university was founded in 1810 he was selected to be the professor of chemistry.
The work achieved by Russian savants, especially in biology, physiology and chemistry, and in the sciences descriptive of the vast territory of Russia, is well known to Europe.
In systematic chemistry, sodium hyposulphite is a salt of hyposulphurous acid, to which Schutzenberger gave the formula H 2 S0 2, but which Bernthsen showed to be H 2 S 2 0 4.
The Board of Agriculture in 1803 had commissioned Sir Humphry Davy to deliver a course of lectures on the connexion of chemistry with vegetable physiology.
In 1840 the appearance of Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology by Justus von Liebig set on foot a movement in favour of scientific husbandry, the most notable outcome of which was the establishment by Sir John Bennet Lawes in 1843 of the experimental station of Rothamsted.
In 1768 he had published Institutiones metallurgicae, intended to give a scientific form to chemistry by digesting facts established by experiment into a connected series of propositions.
Thus at one step Pasteur gained a place of honour among the chemists of the day, and was immediately appointed professor of chemistry at the Faculte of Science at Strasburg, where he soon afterwards married Mlle Laurent, who proved herself to be a true and noble helpmeet.
Dandolo published in Italian several treatises on agriculture, vine-cultivation, and the rearing of cattle and sheep; a work on silk-worms, which was translated into French by Fontanelle; a work on the discoveries in chemistry which were made in the last quarter of the 18th century (published 1796); and translations of several of the best French works on chemistry.
In 18J4 he left Berlin to become professor of physics in Basel University, removing nine years afterwards to Brunswick Polytechnic, and in 1866 to Karlsruhe Polytechnic. In 1871 he accepted the chair of physical chemistry a t Leipzig.
In 1804 Vauquelin resigned his professorship at the College de France and successfully used his influence to obtain the appointment for Thenard, who six years later, after Fourcroy's death, was further elected to the chairs of chemistry at the Ecole Polytechnique and the Faculte des Sciences.
But his progress was so rapid that in two or three years he was able to take his master's place at the lecture-table, and Fourcroy and Vauquelin were so satisfied with his performance that they procured for him a school appointment in 1797 as teacher of chemistry, and in 1798 one as repetiteur at the Ecole Polytechnique.
Like most great teachers he published a text-book, and his Traite de Chimie elementaire, theorique et pratique (4 vols., Paris, 1813-16), which served as a standard for a quarter of a century, perhaps did even more for the advance of chemistry than his numerous original discoveries.
Bunsen held the chair of chemistry.
Wilson, Elements of Thermal Chemistry (London, 1885); P. Duhem, Traite de Mecanique Chimique (Paris, 18 97-99); J.
Chemistry is abstract; mineralogy is concrete.
Finally, in 1876, he became professor of chemistry at Tubingen, where he died on the 11th of April 1895.
Anatomy and the study of animal mechanism, animal physics and animal chemistry, all of which form part of a true zoology, were excluded from the usual definition of the word by the mere accident that the zoologist had his museum but not his garden of living specimens as the botanist had; 1 and, whilst the zoologist was thus deprived of the means of anatomical and physiological study - only later supplied by the method of preserving animal bodies in alcohol - the demands of medicine for a knowledge of the structure of the human animal brought into existence a separate and special study of human anatomy and physiology.
450; Krawkow, " Chemistry of Amyloid," Arch.
(1888); Pickardt, " Chemistry of Pathological Exudates," Berl.
By their relations with the farther East, the Arabs became acquainted with valuable new remedies which have held their ground till modern times; and their skill in chemistry enabled them to prepare new chemical remedies, and form many combinations of those already in use.
Palladium (Chemistry) >>
This society early began td hold a great show of live stock, implements, &c. In 1842 certain Midlothian tenant-farmers had the merit of originating an Agricultural Chemistry Association (the first of its kind), by which funds were raised for the purpose of conducting such investigations as the title of the society implies.
Alchemy in this sense is merely an early phase of the development of systematic chemistry; in Liebig's words, it was " never at any time anything different from chemistry."
The earliest Hellenic culture in the East was Syrian, and the Arabs made their first acquaintance with Greek chemistry, as with Greek philosophy, mathematics, medicine, &c., by the intermediary of Syriac translations.
If this view be accepted, an entirely new light is thrown on the achievements of the Arabs in the history of chemistry.
This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
But the most eager search of Arabian chemistry was the transmutation of metals, and the elixir of immortal health: the reason and the fortunes of thousands were evaporated in the crucibles of alchemy, and the consummation of the great work was promoted by the worthy aid of mystery, fable and superstition."
Increasing attention was paid to the investigation of the properties of substances and of their effects on the human body, and chemistry profited by the fact that it passed into the hands of men who possessed the highest scientific culture of the time, Still, belief in the possibility of transmutation long remained orthodox, even among the most distinguished men of science.
RUTHENIUM [[[symbol]] Ru, atomic weight To' 7 (O = 0)1, in chemistry, a metallic element, found associated with platinum, in platinum ore and in osmiridium.
Ludwig, under whom he studied at Zurich, decided him to devote his attention to physiological chemistry, and therefore he went, after his graduation (18J4), to Heidelberg, where R.
In 1859 he became privat-docent in physics and chemistry at Breslau, where in the preceding year he had graduated as Ph.
Returning to Glasgow in 1872 he became assistant in the Young laboratory of technical chemistry at Anderson's College, and from 1874 acted as tutorial assistant in chemistry at the university.
In 1880 he was appointed to the chair of chemistry at University College, Bristol, becoming principal in the following year, and in 1887 he succeeded A.
Williamson as professor of chemistry at University College, London.
His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.
Later his attention was taken up with questions of physical and inorganic chemistry.
1872), who from 1894 had assisted him at University College, London, and in 1903 was appointed professor of chemistry at University College, Bristol, enabled him to announce the existence in the atmosphere of three new gases, neon, krypton and xenon.
Systematic, 1901, and he edited a series of "Textbooks of Physical Chemistry."
XANTHONE (dibenzo-y-pyrone, or diphenylene ketone oxide), C H 0 in organic chemistry, a heterocyclic compound containing the ring system shown below.
CHEMISTRY (formerly " chymistry"; Gr.
A further differentiation of the provinces of chemistry and physics is shown by the classifications of matter.
Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular theory.
It may be convenient here to state how the whole subject of chemistry is treated in this edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Here is treated the history of descriptive inorganic chemistry; reference should be made to the articles on the separate elements for an account of their preparation, properties, &c.
Notwithstanding the false idea which prompted the researches of the alchemists, many advances were made in descriptive chemistry, the metals and their salts receiving much attention, and several of our important acids being discovered.
At the same time, however, there were many who, opposed to the Paracelsian edefinition of chemistry, still labored at the problem of the alchemists, while others gave much attention to the chemical industries.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1
de la BoÃ« Sylvius (1614-1672), who regarded medicine as applied chemistry, and Otto Tachenius, who elucidated the nature of salts.
The formulation of this definition of chemistry was due to Robert Boyle.
Descriptive chemistry was now assuming considerable proportions; the experimental inquiries suggested by Boyle were being assiduously developed; and a wealth of observa tions was being accumulated, for the explanation of which the resources of the dominant theory were sorely taxed.
Lavoisier may be justly regarded as the founder of modern or quantitative chemistry.
This subject is discussed in section IV., Organic Chemistry.
von Hofmann, who materially helped the acceptance of the doctrine by the lucid exposition in his Introduction to Modern Chemistry, 1865.
Such isomerism, named stereoisomerism (q.v.),hasbeen assiduously developed during recentyears; it prevails among many different classes of organic compounds and many examples have been found in inorganic chemistry.
This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded " chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition which adequately fits the science to-day.
It is remarkable that systematic instruction in the theory and practice of chemistry only received earnest attention in our academic institutions during the opening decades of the 19th century.
Although for a long time lecturers and professors had been attached to universities, generally their duties had also included the study of physics, mineralogy and other subjects, with the result that chemistry received scanty encouragement.
But the first important step in providing means whereby students could systematically study chemistry was the foundation of the College of Chemistry in 1845.
This institution was taken over by the Government in 1853, becoming the Royal College of Chemistry, and incorporated with the Royal School of Mines; in 1881 the names were changed to the Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines, and again in 1890 to the Royal College of Science.
During recent years chemistry has become one of the most important subjects in the curriculum of technical schools and universities, and at the present time no general educational institution is complete until it has its full equipment of laboratories and lecture theatres.
These two works, and especially the latter, were the models followed by Thenard, Liebig, Strecker, Wohler and many others, including Thomas Graham, upon whose Elements of Chemistry was founded Otto's famous Lehrbuch der Chemie, to which H.
Organic chemistry was especially developed by the publication of Gerhardt's Traite de chimie organique in 1853-1856, and of Kekule's Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1861-1882.
The number of periodicals devoted to chemistry has steadily increased since the early part of the 19th century.
Their full significance is treated in the section of this article dealing with organic chemistry, and in the articles Isomerism and STEREO-Isomerism.
Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic chemistry is concerned with the descriptive study o f the elements and their compounds, except those of carbon.
The earliest discoveries in inorganic chemistry are to be found in the metallurgy, medicine and chemical arts of the ancients.
The 18th century witnessed striking developments in pneumatic chemistry, or the chemistry of gases, which had been begun by van Helmont, Mayow, Hales and Boyle.
Before leaving this phase of inorganic chemistry, we may mention other historical examples of allotropy.
Klaproth, and especially by Berzelius; these chemists are to be regarded as the pioneers in this branch of descriptive chemistry.
After having been somewhat neglected for the greater attractions and wider field presented by organic chemistry, the study of the elements and their inorganic compounds is now' rapidly coming into favour; new investigators are continually entering the lists; the beaten paths are being retraversed and new ramifications pursued.
Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
It thus happened that in the earlier treatises on phlogistic chemistry organic substances were grouped with all combustibles.
Bergman worked in the same direction; while Rouelle was attracted to the study of animal chemistry.
Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
At the same time, however, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was only when identical compounds were obtained from both vegetable and animal sources that this subdivision was discarded, and the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry.
The exact delimitation of inorganic and organic chemistry engrossed many minds for many years; and on this point there existed considerable divergence of opinion for several decades.
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."
van't Hoff and Le Bel, occupies such a position in organic chemistry that its value can never be transcended.
An apt definition of organic chemistry is that it is "the study of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives."
Analytical Chemistry This branch of chemistry has for its province the determination of the constituents of a chemical compound or of a mixture of compounds.
The germs of analytical chemistry are to be found in the writings of the pharmacists and chemists of the iatrochemical period.
Scheele enriched the knowledge of chemistry by an immense number of facts, but he did not possess the spirit of working systematically as Bergman did.
Anton Laurent Lavoisier, however, must be considered as the first great exponent of this branch of chemistry.
He realized that the composition by weight of chemical compounds was of the greatest moment if chemistry were to advance.
His fame rests upon his exposition of the principles necessary to chemistry as a secience, but of his contributions to analytical inorganic chemistry little can be said.
We may, however, notice Heinrich Rose i and Friedrich WShler, 2 who, having worked up the results of their teacher Berzelius, and combined them with their own valuable observations, exerted great influence on the progress of analytical chemistry by publishing works which contained admirable accounts of the then known methods of analysis.
Fresenius, the founder of the Zeitschrift fiir analytische Chemie (1862), we are particularly indebted for perfecting and systematizing the various methods of analytical chemistry.
The quantitative precipitation of metals by the electric current, although known to Michael Faraday, was not applied to analytical chemistry until O.
Progress in forensic chemistry was only possible after the reactions of poisons had been systematized; a subject which has been worked out by many investigators, of whom we notice K.
Industrial chemistry makes many claims upon the chemist, for it is necessary to determine the purity of a product before it can be valued.
The passing of the Food and Drug Acts (1875-1899) in England, and the existence of similar adulteration acts in other countries, have occasioned great progress in the analysis of foods, drugs, &c. For further information on this branch of analytical chemistry, see Adulteration.
In England this branch of chemistry is especially cared for by the Institute of Chemistry, which, since its foundation in 1877, has done much for the training of analytical chemists.
In the preceding sketch we have given a necessarily brief account of the historical development of analytical chemistry in its main branches.
Crookes, Select Methods in Analytical Chemistry).
Physical Chemistry We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter.
In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.
In the article Thermo Chemistry a general account of heats of formation of chemical compounds is given, and it is there shown that this constant measures the stability of the compound.
In organic chemistry it is more customary to deal with the " heat of combustion," i.e.
Researches in synthetical organic chemistry have shown that this property of fluorescenceis common to an immense number of substances, and theories have been proposed whose purpose is to connect the property with constitution.
Nernst, Theoretical Chemistry).
Thorpe, Essays in Historical Chemistry (2nd ed., 1902).
Ostwald, Principles of Inorganic Chemistry (3rd Eng.
ed., 1908), Outlines of General Chemistry, Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Chemie; W.
van't Hoff, Lectures on Theoretical and Physical Chemistry; J.
Walker, Introduction to Physical Chemistry (4th ed., 1907); H.
C. Jones, Outlines of Physical Chemistry (1903); D.
Mendeleeff, Principles of Chemistry (3rd ed., 1905).
Roscoe and Schorlemmer, Inorganic Chemistry (3rd ed., Non-metals, 1905; Metals, 1907); R.
Lachmann, Spirit of Organic Chemistry; J.
Cohen, Organic Chemistry (1908); A.
Stewart, Recent Advances in Organic Chemistry (1908); and in a series of pamphlets issued since 1896 with the title Sammlung chemischer and chemisch-technischer Vortrcige.
Educated partly at Tiverton grammar-school, and partly at Dublin, where he studied chemistry, he afterwards proceeded to Edinburgh and took the degree of M.D.
Processes were devised by Guimet (1826) and by Christian Gmelin (1828), then professor of chemistry in Tubingen; but while Guimet kept his process a secret Gmelin published his, and thus became the originator of the "artificial ultramarine" industry.
In biological chemistry he worked at the problems of animal heat and at the phenomena accompanying the growth of plants, and he also devoted much time to meteorological questions and observations.
degree there in 1768, spent a year more in the hospitals of London and Paris, and began practice in Philadelphia at the age of twenty-four, undertaking at the same time the chemistry class at the Philadelphia medical college.
In 1789 he exchanged his chemistry lectureship for that of the theory and practice of physic; and when the medical college, which he had helped to found, was absorbed by the university of Pennsylvania in 1791 he became professor of the institutes of medicine and of clinical practice, succeeding in 1796 to the chair of the theory and practice of medicine.
ROBERT EMMET (1778-1803), Irish rebel, youngest son of Robert Emmet, physician to the lord-lieutenant of Ireland, was born in Dublin in 1778, and entered Trinity College in October 1793, where he had a distinguished academic career, showing special aptitude for mathematics and chemistry, and acquiring a reputation as an orator.
In 1839 on Liebig's recommendation he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in the polytechnic at Stuttgart, and held it till within three years of his death, which happened at Stuttgart on the 1st of July 1885.
His earlier work included an investigation of succinic acid, and the preparation of phenyl cyanide (benzonitrile), the simplest nitrile of the aromatic series; but later his time was mainly occupied with questions of technology and public health rather than with pure chemistry.
He was a contributor to the Handworterbuch of Liebig, Willer and Poggendorff, and to the Graham-Otto Textbook of Chemistry, and for many years was a member of the committee of revision of the Pharmacopoeia Germanica.
OXIMES, in organic chemistry, compounds containing the grouping > C: N OH, derived from aldehydes and ketones by condensing them with hydroxylamine.
The acid finds considerable use in organic chemistry, being employed to discriminate between the different types of alcohols and of amines, and also in the production of diazo, azo and diazo-amino compounds.
ACETOPHENONE, or PHENYL-METHYL KETONE, C8H8O or C6H5CO.CH3, in chemistry, the simplest representative of the class of mixed aliphatic-aromatic ketones.
The chemistry of the albumins is one of the most complicated and difficult in the whole domain of organic chemistry.
This list is not exhaustive; other products are given in Gustav Mann, Chemistry of the Proteids (1906), to which reference should be made for a complete account of this class of compounds.
THIAZOLES, in organic chemistry, a series of heterocyclic compounds containing the grouping shown below; the replaceable hydrogen atoms in which are designated a, (3 and µ.
Several journals are published specially to deal with physical chemistry, of which electrochemistry forms an important part.
Among them may be mentioned the Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie (Leipzig); and the Journal of Physical Chemistry (Cornell University).
The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above.
Chemistry of Rubber.
Weber, The Chemistry of Indiarubber (London, 1902); Selected papers from the Kew Bulletin, iii.
SIR WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-), English chemist and physicist, was born in London on the 17th of June 1832, and studied chemistry at the Royal College of Chemistry under A.
In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.
For the chemistry see H.
On the constitution of phenanthrene see CHEMISTRY: § Organic.
Thomson (Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, 47) that on dynamical principles there must be a reciprocal relation between the changes of dimensions produced by magnetization and the changes of magnetization attending mechanical strain.
with miscellaneous studies, especially with that of chemistry, which, in the new form given to it by Lavoisier, he found "aisee comme l'algebre."
In 1844, having graduated as doctor of medicine and doctor of science, he was appointed to organize the new faculty of science at Besancon, where he acted as dean and professor of chemistry from 1845 to 1851.
But his most important work was in inorganic and thermal chemistry.
But his best known contribution to general chemistry is his work on the phenomena of reversible reactions, which he comprehended under a general theory of " dissociation.
ALUM, in chemistry, a term given to the crystallized double sulphates of the typical formula M 2 SO 4 ï¿½ MP' ï¿½(S04) 324H20, where M.
In chemistry he made a speciality of the platinum metals.
NITRO COMPOUNDS, in organic chemistry, compounds containing the monovalent radical -NO 2 directly combined with carbon.
The principal contributors to the " Transactions " of this section of the academy were--for anatomy and physiology, Coloman Balogh, Eugene Jendrassik, Joseph Lenhossek and Lewis Thanhoffer; for zoology, John Frivaldszky, John Kriesch and Theodore Margo; for botany, Frederick Hazslinszky, Lewis Juranyi and Julius Klein; for mineralogy and geology, Joseph Szabo, Max Hantken, Joseph Krenner, Anthony Koch and Charles Hoffman; for physics, Baron Lorando Eotviis, Coloman Szily and Joseph Sztoczek; for chemistry, Charles Than and Vincent Wartha; for meteorology, Guido Schenzl.
Thus he carried on the narrative of orderly development from the point at which it was left by Kant and Laplace - explaining by reference to the ascertained laws of physics and chemistry the configuration of the earth, its mountains and seas, its igneous and its stratified rocks, just as the astronomers had explained by those same laws the evolution of the sun and planets from diffused gaseous matter of high temperature.
Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.
Thus mysticism was finally banished from the domain of biology, and zoology became one of the physical sciences - the science which seeks to arrange and discuss the phenqmena of animal life and form, as the outcome of the operation of the laws of physics and chemistry.
General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.
TRIAZINES, in organic chemistry, a series of cyclic compounds, containing a ring system composed of three carbon and three nitrogen atoms. Three series are possible, the positions of Marine Trias Of The Alpine And Indian Types.
Uranyl nitrate is used in photography, and also in analytical chemistry as a precipitant for phosphoric acid (as uranyl ammonium phosphate, U02 NH4 P04).
Then, after a short time in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, and in the Sevres porcelain factory, he became in 1841 professor of chemistry in the academy of Geneva.
In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.
TRIAZOLES (pyrro-a and (3'-diazoles), in organic chemistry, a series of heterocyclic compounds containing the ring complex (annexed formula).
Pathological chemistry has been remarkable chiefly for the knowledge we have obtained of the nature of bacterial poisons.
Utilitarian, or perhaps rather practical, considerations have very little to do with the subject from a scientific point of view - no more so than the science of chemistry has to do with the art of the manufacturing chemist.
In this doubtless he derived much advantage from his knowledge of chemistry, though the science was as yet not disentangled from the secret traditions of alchemy, and was often mixed up with imposture.
Van Helmont (1578-1644) was a man of noble family in Brussels, who, after mastering all other branches of learning as then understood, devoted himself with enthusiasm to medicine and chemistry.
Its chief aim was to reconcile the new views in physiology and chemistry with practical medicine.
He made a resolute attempt to reconstruct medicine on the two bases of the doctrine of the circulation of the blood and the new views of chemistry.
In the application of chemistry to the examination of secretions Willis made some important steps.
He was well acquainted with the works of the ancient physicians, and probably fairly so with chemistry.
Independently of his system, which has long ceased to exert any influence, Hoffmann made some contributions to practical medicine; and his great knowledge of chemistry enabled him to investigate the subject of mineral waters.
Stahl was the author of the theory of" phlogiston "in chemistry, which in its day had great importance.
He advanced chemistry, botany, anatomy, as well as physiology, and was incessantly occupied in endeavouring to apply his scientific studies to practical medicine, thus continuing the work of his great teacher Boerhaave.
For medicine in England Harvey did what William Gilbert did for physics and Robert Boyle for chemistry: he insisted upon direct interrogation of natural processes, and thereby annihilated the ascendancy of mere authority, which, while nations were in the making, was an essential principle in the welding together of heterogeneous and turbulent peoples.
conceptions will be opened out, not in bacteriology only, but also in biological chemistry and in molecular physics.
To biological chemistry we have been deeply indebted during the latter half of the 19th century.
In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.
Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.
In the preservation of immunity then, in its various degrees and kinds, not only is the chemistry of the blood to be studied, but also its histology.
A condition of this reform was the need of a preliminary training of the mind of the pupil in pure science, even in physics and chemistry; that is to say, before introduction into his professional studies.
Des Cloizeaux (1817-1897) at the Ecole Normale, and in 1876 he became professor of mineralogy at the Sorbonne, but on the death of Wurtz in 1884 he exchanged that position for the chair of organic chemistry.
Friedel achieved distinction both in miner alogy and organic chemistry.
In organic chemistry, his study of the ketones and aldehydes, begun in 1857, provided him with the subject of his other doctoral thesis.
These miners' schools (Bergschule, ecoles des mineurs) give elementary instruction in chemistry, physics, mechanics, mineralogy, geology and mathematics and drawing, as well as in such details of the art of mining as will best supplement the practical information already acquired in underground work.
ADOLPHE WILHELM HERMANN KOLBE (1818-1884), German chemist, was born on the 27th of September 1818 at Elliehausen, near GÃ¶ttingen, where in 1838 he began to study chemistry under F.
From 1847 to 1851 he was engaged at Brunswick in editing the Dictionary of Chemistry started by Liebig, but in the latter year he went to Marburg as successor to Bunsen in the chair of chemistry.
He published a Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1854, smaller textbooks of organic and inorganic chemistry in 1877-1883, and Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der theoretischen Chemie in 1881.
ACRIDINE, C13H9N, in chemistry, a heterocyclic ring compound found in crude coal-tar anthracene.
The knowledge of the chemistry of glass-making has been considerably widened by Dr F.
In modern chemistry, however, the metals are a division of the elements, the members of which may or may not possess all these characters.
Neumann, Die Metalle (1904); also treatises on chemistry.
The constitution of the benzene ring, the isomerism of its derivatives, and their syntheses from aliphatic or openchain compounds, are treated in the article Chemistry.
He next went to Paris, where he studied chemistry under Gerhardt, and on his return to London he was appointed director of the chemical laboratory at Guy's Hospital.
In 1859 he became F.R.C.P., and in 1863 lecturer on chemistry at.
In 1868 he succeeded Faraday as Fullerian professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution, and in 1872 he was elected, in succession to Sir Benjamin Brodie, Waynflete professor of chemistry at Oxford, a chair he occupied for 40 years.
SUGAR, in chemistry, the generic name for a certain series of carbohydrates, i.e.
Fischer may be regarded as one of the most brilliant achievements in modern chemistry.
Armstrong's article Chemistry in the 10th edition of this Encyclopaedia; the representation differs from the projection of Meyer and Jacobsen.
In technological chemistry it finds application as a reducing agent, e.g.
It is extremely hygroscopic and is 'used in synthetical organic chemistry as a condensing agent.
His father, a drysalter and dealer in colours, used sometimes to make experiments in the hope of finding improved processes for the production of his wares, and thus his son early acquired familiarity with practical chemistry.
He next entered the university of Bonn, but migrated to Erlangen when the professor of chemistry, K.
Kastner (1783-1857), was appointed in 1821 to the chair of physics and chemistry at the latter university.
Indeed, as he himself said afterwards, it was a wretched time for chemistry in Germany.
Gaultier de Claubry (1792-1873), professor of chemistry at the Ecole de Pharmacie, and soon afterwards, by the influence of A.
It was on Humboldt's advice that he determined to become a teacher of chemistry, but difficulties stood in his way.
After examination his Erlangen degree was recognized, and in 1824 he was appointed extraordinary professor of chemistry at Giessen, becoming ordinary professor two years later.
He remained at Giessen for twenty-eight years, until in 1852 he accepted the invitation of the Bavarian government to the ordinary chair of chemistry at Munich university, and this office he held, although he was offered the chair at Berlin in 1865, until his death, which occurred at Munich on the 10th of April 1873.
His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.
In 1832 he published, jointly with Willer, one of the most famous papers in the history of chemistry, that on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde), wherein it was shown that the radicle benzoyl might be regarded as forming an unchanging constituent of a long series of compounds obtained from oil of bitter almonds, throughout which it behaved like an element.
Berzelius hailed this discovery as marking the dawn of a new era in organic chemistry, and proposed for benzoyl the names "Proin" or "Orthrin" (from irpcoi and dpOpus).
These and other studies in pure chemistry mainly occupied his attention until about 1838, but the last thirty-five years of his life were devoted more particularly to the chemistry of the processes of life, both aptinal and vegetable.
His criticism of Bacon, Ober Francis von Verulam, was first published in 1863 in the Augsburger allgemeine Zeitung, where also most of his letters on chemistry made their first appearance.
Chemistry proper was not understood, but Arabian writings on alchemy led Europe to it later.
at the latter place in 1799 established himself there as a teacher of chemistry.
From 1796 to 1800 he was sub-editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, in succession to his elder brother, JAMES THOMSON (1768-1855), who filled that position in 1795-1796, and who in 1805 was ordained to the parish of Eccles, Berwickshire; and the chemical and mineralogical articles which he contributed to the supplement to the third edition formed the basis of his System of Chemistry, the first edition of which was published in 1802 and the seventh in 1831.
In 1817 he became lecturer in chemistry at Glasgow University, and in the following year was appointed to the regius professorship. This chair he retained until his death, which happened on the 2nd of July 1852 at Kilmun, Argyleshire; but from 1841 he was assisted by his nephew and son-in-law ROBERT DINDAS
AMINES, in chemistry, derivatives of ammonia in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.
In November 1822 Daubeny succeeded Dr Kidd as professor of chemistry at Oxford, and retained this post until 1855; and in 1834 he was appointed to the chair of botany, to which was subsequently attached that of rural economy.
He graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1873 and was instructor in physics and chemistry there during 18 75-9.
water free from salts and to some extent of the dissolved gases which are always present in natural waters, is of indispensable value in many operations both of scientific and industrial chemistry.
- The general practice of laboratory distillation is discussed in all treatises on practical organic chemistry; reference may be made to Lassar-Cohn, Manual of Organic Chemistry (1896), and Arbeitsmethoden fiir organisch-chemische Laboratorien (1901); Hans Meyer, Analyse and Konstitutionermittlung organischer Verbindungen (1909).
The theory of distillation finds a place in all treatises on physical chemistry.
HERMANN FRANZ MORITZ KOPP (1817-1892), German chemist, was born on the 30th of October 1817 at Hanau, where his father, Johann Heinrich Kopp (1777-1858), a physician, was professor of chemistry, physics and natural history at the Lyceum.
After attending the gymnasium of his native town, he studied at Marburg and Heidelberg, and then, attracted by the fame of Liebig, went in 1839 to Giessen, where he became a privatdozent in 1841, and professor of chemistry twelve years later.
In 1843-1847 he published a comprehensive History of Chemistry, in four volumes, to which three supplements were added in 1869-1875.
The Development of Chemistry in Recent Times appeared in 1871-1874, and in 1886 he published a work in two volumes on Alchemy in Ancient and Modern Times.
In addition he wrote (1863) on theoretical and physical chemistry for the Graham-Otto Lehrbuch der Chemie, and for many years assisted Liebig in editing the Annalen der Chemie and the Jahresbericht.
He must not be confused with Emil Kopp (1817-1875), who, born at Warselnheim, Alsace, became in 1847 professor of toxicology and chemistry at the Ecole superieure de Pharmacie at Strasburg, in 1849 professor of physics and chemistry at Lausanne, in 1852 chemist to a Turkey-red factory near Manchester, in 1868 professor of technology at Turin, and finally, in 1871, professor of technical chemistry at the Polytechnic of Zurich, where he died in 1875.
There he had William Cullen bor his instructor in chemistry, and the relation between the two soon became that of professor and assistant rather than of master and pupil.
In 1756 he succeeded Cullen as lecturer in chemistry at Glasgow, and was also appointed professor of anatomy, though that post he was glad to exchange for the chair of medicine.
In 1766 he succeeded Cullen in the chair of chemistry in Edinburgh, where he devoted practically all his time to the preparation of his lectures.
Holding that chemistry had not attained the rank of a science - his lectures dealt with the "effects of heat and mixture" - he had an almost morbid horror of hasty generalization or of anything that had the pretensions of a fully fledged system.
After his death his lectures were written out from his own notes, supplemented by those of some of his pupils, and published with a biographical preface by his friend and colleague, Professor John Robison (1739-1805), in 1803, as Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry, delivered in the University of Edinburgh.
- (Dr Bridges.) The first and greatest aim of the Positive Philosophy is to advance the study of society into the third of the three stages, - to remove social phenomena from the sphere of theological and metaphysical conceptions, and to introduce among them the same scientific observation of their laws which has given us physics, chemistry, physiology.
Comte's series or hierarchy is arranged as follows: (i) Mathematics (that is, number, geometry, and mechanics), (2) Astronomy, (3) Physics, (4) Chemistry, (5) Biology, (6) Sociology.
You cannot discover the relations of the facts of human society without reference to the conditions of animal life; you cannot understand the conditions of animal life without the laws of chemistry; and so with the rest.
When the positive method has been finally extended to society, as it has been to chemistry and physiology, these social facts will be resolved, as their ultimate analysis, into relations with one another, and instead of seeking causes in the old sense of the word, men will only examine the conditions of social existence.
One of his most intimate friends was William Stukeley (1687-1765) with whom he studied anatomy, chemistry, &c. In1708-1709Hales was presented to the perpetual curacy of Teddington in Middlesex, where he remained all his life, notwithstanding that he was subsequently appointed rector of Porlock in Somerset, and later of Faringdon in Hampshire.
CYANIDE, in chemistry, a salt of prussic or hydrocyanic acid, the name being more usually restricted to inorganic salts, i.e.
Hydrogen and oxygen may also be produced electrolytically as gases, and their respective reducing and oxidizing powers at the moment of deposition on the electrode are frequently used in the laboratory, and to some extent industrially, chiefly in the field of organic chemistry.
root ac-, sharp; acere, to be sour), the name loosely applied to any sour substance; in chemistry it has a more precise meaning,denoting a substance containing hydrogen which may be replaced by metals with the formation of salts.
For further information, the reader is referred to any standard work on organic chemistry.
But the subject is now being vigorously studied, and, apart from its importance as a branch of descriptive chemistry, it is throwing light, and promises to throw more, on obscure parts of chemical theory.
Shepherd in the Journal of Physical Chemistry, may also be consulted.
So far as the numerous works are concerned it is evident that the writers who posed as Rosicrucians were moral and religious reformers, and utilized the technicalities of chemistry (alchemy), and the sciences.
He laid the foundation of what will probably prove to be a new and more precise form of chemistry (see CHEMISTRY, and MATTER, CONSTITUTION OF).
He studied chemistry under Priestley and gave attention to the practical applications of the science.
2, 1815); A Dictionary of Chemistry and Mineralogy (with his brother C. R.
Intrigues engineered against him caused him to resign this position in 1677, and for a time he lectured on chemistry at Annaberg and Wittenberg.
Chemistry, as well as mathematics, seems to have been the object of his early attention; and in the year 1690 he published a dissertation on effervescence and fermentation.
This subject owes its importance in modern chemistry to the fact that the vapour density, when hydrogen is taken as the standard, gives perfectly definite information as to the molecular condition of the compound, since twice the vapour density equals the molecular weight of the compound.
The simplicity, moderate accuracy, and adaptability of this method to every class of substance which can be vaporized entitles it to rank as one of the most potent methods in analytical chemistry; its invention is indissolubly connected with the name of Victor Meyer, being termed "Meyer's method" to the exclusion of his other original methods.
In the second form, named after Robert Hare (1781-1858), professor of chemistry at the university of Pennsylvania, the liquids are drawn or aspirated up vertical tubes which have their lower ends placed in reservoirs containing the different liquids, and their upper ends connected to a common tube which is in communication with an aspirator for decreasing the pressure within the vertical tubes.
Travers, The Experimental Study of Gases (1901); and vapour density determinations in Lassar-Cohn's Arbeitsmethoden fur organisch-chemische Laboratorien (1901), and Manual of Organic Chemistry (1896), and in H.
He then devoted himself with astonishing ardour to mathematics, chemistry, natural history, technology and even political economy.
In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.
Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
In 1813 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Lycee Charlemagne, and subsequently undertook the directorship of the Gobelins tapestry works, where he carried out his researches on colour contrasts (De la loi du contraste simultane des couleurs, 1839).
He succeeded his master, Vauquelin, as professor of organic chemistry at the natural history museum in 1830, and thirty-three years later assumed its directorship also; this he relinquished in 1879, though he still retained his professorship. In 1886 the completion of his hundredth year was celebrated with public rejoicings; and after his death, which occurred in Paris on the 9th of April 1889, he was honoured with a public funeral.
molecula, the diminutive of moles, a mass), in chemistry and physics, the minutest particle of matter capable of separate existence.
For the detailed chemical significance of these terms, see Chemistry; and for the atomic theory of the chemist (as distinguished from the atomic or molecular theory of the physicist) see Atom; reference may also be made to the article Matter.
comburere, to burn up), in chemistry, the process of burning or, more scientifically, the oxidation of a substance, generally with the production of flame and the evolution of heat.
In 1836 he entered Marischal College, and came under the influence of John Cruickshank, professor of mathematics, Thomas Clark, professor of chemistry, and William Knight, professor of natural philosophy.
SAFRANINE, in chemistry, the azonium compounds of symmetrical diamino-phenazine and containing the ring system annexed: / N / or X N .% CI R C1 R They are obtained by the joint oxidation' of one molecule of a paradiamine with two molecules of a primary amine; by the condensation of para-aminoazo compounds with primary amines (0.
OSMIUM [[[symbol]] Os., atomic weight 190.9 (0= 16)], in chemistry, a metallic element, found in platinum ore in small particles, consisting essentially of an alloy of osmium and iridium and known as osmiridium.
Before the development of pneumatic chemistry, air was regarded as a distinct chemical unit or element.
During his residence at Hamilton, besides the arduous duties of medical practice, he found time to devote to the study of the natural sciences, and especially of chemistry.
Besides the subjects of theory and practice of medicine, he lectured systematically on botany, materia medica and chemistry.
Chemistry was the subject which at this time seems to have engaged the greatest share of his attention.
In 1751 he was appointed professor of medicine, but continued to lecture on chemistry, and in 1756 he was elected joint professor of chemistry at Edinburgh along with Andrew Plummer, on whose death in the following year the sole appointment was conferred on Cullen.
On the death of Robert Whytt (1714-1766), the professor of the institutes of medicine, Cullen accepted the chair, at the same time resigning that of chemistry.
In 1887 he returned to England and became professor of chemistry at the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh.
In 1892 he accepted the chair of organic chemistry at the Victoria University, Manchester, which he held until 1912.
During this period his stimulating teaching and brilliant researches attracted students from all parts, and he formed at Manchester a school of organic chemistry famous throughout Europe.
Odling as Waynflete professor of chemistry at Oxford.
He soon made his influence felt there - new and more extensive laboratories were built, and for the first time in England a period of research became a necessary part of the academic course in chemistry for an honours degree.
His text-books on practical chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, written in conjunction with Prof. Kipping, are in general use.
PHOSPHATES, in chemistry, the name given to salts of phosphoric acid.
Not intending originally to devote himself to physical science, he first took up the study of law and philology at GÃ¶ttingen, and the general culture he thus gained stood him in good stead when he turned to chemistry, the study of which he began under Liebig.
When, in 1845, a school of practical chemistry was started in London, under the style of the Royal College of Chemistry, Hofmann, largely through the influence of the Prince Consort, was appointed its first director.
Mitscherlich as professor of chemistry and director of the laboratory in Berlin University.
The public support extended to the college of chemistry had been dwindling for some years, and before he left it had ceased to have an independent existence and had been absorbed into the School of Mines.
Hofmann's work covered a wide range of organic chemistry, though with inorganic bodies he did but little.
In 1807 he became professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the university of Landshut, and in 1823 conservator of the mineralogical collections at Munich, where he was appointed professor of mineralogy three years later, on the removal thither of the university of Landshut.
Although he received some instruction from John Dalkon in chemistry, most of his scientific knowledge was selftaught, and this was especially the case with regard to electricity and electro-magnetism, the subjects in which his earliest researches were carried out.
Next follow chapters on the literary renaissance of the nation, its progress in art, mathematics, chemistry and natural science; the magnificent development of agriculture, modern industry, commerce and finance; and in particular its flourishing selfgovernment, " which will be exercised in the fullest freedom," and in which " the communal organization embodies in the highest degree the conception of self-government " (p. 234), and " the independent sphere of activity unlimited in its fundamental principle " (p. 235) in that " State control is exercised seldom and discreetly " (p. 236).
From 1863 to 1867 he first studied organic chemistry under A.
In 1873 he went to Kiel as professor of chemistry and director of the laboratory, remaining there until 1889 when he went to the university of Breslau in the same capacity.
He was made an honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain in 1886 and received the Hanbury medal for original research in chemistry in 1889.
He published Entwicklungsgeschichte der Chemie von Lavoisier bis zur Gegenwart (1868) and other works on chemistry, collaborated in a Handworterbuch der Chemie (13 vols., 1882-96), and wrote a volume of reminiscences, Lebenserinnerungen (1912).
In chemistry the term is given to chemical reactions in which a substance decomposes into two or more substances, and particularly to cases in which associated molecules break down into simpler molecules.
After beginning the study of chemistry in his father's shop he came to Paris and gained the appointment of apothecary in chief to the Salpetriere, also lecturing on chemistry at the muscle of the aeronaut J.
Next, at the instance of Charles IV., he went to Spain, where he taught chemistry first at the artillery school of Segovia, and then at Salamanca, finally becoming in 1789 director of the royal laboratory at Madrid.
The birth of modern chemistry in the work of J.
Dutrochet towards the middle of the century, and Liebig's application of chemistry to agriculture and physiology put beyond question the parts played by the atmosphere and the soil in the nutrition of plants.
3, p. 319.) Ammonia finds a wide application in organic chemistry as a synthetic reagent; it reacts with alkyl iodides to form amines, with esters to form acid amides, with halogen fatty acids to form amino-acids; while it also combines with isocyanic esters to form alkyl ureas and with the mustard oils to form alkyl thioureas.
Since the period, a century ago, when Dalton and his contemporaries constructed from this idea a scientific basis for chemistry, the progress of that subject has been wonderful beyond any conception that could previously have been entertained; and the atomic theory in some form appears to be an indispensable part of the framework of physical science.
Geneva boasts also of a fine observatory and of a number of technical schools (watchmaking, chemistry, medicine, commerce, fine arts, &c.), some of which are really annexes of the university, which in June 1906 was attended by 1158 matriculated students, of whom 903 The city and its buildings.
It offers courses leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science in civil engineering, in electrical engineering and in chemistry.
From an early age he determined to adopt chemistry as his profession, although his father, who was a builder, would have preferred him to be an architect.
Attending the City of London School he devoted all his spare time to chemistry, and on leaving, in 1853, entered the Royal College of Chemistry, then under the direction of A.
Thus encouraged, he took out a patent for his process, and leaving the College of Chemistry, a boy of eighteen, he proceeded, with the aid of his father and brother, to erect works at Greenford Green, near Harrow, for the manufacture of the newly discovered colouring matter, and by the end of 1857 the works were in operation.
His eldest Son, William Henry Perkin, who was born at Sudbury, near Harrow, on the 17th of June 1860, and was educated at the City of London School, the Royal College of Science, and the universities of Wiirzburg and Munich, became professor of chemistry at the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh, in 1887, and professor of organic chemistry at Owens College, Manchester, in 1892.
Rudolph was a clever and cultured man, greatly interested in chemistry, alchemy, astronomy and astrology; he was a patron of Tycho Brahe and Kepler, and was himself something of a scholar and an artist.
With all the important work he accomplished in physics - the enunciation of Boyle's law, the discovery of the part taken by air in the propagation of sound, and investigations on the expansive force of freezing water, on specific gravities and refractive powers, on crystals, on electricity, on colour, on hydrostatics, &c. - chemistry was his peculiar and favourite study.
For him chemistry was the science of the composition of substances, not merely an adjunct to the arts of the alchemist or the physician.
Applied chemistry had to thank him for improved methods and for an extended knowledge of individual substances.
He also studied the chemistry of combustion and of respiration, and made experiments in physiology, where, however, he was hampered by the "tenderness of his nature" which kept him from anatomical dissections, especially of living animals, though he knew them to be "most instructing."
Sodamide was introduced by Claisen (Ber., 1905, 3 8, p. 6 93) as a condensing agent in organic chemistry, and has since been applied in many directions.
Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.
For the Encyclopedic he compiled and translated a large number of articles on chemistry and mineralogy, chiefly from German sources.
Daunou (October 1795), which divided the pupils of the " central schools " into three groups, according to age, with corresponding subjects of study: (r) twelve to fourteen, = drawing, natural history, Greek and Latin, and a choice of modern languages; (2) fourteen to sixteen, - mathematics, physics, chemistry; (3) over sixteen, - general grammar, literature, history and constitutional law.
OLEFINE, in organic chemistry, the generic name given to open chain hydrocarbons having only singly and doubly linked pairs of carbon atoms. The word is derived from the French olefiant (from olefier, to make oil), which was the name given to ethylene, the first member of the series, by the Dutch chemists, J.
QUINONES, in organic chemistry, a group of compounds in which two hydrogen atoms of a benzene nucleus are replaced by two oxygen atoms. This replacement may take place either in the ortho or para positions, giving rise to orthoquinones or to paraquinones; metaquinones do not appear to have been isolated.
Another brother, Christian Heinrich Pfaff (1773-1852), graduated in medicine at Stuttgart in 1793, and from 1801 till his death was professor of medicine, physics and chemistry at the university of Kiel.
His spare time and great part of his nights were devoted to the experimental examination of the different bodies which he dealt with, and the study of the standard works on chemistry.
Chalmers then opened mathematical classes on his own account which attracted many students; at the same time he delivered a course of lectures on chemistry, and ministered to his parish at Kilmany.
His attention was specially turned to chemistry by J.
Bucquet (1746-1780), the professor of chemistry at the Medical School of Paris, and in 1784 he was chosen to succeed P. J.
Macquer (1718-1784) as lecturer in chemistry at the college of the Jardin du Roi, where his lectures attained great popularity.
1822), studied chemistry, and obtained a public appointment as chemical expert to the administration of the Caucasus.
Iodine finds application in organic chemistry, forming addition products with unsaturated compounds, the combination, however, being more slow than in the case of chlorine or bromine.
It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c. It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.
He was an active worker in physiological chemistry, and carried out many analyses of the products of living organisms, among them being one of the gastric juice which, at the end of 1823, resulted in the notable discovery that the acid contents of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid which is separable by distillation.
After attending the gymnasium of his native place, he went to study natural science at St Petersburg, where he graduated in chemistry in 1856, subsequently becoming privatdozent.
Mendeleeff's original work covered a wide range, from questions in applied chemistry to the most general problems of chemical and physical theory.
In another department of physical chemistry he investigated the expansion of liquids with heat, and devised a formula for its expression similar to Gay-Lussac's law of the uniformity of the expansion of gases, while so far back as 1861 he anticipated T.
Mendeleeff wrote largely on chemical topics, his most widely known book probably being The Principles of Chemistry, which was written in 1868-1870, and has gone through many subsequent editions in various languages.
In 1837 he was elected professor of chemistry in the University of the City of New York, and was a professor in its school of medicine in 1840-1850, president of that school in 1850-1873, and professor of chemistry until 1881.
He made important researches in photochemistry, made portrait photography possible by his improvements (1839) on Daguerre's process, and published a Text-book on Chemistry (1846), Text-book on Natural Philosophy (1847), Textbook on Physiology (1866), and Scientific Memoirs (1878) on radiant energy.
He succeeded his father as professor of chemistry, but only for a year, dying in New York on the 20th of November 1882.
ECGONINE, in chemistry, C 9 H 15 NO 3, a cycloheptane derivative with a nitrogen bridge.
There are seventeen buildings, among which the Holden observatory, the John Crouse memorial college (of fine arts), the hall of languages, the Lyman Smith college of applied science, the Lyman hall of natural history, the Bowne hall of chemistry, and the Carnegie library, are the most notable.
ALKALOID, in chemistry, a term originally applied to any organic base, i.e.
ETHYL, in chemistry, the name given to the alkyl radical C 2 H 5.
The simple bodies which are the matter of the rest are not terrestrial earth, water, air, fire, and a different celestial aether, but whatever elementary bodies natural science, starting anew from mechanics and chemistry, may determine to be the matter of all other bodies whatever.
Two years later he was chosen extraordinary professor of chemistry in the medical faculty, in 1853 he received the ordinary professorship, and in 1865 he became also professor of hygiene.
In his earlier years he devoted himself to chemistry, both theoretical and applied, publishing papers on the preparation of gold and platinum, numerical relations between the atomic weights of analogous elements, the formation of aventurine glass, the manufacture of illuminating gas from wood, the preservation of oil-paintings, &c. The reaction known by his name for the detection of bile acids was published in 1844.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to inorganic chemistry.
BLOWPIPE, in the arts and chemistry, a tube for directing a jet of air into a fire or into the flame of a lamp or gas jet, for the purpose of producing a high temperature by accelerating the combustion.
For the applications of the blowpipe in chemical analysis see CHEMISTRY: Analytical.
Persoz (1805-1868), professor of chemistry at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers.
Balard at the College de France, in 1876 he succeeded that chemist in the chair of chemistry, and in 1882 he became directing professor at the municipal Ecole de Physique et de Chimie.
During the period he spent at Miilhausen, Schatzenberger paid special attention to industrial chemistry, particularly in connexion with colouring matters, but he also worked at general and biological chemistry which subsequently occupied the greater part of his time.
1 Ira Remsen was born in New York City on the 10th of February 1846, graduated at the college of the City of New York in 1865, studied at the New York college of physicians and surgeons and at the university of GÃ¶ttingen, was professor of chemistry at Williams College in 1872-1876, and in 1876 became professor of chemistry at Johns Hopkins University.
He published many textbooks of chemistry, organic and inorganic, which were republished in England and were translated abroad.
He began to study medicine at Edinburgh in 1781, but in a few months moved to Cambridge, where he devoted himself to botany and chemistry.
He was appointed professor of chemistry at Cambridge in 1813, but lived to deliver only one course of lectures, being killed near Boulogne on the 22nd of February 1815 by the fall of a bridge over which he was riding.
The clauses of the will governing the distribution of these prizes are as follows: " The entire sum shall be divided into five equal parts, one to go to the man who shall have made the most important discovery or invention in the domain of physical science; another to the man who shall have made the most important discovery or introduced the greatest improvement in chemistry; the third to the author of the most important discovery in the domain of physiology or medicine; the fourth to the man who shall have produced the most remarkable work of an idealistic nature; and, finally, the fifth to the man who shall have done the most or best work for the fraternity of nations, the suppression or reduction of standing armies, and the formation and propagation of peace congresses.
The prizes shall be awarded as follows: For physical science and chemistry, by the Swedish Academy of Sciences; for physiological or medical work, by the Caroline Institution at Stockholm; for literature, by the Stockholm Academy, and for peace work, by a committee of five members elected by the Norwegian Storthing.
and it seems highly probable by this delicate mode of analysis that the hypothetical position of any hydrogen which is replaced may be identified, a point which is of prime importance in organic chemistry.
The compounds formed by the action of magnesium on alkyl iodides in the cold have been largely used in synthetic organic Gri chemistry since V.
the chemistry of Lavoisier, the zoology of Lamarck, the astronomy of Laplace and the geology of Lyell.
He was educated at Dollar Academy and Edinburgh University, being at the latter first a pupil, and afterwards the assistant, of Lord Playfair, then professor of chemistry; he also studied under Kekule at Ghent.
Gladstone as Fullerian professor of chemistry in the Royal Institution, London.
Of his earlier papers, some deal with questions of organic chemistry, others with Graham's hydrogenium and its physical constants, others with high temperatures, e.g.
the temperature of the sun and of the electric spark, others again with electro-photometry and the chemistry of the electric arc. With Professor J.
He was appointed director of the laboratory in 1825; and in 1833 he was appointed Fullerian professor of chemistry in the institution for life, without the obligation to deliver lectures.
He also endeavoured with some success to make the general methods of chemistry, as distinguished from its results, the subject of special study and of popular exposition.
His opinion with respect to the relation between his science and his religion is expressed in a lecture on mental education delivered in 1854, and printed at the end of his Researches in Chemistry and Physics.
Richard Taylor and William Francis (1855); Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics, Taylor and Francis (1859); Lectures on the Chemical History of a Candle (edited by W.
His next post was that of repetiteur at the Ecole Polytechnique, where in 1846 he was appointed professor, and in 1850 he succeeded Gay-Lussac in the chair of chemistry at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, of which he was director, in succession to M.
Keenly alive to the importance of the technical applications of chemistry, he devoted special attention as a teacher to the training of industrial chemists.
In addition to a large number of publications in the Proceedings of the Royal Society and the Philosophical Magazine, he has published A Treatise on the Motion of Vortex Rings (1884); The Application of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry (1886); Recent Researches in Electricity and Magnetism (1892); Elements of the Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism (18 95, 5th ed.
Here we get the link with physics and chemistry alluded to above, which is obtained by the recognition of new forms of energy, interchangeable with what may be called mechanical energy, or that associated with sensible motions and changes of configuration.
HYDRATE, in chemistry, a compound containing the elements of water in combination; more specifically, a compound containing the monovalent hydroxyl or OH group. The first and more general definition includes substances containing water of crystallization; such salts are said to be hydrated, and when deprived of their water to be dehydrated or anhydrous.
- The properties and theory of solutions are Treated in all works on general physical chemistry; Ostwald's discussion in his Lehrbuch was translated into English in 1891 by M.
Custom has to some extent restricted its use to inorganic chemistry; the corresponding property of organic compounds being generally termed isomerism.
The success of his association of chemistry with botany is shown by the fact that soil has been made to bear wheat without intermission for upwards of half a century without manure.
Four years afterwards he graduated, and immediately became a private lecturer on chemistry in the French capital.
In 1819 he was appointed professor of medical jurisprudence, and four years later he succeeded Vauquelin as professor of chemistry in the faculty of medicine at Paris.
For his early education he proceeded first to the college of Charleville, and afterwards to that of Reims. in 1788 he returned to Mezieres, where he was attached to the school of engineering as draughtsman to the professors of physics and chemistry.
Chemistry of Lichens.
The chemistry of lichens is very complex, not yet fully investigated and can only be very briefly dealt with here.
In the process of manufacture, however, they undergo various changes, of which the chemistry is still but little understood.
Mainly through John Gough (1757-1825), a blind philosopher to whose aid he owed much of his scientific knowledge, he was appointed teacher of mathematics and natural philosophy at the New College in Moseley Street (in 1889 transferred to Manchester College, Oxford), and that position he retained until the removal of the college to York in 1799, when he became a "public and private teacher of mathematics and chemistry."
But the most important of all Dalton's investigations are those concerned with the Atomic Theory in chemistry, with which his name is inseparably associated.
It has been supposed that this theory was suggested to him either by researches on olefiant gas and carburetted hydrogen or by analysis of "protoxide and deutoxide of azote," both views resting on the authority of Dr Thomas Thomson (1773-1852), professor of chemistry in Glasgow university.
Dalton communicated his atomic theory to Dr Thomson, who by consent included an outline of it in the third edition of his System of Chemistry (1807), and Dalton gave a further account of it in the first part of the first volume of his New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808).
He started as an apothecary, but in 1742 he was appointed experimental demonstrator of chemistry at the Jardin du Roi in Paris, where he was especially influential and popular as a teacher, numbering Lavoisier and J.
Deville accordingly returned to pure chemistry and invented a practicable method of preparing sodium which, having a lower atomic weight than potassium, reduced a larger proportion.
As a synthetical agent in organic chemistry, aluminium chloride has rendered possible more reactions than any other substance; here we can only mention the classic syntheses of benzene homologues.
For his preparation of fluorine he was awarded the Lacase prize in 1887, and in 1906 he obtained the Nobel prize for chemistry.
Cousins, Chemistry of the Garden; W.
He at first intended to adopt the medical profession, and made some progress in anatomy, botany and chemistry, after which he studied chronology, geometry and astronomy.
KETONES, in chemistry, organic compounds of the type R CO R', where R, R' = alkyl or aryl groups.
Intending to practise as a physician, he took his degree in medicine and surgery (1823), but was persuaded by Gmelin to devote himself to chemistry.
On his return he had proposed to settle as a Privatdozent at Heidelberg, but accepted the post of teacher of chemistry in the newly established technical school (Gewerbeschule) in Berlin (1825), where he remained till 1831.
In 1836 he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in the medical faculty at GÃ¶ttingen, holding also the office of inspector-general of pharmacies in the kingdom of Hanover.
One of the earliest, if not the earliest, was the investigation, published in 1830, which proved the polymerism of cyanic and cyanuric acid, but the most famous were those on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde) and the radicle benzoyl (1832), and on uric acid (1837), which are of fundamental importance in the history of organic chemistry.
But it was the achievement of Wailer alone, in 1828, to break down the barrier held to exist between organic and inorganic chemistry by artificially preparing urea, one of those substances which up to that time it had been thought could only be produced through the agency of "vital force."
Most of his work, however, lay in the domain of inorganic chemistry.
DIAZO COMPOUNDS, in organic chemistry, compounds of the type R N 2 X (where R = a hydrocarbon radical, and X = an acid radical or a hydroxyl group).
Weith (1844-1881), professor of chemistry at Zurich University, he undertook to continue the lectures on benzene derivatives, and this led him to the discovery of thiophen.
In 1885 he was chosen to succeed Hans Hubner (1837-1884) in the professorship of chemistry at GÃ¶ttingen, where stereochemical questions especially engaged his attention; and in 1889, on the resignation of his old master, Bunsen, he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in Heidelberg.
So he left school chemistry as he had forsaken university culture, and started for the mines in Tirol owned by the wealthy family of the Fuggers.
On the completion of his education, he joined his father in business as a chemist in Oxford Street, and at the same time attended the chemistry lectures at the Royal Institution, and those on medicine at King's College.
ISOMERISM, in chemistry.
Especially prominent is the fact that polymerism and metamerism are mainly reserved to the domain of organic chemistry, or the chemistry of carbon, both being discovered there; and, more especially, the phenomenon of metamerism in organic chemistry has largely developed our notions concerning the structure of matter.
That this particular feature belongs to carbon compounds is due to a property of carbon which characterizes the whole of organic chemistry, i.e.
Whereas carbon renders isomerism possible in organic compounds, cobalt and platinum are the determining elements in inorganic chemistry, the phenomena being exhibited especially by complex ammoniacal derivatives.
In this article we shall confine ourselves to the fatty compounds, from which the fundamental notions were first obtained; reference may be made to the article Chemistry: Organic, for the general structural relations of organic compounds, both fatty and aromatic.
(Compare Chemistry: Organic.) The above examples may illustrate how, in a general way, chemical properties of isomers, their formation as well as transformation, may be read in the structure formula.
Now taking the isomers H 3 C CC1 3 (M„ = 108) and C1H 2 C CHC1 2 (M„ = we see the negative chlorine atoms heaped up in the left hand formula, but distributed in the second; the former therefore may be presumed to occupy a larger space, the molecular volume, that is, the volume in cubic centimetres occupied by the molecular weight in grams, actually being 108 in the former, and 103 in the latter case (compare Chemistry: Physical).
des Mines (1899), his studies in analytical chemistry placing him in the front rank of French scientists.
ESTERS, in organic chemistry, compounds formed by the condensation of an alcohol and an acid, with elimination of water; they may also be considered as derivatives of alcohols, in which the hydroxylic hydrogen has been replaced by an acid radical, or as acids in which the hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. In the case of the polybasic acids, all the hydrogen atoms can be replaced in this way, and the compounds formed are known as "neutral esters."
AMIDINES, in organic chemistry, the nan e given to compounds of general formula R.
While studying architecture at Giessen he came under the influence of Liebig and was induced to take up chemistry.
In 1858 he was appointed professor of chemistry at Ghent, and in 1865 was called to Bonn to fill a similar position, which he held till his death in that town on the 13th of June 1896.
This conception led Kekule to his "closed-chain" or "ring" theory of the constitution of benzene which has been called the "most brilliant piece of prediction to be found in the whole range of organic chemistry," and this in turn led in particular to the elucidation of the constitution of the "aromatic compounds," and in general to new methods of chemical synthesis and decomposition, and to a deeper insight into the composition of numberless organic bodies and their mutual relations.
Japp, in the Kekule memorial lecture he delivered before the London Chemical Society on the 15th of December 1897, declared that three-fourths of modern organic chemistry is directly or indirectly the product of Kekule's benzene theory, and that without its guidance and inspiration the industries of the coal-tar colours and artificial therapeutic agents in their present form and extension would have been inconceivable.