Chemistry sentence example
I think it's something about my body chemistry that they don't like.
The Chemistry of the Sun (1887) is an elaborate treatise on solar spectroscopy based on the hypothesis of elemental dissociation through the intensity of solar heat.
An exact and conscientious worker, he did much to improve and systematize the processes of analytical chemistry and mineralogy, and his appreciation of the value of quantitative methods led him to become one of the earliest adherents of the Lavoisierian doctrines outside France.
From about 1796 Ampere gave private lessons at Lyons in mathematics, chemistry and languages; and in 1801 he removed to Bourg, as professor of physics and chemistry, leaving his ailing wife and infant son at Lyons.
So well was his position as a leading man of science now established that in 1854 he was appointed professor of chemistry and dean of the Faculte des Sciences at Lille.Advertisement
He was thus led to conclude that chemistry is a branch of applied mathematics and to endeavour to trace a law according to which the quantities of different bases required to saturate a given acid formed an arithmetical, and the quantities of acids saturating a given base a geometrical, progression.
Bunsen held the chair of chemistry.
Chemistry is abstract; mineralogy is concrete.
Perhaps the most remarkable discovery of modern chemistry is the existence of compounds, which, whilst possessing an identical composition, are absolutely different bodies, judged of by their properties.
Finally, in 1876, he became professor of chemistry at Tubingen, where he died on the 11th of April 1895.Advertisement
If this view be accepted, an entirely new light is thrown on the achievements of the Arabs in the history of chemistry.
This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
Increasing attention was paid to the investigation of the properties of substances and of their effects on the human body, and chemistry profited by the fact that it passed into the hands of men who possessed the highest scientific culture of the time, Still, belief in the possibility of transmutation long remained orthodox, even among the most distinguished men of science.
In 1859 he became privat-docent in physics and chemistry at Breslau, where in the preceding year he had graduated as Ph.
Returning to Glasgow in 1872 he became assistant in the Young laboratory of technical chemistry at Anderson's College, and from 1874 acted as tutorial assistant in chemistry at the university.Advertisement
His earlier work was mainly concerned with organic chemistry, and he published researches on picoline and its derivatives in 1876-78 and on quinine and its decomposition products in 1878-79.
Later his attention was taken up with questions of physical and inorganic chemistry.
Systematic, 1901, and he edited a series of "Textbooks of Physical Chemistry."
A further differentiation of the provinces of chemistry and physics is shown by the classifications of matter.
Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular theory.Advertisement
It may be convenient here to state how the whole subject of chemistry is treated in this edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Here is treated the history of descriptive inorganic chemistry; reference should be made to the articles on the separate elements for an account of their preparation, properties, &c.
Notwithstanding the false idea which prompted the researches of the alchemists, many advances were made in descriptive chemistry, the metals and their salts receiving much attention, and several of our important acids being discovered.
At the same time, however, there were many who, opposed to the Paracelsian edefinition of chemistry, still labored at the problem of the alchemists, while others gave much attention to the chemical industries.
Metallurgical operations, such as smelting, roasting, and refining, were scientifically investigated, and in some degree explained, by Georg Agricola and Carlo Biringuiccio; ceramics was studied by Bernard Palissy, who is also to be remembered as an early worker in agricultural chemistry, having made experiments on the effect of manures on soils and crops; while general technical chemistry was enriched by Johann Rudolf Glauber.1Advertisement
The formulation of this definition of chemistry was due to Robert Boyle.
Descriptive chemistry was now assuming considerable proportions; the experimental inquiries suggested by Boyle were being assiduously developed; and a wealth of observa tions was being accumulated, for the explanation of which the resources of the dominant theory were sorely taxed.
Lavoisier may be justly regarded as the founder of modern or quantitative chemistry.
This subject is discussed in section IV., Organic Chemistry.
Such isomerism, named stereoisomerism (q.v.),hasbeen assiduously developed during recentyears; it prevails among many different classes of organic compounds and many examples have been found in inorganic chemistry.Advertisement
This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded " chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition which adequately fits the science to-day.
It is remarkable that systematic instruction in the theory and practice of chemistry only received earnest attention in our academic institutions during the opening decades of the 19th century.
Although for a long time lecturers and professors had been attached to universities, generally their duties had also included the study of physics, mineralogy and other subjects, with the result that chemistry received scanty encouragement.
But the first important step in providing means whereby students could systematically study chemistry was the foundation of the College of Chemistry in 1845.
This institution was taken over by the Government in 1853, becoming the Royal College of Chemistry, and incorporated with the Royal School of Mines; in 1881 the names were changed to the Normal School of Science and Royal School of Mines, and again in 1890 to the Royal College of Science.Advertisement
During recent years chemistry has become one of the most important subjects in the curriculum of technical schools and universities, and at the present time no general educational institution is complete until it has its full equipment of laboratories and lecture theatres.
Organic chemistry was especially developed by the publication of Gerhardt's Traite de chimie organique in 1853-1856, and of Kekule's Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1861-1882.
The number of periodicals devoted to chemistry has steadily increased since the early part of the 19th century.
Their full significance is treated in the section of this article dealing with organic chemistry, and in the articles Isomerism and STEREO-Isomerism.
Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic chemistry is concerned with the descriptive study o f the elements and their compounds, except those of carbon.Advertisement
The earliest discoveries in inorganic chemistry are to be found in the metallurgy, medicine and chemical arts of the ancients.
The 18th century witnessed striking developments in pneumatic chemistry, or the chemistry of gases, which had been begun by van Helmont, Mayow, Hales and Boyle.
Before leaving this phase of inorganic chemistry, we may mention other historical examples of allotropy.
Klaproth, and especially by Berzelius; these chemists are to be regarded as the pioneers in this branch of descriptive chemistry.
After having been somewhat neglected for the greater attractions and wider field presented by organic chemistry, the study of the elements and their inorganic compounds is now' rapidly coming into favour; new investigators are continually entering the lists; the beaten paths are being retraversed and new ramifications pursued.Advertisement
Organic Chemistry While inorganic chemistry was primarily developed through the study of minerals - a connexion still shown by the French appellation chimie minerale - organic chemistry owes its origin to the investigation of substances occurring in the vegetable and animal organisms. The quest of the alchemists for the philosopher's stone, and the almost general adherence of the iatrochemists to the study of the medicinal characters and preparation of metallic compounds, stultified in some measure the investigation of vegetable and animal products.
It thus happened that in the earlier treatises on phlogistic chemistry organic substances were grouped with all combustibles.
Bergman worked in the same direction; while Rouelle was attracted to the study of animal chemistry.
At the same time, however, he adhered to the classification of Lemery; and it was only when identical compounds were obtained from both vegetable and animal sources that this subdivision was discarded, and the classes were assimilated in the division organic chemistry.
The exact delimitation of inorganic and organic chemistry engrossed many minds for many years; and on this point there existed considerable divergence of opinion for several decades.Advertisement
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."
An apt definition of organic chemistry is that it is "the study of the hydrocarbons and their derivatives."
Analytical Chemistry This branch of chemistry has for its province the determination of the constituents of a chemical compound or of a mixture of compounds.
The germs of analytical chemistry are to be found in the writings of the pharmacists and chemists of the iatrochemical period.
The acid finds considerable use in organic chemistry, being employed to discriminate between the different types of alcohols and of amines, and also in the production of diazo, azo and diazo-amino compounds.
The chemistry of the albumins is one of the most complicated and difficult in the whole domain of organic chemistry.
This list is not exhaustive; other products are given in Gustav Mann, Chemistry of the Proteids (1906), to which reference should be made for a complete account of this class of compounds.
Several journals are published specially to deal with physical chemistry, of which electrochemistry forms an important part.
Among them may be mentioned the Zeitschrift fiir physikalische Chemie (Leipzig); and the Journal of Physical Chemistry (Cornell University).
The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above.
Weber, The Chemistry of Indiarubber (London, 1902); Selected papers from the Kew Bulletin, iii.
In addition to many other researches besides those here mentioned, he wrote or edited various books on chemistry and chemical technology, including Select Methods of Chemical Analysis, which went through a number of editions; and he also gave a certain amount of time to the investigation of psychic phenomena, endeavouring to effect some measure of correlation between them and ordinary physical laws.
Thomson (Applications of Dynamics to Physics and Chemistry, 47) that on dynamical principles there must be a reciprocal relation between the changes of dimensions produced by magnetization and the changes of magnetization attending mechanical strain.
In 1844, having graduated as doctor of medicine and doctor of science, he was appointed to organize the new faculty of science at Besancon, where he acted as dean and professor of chemistry from 1845 to 1851.
But his most important work was in inorganic and thermal chemistry.
But his best known contribution to general chemistry is his work on the phenomena of reversible reactions, which he comprehended under a general theory of " dissociation.
In chemistry he made a speciality of the platinum metals.
The principal contributors to the " Transactions " of this section of the academy were--for anatomy and physiology, Coloman Balogh, Eugene Jendrassik, Joseph Lenhossek and Lewis Thanhoffer; for zoology, John Frivaldszky, John Kriesch and Theodore Margo; for botany, Frederick Hazslinszky, Lewis Juranyi and Julius Klein; for mineralogy and geology, Joseph Szabo, Max Hantken, Joseph Krenner, Anthony Koch and Charles Hoffman; for physics, Baron Lorando Eotviis, Coloman Szily and Joseph Sztoczek; for chemistry, Charles Than and Vincent Wartha; for meteorology, Guido Schenzl.
Thus he carried on the narrative of orderly development from the point at which it was left by Kant and Laplace - explaining by reference to the ascertained laws of physics and chemistry the configuration of the earth, its mountains and seas, its igneous and its stratified rocks, just as the astronomers had explained by those same laws the evolution of the sun and planets from diffused gaseous matter of high temperature.
Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.
Thus mysticism was finally banished from the domain of biology, and zoology became one of the physical sciences - the science which seeks to arrange and discuss the phenqmena of animal life and form, as the outcome of the operation of the laws of physics and chemistry.
General Tendencies Since Darwin Darwin may be said to have founded the science of bionomics, and at the same time to have given new stimulus and new direction to morphography, physiology, and plasmology, by uniting them as contributories to one common biological doctrine-the doctrine of organic evolution-itself but a part of the wider doctrine of universal evolution based on the laws of physics and chemistry.
Uranyl nitrate is used in photography, and also in analytical chemistry as a precipitant for phosphoric acid (as uranyl ammonium phosphate, U02 NH4 P04).
Then, after a short time in Liebig's laboratory at Giessen, and in the Sevres porcelain factory, he became in 1841 professor of chemistry in the academy of Geneva.
In physical chemistry he carried out many researches on the nature and process of solution, investigating in particular the thermal effects produced by the dilution of saline solutions, the variation of the specific heat of saline solutions with temperature and concentration, and the phenomena of liquid diffusion.
Pathological chemistry has been remarkable chiefly for the knowledge we have obtained of the nature of bacterial poisons.
Utilitarian, or perhaps rather practical, considerations have very little to do with the subject from a scientific point of view - no more so than the science of chemistry has to do with the art of the manufacturing chemist.
In this doubtless he derived much advantage from his knowledge of chemistry, though the science was as yet not disentangled from the secret traditions of alchemy, and was often mixed up with imposture.
Van Helmont (1578-1644) was a man of noble family in Brussels, who, after mastering all other branches of learning as then understood, devoted himself with enthusiasm to medicine and chemistry.
Its chief aim was to reconcile the new views in physiology and chemistry with practical medicine.
He made a resolute attempt to reconstruct medicine on the two bases of the doctrine of the circulation of the blood and the new views of chemistry.
In the application of chemistry to the examination of secretions Willis made some important steps.
He was well acquainted with the works of the ancient physicians, and probably fairly so with chemistry.
Independently of his system, which has long ceased to exert any influence, Hoffmann made some contributions to practical medicine; and his great knowledge of chemistry enabled him to investigate the subject of mineral waters.
Stahl was the author of the theory of" phlogiston "in chemistry, which in its day had great importance.
He advanced chemistry, botany, anatomy, as well as physiology, and was incessantly occupied in endeavouring to apply his scientific studies to practical medicine, thus continuing the work of his great teacher Boerhaave.
To biological chemistry we have been deeply indebted during the latter half of the 19th century.
In 1872, Hoppe-Seyler (1825-1895) gave a new beginning to our knowledge of the chemistry of secretion and of excretion; and later students have increased the range of physiological and pathological chemistry by investigations not only into the several stages of albuminoid material and the transitions which all foodstuffs undergo in digestion, but even into the structure of protoplasm itself.
Thus the reciprocity of the various organs, maintained throughout the divisions of physiological labour, is not merely a mechanical stability; it is also a mutual equilibration in functions incessantly at work on chemical levels, and on those levels of still higher complexity which seem to rise as far beyond chemistry as chemistry beyond physics.
In the preservation of immunity then, in its various degrees and kinds, not only is the chemistry of the blood to be studied, but also its histology.
A condition of this reform was the need of a preliminary training of the mind of the pupil in pure science, even in physics and chemistry; that is to say, before introduction into his professional studies.
Des Cloizeaux (1817-1897) at the Ecole Normale, and in 1876 he became professor of mineralogy at the Sorbonne, but on the death of Wurtz in 1884 he exchanged that position for the chair of organic chemistry.
Friedel achieved distinction both in miner alogy and organic chemistry.
In organic chemistry, his study of the ketones and aldehydes, begun in 1857, provided him with the subject of his other doctoral thesis.
These miners' schools (Bergschule, ecoles des mineurs) give elementary instruction in chemistry, physics, mechanics, mineralogy, geology and mathematics and drawing, as well as in such details of the art of mining as will best supplement the practical information already acquired in underground work.
From 1847 to 1851 he was engaged at Brunswick in editing the Dictionary of Chemistry started by Liebig, but in the latter year he went to Marburg as successor to Bunsen in the chair of chemistry.
He published a Lehrbuch der organischen Chemie in 1854, smaller textbooks of organic and inorganic chemistry in 1877-1883, and Zur Entwickelungsgeschichte der theoretischen Chemie in 1881.
In modern chemistry, however, the metals are a division of the elements, the members of which may or may not possess all these characters.
Neumann, Die Metalle (1904); also treatises on chemistry.
The constitution of the benzene ring, the isomerism of its derivatives, and their syntheses from aliphatic or openchain compounds, are treated in the article Chemistry.
He next went to Paris, where he studied chemistry under Gerhardt, and on his return to London he was appointed director of the chemical laboratory at Guy's Hospital.
In 1859 he became F.R.C.P., and in 1863 lecturer on chemistry at.
In 1868 he succeeded Faraday as Fullerian professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution, and in 1872 he was elected, in succession to Sir Benjamin Brodie, Waynflete professor of chemistry at Oxford, a chair he occupied for 40 years.
Fischer may be regarded as one of the most brilliant achievements in modern chemistry.
In technological chemistry it finds application as a reducing agent, e.g.
It is extremely hygroscopic and is 'used in synthetical organic chemistry as a condensing agent.
His father, a drysalter and dealer in colours, used sometimes to make experiments in the hope of finding improved processes for the production of his wares, and thus his son early acquired familiarity with practical chemistry.
Kastner (1783-1857), was appointed in 1821 to the chair of physics and chemistry at the latter university.
Indeed, as he himself said afterwards, it was a wretched time for chemistry in Germany.
It was on Humboldt's advice that he determined to become a teacher of chemistry, but difficulties stood in his way.
After examination his Erlangen degree was recognized, and in 1824 he was appointed extraordinary professor of chemistry at Giessen, becoming ordinary professor two years later.
He remained at Giessen for twenty-eight years, until in 1852 he accepted the invitation of the Bavarian government to the ordinary chair of chemistry at Munich university, and this office he held, although he was offered the chair at Berlin in 1865, until his death, which occurred at Munich on the 10th of April 1873.
His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.
In 1832 he published, jointly with Willer, one of the most famous papers in the history of chemistry, that on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde), wherein it was shown that the radicle benzoyl might be regarded as forming an unchanging constituent of a long series of compounds obtained from oil of bitter almonds, throughout which it behaved like an element.
Berzelius hailed this discovery as marking the dawn of a new era in organic chemistry, and proposed for benzoyl the names "Proin" or "Orthrin" (from irpcoi and dpOpus).
These and other studies in pure chemistry mainly occupied his attention until about 1838, but the last thirty-five years of his life were devoted more particularly to the chemistry of the processes of life, both aptinal and vegetable.
His criticism of Bacon, Ober Francis von Verulam, was first published in 1863 in the Augsburger allgemeine Zeitung, where also most of his letters on chemistry made their first appearance.
Chemistry proper was not understood, but Arabian writings on alchemy led Europe to it later.
From 1796 to 1800 he was sub-editor of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, in succession to his elder brother, JAMES THOMSON (1768-1855), who filled that position in 1795-1796, and who in 1805 was ordained to the parish of Eccles, Berwickshire; and the chemical and mineralogical articles which he contributed to the supplement to the third edition formed the basis of his System of Chemistry, the first edition of which was published in 1802 and the seventh in 1831.
In 1817 he became lecturer in chemistry at Glasgow University, and in the following year was appointed to the regius professorship. This chair he retained until his death, which happened on the 2nd of July 1852 at Kilmun, Argyleshire; but from 1841 he was assisted by his nephew and son-in-law ROBERT DINDAS
In November 1822 Daubeny succeeded Dr Kidd as professor of chemistry at Oxford, and retained this post until 1855; and in 1834 he was appointed to the chair of botany, to which was subsequently attached that of rural economy.
He graduated from U.S. Naval Academy in 1873 and was instructor in physics and chemistry there during 18 75-9.
The theory of distillation finds a place in all treatises on physical chemistry.
After attending the gymnasium of his native town, he studied at Marburg and Heidelberg, and then, attracted by the fame of Liebig, went in 1839 to Giessen, where he became a privatdozent in 1841, and professor of chemistry twelve years later.
In 1843-1847 he published a comprehensive History of Chemistry, in four volumes, to which three supplements were added in 1869-1875.
The Development of Chemistry in Recent Times appeared in 1871-1874, and in 1886 he published a work in two volumes on Alchemy in Ancient and Modern Times.
In addition he wrote (1863) on theoretical and physical chemistry for the Graham-Otto Lehrbuch der Chemie, and for many years assisted Liebig in editing the Annalen der Chemie and the Jahresbericht.
He must not be confused with Emil Kopp (1817-1875), who, born at Warselnheim, Alsace, became in 1847 professor of toxicology and chemistry at the Ecole superieure de Pharmacie at Strasburg, in 1849 professor of physics and chemistry at Lausanne, in 1852 chemist to a Turkey-red factory near Manchester, in 1868 professor of technology at Turin, and finally, in 1871, professor of technical chemistry at the Polytechnic of Zurich, where he died in 1875.
There he had William Cullen bor his instructor in chemistry, and the relation between the two soon became that of professor and assistant rather than of master and pupil.
In 1756 he succeeded Cullen as lecturer in chemistry at Glasgow, and was also appointed professor of anatomy, though that post he was glad to exchange for the chair of medicine.
In 1766 he succeeded Cullen in the chair of chemistry in Edinburgh, where he devoted practically all his time to the preparation of his lectures.
Holding that chemistry had not attained the rank of a science - his lectures dealt with the "effects of heat and mixture" - he had an almost morbid horror of hasty generalization or of anything that had the pretensions of a fully fledged system.
After his death his lectures were written out from his own notes, supplemented by those of some of his pupils, and published with a biographical preface by his friend and colleague, Professor John Robison (1739-1805), in 1803, as Lectures on the Elements of Chemistry, delivered in the University of Edinburgh.
You cannot discover the relations of the facts of human society without reference to the conditions of animal life; you cannot understand the conditions of animal life without the laws of chemistry; and so with the rest.
When the positive method has been finally extended to society, as it has been to chemistry and physiology, these social facts will be resolved, as their ultimate analysis, into relations with one another, and instead of seeking causes in the old sense of the word, men will only examine the conditions of social existence.
One of his most intimate friends was William Stukeley (1687-1765) with whom he studied anatomy, chemistry, &c. In1708-1709Hales was presented to the perpetual curacy of Teddington in Middlesex, where he remained all his life, notwithstanding that he was subsequently appointed rector of Porlock in Somerset, and later of Faringdon in Hampshire.
Hydrogen and oxygen may also be produced electrolytically as gases, and their respective reducing and oxidizing powers at the moment of deposition on the electrode are frequently used in the laboratory, and to some extent industrially, chiefly in the field of organic chemistry.
For further information, the reader is referred to any standard work on organic chemistry.
But the subject is now being vigorously studied, and, apart from its importance as a branch of descriptive chemistry, it is throwing light, and promises to throw more, on obscure parts of chemical theory.
Shepherd in the Journal of Physical Chemistry, may also be consulted.
So far as the numerous works are concerned it is evident that the writers who posed as Rosicrucians were moral and religious reformers, and utilized the technicalities of chemistry (alchemy), and the sciences.
He laid the foundation of what will probably prove to be a new and more precise form of chemistry (see CHEMISTRY, and MATTER, CONSTITUTION OF).
He studied chemistry under Priestley and gave attention to the practical applications of the science.
Intrigues engineered against him caused him to resign this position in 1677, and for a time he lectured on chemistry at Annaberg and Wittenberg.
Chemistry, as well as mathematics, seems to have been the object of his early attention; and in the year 1690 he published a dissertation on effervescence and fermentation.
This subject owes its importance in modern chemistry to the fact that the vapour density, when hydrogen is taken as the standard, gives perfectly definite information as to the molecular condition of the compound, since twice the vapour density equals the molecular weight of the compound.
The simplicity, moderate accuracy, and adaptability of this method to every class of substance which can be vaporized entitles it to rank as one of the most potent methods in analytical chemistry; its invention is indissolubly connected with the name of Victor Meyer, being termed "Meyer's method" to the exclusion of his other original methods.
In the second form, named after Robert Hare (1781-1858), professor of chemistry at the university of Pennsylvania, the liquids are drawn or aspirated up vertical tubes which have their lower ends placed in reservoirs containing the different liquids, and their upper ends connected to a common tube which is in communication with an aspirator for decreasing the pressure within the vertical tubes.
He then devoted himself with astonishing ardour to mathematics, chemistry, natural history, technology and even political economy.
In modern chemistry alkali is a general term used for compounds which have the property of neutralizing acids, and is applied more particularly to the highly soluble hydrates of sodium and potassium and of the three rarer "alkali metals," caesium, rubidium and lithium, also to aqueous ammonia.
Further Physical Properties of Sea-water.---The laws of physical chemistry relating to complex dilute solutions apply to seawater, and hence there is a definite relation between the osmotic pressure, freezing-point, vapour tension and boiling-point by which when one of these constants is given the others can be calculated.
In 1813 he was appointed professor of chemistry at the Lycee Charlemagne, and subsequently undertook the directorship of the Gobelins tapestry works, where he carried out his researches on colour contrasts (De la loi du contraste simultane des couleurs, 1839).
He succeeded his master, Vauquelin, as professor of organic chemistry at the natural history museum in 1830, and thirty-three years later assumed its directorship also; this he relinquished in 1879, though he still retained his professorship. In 1886 the completion of his hundredth year was celebrated with public rejoicings; and after his death, which occurred in Paris on the 9th of April 1889, he was honoured with a public funeral.
For the detailed chemical significance of these terms, see Chemistry; and for the atomic theory of the chemist (as distinguished from the atomic or molecular theory of the physicist) see Atom; reference may also be made to the article Matter.
In 1836 he entered Marischal College, and came under the influence of John Cruickshank, professor of mathematics, Thomas Clark, professor of chemistry, and William Knight, professor of natural philosophy.
Before the development of pneumatic chemistry, air was regarded as a distinct chemical unit or element.
During his residence at Hamilton, besides the arduous duties of medical practice, he found time to devote to the study of the natural sciences, and especially of chemistry.
Besides the subjects of theory and practice of medicine, he lectured systematically on botany, materia medica and chemistry.
Chemistry was the subject which at this time seems to have engaged the greatest share of his attention.
In 1751 he was appointed professor of medicine, but continued to lecture on chemistry, and in 1756 he was elected joint professor of chemistry at Edinburgh along with Andrew Plummer, on whose death in the following year the sole appointment was conferred on Cullen.
On the death of Robert Whytt (1714-1766), the professor of the institutes of medicine, Cullen accepted the chair, at the same time resigning that of chemistry.
In 1887 he returned to England and became professor of chemistry at the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh.
In 1892 he accepted the chair of organic chemistry at the Victoria University, Manchester, which he held until 1912.
During this period his stimulating teaching and brilliant researches attracted students from all parts, and he formed at Manchester a school of organic chemistry famous throughout Europe.
Odling as Waynflete professor of chemistry at Oxford.
He soon made his influence felt there - new and more extensive laboratories were built, and for the first time in England a period of research became a necessary part of the academic course in chemistry for an honours degree.
His text-books on practical chemistry, inorganic and organic chemistry, written in conjunction with Prof. Kipping, are in general use.
Not intending originally to devote himself to physical science, he first took up the study of law and philology at GÃ¶ttingen, and the general culture he thus gained stood him in good stead when he turned to chemistry, the study of which he began under Liebig.
When, in 1845, a school of practical chemistry was started in London, under the style of the Royal College of Chemistry, Hofmann, largely through the influence of the Prince Consort, was appointed its first director.
The public support extended to the college of chemistry had been dwindling for some years, and before he left it had ceased to have an independent existence and had been absorbed into the School of Mines.
Hofmann's work covered a wide range of organic chemistry, though with inorganic bodies he did but little.
In 1807 he became professor of chemistry and mineralogy at the university of Landshut, and in 1823 conservator of the mineralogical collections at Munich, where he was appointed professor of mineralogy three years later, on the removal thither of the university of Landshut.
Although he received some instruction from John Dalkon in chemistry, most of his scientific knowledge was selftaught, and this was especially the case with regard to electricity and electro-magnetism, the subjects in which his earliest researches were carried out.
Next follow chapters on the literary renaissance of the nation, its progress in art, mathematics, chemistry and natural science; the magnificent development of agriculture, modern industry, commerce and finance; and in particular its flourishing selfgovernment, " which will be exercised in the fullest freedom," and in which " the communal organization embodies in the highest degree the conception of self-government " (p. 234), and " the independent sphere of activity unlimited in its fundamental principle " (p. 235) in that " State control is exercised seldom and discreetly " (p. 236).
In 1873 he went to Kiel as professor of chemistry and director of the laboratory, remaining there until 1889 when he went to the university of Breslau in the same capacity.
He was made an honorary member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain in 1886 and received the Hanbury medal for original research in chemistry in 1889.
He published Entwicklungsgeschichte der Chemie von Lavoisier bis zur Gegenwart (1868) and other works on chemistry, collaborated in a Handworterbuch der Chemie (13 vols., 1882-96), and wrote a volume of reminiscences, Lebenserinnerungen (1912).
In chemistry the term is given to chemical reactions in which a substance decomposes into two or more substances, and particularly to cases in which associated molecules break down into simpler molecules.
Next, at the instance of Charles IV., he went to Spain, where he taught chemistry first at the artillery school of Segovia, and then at Salamanca, finally becoming in 1789 director of the royal laboratory at Madrid.
Dutrochet towards the middle of the century, and Liebig's application of chemistry to agriculture and physiology put beyond question the parts played by the atmosphere and the soil in the nutrition of plants.
Since the period, a century ago, when Dalton and his contemporaries constructed from this idea a scientific basis for chemistry, the progress of that subject has been wonderful beyond any conception that could previously have been entertained; and the atomic theory in some form appears to be an indispensable part of the framework of physical science.
Geneva boasts also of a fine observatory and of a number of technical schools (watchmaking, chemistry, medicine, commerce, fine arts, &c.), some of which are really annexes of the university, which in June 1906 was attended by 1158 matriculated students, of whom 903 The city and its buildings.
It offers courses leading to the degrees of Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science in civil engineering, in electrical engineering and in chemistry.
From an early age he determined to adopt chemistry as his profession, although his father, who was a builder, would have preferred him to be an architect.
Thus encouraged, he took out a patent for his process, and leaving the College of Chemistry, a boy of eighteen, he proceeded, with the aid of his father and brother, to erect works at Greenford Green, near Harrow, for the manufacture of the newly discovered colouring matter, and by the end of 1857 the works were in operation.
His eldest Son, William Henry Perkin, who was born at Sudbury, near Harrow, on the 17th of June 1860, and was educated at the City of London School, the Royal College of Science, and the universities of Wiirzburg and Munich, became professor of chemistry at the Heriot-Watt College, Edinburgh, in 1887, and professor of organic chemistry at Owens College, Manchester, in 1892.
Rudolph was a clever and cultured man, greatly interested in chemistry, alchemy, astronomy and astrology; he was a patron of Tycho Brahe and Kepler, and was himself something of a scholar and an artist.
With all the important work he accomplished in physics - the enunciation of Boyle's law, the discovery of the part taken by air in the propagation of sound, and investigations on the expansive force of freezing water, on specific gravities and refractive powers, on crystals, on electricity, on colour, on hydrostatics, &c. - chemistry was his peculiar and favourite study.
For him chemistry was the science of the composition of substances, not merely an adjunct to the arts of the alchemist or the physician.
Applied chemistry had to thank him for improved methods and for an extended knowledge of individual substances.
He also studied the chemistry of combustion and of respiration, and made experiments in physiology, where, however, he was hampered by the "tenderness of his nature" which kept him from anatomical dissections, especially of living animals, though he knew them to be "most instructing."
Sodamide was introduced by Claisen (Ber., 1905, 3 8, p. 6 93) as a condensing agent in organic chemistry, and has since been applied in many directions.
Sodium is largely employed in the manufacture of cyanides and in reduction processes leading to the isolation of such elements as magnesium, silicon, boron, aluminium (formerly), &c.; it also finds application in organic chemistry.
For the Encyclopedic he compiled and translated a large number of articles on chemistry and mineralogy, chiefly from German sources.
Another brother, Christian Heinrich Pfaff (1773-1852), graduated in medicine at Stuttgart in 1793, and from 1801 till his death was professor of medicine, physics and chemistry at the university of Kiel.
His spare time and great part of his nights were devoted to the experimental examination of the different bodies which he dealt with, and the study of the standard works on chemistry.
Chalmers then opened mathematical classes on his own account which attracted many students; at the same time he delivered a course of lectures on chemistry, and ministered to his parish at Kilmany.
Macquer (1718-1784) as lecturer in chemistry at the college of the Jardin du Roi, where his lectures attained great popularity.
Iodine finds application in organic chemistry, forming addition products with unsaturated compounds, the combination, however, being more slow than in the case of chlorine or bromine.
It is a powerful reducing agent, and is frequently employed for this purpose in organic chemistry; thus hydroxy acids are readily reduced on heating with the concentrated acid, and nitro compounds are reduced to amino compounds, &c. It is preferable to use the acid in the presence of amorphous phosphorus, for the iodine liberated during the reduction is then utilized in forming more hydriodic acid, and consequently the original amount of acid goes much further.
He was an active worker in physiological chemistry, and carried out many analyses of the products of living organisms, among them being one of the gastric juice which, at the end of 1823, resulted in the notable discovery that the acid contents of the stomach contain hydrochloric acid which is separable by distillation.
After attending the gymnasium of his native place, he went to study natural science at St Petersburg, where he graduated in chemistry in 1856, subsequently becoming privatdozent.
Mendeleeff's original work covered a wide range, from questions in applied chemistry to the most general problems of chemical and physical theory.
Mendeleeff wrote largely on chemical topics, his most widely known book probably being The Principles of Chemistry, which was written in 1868-1870, and has gone through many subsequent editions in various languages.
In 1837 he was elected professor of chemistry in the University of the City of New York, and was a professor in its school of medicine in 1840-1850, president of that school in 1850-1873, and professor of chemistry until 1881.
He made important researches in photochemistry, made portrait photography possible by his improvements (1839) on Daguerre's process, and published a Text-book on Chemistry (1846), Text-book on Natural Philosophy (1847), Textbook on Physiology (1866), and Scientific Memoirs (1878) on radiant energy.
He succeeded his father as professor of chemistry, but only for a year, dying in New York on the 20th of November 1882.
There are seventeen buildings, among which the Holden observatory, the John Crouse memorial college (of fine arts), the hall of languages, the Lyman Smith college of applied science, the Lyman hall of natural history, the Bowne hall of chemistry, and the Carnegie library, are the most notable.
The simple bodies which are the matter of the rest are not terrestrial earth, water, air, fire, and a different celestial aether, but whatever elementary bodies natural science, starting anew from mechanics and chemistry, may determine to be the matter of all other bodies whatever.
Two years later he was chosen extraordinary professor of chemistry in the medical faculty, in 1853 he received the ordinary professorship, and in 1865 he became also professor of hygiene.
In his earlier years he devoted himself to chemistry, both theoretical and applied, publishing papers on the preparation of gold and platinum, numerical relations between the atomic weights of analogous elements, the formation of aventurine glass, the manufacture of illuminating gas from wood, the preservation of oil-paintings, &c. The reaction known by his name for the detection of bile acids was published in 1844.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to inorganic chemistry.
Balard at the College de France, in 1876 he succeeded that chemist in the chair of chemistry, and in 1882 he became directing professor at the municipal Ecole de Physique et de Chimie.
During the period he spent at Miilhausen, Schatzenberger paid special attention to industrial chemistry, particularly in connexion with colouring matters, but he also worked at general and biological chemistry which subsequently occupied the greater part of his time.
He published many textbooks of chemistry, organic and inorganic, which were republished in England and were translated abroad.
He began to study medicine at Edinburgh in 1781, but in a few months moved to Cambridge, where he devoted himself to botany and chemistry.
He was appointed professor of chemistry at Cambridge in 1813, but lived to deliver only one course of lectures, being killed near Boulogne on the 22nd of February 1815 by the fall of a bridge over which he was riding.
He was educated at Dollar Academy and Edinburgh University, being at the latter first a pupil, and afterwards the assistant, of Lord Playfair, then professor of chemistry; he also studied under Kekule at Ghent.
He was appointed director of the laboratory in 1825; and in 1833 he was appointed Fullerian professor of chemistry in the institution for life, without the obligation to deliver lectures.
He also endeavoured with some success to make the general methods of chemistry, as distinguished from its results, the subject of special study and of popular exposition.
His opinion with respect to the relation between his science and his religion is expressed in a lecture on mental education delivered in 1854, and printed at the end of his Researches in Chemistry and Physics.
Keenly alive to the importance of the technical applications of chemistry, he devoted special attention as a teacher to the training of industrial chemists.
Here we get the link with physics and chemistry alluded to above, which is obtained by the recognition of new forms of energy, interchangeable with what may be called mechanical energy, or that associated with sensible motions and changes of configuration.
Custom has to some extent restricted its use to inorganic chemistry; the corresponding property of organic compounds being generally termed isomerism.
The success of his association of chemistry with botany is shown by the fact that soil has been made to bear wheat without intermission for upwards of half a century without manure.
Four years afterwards he graduated, and immediately became a private lecturer on chemistry in the French capital.
In 1819 he was appointed professor of medical jurisprudence, and four years later he succeeded Vauquelin as professor of chemistry in the faculty of medicine at Paris.
For his early education he proceeded first to the college of Charleville, and afterwards to that of Reims. in 1788 he returned to Mezieres, where he was attached to the school of engineering as draughtsman to the professors of physics and chemistry.
The chemistry of lichens is very complex, not yet fully investigated and can only be very briefly dealt with here.
In the process of manufacture, however, they undergo various changes, of which the chemistry is still but little understood.
Mainly through John Gough (1757-1825), a blind philosopher to whose aid he owed much of his scientific knowledge, he was appointed teacher of mathematics and natural philosophy at the New College in Moseley Street (in 1889 transferred to Manchester College, Oxford), and that position he retained until the removal of the college to York in 1799, when he became a "public and private teacher of mathematics and chemistry."
But the most important of all Dalton's investigations are those concerned with the Atomic Theory in chemistry, with which his name is inseparably associated.
It has been supposed that this theory was suggested to him either by researches on olefiant gas and carburetted hydrogen or by analysis of "protoxide and deutoxide of azote," both views resting on the authority of Dr Thomas Thomson (1773-1852), professor of chemistry in Glasgow university.
Dalton communicated his atomic theory to Dr Thomson, who by consent included an outline of it in the third edition of his System of Chemistry (1807), and Dalton gave a further account of it in the first part of the first volume of his New System of Chemical Philosophy (1808).
Deville accordingly returned to pure chemistry and invented a practicable method of preparing sodium which, having a lower atomic weight than potassium, reduced a larger proportion.
As a synthetical agent in organic chemistry, aluminium chloride has rendered possible more reactions than any other substance; here we can only mention the classic syntheses of benzene homologues.
For his preparation of fluorine he was awarded the Lacase prize in 1887, and in 1906 he obtained the Nobel prize for chemistry.
He at first intended to adopt the medical profession, and made some progress in anatomy, botany and chemistry, after which he studied chronology, geometry and astronomy.
Intending to practise as a physician, he took his degree in medicine and surgery (1823), but was persuaded by Gmelin to devote himself to chemistry.
On his return he had proposed to settle as a Privatdozent at Heidelberg, but accepted the post of teacher of chemistry in the newly established technical school (Gewerbeschule) in Berlin (1825), where he remained till 1831.
In 1836 he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in the medical faculty at GÃ¶ttingen, holding also the office of inspector-general of pharmacies in the kingdom of Hanover.
One of the earliest, if not the earliest, was the investigation, published in 1830, which proved the polymerism of cyanic and cyanuric acid, but the most famous were those on the oil of bitter almonds (benzaldehyde) and the radicle benzoyl (1832), and on uric acid (1837), which are of fundamental importance in the history of organic chemistry.
But it was the achievement of Wailer alone, in 1828, to break down the barrier held to exist between organic and inorganic chemistry by artificially preparing urea, one of those substances which up to that time it had been thought could only be produced through the agency of "vital force."
Most of his work, however, lay in the domain of inorganic chemistry.
Weith (1844-1881), professor of chemistry at Zurich University, he undertook to continue the lectures on benzene derivatives, and this led him to the discovery of thiophen.
In 1885 he was chosen to succeed Hans Hubner (1837-1884) in the professorship of chemistry at GÃ¶ttingen, where stereochemical questions especially engaged his attention; and in 1889, on the resignation of his old master, Bunsen, he was appointed to the chair of chemistry in Heidelberg.
So he left school chemistry as he had forsaken university culture, and started for the mines in Tirol owned by the wealthy family of the Fuggers.
On the completion of his education, he joined his father in business as a chemist in Oxford Street, and at the same time attended the chemistry lectures at the Royal Institution, and those on medicine at King's College.
Especially prominent is the fact that polymerism and metamerism are mainly reserved to the domain of organic chemistry, or the chemistry of carbon, both being discovered there; and, more especially, the phenomenon of metamerism in organic chemistry has largely developed our notions concerning the structure of matter.
That this particular feature belongs to carbon compounds is due to a property of carbon which characterizes the whole of organic chemistry, i.e.
Whereas carbon renders isomerism possible in organic compounds, cobalt and platinum are the determining elements in inorganic chemistry, the phenomena being exhibited especially by complex ammoniacal derivatives.
While studying architecture at Giessen he came under the influence of Liebig and was induced to take up chemistry.
In 1858 he was appointed professor of chemistry at Ghent, and in 1865 was called to Bonn to fill a similar position, which he held till his death in that town on the 13th of June 1896.
This conception led Kekule to his "closed-chain" or "ring" theory of the constitution of benzene which has been called the "most brilliant piece of prediction to be found in the whole range of organic chemistry," and this in turn led in particular to the elucidation of the constitution of the "aromatic compounds," and in general to new methods of chemical synthesis and decomposition, and to a deeper insight into the composition of numberless organic bodies and their mutual relations.
Japp, in the Kekule memorial lecture he delivered before the London Chemical Society on the 15th of December 1897, declared that three-fourths of modern organic chemistry is directly or indirectly the product of Kekule's benzene theory, and that without its guidance and inspiration the industries of the coal-tar colours and artificial therapeutic agents in their present form and extension would have been inconceivable.
What may be termed the chemistry of production, viz., that relating to soils, manures, manufacturing processes, &c., has of recent years received great attention from the scientific FIG.
The chemistry of the completed teas of commerce does not appear to have been subjected to adequate scientific study.
In organic chemistry he published papers on the decomposition of ammonium oxalate, with formation of oxamic acid, on amyl alcohol, on the cyanides, and on the difference in constitution between nitric and sulphuric ether.
They have departments of architecture, building, civil engineering, chemistry, metallurgy and, in some cases, anatomy.
Four years later he was appointed also to the chair of chemistry.
In 1729 declining health obliged him to resign the chairs of chemistry and botany; and he died, after a lingering and painful illness, on the 23rd of September 1738 at Leiden.
In chemistry the term salt is given to a compound formed by substituting the hydrogen of an acid by a metal or a radical acting as a metal, or, what comes to the same thing, by eliminating the elements of water between an acid and a base.
Its chemistry is discussed under Chlorine, and its manufacture under Alkali Manufacture.
He began at GÃ¶ttingen with the study of chemistry, and this so arrested his attention that he gave up the journey to Persia.
He returned to Berlin in 1821, and in the summer of 1822 he delivered his first lecture as extraordinary professor of chemistry in the university, where in 1825 he was appointed ordinary.
The legislature, thanks to the efforts of Joseph Carrington Cabell, a close personal friend of Jefferson, adopted the plan in 1818 and 1819, and seven independent schools - ancient languages, modern languages, mathematics, natural philosophy, moral philosophy, chemistry and medicine - were opened to students in March 1825; a school of law was opened in 1826.
Our knowledge of the chemistry of thallium is based chiefly upon the labours of Crookes.
He came to the United States with his father in 1846; graduated at Harvard in 1855, subsequently studying engineering and chemistry, and taking the degree of bachelor of science at the Lawrence scientific school of the same institution in 1857; and in 1859 became an assistant in the United States Coast Survey.
Then he entered the Ecole Polytechnique, and passed in 1832 to the Ecole des Mines, where he developed an aptitude for experimental chemistry.
A few years later he was appointed to a professorship of chemistry at Lyons.
His most important contribution to organic chemistry was a series of researches, begun in 1835, on the haloid and other derivatives of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
From this time Regnault devoted almost all his attention to practical physics; but in 1847 he published a four-volume treatise on Chemistry which has been translated into many languages.
Fourcroy at the Ecole Polytechnique, where subsequently (1809) he became professor of chemistry, and from 1808 to 1832 he was professor of physics at the Sorbonne, a post which he only resigned for the chair of chemistry at the Jardin des Plantes.
The proof that prussic acid contains hydrogen but no oxygen was a most important support to the hydrogen-acid theory, and completed the downfall of Lavoisier's oxygen theory;, while the isolation of cyanogen was of equal importance for the subsequent era of compound radicles in organic chemistry.
Turning his attention to technical chemistry, he became chemist at several works both in Germany and England, and in 1876 he was appointed professor of technical chemistry at Zurich polytechnic. Lunge's original contributions cover a very wide field, dealing both with technical processes and analysis.
But the divorce of science of nature from mathematics, the failure of biological inquiry to reach so elementary a conception as that of the nerves, the absence of chemistry from the circle of the sciences, disappointed the promise of the dawn and the relative achievement of the noon-day.
Mill aspired after a doctrine of method such as should satisfy the needs of the natural sciences, notably experimental physics and chemistry as understood in the first half of the 19th century and, mutatis mutandis, of the moral sciences naturalistically construed.
The university was chartered in 1866; it embraces a school of technology, with courses in civil, mechanical, metallurgical, mining, electrical and chemical engineering, electrometallurgy and chemistry, and a school of general literature (1878), with classical and Latin-scientific courses.
Hence it is customary to speak of their theories as a mixture of theosophy and physics, or theosophy and chemistry, as the case may be.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to organic chemistry.
After studying chemistry at Berlin and Strassburg, medicine at Halle, and mineralogy and metallurgy at Freiberg, he returned to his native city in 1735 as assistant to his father, Henning Christian Marggraf, chief apothecary at the court.
Man's place is not even central, as he appears a temporary inhabitant of a minor planet in one of the lesser stellar systems. Every science is involved, and theology has come into conflict with metaphysics, logic, astronomy, physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, biology, history and even economics and medicine.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about chemistry.
It also finds an extensive use in organic chemistry as a substituting and oxidizing agent, as well as for the preparation of addition compounds.
After acting as assistant to Berthollet, he became successively professor of chemistry at the faculty of sciences and the normal and veterinary schools at Alfort, and then (1820) professor of physics at the Ecole Polytechnique, of which he was appointed director in 1830.
The Lowell textile school, opened in 1897, offers courses in cotton manufacturing, wool manufacturing, designing, chemistry and dyeing, and textile engineering; evening drawing schools and manual training in the public schools have contributed to the high degree of technical perfection in the factories.
The interest which Bogota has always taken in education, and because of which she has been called the "Athens of South America," is shown in the number and character of her institutions of learning - a university, three endowed colleges, a school of chemistry and mineralogy, a national academy, a military school, a public library with some 50,000 volumes, a national observatory, a natural history museum and a botanic garden.
It has been said that chemistry is of little avail in determining the value of a wine, and this is undoubtedly true as regards the bouquet and flavour, but there is no gainsaying the fact that many hundreds of analyses of the wines of the Gironde have shown that they are, as a class, distinctly different in the particulars referred to from wines of the claret type produced, for instance, in Spain, Australia or the Cape.
During his apprenticeship to his father, a carpenter, he attended evening classes at Anderson's College, where he had Lyon Playfair and David Livingstone for fellow-pupils; and the ability he showed was such that Thomas Graham, the professor of chemistry, chose him as lecture assistant in 1832.
Young was a liberal supporter of David Livingstone, and also gave Io,50o to endow a chair of technical chemistry at Anderson's College.
Arsenic formed the subject of his first recorded investigation, on which he was engaged at least as early as 1764, and in 1766 he began those communications to the Royal Society on the chemistry of gases, which are among his chief titles to fame.
During his tenure of this office, which lasted until 1888, he carried out a large amount of work in connexion with the chemistry of explosives.
After leaving Westminster school, he was apprenticed, in 1802, to his brother, an apothecary, with the view of adopting the profession of medicine, but his bent was towards chemistry, a sound knowledge of which he acquired in his spare time.
In 1812 he was appointed professor of chemistry to the Apothecaries' Society, and delivered a course of lectures before the Board of Agriculture in place of Sir Humphry Davy, whom in the following year he succeeded in the chair of chemistry at the Royal Institution, London.
His Manual of Chemistry, first published in 1819, enjoyed wide popularity, and among other works he brought out a Dictionary of Science, Literature and Art in 1842, on a new edition of which he was engaged when he died at Tunbridge Wells on the 11th of February 1866.
The chemistry of the process has been studied by Martin Kiliani (Bergand Hiittenmdnnische Zeitung, 1885, p. 2 49), who found that, using the (low) current-density of 1 .
It oxidizes carbon compounds to carbon dioxide and water, and therefore finds extensive application in analytical organic chemistry.
Their chemistry is little known.
His investigations occupied almost the whole field of science, including physiology, physiological optics, physiological acoustics, chemistry, mathematics, electricity and magnetism, meteorology and theoretical mechanics.
In 1845 he became assistant to Dumas at the Ecole de Medecine, and four years later began to give lectures on organic chemistry in his place.
In 1850 he received the professorship of chemistry at the new Institut Agronomique at Versailles, but the Institut was abolished in 1852.
In 1875, resigning the office of dean but retaining the title of honorary dean, he became the first occupant of the chair of organic chemistry, which he induced the government to establish at the Sorbonne; but he had great difficulty in obtaining an adequate laboratory, and the building ultimately provided was not opened until after his death, which happened at Paris on the 10th of May 1884.
But his original work was mainly in the domain of organic chemistry.
Investigation of the cyanic ethers (1848) yielded a class of substances which opened out a new field in organic chemistry, for, by treating those ethers with caustic potash, he obtained methylamine, the simplest organic derivative of ammonia (1849), and later (1851) the compound ureas.
After studying chemistry and mineralogy in Union College he had several years' experience of their application, especially at a glassfactory of which his father was manager, and in 1817 published his Vitreology.
Disliking his father's trade of bookbinding, for which he was intended, he left home in 1755, and after taking lessons in surgery and chemistry at Amsterdam, became a ship's surgeon in the Dutch service.
In 1766, tired of sea-life, he went to study chemistry at Leipzig, and afterwards devoted himself to metallurgy and assaying at his native place with such success that in 1780 he was appointed chemist to the Freiberg foundries by the elector of Saxony.
Towards the end of 1853, after having spent two years at University College, where his favourite subjects were chemistry and botany, he unexpectedly received the offer of the assayership to the new mint.
He was brought up to the medical profession, and in 1862 was appointed assistant professor of chemistry at the St Petersburg academy of medicine.
He wrote several works on chemistry, and took a leading part in advocating women's education, helping to found the school of medicine for women, and lecturing there from 1872 till his death.
His interest in music was indeed stimulated from 1862 onwards by his friendship with Balakirev, and from 1863 by his marriage with a lady who was an accomplished pianist; but in his earlier years he had been proficient both in playing the piano, violin, 'cello and other instruments, and also in composing; and during life he did his best to pursue his studies in both music and chemistry with equal enthusiasm.
He had good taste in art and literature, was fond of chemistry and science, and the Royal Society was founded in his reign.
He now began to occupy himself with scientific pursuits, and gave some attention to mathematics as well as to chemistry and mineralogy; but, having met with Adam Smith's great work, he threw himself with ardour into the study of political economy.
After 1794 he was teacher of chemistry in the polytechnic and normal schools of Paris, and in 1795 he took an active part in remodelling the Academy as the Institut National.
Berthollet's most remarkable contribution to chemistry was his Essai de statique chimique (1803), the first systematic attempt to grapple with the problems of chemical physics.
The technical college is also carried on by the town council, the chief features of its curriculum being chemistry, metallurgy and engineering.
At this temperature the bacterial bodies are extremely brittle, and are thus readily broken up. The study of the nature of toxins requires, of course, the various methods of organic chemistry.
He was educated at Midhurst grammar school and at the Royal College of Science, where he was trained in physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology and biology.
The evidence collected by Berthelot has an important bearing on the history of chemistry.
His works included treatises on pneumatic chemistry (1821-1825) and the chemistry of fermentation (1822).
It is a matter of great regret for the historian of chemistry that Gilbert left nothing on that branch of science, to which he was deeply devoted,"attaining to great exactness therein."
In the same year he took up his residence at Oxford, where he was made deputy professor of anatomy, and where he gave instruction in that science and in chemistry.
On his return to England he settled in Manchester as a consulting chemist, and was appointed professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution in that city.
Devoting himself almost entirely to industrial chemistry, he gave much attention to the manufacture of coal-tar products, and particularly carbolic acid, for the production of which he established large works in Manchester in 1865.
Cotarnine IV.Narceine The chemistry of morphine, codeine and thebaine is exceedingly complicated, and the literature enormous.
On finishing his academic studies he contemplated adopting the medical profession, and prosecuted his studies in chemistry, anatomy and physiology with that.
Five years later he was appointed professor of chemistry at Strassburg, and in 1875 he migrated in the same capacity to Munich.
He devoted himself mainly to investigations in organic chemistry, and in particular to synthetical studies by the aid of "condensation" reactions.
It receives application in synthetic organic chemistry by virtue of its power to remove the halogen atoms from alkyl haloids, and so effect the combination of the two alkyl residues.
Beginning with metaphysics and ethics and passing on to mathematics, he turned to chemistry at the end of 17 9 7, and within a few months of reading Nicholson's and Lavoisier's treatises on that science had produced a new theory of light and heat.
Early next year two papers from his pen were published in Beddoes' West Country Contributions - one " On Heat, Light and the Combinations of Light, with a new Theory of Respiration and Observations on the Chemistry of Life," and the other "On the Generation of Phosoxygen (Oxygen gas) and the Causes of the Colours of Organic Beings."