Klaproth was the leading chemist of his time in Germany.
The second examination qualifies for registration as a chemist and druggist.
KARL REMIGIUS FRESENIUS (1818-1897), German chemist, was born at Frankfort-on-Main on the 28th of December 1818.
In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.
There is also a public library, with 20,000 volumes, and various scientific collections, and a public garden, with a statue of the chemist Berthollet (1748-1822), who was born not far off.
MARTIN HEINRICH KLAPROTH (1743-1817), German chemist, was born at Wernigerode on the 1st of December 1743.
MARCELLIN PIERRE EUGENE BERTHELOT (1827-1907), French chemist and politician, was born at Paris on the 29th of October 1827, being the son of a doctor.
ADOLPHE WILHELM HERMANN KOLBE (1818-1884), German chemist, was born on the 27th of September 1818 at Elliehausen, near GÃ¶ttingen, where in 1838 he began to study chemistry under F.
But it seems pretty clear that if there is any change in weight consequent on chemical change, it is too minute to be of im- portance to the chemist, though the methods of modern physics may settle the question.
In the 19th century the word chymist became altered to chemist, although the original spelling is still continued to a small extent.
Industrial chemistry makes many claims upon the chemist, for it is necessary to determine the purity of a product before it can be valued.
HEINRICH GUSTAV MAGNUS (1802-1870), German chemist and physicist, was born at Berlin on the 2nd of May 1802.
"WILLIAM ODLING (1829-1921), English chemist, was born in Southwark Sept.
They began to make alkali by the ammonia-soda process, under licence from the Belgian chemist, Ernest Solvay, but at first the venture threatened to prove a failure.
SAMUEL MORISON BROWN (1817-1856), Scottish chemist, poet and essayist, born at Haddington on the 23rd of February 1817, was the fourth son of Samuel Brown, the founder of itinerating libraries, and grandson of John Brown, author of the Self-Interpreting Bible.
He prepared a new edition of the monk Theophilus's celebrated treatise, Diversarum artium schedula, and for several years devoted his Saturday mornings to laboratory research with the chemist Aline Girard at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, the results of which were utilized by Marcellin Berthelot in the first volume (1894) of his Chimie au moyen dge.
VINCENZO DANDOLO, Count (1758-1819), Italian chemist and agriculturist, was born at Venice, of good family, though not of the same house as the famous doges, and began his career as a physician.
LOUIS NICOLAS VAUQUELIN (1763-1829), French chemist, was born at Saint-Andre-d'Hebertot in Normandy on the 16th of May 1763.
JEREMIAS BENJAMIN RICHTER (1762-1807), German chemist, was born at Hirschberg in Silesia on the 10th of March 1762, became a mining official at Breslau in 1794, and in 1800 was appointed assessor to the department of mines and chemist to the royal porcelain factory at Berlin, where he died on the 4th of April 1807.
Berzelius, and somewhat later, in the experiments of the Belgian chemist J.
carried out by the Swedish chemist, Torbern Bergman, acting under the impulse of Linnaeus, and by the German philosopher, Immanuel Kant.
Ebonite takes a fine polish, and is valuable to the electrician on account of its insulating properties, and to the chemist and photographer because vessels made of it are unaffected by most chemical reagents.
Still no explanation of this singular fact was forthcoming, and it was reserved for the young chemist from FrancheComte to solve a problem which had baffled the greatest chemists and physicists of the time.
Richard Chevenix (1774-1830), a chemist, having bought some of the substance, decided after experiment that it was not a simple body as claimed, but an alloy of mercury with platinum, and in 1803 presented a paper to the Royal Society setting forth this view.
and the elector Maximilian I., the obelisk erected to the 30,000 Bavarians who perished in Napoleon's expedition to Moscow, the Wittelsbach fountain (1895), the monument commemorative of the peace of 1871, and the marble statue of Justus Liebig, the chemist, set up in 1883.
LOUIS PASTEUR (1822-1895), French chemist, was born, on the 27th of December 1822, at Dole, Franche-Comte, where his father carried on the business of a tanner.
Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.
JEAN CHARLES GALISSARD DE MARIGNAC (1817-1894), Swiss chemist, was born at Geneva on the 24th of April 1817.
Stas, the purpose of testing Prout's hypothesis, but he remained more disposed than the Belgian chemist to consider the possibility that it may have some degree of validity.
ETIENNE HENRI SAINTE-CLAIRE DEVILLE (1818-1881), French chemist, was born on the 11th of March 1818 in the island of St Thomas, West Indies, where his father was French consul.
LIEBIG, JUSTUS VON, Baron (1803-1873), German chemist, was born at Darmstadt, according to his baptismal certificate, on the 12th of May 1803 (4th of May, according to his mother).
The small discrepancies found are so easily accounted for by attributing them to experimental errors that, until recently, every chemist would have regarded the law as sufficiently verified.
Dr Natterer, the chemist of the " Pola " expeditions, has expressed the opinion that the poverty of the pelagic fauna is solely due to the want of circulation in the depths.
SVANTE AUGUST ARRHENIUS (1859-), Swedish physicist and chemist, was born on the 19th of February 1859, at Schloss Wijk, near Upsala.
ALEXANDER WILLIAM WILLIAMSON (1824-1904), English chemist, was born at Wandsworth, London, on the 1st of May 18 24.
For example, the physicist determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c.; the chemist, on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or more substances are mixed.
HERMANN VON FEHLING (1812-1885), German chemist, was born at Lubeck on the 9th of June 1885.
SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY (1852-), British chemist, nephew of Sir A.
In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application of the principles of experiment and deduction.
LUDWIG MOND (1839-1909), British chemist, was born at Cassel in Germany on the 7th of March 1839.
FRIEDEL, CHARLES (1832-1899), French chemist and mineralogist, was born at Strassburg on the 12th of March 1832.
WILLIAM HYDE WOLLASTON (1766-1828), English chemist and natural philosopher, was born at East Dereham, Norfolk, on the 6th of April 1766, the second of seventeen children.
SIR WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-), English chemist and physicist, was born in London on the 17th of June 1832, and studied chemistry at the Royal College of Chemistry under A.
Dalton, who was a mathematical physicist even more than a chemist, had given much thought to the study of gases.
JULIUS LOTHAR MEYER (1830-1895), German chemist, was born on the 19th of August 1830, at Varel in Oldenburg.
Under certain conditions, as when latex is allowed to stand or is centrifugalized, a cream is obtained consisting of the liquid globules, which may be washed free from proteid without change, but, either by mechanical agitation or by the addition of acid or other chemical agent, the liquid gradually solidifies to a mass of solid caoutchouc. The phenomenon therefore resembles the change known to the chemist as polymerization, by which through molecular aggregation a liquid may pass into a solid without change in its empirical composition.
LOUIS JACQUES THENARD (1777-1857), French chemist, was born on the 4th of May 1777 at Louptiere, near Nogentsur-Seine, Aube.
CHARLES GILES BRIDLE DAUBENY (1795-1867), English chemist, botanist and geologist, was the third son of the Rev. James Daubeny, and was born at Stratton in Gloucestershire on the II th of February 1795.
The third, or major examination, which qualifies for registration as a pharmaceutical chemist, is not, like the minor, a compulsory one, but ranks as an honours examination.
JOSEPH PRIESTLEY (1733-1804), English chemist and Nonconformist minister, was born on the 13th of March 1733 at Fieldhead, a hamlet near Birstal in the West Riding of Yorkshire.
CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH SCHONBEIN (1799-1868), chemist, was born at Metzingen, Swabia, on the 18th of October 1799, and died at Sauersberg, near Baden Baden, on the 29th of August 1868.
No laboratories were accessible to ordinary students, who had to content themselves with what the universities could give in the lectureroom and the library, and though both at Bonn and Erlangen Liebig endeavoured to make up for the deficiencies of the official instruction by founding a students' physical and chemical society for the discussion of new discoveries and speculations, he felt that he could never become a chemist in his own country.
The chemist, Justus von Liebig, was born in Darmstadt in 1803.
In the same address he called attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation, as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the nitrogen of the air.
Inspired and intrigued, Dr. Nordstrom, a chemist by night, set to work creating a product that would strengthen nails.
antifungal medications that can be bought at the chemist.
Woititz turned to her husband Alfred, a professional chemist, who tested various ingredients to see which caused irritation.
JOHANN JOACHIM BECHER (1635-1682), German chemist,.
He must not be confused with Emil Kopp (1817-1875), who, born at Warselnheim, Alsace, became in 1847 professor of toxicology and chemistry at the Ecole superieure de Pharmacie at Strasburg, in 1849 professor of physics and chemistry at Lausanne, in 1852 chemist to a Turkey-red factory near Manchester, in 1868 professor of technology at Turin, and finally, in 1871, professor of technical chemistry at the Polytechnic of Zurich, where he died in 1875.
Utilitarian, or perhaps rather practical, considerations have very little to do with the subject from a scientific point of view - no more so than the science of chemistry has to do with the art of the manufacturing chemist.
HERMANN FRANZ MORITZ KOPP (1817-1892), German chemist, was born on the 30th of October 1817 at Hanau, where his father, Johann Heinrich Kopp (1777-1858), a physician, was professor of chemistry, physics and natural history at the Lyceum.
JOSEPH BLACK (1728-1799), Scottish chemist and physicist, was born in 1728 at Bordeaux, where his father - a native of Belfast but of Scottish descent - was engaged in the wine trade.
MICHEL EUGENE CHEVREUL (1786-1889), French chemist, was born, on the 31st of August 1786, at Angers, where his father was a physician.
Louis Charles d'Albert (1620-1690), duke of Luynes, son of the constable, was an ascetic writer and friend of the Jansenists; Paul d'Albert de Luynes (1703-1788), cardinal and archbishop of Sens, an astronomer; Michel Ferdinand d'Albert d'Ailly (1714-1769), duke of Chaulnes, a writer on mathematical instruments, and his son Marie Joseph Louis (1741-1793), a chemist; and Honore Theodore Paul Joseph (1802-1867), duke of Luynes, a writer on archaeology.
In some cases the operation of filtration is performed for the sake of removing impurities from the filtrate or liquid filtered, as in the purification of water for drinking purposes; in others the aim is to recover and collect the solid matter, as when the chemist filters off a precipitate from the liquid in which it is suspended.
It is intended to provide an introduction, necessarily brief, to the terminology and machinery of the chemist.
Here we shall treat the latter subjects in more detail, viewed from the standpoint of the chemist.
Until 1804 he lived at the Royal Institution in Albemarle Street, London, or at a house which he rented at Brompton, and he then established himself in Paris, marrying (his first wife having died in 1792) as his second wife the wealthy widow of Lavoisier, the celebrated chemist.
STEPHEN HALES (1677-1761), English physiologist, chemist and inventor, was born at Bekesbourne in Kent on the 7th or 17th of September 1677, the fifth (or sixth) son of Thomas Hales, whose father, Sir Robert Hales, was created a baronet by Charles II.
KUNKEL (or KUNCKEL) VON LOWENSTJERN, JOHANN (1630-1703), German chemist, was born in 1630 (or 1638), near Rendsburg, his father being alchemist to the court of Holstein.
AUGUST WILHELM VON HOFMANN (1818-1892), German chemist, was born at Giessen on the 8th of April 1818.
No man ever realized more fully than he how entirely dependent on the advance of scientific knowledge is the continuation of a country's material prosperity, and no single chemist ever exercised a greater or more direct influence upon industrial development.
JOHANN NEPOMUK VON FUCHS (1774-1856), German chemist and mineralogist, was born at Mattenzell, near Brennberg :in the Bavarian Forest, on the 15th of May 1774.
"ALBERT LADENBURG (1842-1911), German chemist, was born at Mannheim July 2 1842.
He was brought up to the business of a pharmaceutical chemist.
JOSEPH LOUIS PROUST (1754-1826), French chemist, was born on the 26th of September 1754 at Angers, where his father was an apothecary.
The latter chemist was led by his doctrine of mass-action to deny that substances always combine in constant and definite proportions.
Proust also investigated the varieties of sugar that occur in sweet vegetable juices, distinguishing three kinds, and he showed that the sugar in grapes, of which he announced the existence to his classes at Madrid in 1799, is identical with that obtained from honey by the Russian chemist J.
Among the scientific celebrities were de Saussure, the most many-sided of all; de Candolle and Boissier, the botanists; Alphonse Favre and Necker, the geologists; Marignac, the chemist; Deluc, the physicist, and Plantamour, the astronomer.
SIR WILLIAM HENRY PERKIN (1838-1907), English chemist, was born in London on the 12th of March 1838.
WARREN DE LA RUE (1815-1889), British astronomer and chemist, son of Thomas De la Rue, the founder of the large firm of stationers of that name in London, was born in Guernsey on the 18th of January 1815.
His first book on the subject was The Sceptical Chemist, published in 1661, in which he criticized the "experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their Salt, Sulphur and Mercury to be the true Principles of Things."
KARL WILHELM SCHEELE (1742-1786), Swedish chemist, was born at Stralsund, the capital of Pomerania, which then belonged to Sweden, on the 19th of December 1742.
Bergman, the leading chemist in Sweden.
JEAN BAPTISTE GUIMET (1795-1871), French industrial chemist, was born at Voiron on the 10th of July 1795.
ANTOINE FRANCOIS, COMTE DE FOURCROY (1755-1809), French chemist, the son of an apothecary in the household of the duke of Orleans, was born at Paris on the 15th of June 1755.
WILLIAM PROUT (1785-1850), English chemist and physician, was born at Horton, Gloucestershire, on the 15th of January 1785, and died in London on the 9th of April 1850.
DMITRI IVANOVICH MENDELEEFF (1834-1907), Russian chemist, the youngest of a family of seventeen, was born at Tobolsk, Siberia, on the 7th of February (N.s.) 1834.
Thus in 1871 he was led by certain gaps in his tables to assert the existence of three new elements so far unknown to the chemist, and to assign them definite properties.
JOHN HENRY BLUNT (1823-1884), English divine, was born at Chelsea in 1823, and before going to the university of Durham in 1850 was for some years engaged in business as a manufacturing chemist.
MAX JOSEPH VON PETTENKOFER (1818-1901), Bavarian chemist and hygienist, was born on the 3rd of December 1818 at Lichtenheim, near Neuburg.
in 1843, and after working under Liebig at Giessen was appointed chemist to the Munich mint in 1845.
PAUL SCHUTZENBERGER (1829-1897), French chemist, was born on the 23rd of December 1829 at Strassburg, where his father Georges Frederic Schiitzenberger (1779-1859) was professor of law, and his uncle Charles Schiitzenberger (1809-1881) professor of chemical medicine.
Balard at the College de France, in 1876 he succeeded that chemist in the chair of chemistry, and in 1882 he became directing professor at the municipal Ecole de Physique et de Chimie.
SMITHSON TENNANT (1761-1815), English chemist, was born at Selby, Yorkshire, on the 30th of November 1761.
JOHN MAYOW (1643-1679), English chemist and physiologist, was born in London in May 1643.
SIR JAMES DEWAR (1842-), British chemist and physicist, was born at Kincardine-on-Forth, Scotland, on the 20th of September 1842.
JOHANN RUDOLF GLAUBER (1604-1668), German chemist, was born at Karlstadt, Bavaria, in 1604 and died at Amsterdam in 1668.
MICHAEL FARADAY (1791-1867), English chemist and physicist, was born at Newington, Surrey, on the 22nd of September 1791.
EDMOND FREMY (1814-1894), French chemist, was born at Versailles on the 29th of February 1814.
MATHIEU JOSEPH BONAVENTURE ORFILA (1787-1853), French toxicologist and chemist, was by birth a Spaniard, having been born at Mahon in Minorca on the 24th of April 1787.
But he had the good fortune to find a patron in the chemist L.
DALTON, JOHN (1766-1844), English chemist and physicist, was born about the 6th of September 1766 at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland.
GUILLAUME FRANCOIS ROUELLE (1703-1770), French chemist, was born in 1703 at Mathieu, near Caen.
In 1760 the French chemist, T.
HENRI MOISSAN (1852-1907), French chemist, was born at Paris on the 28th of September 1852.
The lessons derived from the abstract principles enunciated by the physiologist, the chemist and the physicist require, however, to be modified to suit the special circumstances of plants under cultivation.
FRIEDRICH WOHLER (1800-1882), German chemist, was born at Eschersheim, near Frankfort-on-the-Main., on the 31st of July, 1800.
He studied in Berzelius's laboratory at Stockholm, and there began a lifelong friendship with the Swedish chemist.
Though all this is elementary to-day, not only was it unknown, indeed unguessed, at the time of the invention of the Bessemer process, but even when, nearly a quarter of a century later, a young English metallurgical chemist, Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850-1885), offered to the British Iron and Steel Institute a paper describing his success in dephosphoriz ing by the Bessemer process with a basic-lined converter and a basic slag, that body rejected it.
VICTOR MEYER (1848-1897), German chemist, was born at Berlin on the 8th of September 1848, and studied at Heidelberg University under R.
Technically he was not a chemist; he did not concern himself either with the composition of his compounds or with an explanation of what occurred in their making.
JACOB BELL (1810-1859), British pharmaceutical chemist, was born in London on the 5th of March 1810.
On the completion of his education, he joined his father in business as a chemist in Oxford Street, and at the same time attended the chemistry lectures at the Royal Institution, and those on medicine at King's College.
The phenomenon of isomerism will probably supply the crucial test, at least for the chemist, and the question will be whether the Ostwaldian conception, while substituting the Daltonian hypothesis, will also explain isomerism.
In 1903 it was stated that a German chemist had discovered a method of working and spinning the New Zealand fibre.
KEKULE, FRIEDRICH AUGUST (1829-1896), German chemist, was born at Darmstadt on the 7th of September 1829.
More attention seems to have been given to the matter in the United States of America and in Germany and Russia than in England, but the infinite variety of samples known to the commercial expert, and the impossibility of standardizing those in such a manner as to make readily recognizable what the chemist has treated, renders most of the recorded analyses of uncertain value.
There are still some manufactures of silk and muslin, but trade has deserted Behar in favour of Patna and other places more favourably situated on the river Ganges and the railway, while the indigo industry has been ruined by the synthetic products of the German chemist, and the English colony of indigo planters has been scattered abroad.
ANTOINE JEROME BALARD (1802-1876), French chemist, was born at Montpellier on the 30th of September 1802.
While the discovery of bromine and the preparation of many of its compounds was his most conspicuous piece of work, Balard was an industrious chemist on both the pure and applied sides.
"LOUIS PAUL CAILLETET (1832-1913), French chemist, was born at Chatillon-sur-Seine Sept.
In 1811 he co-operated with William Allen (1770-1843), quaker and chemist, in a periodical called the Philanthropist.
MITSCHERLICH, EILHARDT (1794-1863), German chemist, was born on the 7th of January 1794 at Neuende near Jever, in the grand duchy of Oldenburg, where his father was pastor.
There is also a statue of the chemist J.
ANTOINE LAURENT LAVOISIER (1743-1794), French chemist, was born in Paris on the 26th of August 1743.
JOHN KIDD (1775-1851), English physician, chemist and geologist, born at Westminster on the 10th of September 1775, was the son of a naval officer, Captain John Kidd.
But the Deacon process, the invention of Henry Deacon (who was greatly aided by his chemist Dr Ferdinand Hurter), carried out since 1868, has attained to better, although nothing like complete, success in that direction.
SIR EDWARD FRANKLAND (1825-1899), English chemist, was born at Churchtown, near Lancaster, on the 18th of January 1825.
HENRI VICTOR REGNAULT (1810-1878), French chemist and physicist, was born on the 21st of July 1810 at Aix-laChapelle.
JOHN FREDERIC DANIELL (1790-1845), English chemist and physicist, was born in London on the 12th of March 1790, and in 1831 became the first professor of chemistry at the newly founded King's College, London.
JOSEPH LOUIS GAY-LUSSAC (1778-1850), French chemist and physicist, was born at S t Leonard, in the department of Haute Vienne, on the 6th of December 1778.
Davy on his side seems to have felt that the French chemist was competing with him, not altogether fairly, in trying to appropriate the honour of discovering the character of the substance and of its compound, hydriodic acid.
GEORG LUNGE (1839-), German chemist, was born at Breslau on the 15th of September 1839.
Turning his attention to technical chemistry, he became chemist at several works both in Germany and England, and in 1876 he was appointed professor of technical chemistry at Zurich polytechnic. Lunge's original contributions cover a very wide field, dealing both with technical processes and analysis.
ANDREAS SIGISMUND MARGGRAF (1709-1782), German chemist, was born at Berlin on the 3rd of March 1709.
JOHN ALEXANDER REINA NEWLANDS (1838-1898), English chemist, was born in 1838.
Dr George Thomson, a chemist and a disciple of Van Helmont, followed the example, and nearly lost his life by an attack which immediately followed.4 The plague of 1665 was widely spread over England, and was 4 On the plague of 1665 see Nath.
PIERRE LOUIS DULONG (1785-1838), French chemist and physicist, was born at Rouen on the 12th (or 13th) of February 1785.
ETIENNE FRANCOIS GEOFFROY (1672-1731), French chemist, born in Paris on the 13th of February 1672, was first an apothecary and then practised medicine.
His brother Claude Joseph, known as Geoffroy the younger (1685-1752), was also an apothecary and chemist who, having a considerable knowledge of botany, devoted himself especially to the study of the essential oils in plants.
JAMES YOUNG (1811-1883), Scottish industrial chemist, was born in Glasgow on the 13th of July 1811.
About 1839, on the recommendation of Graham, whom in 1837 he had accompanied to University College, London, he was appointed chemist at James Muspratt's alkali works in Lancashire; in connexion with alkali he showed that cast-iron vessels could be satisfactorily substituted for silver in the manufacture of caustic soda, and worked out improvements in the production of chlorate of potash.
HENRY CAVENDISH (1731-1810), English chemist and physicist, elder son of Lord Charles Cavendish, brother of the 3rd duke of Devonshire, and Lady Anne Grey, daughter of the duke of Kent, was born at Nice in October 1731.
(1827-1902), English chemist, was born in London on the 17th of July 1827.
From that date it was clearly recognized that a fresh implement of great power had been given to the chemist.
WILLIAM THOMAS BRANDE (1788-1866), English chemist, was born in London on the 11th of January 1788.
P. Molin, also a statue of Charles XIII., and in the small Berzelii Park close at hand one of the chemist J.
CHARLES ADOLPHE WURTZ (1817-1884), French chemist, was born on the 26th of November 1817 at Wolfisheim, near Strassburg, where his father was Lutheran pastor.
In 1766, tired of sea-life, he went to study chemistry at Leipzig, and afterwards devoted himself to metallurgy and assaying at his native place with such success that in 1780 he was appointed chemist to the Freiberg foundries by the elector of Saxony.
In 1785 he became assessor to the superintending board of the foundries, and in 1786 chemist to the porcelain works at Meissen.
CLAUDE LOUIS BERTHOLLET (1748-1822), French chemist, was born at Talloire, near Annecy in Savoy, on the 9th of December 17 4 8.
ALFRED JOSEPH NAQUET (1834-), French chemist and politician, was born at Carpentras (Vaucluse), on the 6th of October 1834.
John Brown (1722-1787), a once celebrated dissenting divine, author of the Self-Interpreting Bible, ministered in the burgh for 36 years and is buried there; his son John the theologian (1754-1832), and his grandson Samuel (1817-1856), the chemist, noted for his inquiries into the atomic theory, were natives.
He was famous for his versatility, and besides being a distinguished lawyer, jurist and political leader, was "a mathematician, a chemist, a physicist, a mechanician, an inventor, a musician and a composer of music, a man of literary knowledge and practice, a writer of airy and dainty songs, a clever artist with pencil and brush and a humorist of unmistakeable power" (Tyler, Literary History of the American Revolution).
In general, oxides are the most important compounds with which the chemist has to deal, a study of their composition and properties permitting a valuable comparative investigation of the elements.
RUDOLF FITTIG (1835-), German chemist, was born at Hamburg on the 6th of December 1835.
JAMES SMITHSON (1765-1829), British chemist and mineralogist and founder of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, a natural son of Hugh Smithson, 1st duke of Northumberland,.
THOMAS GRAHAM (1805-1869), British chemist, born at Glasgow on the 10th of December 1805, was the son of a merchant of that city.
JEAN BAPTISTE ANDRE DUMAS (1800-1884), French chemist, was born at Alais (Gard) on the 15th of July 1800.
Berzelius, which at the time his work began were widely accepted as the true theory of the constitution of compound bodies, and opposed a unitary view to the dualistic conception of the Swedish chemist.
In 1864 it was sold to the chemist Theophile Pelouze, whose wife executed extensive restorations.
The methods sketched here do not yet exhaust the armoury of the analytical chemist, but it can only be pointed out in passing that the detection of hydroxylated acids enables the analyst to ascertain the presence of castor oil, just as the isolation and determination of oxidized fatty acids enables him to differentiate blown oils from other oils.
Tests such as the Maumene test, the elaidin test and others, which formerly were the only resource of the chemist, have been practically superseded by the foregoing methods.
The aim of the chemist to produce essential oils on a manufacturing scale is naturally confined at present to the more expensive oils.
Quite apart from the genuineness of a sample, its special aroma constitutes the value of an oil, and in this respect the judging of the value of a given oil may, apart from the purity, be more readily solved by an experienced perfumer than by the chemist.
The eminent botanist and chemist, Dr William Jameson (1796-1872), was a member of its faculty for many years.
The certitudes of physical and natural science were revealed to Renan in 1846 by the chemist Marcellin Berthelot, then a boy of eighteen, his pupil at M.
NICOLAS LEMERY (1645-1715), French chemist, was born at Rouen on the 17th of November 1645.
analytical chemist to be well versed in a diverse range of scientific areas.
aspiring chemist you have 100 potential drugs you wish to develop.
He was well known as a field botanist but had spent most of his academic life as a physical and industrial chemist.
Both Ms Wise and Mr McCarthy, a chemist from Waterford, Republic of Ireland, suffered bruises in the struggle.
They have even employed a former chemist to test it for them.
Imagine as an aspiring chemist you have 100 potential drugs you wish to develop.
The challenges posed by these demands require the analytical chemist to be well versed in a diverse range of scientific areas.
The GAMESS-UK Benchmark is designed to represent the typical range of calculations commonly performed by the ab initio quantum chemist.
He was 46 and a friend for almost 25 years Ã¢ a research chemist of great talent and an atheist.
chemist's shop at 66 High Street.
chemist without a prescription.
The burning may be relieved by taking potassium citrate, available from the chemist.
counter at the chemist / drug store.
Many special shampoos are available from the chemist to treat dandruff, should it become a problem.
detector comb from the chemist wet comb your child's hair twice a week.
Braemar Cottage Chemist Mr Palmer had a dispensary in the room on the left of the entrance to the Cross Keys.
Sophy Lynn opened the first dispensary in Notting Hill in 1988 in an old Chemist's store.
find the fishmonger, spot the baker, find the butcher, spot the post office or even find the chemist.
The German physicist and chemist studied electricity and magnetism, and designed a mirror galvanometer.
He started out as an applied chemist working with plywood glues, urethane foams, and other formulated compounds.
Over the years both staff and visitors have reported unusual goings-on, particularly in the chemist and attic areas.
head lousebuy lotions to treat head lice over the counter at the chemist.
louse can buy lotions to treat head lice over the counter at the chemist.
over-the-counter at the chemist.
In larger towns chemists operate a rota to provide 24-hour cover - details are posted on chemist's windows.
You can buy lotions to treat scabies over the counter at the chemist.
The Burgh School was situated in the building occupied today by the chemist's shop at 66 High Street.
Whether you swear by natural medicine or race down to the chemist at the first sneeze we want to hear from you.
Well if I do get a sniffle or a touch of gout, Lloyds or Boots the chemist will help me out.
styptic pencils containing silver nitrate from the chemist to keep in your emergency box.
syrupy liquid which you can buy cheaply from your local chemist.
It is in the work of the great Swedish chemist J.
The first-mentioned chemist proposed the following formula to represent the change which takes place when sugar is fermented: - Ca-11206 = 2CO 2 2C2H60.
In the course of the 19th century the idea that the different elements are constituted by different groupings or condensations of one primal matter - a speculation which, if proved to be well grounded, would imply the possibility of changing one element into another - found favour with more than one responsible chemist; but experimental research failed to yield any evidence that was generally regarded as offering any support to this hypothesis.
In common with physics it includes the determination of properties or characters which serve to distinguish one substance from another, but while the physicist is concerned with properties possessed by all substances and with processes in which the molecules remain intact, the chemist is restricted to those processes in which the molecules undergo some change.
General Principles The substances with which the chemist has to deal admit of classification into elements and compounds.
More emphatic opposition to the dualistic theory of Berzelius was hardly possible; this illustrious chemist perceived that the validity of his electrochemical theory was called in question, and therefore he waged vigorous war upon Dumas and his followers.
The importance of such groups as methyl, ethyl, &c. in attempting a nomenclature of organic compounds cannot be overestimated; these compound radicals, fre q uently termed alkyl radicals, serve a similar purpose to the organic chemist as the elements to the inorganic chemist.
Willis was as thorough-going a chemist as Sylvius.
He came of a family of Yorkshire dalesmen, his father, whose name was also Edward White Benson, being a manufacturing chemist of some note.
ADOLPHE WILHELM HERMANN KOLBE (1818-1884), German chemist, was born on the 27th of September 1818 at Elliehausen, near GÃƒ¶ttingen, where in 1838 he began to study chemistry under F.
THOMAS THOMSON (1773-1852), Scottish chemist, was born at Crieff, Perthshire, on the 12th of April 1773.
ARTHUR AIKIN (1773-1854), English chemist and mineralogist, was born on the 19th of May 1773, at Warrington in Lancashire.
The earliest experiments of this nature are due to Benjamin Robins in 1743 and Count Rumford in 1792; and their method has been revived by Dr Kellner, War Department chemist, who 5 employed the steel spheres of bicycle ball-bearings as safetyvalves, loaded to register the pressure at which the powdergas will blow off, and thereby check the indications of the crusher-gauge (Proc. R.S., March 1895).
von Hofmann at the Royal College of Chemistry (established in London in 1845), he became professor of chemistry at the Royal Military Academy in 1851, and three years later was appointed chemist to the War Department and chemical referee to the government.
The doctors were of use to Natasha because they kissed and rubbed her bump, assuring her that it would soon pass if only the coachman went to the chemist's in the Arbat and got a powder and some pills in a pretty box for a ruble and seventy kopeks, and if she took those powders in boiled water at intervals of precisely two hours, neither more nor less.
Do n't forget your chemist can also advise on what to take to relieve the pain.
In larger towns chemists operate a rota to provide 24-hour cover - details are posted on chemist 's windows.
Alternatively you can buy some styptic pencils containing silver nitrate from the chemist to keep in your emergency box.
This is a syrupy liquid which you can buy cheaply from your local chemist.
Rene-Maurice Gattefosse, a French scholar and chemist, discovered that lavender oil can heal first-hand.
Continuing her strife against mainstream cosmetics, she met up with a chemist and formed her own makeup creations.
Revlon, the cosmetic color sensation, was born from this savvy of Charles, his brother Joseph and the help of chemist Charles Lachman.
But, Bayer Company chemist Heinrich Dreser felt that it could be developed into something much more important.
He originally sold linseed oil to paint stores, but his business rapidly expanded after he and his chemist father developed a stain for redwood.
Otho Behr, Jr founded the company in 1948 when Otho and his chemist father developed a paint that would perform better than linseed oil, the standard redwood finish at the time.
Clairol was founded in 1931 by an entrepreneurial chemist and his wife.
He became chemist and apothecary to the dukes of Lauenburg, and then to the elector of Saxony, Johann Georg II., who put him in charge of the royal laboratory at Dresden.
In the Place de l'Escargot stands a statue of the chemist Philippe Lebon (1767-1804), born in Haute-Marne.
He also wrote a memoir of his wife, Margaret Ethel, daughter of the eminent chemist, Dr. J.
For the detailed chemical significance of these terms, see Chemistry; and for the atomic theory of the chemist (as distinguished from the atomic or molecular theory of the physicist) see Atom; reference may also be made to the article Matter.
The receipt of bullion and the delivery of coin from the Mint is under the charge of the chief clerk, the manufacture of coin is in the hands of the superintendent of the operative department, and the valuation of the bullion by assay, and matters relating to the fineness of the coin are entrusted to the chemist and assayer.
"WILLIAM HENRY PERKIN (1860-), English chemist, was born at Sudbury, England, in 1860, eldest son of Sir William Perkin, founder of the aniline dye industry.
Later followed men like Hengstenberg, Homeyer, Bethmann-Hollweg, Puchta, Stahl and Heffter; Schelling, Trendelenburg, Bopp, the brothers Grimm, Zumpt, Carl Richter; later still, Twesten and Dorner, Gneist and Hinschius; Langenbeck, Bardeleben, Virchow, Du-Bois Reymond; von Ranke, Curtius, Lipsius, Hofmann the chemist, Kiepert the geographer; Helmholtz, van't Hoff, Koch, E.
Lobereiner, Johann Wolfgang (1780-1849), German chemist, was born near Hof in Bavaria on the 15th of December 1780.
HEINRICH JULIUS KLAPROTH (1783-1835), German Orientalist and traveller, was born in Berlin on the 11th of October 1783, the son of the chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth (q.
FREDERICK CRACE CALVERT (1819-1873), English chemist, was born in London on the 14th of November 1819.
On his return to England he settled in Manchester as a consulting chemist, and was appointed professor of chemistry at the Royal Institution in that city.
JOHANN FRIEDRICH WILHELM ADOLF VON BAEYER (1835-), German chemist, was born at Berlin on the 31st of October 1835, his father being Johann Jacob von Baeyer (1794-1885), chief of the Berlin Geodetical Institute from 1870.
The Royal Society of London awarded him the Davy medal in 1881 for his researches on indigo, the nature and composition of which he did more to elucidate than any other single chemist, and which he also succeeded in preparing artificially, though his methods were not found commercially practicable.
(1778-1829), English chemist, was born on the 17th of December 1778 at or near Penzance in Cornwall.
The gas itself was inhaled by Southey and Coleridge among other distinguished people, and promised to become fashionable, while further research yielded Davy material for his Researches, Chemical and Philosophical, chiefly concerning Nitrous Oxide, published in 1800, which secured his reputation as a chemist.
As is shown by his verses and sometimes by his prose, his mind was highly imaginative; the poet Coleridge declared that if he "had not been the first chemist, he would have been the first poet 1 Davy's will directed that this service, after Lady Davy's death, should pass to his brother, Dr John Davy, on whose decease, if he had no heirs who could make use of it, it was to be melted and sold, the proceeds going to the Royal Society" to found a medal to be given annually for the most important discovery in chemistry anywhere made in Europe or Anglo-America."The silver produced £736, and the interest on that sum is expended on the Davy medal, which was awarded for the first time in 1877, to Bunsen and Kirchhoff for their discovery of spectrum analysis.
LE BLANC, NICOLAS (1742-1806), French chemist, was born at Issoudun, Indre, in 1742.
They may be stages in the elaboration or disintegration of protoplasm, and although they were at one time believed to occur only as products of living matter, are gradually being conquered by the synthetic chemist.
With the consent of the Senate he appoints all officers whose election or appointment is not otherwise provided for, including the bank examiner, state chemist, dairy and food commissioners, the boards of labour and health; the directors of the state institutions, &c., and fills all vacancies in elective offices until new officers are chosen and qualified.
FRANCOIS MARIE RAOULT (1830-1901), French chemist, was born at Fournes, in the Departement du Nord, on the 10th of May 1830.
'BENCE - JONES, Henry (1814-1873), English physician and chemist, was born at Thorington Hall, Suffolk, in 1814, the son of an officer in the dragoon guards.
Your child might learn science from a research chemist or English from a published author.
Pauling, a Nobel-prize winning American chemist, pioneered the use of vitamin C as a medical therapy.
Pauling had trained as a chemist, and his groundbreaking work in many fields of chemistry led to his first Nobel prize.
I am no chemist, so I've had to really dig and find ways to figure out what the ingredient names mean.
But rubies were precious stones and far too expensive to use as bearings in watches, so, in 1902 Auguset Verneuil, a French chemist, made the first artificial rubies in watches.
Even though this may sound intimidating, you don't need to be a professional chemist to learn how to make cold process soap at home.
The album features some of hip hops best and brightest beat makers, like Ghostface Killah, The Roots, Cut Chemist, and of course, E40, whose track we have here.
The natural was sometimes white, and sometimes red; the artificial was more useful to the chemist.
The first attempt to manufacture sal ammoniac in Europe was made, about the beginning of the 18th century, by Mr Goodwin, a chemist of London, who appears to have used the mother ley of common salt and putrid urine as ingredients.
In the 1600s, an Irish chemist, Robert Boyle, first started sorting things into two divisions, alkalies (bases) and acids.
In 1936, the first soy proteins were isolated by an American chemist named Percy Lavon Julian.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.